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Sample records for comparative cadaver study

  1. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    PubMed

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes.

  2. Suture-Button Device Stabilization Following Ring Finger Ray Amputation: A Comparative Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Emily N; Means, Kenneth R; Paez, Adrian G; Parks, Brent G; Innis, Peter C

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether placing the suture-button device between the long and small finger metacarpals following ring finger ray amputation may better close the intermetacarpal gap and allow early range of motion without increasing the risk of malrotation than soft tissue repair alone. We performed ray amputation of the ring finger of 14 cadaver specimens by performing an osteotomy of the base of the ring finger metacarpal and then excising the remainder of the digit. We first performed a soft tissue repair of the transverse metacarpal ligaments and then cycled the fingers in simulated active flexion and extension on a custom computer-controlled device to re-create 6 weeks of range of motion. We then placed a suture-button device across the long and small finger metacarpals and tested the specimens again, thereby using each hand as an internal control. The distance between the ring and small finger metacarpals was reduced following suture-button device placement compared with the initial control; this spacing was maintained following complete cycling of the fingers. The angle between the metacarpals was divergent following soft tissue repair, and then became slightly convergent after insertion of the suture-button device. None of the hands developed clinically relevant scissoring of the digits before or after application of the suture-button device. The suture-button device provides stable fixation to withstand early range of motion following ring finger ray amputation and significantly closes the gap and angle between the adjacent metacarpals without causing scissoring.

  3. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics

    PubMed Central

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable. The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR. In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained. The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1–19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1–30.9) s] (P < 0.001). Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867. PMID:27196493

  4. Why dissection videos should not replace cadaver prosections in the gross veterinary anatomy curriculum: results from a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Christine Laura; Carmel, Eric-Norman; Bernier, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of a tool intended to eliminate large-animal cadavers from the anatomy laboratory, in view of their prohibitive cost and the logistic difficulties they pose. We sought to determine whether a commented video of the bovine abdominal cavity could effectively replace a prosection of this region. The hypothesis was that students receiving video instruction would achieve lower scores on a post-instructional exam than those benefiting from a commented cadaver prosection. A commented video of the bovine abdominal cavity was compared to a prosection covering identical material. Seventy-five first-year students, having received no prior instruction on the region of interest, were divided into two groups of equivalent knowledge: group A received prosection instruction (N = 38) and group B, video instruction (N = 37). Following instruction, students completed a test on a cadaver, requiring that they correctly match 15 labeled structures with a list of 40 possible answers. Statistical analysis consisted of a repeated-measures linear model with group (A vs. B) as a between-subject factor and time (pre- vs post-test) as a within-subject factor, with significance at p < or = 0.05. Students in group A achieved mean scores of 9.21 +/- 0.31, while those in group B scored 7.65 +/- 0.31. Although both groups significantly improved following instruction, there was a statistically significant difference in the post-instruction scores between groups A and B (p = 0.0007), in favor of the prosection group. The major comment in favor of cadaver prosection pertained to the sensory experience; in favor of video instruction, students stressed accessibility to the pedagogical material for autonomous learning and revision as well as superior viewing compared to the setup adopted for prosections. In conclusion, while our data suggest that cadaver prosections are superior to video demonstrations, it is apparent that students can learn bovine

  5. A comparative study of the Osstell™ versus the Osstell Mentor™ to evaluate implant stability in human cadaver mandibles.

    PubMed

    Snijders, R S; van Wijk, A J; Lindeboom, J A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary stability of dental implants by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) using the Osstell™ and Osstell Mentor™ devices and to investigate the reproducibility and comparability of the results obtained with these devices. Twenty-four Straumann implants (Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were placed in the anterior mandible of 12 fresh edentulous human cadaver mandibles. The implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured with the Osstell™ and Osstell Mentor™ when implants were inserted at 50% of their length and following their complete insertion. The Osstell™ device measured lower scores compared with the Osstell Mentor™. This was significant for the full position (mean difference = 9·9), t (11) = 7·4, P < 0·001 and for the halfway position (mean difference = 5·9), t (11) = 2·41, P = 0·03. In conclusion, the Osstell™ produced relatively lower ISQ scores than the Osstell Mentor™.

  6. Stent-Protected Carotid Angioplasty Using a Membrane Stent: A Comparative Cadaver Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan Guehne, Albrecht; Tsokos, Michael; Huesler, Erhard J.; Schaffner, Silvio R.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Hedderich, Juergen; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the performance of a prototype membrane stent, MembraX, in the prevention of acute and late embolization and to quantify particle embolization during carotid stent placement in human carotid explants in a proof of concept study. Methods. Thirty human carotid cadaveric explants (mild stenoses 0-29%, n = 23; moderate stenoses 30-69%, n = 3; severe stenoses 70-99%, n = 2) that included the common, internal and external carotid arteries were integrated into a pulsatile-flow model. Three groups were formed according to the age of the donors (mean 58.8 years; sample SD 15.99 years) and randomized to three test groups: (I) MembraX, n 9; (II) Xpert bare stent, n = 10; (III) Xpert bare stent with Emboshield protection device, n = 9. Emboli liberated during stent deployment (step A), post-dilatation (step B), and late embolization (step C) were measured in 100 {mu}m effluent filters. When the Emboshield was used, embolus penetration was measured during placement (step D) and retrieval (step E). Late embolization was simulated by compressing the area of the stented vessel five times. Results. Absolute numbers of particles (median; >100 {mu}m) caught in the effluent filter were: (I) MembraX: A = 7, B = 9, C = 3; (II) bare stent: A 6.5, B = 6, C = 4.5; (III) bare stent and Emboshield: A = 7, B = 7, C.=.5, D = 8, E = 10. The data showed no statistical differences according to whether embolic load was analyzed by weight or mean particle size. When summing all procedural steps, the Emboshield caused the greatest load by weight (p 0.011) and the largest number (p = 0.054) of particles. Conclusions. On the basis of these limited data neither a membrane stent nor a protection device showed significant advantages during ex vivo carotid angioplasty. However, the membrane stent seems to have the potential for reducing the emboli responsible for supposed late embolization, whereas more emboli were observed when using a protection device. Further studies are necessary

  7. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable.The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR.In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained.The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1-19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1-30.9) s] (P < 0.001).Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867.

  8. Patient-specific targeting guides compared with traditional instrumentation for glenoid component placement in shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-surgeon study in 70 arthritic cadaver specimens.

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Thomas W; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Bonnarens, Frank O; Wright, Stephen A; Hartzell, Jeffrey L; Rozzi, William B; Hurst, Jason M; Frostick, Simon P; Sperling, John W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of patient-specific guides for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) with traditional instrumentation in arthritic cadaver shoulders. We hypothesized that the patient-specific guides would place components more accurately than standard instrumentation. Seventy cadaver shoulders with radiographically confirmed arthritis were randomized in equal groups to 5 surgeons of varying experience levels who were not involved in development of the patient-specific guidance system. Specimens were then randomized to patient-specific guides based off of computed tomography scanning, standard instrumentation, and anatomic TSA or reverse TSA. Variances in version or inclination of more than 10° and more than 4 mm in starting point were considered indications of significant component malposition. TSA glenoid components placed with patient-specific guides averaged 5° of deviation from the intended position in version and 3° in inclination; those with standard instrumentation averaged 8° of deviation in version and 7° in inclination. These differences were significant for version (P = .04) and inclination (P = .01). Multivariate analysis of variance to compare the overall accuracy for the entire cohort (TSA and reverse TSA) revealed patient-specific guides to be significantly more accurate (P = .01) for the combined vectors of version and inclination. Patient-specific guides also had fewer instances of significant component malposition than standard instrumentation did. Patient-specific targeting guides were more accurate than traditional instrumentation and had fewer instances of component malposition for glenoid component placement in this multi-surgeon cadaver study of arthritic shoulders. Long-term clinical studies are needed to determine if these improvements produce improved functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ability of paramedics to perform endotracheal intubation during continuous chest compressions: a randomized cadaver study comparing Pentax AWS and Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Truszewski, Zenon; Czyzewski, Lukasz; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Madziala, Marcin; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare the time parameters for intubation with the use of the Macintosh (MAC) laryngoscope and Pentax AWS-S100 videolaryngoscope (AWS; Pentax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) with and without chest compression (CC) by paramedics during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a cadaver model. This was a randomized crossover cadaver trial. Thirty-five paramedics with no experience in videolaryngoscopy participated in the study. They performed intubation in two emergency scenarios: scenario A, normal airway without CC; scenario B, normal airway with continuous CC. The median time to first ventilation with the use of the AWS and the MAC was similar in scenario A: 25 (IQR, 22-27) seconds vs. 24 (IQR, 22.5-26) seconds (P=.072). A statistically significant difference in TTFV between AWS and MAC was noticed in scenario B (P=.011). In scenario A, the first endotracheal intubation (ETI) attempt success rate was achieved in 97.1% with AWS compared with 94.3% with MAC (P=.43). In scenario B, the success rate after the first ETI attempt with the use of the different intubation methods varied and amounted to 88.6% vs. 77.1% for AWS and MAC, respectively (P=.002). The Pentax AWS offered a superior glottic view as compared with the MAC laryngoscope, which was associated with a higher intubation rate and a shorter intubation time during an uninterrupted CC scenario. However, in the scenario without CC, the results for AWS and MAC were comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung morphology: a cadaver study in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Shashirekha, M; Suma, H Y; Krishna, G Gowtham; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations of lung is required by clinicians for accurate interpretation on different imaging techniques. During routine dissection in the anatomy department, a single lung extending uniformly throughout the thoracic cavity was detected in a 35 year old male cadaver. Thereafter a cadaver study was undertaken to report the prevalence of variations involving number, lobes and fissures of lung in Indian population. The thoracic cavities of 29 properly embalmed cadavers containing lungs were dissected and morphological features like number, fissures and lobes were observed for the presence of anatomical variations. The aforementioned single lung cadaver had associated dextrocardia. One accessory lobe on the inferior aspect was observed in 27.2% of lungs studied, whereas supernumerary fissures which were most common in right lower lobe were detected in 35% of lung specimens. The transverse fissure on the right lung was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 50% of lung specimens. In the right lung, the oblique fissure was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 39.3% of specimens. The oblique fissure was absent in 10.7% and incomplete in 35.7% of left lungs. Comparative analysis of our work with previous data in the literature suggest that different studies performed on radiological images reported greater prevalence of incomplete or absent pulmonary fissures as compared to various cadaver studies. Our aforementioned findings regarding the variations seen in fissures and lobes of both lungs were different from previous studies. Variations of lung anatomy are important for both the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases involving all the domains of medicine.

  11. Forces exerted during microneurosurgery: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hani J; Zareinia, Kourosh; Gan, Liu Shi; Yang, Fang Wei; Lama, Sanju; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-01-01

    Background A prerequisite for the successful design and use of robots in neurosurgery is knowledge of the forces exerted by surgeons during neurosurgical procedures. The aim of the present cadaver study was to measure the surgical instrument forces exerted during microneurosurgery. Methods An experimental apparatus was set up consisting of a platform for human cadaver brains, a Leica microscope to provide illumination and magnification, and a Quanser 6 Degrees-Of-Freedom Telepresence System for tissue manipulation and force measurements. Results The measured forces varied significantly depending on the region of the brain (P = 0.016) and the maneuver performed (P < 0.0001). Moreover, blunt arachnoid dissection was associated with greater force exertion than sharp dissection (0.22 N vs. 0.03 N; P = 0.001). Conclusions The forces necessary to manipulate brain tissue were surprisingly low and varied depending on the anatomical structure being manipulated, and the maneuver performed. Knowledge of such forces could well increase the safety of microsurgery. © 2014 The Authors. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24431265

  12. Human cadavers Vs. multimedia simulation: A study of student learning in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saltarelli, Andrew J; Roseth, Cary J; Saltarelli, William A

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia learning system with a traditional undergraduate human cadaver laboratory. APR is a model-based multimedia simulation tool that uses high-resolution pictures to construct a prosected cadaver. APR also provides animations showing the function of specific anatomical structures. Results showed that the human cadaver laboratory offered a significant advantage over the multimedia simulation program on cadaver-based measures of identification and explanatory knowledge. These findings reinforce concerns that incorporating multimedia simulation into anatomy instruction requires careful alignment between learning tasks and performance measures. Findings also imply that additional pedagogical strategies are needed to support transfer from simulated to real-world application of anatomical knowledge. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Feasibility of a New Pulley Repair: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, Isabelle; Meisel, Julia; Lutter, Christoph; Schöffl, Volker

    2017-10-04

    In this study, the feasibility of a new pulley reconstruction in which the tendon graft is pulled through a tunnel in the proximal phalanx, was evaluated using a cadaver model, with particular attention paid to the weakening of the bone structure by the drill hole. Nine fingers from 6 cadaver hands with intact pulley systems were compared with 9 fingers from 6 cadaver hands with missing A2 to A4 pulleys but that included a repair using the new surgical technique. Each finger was fixed to an isokinetic loading device. The forces in the flexor tendons were recorded in each finger using a force transducer. The forces recorded in the flexor tendons of the control group were significantly higher than in the reconstructed fingers. The most common event in the reconstructed fingers was graft failure. A fracture of the bone due to the drill hole was not observed. The new pulley reconstruction could represent an alternative to existing reconstructive techniques. The cause for the higher forces recorded in the control group could be attributed to sutures used in the operated fingers. The new pulley reconstruction method may enable reduced extensor tendon irritation because it avoids contact with the extensor hood and could possibly prohibit cortical bone loss, a serious side effect in the "one and one-half loop" technique. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary bladder diverticulum and its association with malignancy: an anatomical study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Rajini, T; Kumar Bhardwaj, Ajay; V, Jayanthi; Kalyani Rao, P; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Present work was directed to study the prevalence and anatomical basis of diverticulum formation and its association with malignancy inside the urinary bladder on cadavers. Urinary bladder diverticulum and its complications including malignancy has been reported by different authors based on their study on radiological findings and endoscopy. Present study was undertaken on cadavers to meet the aforementioned objectives. Thirty properly embalmed cadavers (19 males and 11 females) of different ages were dissected. Sagittal section of pelvis was studied. Urinary bladder was incised to expose the interior and it was examined for the presence of diverticulum (including number and location). Detailed history of the cause of death of cadavers with diverticulum was studied to determine how many of them suffered from urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma. 23.4% cadavers (31.6% males and 9.1% females) showed presence of urinary bladder diverticulum. The location of the diverticulum in all the cadavers was on superior and lateral side of the ureteric opening on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder. Diverticulum of one male cadaver aged 74 years was complicated by malignancy. Our study observed greater prevalence of diverticulum formation as compared to previous reports. In the present work, 14.3% diverticulum of the urinary bladder showed malignant change, which is more than earlier reports in the literature. Urinary bladder diverticulum should neither be neglected nor ignored. Appropriate early treatment (including the cause) of the diverticulum should be undertaken to avoid complications like malignancy which will finally ensure longevity.

  15. A randomised, single-blind technical study comparing the ultrasonic visibility of smooth-surfaced and textured needles in a soft embalmed cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Munirama, S; Joy, J; Columb, M; Habershaw, R; Eisma, R; Corner, G; Cochran, S; McLeod, G

    2015-05-01

    Visibility of the needle tip and shaft is important during ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia in order to prevent nerve trauma. Tip and shaft visibility is reduced when needles are inserted in-plane at wide angles and out-of-plane at narrow angles to the ultrasound probe. Although textured needles are more reflective than smooth needles, we hypothesised that poor visibility of the tip and shaft still remained using the above angle-probe combinations. In a single-blind study, we compared the visibility of a textured Tuohy needle, a textured single-shot needle and a conventional smooth-surfaced Tuohy needle when inserted into the biceps and deltoid muscles of a soft embalmed cadaver. One hundred and forty-four needles were block-randomised to in-plane and out-of-plane insertions at 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° to the ultrasound beam. Two blinded raters assessed needle tip visibility on video recordings of the insertions using a binary scale (0 = not visible, 1 = visible) and shaft visibility using a 5-point Likert scale. The median (IQR [range]) proportions of visible needle tips were 83% (67-83 [50-100]%) for the textured Tuohy, 75% (67-83 [33-83]%) for the textured single-shot needle and 33% (33-46 [0-50]%) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.0007). Median (IQR [range]) needle shaft visibility was rated as 4.0 (3.5-4.7 [3.0-4.9]) for the textured Tuohy, 4.0 (3.8-4.5 [2.7-4.9]) for the textured single-shot needle and 3.0 (2.4-3.3 [2.3-3.5]) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.015). Nevertheless, visibility was reduced at wide angles in-plane and narrow angles out-of-plane both for needle tips (p = 0.004) and shafts (p = 0.005). © 2014 Crown copyright. Anaesthesia © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Anatomic variations of the coracoacromial ligament in neonatal cadavers: a neonatal cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Kopuz, Cem; Baris, Sancar; Yildirim, Mehmet; Gülman, Birol

    2002-10-01

    One of the most common causes of pain and disability in the upper limb is inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons. When no significant bony abnormality exists in the surrounding structures, the coracoacromial ligament has been implicated as a possible cause of impingement on the cuff tendons and various morphological variants of the ligament have so far been claimed to be either the cause or the result of impingement. In this study, 110 shoulders from 60 neonatal cadavers that were preserved in a preparation of formaldehyde were dissected. Anatomic variations of coracoacromial ligaments were investigated with metric and histologic analysis. Three main ligament types were identified: quadrangular, broad band and U-shaped. The multiple banded ligament was not found. Histologic analysis showed that in U-shaped ligaments a thin tissue existed in the central part of the ligament close to the coracoid. Comparing our data with the adult measurements of a previous study we suggest that the primordial ligament is broad shaped, but assumes a quadrangular shape due to the different growth rates of the coracoid and acromial ends. We also suggest that broad and U-shaped ligaments account for the primordial and quadrangular and Y-shaped ligaments account for the adult types of the single or double banded anatomic variants respectively. Our results show that various types of the coracoacromial ligament are present at the neonatal period and that the final shape of the ligament should be defined by developmental factors, rather than degenerative changes.

  17. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study Samuel A. Spear1 and James V. Crawford2 1 48th Medical Group, ENT...cited. Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver...answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as

  18. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  19. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  20. Dimensions of the trapezium bone: a cadaver and CT study.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Chapuy, S; Rey, P-B; Obert, L; Parratte, B; Tatu, L; Lepage, D

    2015-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define the size of the trapezium bone through measurements on cadaver specimens and CT scans of living subjects. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if any correlation existed between the size of the trapezium and local anatomical parameters. The radio-ulnar length (L), dorsopalmar width (ℓ) and height (h) of the distal surface of the trapezium were measured by two independent observers on 20 cadaver specimens. The same measurements were carried out by two other observers on anonymized CT scans from 18 patients. The inter- and intra-observer agreement was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient. In the cadavers, the mean length, width and height of the trapezium were 22.8, 15.5 and 15.2 mm, respectively. On the CT scans, these same dimensions were 19.2, 11.4 and 11.6 mm. Inter-observer agreement was statistically significant in both parts of the study. The dimensions of the trapezium bone were about 3.33 mm larger in cadavers than on CT scans. These differences can be explained partially by a systematic under-sizing error on the CT scans and the fact that the cartilage layer cannot be directly visualized. This study was able to define the dimensions of the trapezium bone. It may be possible to predict the trapezium height from the length of the forearm or the width of the radial epiphysis. Our data can be used to adjust the size of trapezium implants to the dimensions of the patient's bone.

  1. Permeation Studies of Captopril Transdermal Films Through Human Cadaver Skin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajesh Sreedharan; Nair, Sujith

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.

  2. Pulmonary complications of mustard gas exposure: a study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnoush, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%), pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%), malignant cellular infiltration (4%), and aspergilloma (1%). According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  3. Inferior Phrenic Arteries and Their Branches, Their Anatomy and Possible Clinical Importance: An Experimental Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Gayretli, Özcan; Kale, Ayşin; Öztürk, Adnan; Usta, Ahmet; Şahinoğlu, Kayıhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is a common treatment for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. If the carcinoma is advanced or the main arterial supply, the hepatic artery, is occluded, extrahepatic collateral arteries may develop. Both, right and left inferior phrenic arteries (RIPA and LIPA) are the most frequent and important among these collaterals. However, the topographic anatomy of these arteries has not been described in detail in anatomy textbooks, atlases and most previous reports. Aims: To investigate the anatomy and branching patterns of RIPA and LIPA on cadavers and compare our results with the literature. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: We bilaterally dissected 24 male and 2 female cadavers aged between 49 and 88 years for this study. Results: The RIPA and LIPA originated as a common trunk in 5 cadavers. The RIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 13 sides, the renal artery in 2 sides, the coeliac trunk in 1 side and the left gastric artery in 1 side. The LIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 9 sides and the coeliac trunk in 6 sides. In 6 cadavers, the ascending and posterior branches of the LIPA had different sources of origin. Conclusion: As both the RIPA and LIPA represent the half of all extrahepatic arterial collaterals to hepatocellular carcinomas, their anatomy gains importance not only for anatomists but interventional radiologists as well. PMID:26167344

  4. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  5. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  6. Human cadavers to evaluate prototypes of minimally invasive surgical instruments: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    van den Haak, Lukas; Alleblas, Chantal; Rhemrev, Johann P; Scheltes, Jules; Nieboer, Bertho; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2017-09-15

    New technology should be extensively tested before it is tried on patients. Unfortunately representative models are lacking. In theory, fresh frozen human cadavers are excellent models. To identify strengths and weaknesses of fresh frozen human cadavers as research models for new technology prior to implementation in gynecological surgery. During pre-clinical validation studies regarding the MobiSep uterine manipulator, test procedures were performed on fresh frozen cadavers. Both the experimental setup as the performance of the prototype were assessed. Five tests including six human cadavers were performed. Major changes were made to the MobiSep prototype design. The cadavers of two tests closely resembled surgical experiences as found in live patients. The anatomy of 4 of the 6 cadavers was not fully representative due to atrophy of the internal genitalia caused by age and due to the presence of pathology such extensive tumorous tissue. The cadaver tests provided vital information regarding design and functionality, that failed to emerge during the in-vitro testing. However, experiments are subject to anatomical uncertainties or restrictions. Consequently, the suitability of a cadaver should be carefully assessed before it is used for testing new technology.

  7. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0

  8. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  9. The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jasani, Vinay; Jaffray, David

    2002-09-01

    We carried out a cadaver study of 16 iliolumbar veins in order to define the surgical anatomy. Two variants were found; a single vein at a mean distance of 3.74 cm from the inferior vena cava (11 of 16) and two separate draining veins at a mean distance from the vena cava of 2.98 cm for the proximal and 6.24 cm for the distal stem (5 of 16). Consistently, the proximal vein tore on attempted medial retraction of the great vessels. The mean length of the vein was 1.6 cm and its mean width 1.07 cm. Three stems were shorter than 0.5 cm. Two or more tributaries usually drained the iliacus and psoas muscles, and the fifth lumbar vertebral body. The obturator nerve crossed all veins superficially at a mean of 2.76 cm lateral to the mouth. In four of these, this distance was less than 1.5 cm. Usually, the lumbosacral trunk crossed deep, at a mean distance of 2.5 cm lateral to the mouth, but in three veins, this distance was 1 cm or less. Our findings emphasise the need for proper dissection of the iliolumbar vein before ligature during exposure of the anterior lumbar spine.

  10. Is glass visible on plain radiographs? A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Arbona, N; Jedrzynski, M; Frankfather, R; Lo, A E; Hetman, J; Mendicino, S S; Rockett, M S

    1999-01-01

    Eighteen randomly selected pieces of nonleaded glass from a collection of 30 pieces from broken bottles of four known color types found on the streets of Houston were sorted into four sets with one control. The purpose of this study was to determine if regular glass is visible on plain radiographs and whether color, location, or volume of these fragments had any effect on the detection of nonleaded glass. These sets were then placed into a fresh-frozen cadaver foot and ankle with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. This foot was radiographed utilizing four standard foot projections. Five examiners read these five sets of radiographs twice and recorded the number seen. Overall sensitivity for all of the examiners was 90% with an overall false-positive rate of 10%. Intraobserver and interobserver Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that there was reliability between the first and second readings and between observers. The authors concluded that regular nonleaded glass is radiographically visible and that factors such as color and location of the glass have no effect on its detection, while a volume of less than 15 mm3 may have an effect on the detection of glass.

  11. Extended TRAM flap: feasibility study on fresh human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Zenn, Michael R; Heitmann, Christoph

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a superiorly based TRAM flap for breast reconstruction with its superior border abutting the inframammary fold. This flap would have a primary blood supply from the superior epigastric vessels, similar to a free flap attached to the mammary system. This flap, however, would not require microsurgery. Instead, it would have its superior epigastric pedicle lengthened by partial rib resection. Donor site closure would be accomplished by reverse abdominoplasty and the donor scar hidden in the inframammary fold. The surgical anatomy of such an extended TRAM flap (eTRAM) was investigated by cannulation of the internal mammary artery (IMA) in 10 fresh human cadavers bilaterally, injection with latex, and then dissection throughout its intrathoracic course. At the level of the third intercostal space, the mean external diameters of the right and left IMA were found to be 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. The diameter of the vessel decreased until the IMA bifurcated into the superior epigastric artery and the musculophrenic artery, usually at the sixth intercostal space. The superior epigastric artery, having a mean diameter of 1.6 mm at its origin, descended caudally behind the seventh costal cartilage and could be followed until it entered the posterior rectus sheath and the rectus abdominis muscle. On its downward course, it was not embedded in the diaphragm muscle and was easily separated without violation of the thoracic cavity. From this anatomic study, it seems to be possible to raise an eTRAM after partial rib resection. Some technical considerations of such a flap are discussed. This modification of the TRAM would be helpful to surgeons commonly performing pedicled TRAM flaps and might extend its applicability beyond breast reconstruction to chest wall, intrathoracic, and head and neck reconstruction.

  12. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus.

  13. Location of Needle Tips on Plexus Brachialis in Different Supraclavicular Block Techniques: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Senem; Açar, Halil İbrahim; Cömert, Ayhan; Şam, Bülent; Elhan, Alaittin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study was performed on cadavers to evaluate the efficacy of the different supraclavicular block techniques (Vongvises, Dalens, plumb-bob and inter-SCM) by investigating the location of the needle tip on the brachial plexus and to determine the most suitable block techniques according to the site of the surgery. Methods The study was performed on one embalmed and nine fresh cadavers. After the dissection, the skin of the cadavers was restored in its original position. Then, they are positioned, and the needle was inserted according to the technique described by the authors in the original articles. The distances between the needle tip and the three trunks were measured, and the location of the needle tip on the brachial plexus was determined. Results A significant difference in the proximity of the needle tip to the middle of the middle truncus was noted only in the inter-SCM technique compared with the Dalens technique at both sides (p<0.05). Conclusion In our study, the distance between the needle tip and truncus medius was the shortest in the plumb-bob technique at both sides. Both in the plumb-bob and inter-SCM techniques, the distribution of the needle tip over the trunci of the plexus brachialis was homogenous. In Dalens technique, the needle tip reached the truncus superior or between the truncus superior and n. suprascapularis in 95% of the cases. Further, we concluded that moving the insertion point approximately 1 cm caudal and maintaining the anteroposterior needle direction in the Vongvises technique would result in a successful brachial plexus block. PMID:27909590

  14. Binostril versus mononostril approaches in endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: clinical evaluation and cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jens; Ayyad, Ali; Wüster, Christian; Omran, Wael; Weber, Matthias M; Konerding, Moritz A; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Giese, Alf; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Over the past 2 decades, endoscopy has become an integral part of the surgical repertoire for skull base procedures. The present clinical evaluation and cadaver study compare binostril and mononostril endoscopic transnasal approaches and the surgical techniques involved. METHODS Forty patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with either binostril or mononostril endoscopic surgery. Neurosurgical, endocrinological, ophthalmological, and neuroradiological examinations were performed. Ten cadaver specimens were prepared, and surgical aspects of the preparation and neuroradiological examination were documented. RESULTS In the clinical evaluation, 0° optics were optimal in the nasal and sphenoidal phase of surgery for both techniques. For detection of tumor remnants, 30° optics were superior. The binostril approach was significantly more time consuming than the mononostril technique. The nasal retractor limited maneuverability of instruments during mononostril approaches in 5 of 20 patients. Endocrinological pituitary function, control of excessive hormone secretion, ophthalmological outcome, residual tumor, and rates of adverse events, such as CSF leaks and diabetes insipidus, were similar in both groups. In the cadaver study, there was no significant difference in the time required for dissection via the binostril or mononostril technique. The panoramic view was superior in the binostril group; this was due to the possibility of wider opening of the sella in the craniocaudal and horizontal directions, but the need for removal of more of the nasal septum was disadvantageous. CONCLUSIONS Because of maneuverability of instruments and a wider view in the sphenoid sinus, the binostril technique is superior for resection of large tumors with parasellar and suprasellar expansion and tumors requiring extended approaches. The mononostril technique is preferable for tumors with limited extension in the intra- and suprasellar area.

  15. Setting of an endoscopic nasal reference point for surgical access to the anterior base through an anatomical study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Andressa Vinha; Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges; Becker, Helena Maria Gonçalves; Becker, Celso Gonçalves; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Dos Santos

    Diseases of paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and skull base can be treated by endonasal operations using a nasal rigid endoscope. When conducting this kind of surgery, anatomical references are critical for safety. To measure the distance from the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus to the skull base, according to socio-demographic characteristics, and to detail an anatomical reference point for paranasal sinus operations and for an access to the anterior skull base, comparing anatomical variations between right and left sides, gender, height, weight, age, and ethnicity in cadavers. Measures were taken from the 90° angle (the starting point where deflection of the skull base begins to form the anterior wall of the sphenoid, also known as Δ90°) to the upper, middle, and lower points of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. This study used 60 cadavers aged over 17 years, and evaluated these bodies with respect to age, height, BMI, weight, gender, and ethnicity, comparing measurements of right and left sides. The measurements were >1.5cm in all cadavers and did not vary with age, height, weight, gender, and ethnicity on their right and left sides. The lack of association between the measurement from Δ90° to the upper, middle, and lower posterior walls of the maxillary sinus (categorical or quantitative) is noteworthy, considering the characteristics studied. The methodology defined the nasal point of reference, considering an absence of variation in the cadavers' characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-06

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  17. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  18. Trainee anaesthetist diagnosis of intraneural injection-a study comparing B-mode ultrasound with the fusion of B-mode and elastography in the soft embalmed Thiel cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Munirama, S; Zealley, K; Schwab, A; Columb, M; Corner, G A; Eisma, R; McLeod, G A

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of intraneural injection during trainee anaesthetist ultrasound guided nerve block varies between 16% in experts and up to 35% in trainees. We hypothesized that elastography, an ultrasound-based technology that presents colour images of tissue strain, had the potential to improve trainee diagnosis of intraneural injection during UGRA, when integrated with B-Mode ultrasound onto a single image. We recorded 40 median nerve blocks randomly allocated to 0.25 ml, 0.5 ml, 1 ml volumes to five sites, on both arms of two soft embalmed cadavers, using a dedicated B-Mode ultrasound and elastography transducer. We wrote software to fuse elastogram and B-Mode videos, then asked 20 trainee anaesthetists whether injection was intraneural or extraneural when seeing B-Mode videos, adjacent B-Mode and elastogram videos, fusion elastography videos or repeated B-Mode ultrasound videos. Fusion elastography improved the diagnosis of intraneural injection compared with B-Mode ultrasound, Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) (95%CI) 21.7 (14.5 - 33.3) vs DOR 7.4 (5.2 - 10.6), P < 0.001. Compared with extraneural injection, intraneural injection was identified on fusion elastography as a distinct, brighter translucent image, geometric ratio 0.33 (95%CI: 0.16 - 0.49) P < 0.001. Fusion elastography was associated with greater trainee diagnostic confidence, OR (95%CI) 1.89 (1.69 - 2.11), P < 0.001, and an improvement in reliability, Kappa 0.60 (0.55 - 0.66). Fusion elastography improved the accuracy, reliability and confidence of trainee anaesthetist diagnosis of intraneural injection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Tejesh, CA; Manjunath, AC; Shivakumar, S; Vinayak, PS; Yatish, B; Geetha, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound probe placed transversely just above the suprasternal notch by a single anesthesiologist. Results: Of the 100 intubations performed at random, 99 were correctly identified to give a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.9%. Conclusion: Sonography is a useful technique to identify correct position of the tracheal tube. PMID:27375387

  20. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  1. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Bertrand; Hanouz, Nathalie; Vielpeau, Claude; Marcelli, Christian

    2011-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of ultrasound-guided surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome. We first studied the ultrasound and anatomic findings in 30 cadaver wrists to determine the best surgical approach and the best plane for releasing the flexor retinaculum. We then used 104 cadaver wrists to assess the feasibility of our technique by performing the surgical procedure then extensively dissecting each wrist and hand. Our evaluation criteria were full release of the transverse carpal ligament and absence of injury to the vessels, nerves, and tendons. The transverse carpal ligament was fully released in all 104 forearms. Full release required a single pass in 61 forearms, two passes in 27 forearms, and three passes in 16 forearms. No injuries to adjacent structures were identified. Our cadaver study supports the feasibility of percutaneous surgery under ultrasound-guidance for carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Henrique Neubarth; Fiorelli, Rossano Kepler Alvim; Queiroz, Marcelo Rios; Oliveira, Andre Lacerda; Zorron, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. RESULTS: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min) in animals and 123 min (110-140 min) in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. CONCLUSION: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck. PMID:26917922

  3. Implanted passive engineering mechanism improves hand function after tendon transfer surgery: a cadaver-based study.

    PubMed

    Mardula, Katherine L; Balasubramanian, Ravi; Allan, Christopher H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a new tendon transfer surgical procedure that uses an implanted passive engineering mechanism for attaching multiple tendons to a single donor muscle in place of directly suturing the tendons to the muscle improves hand function in physical interaction tasks such as grasping. The tendon transfer surgery for high median ulnar palsy was used as an exemplar, where all four flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons are directly sutured to the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle to restore flexion. The new procedure used a passive hierarchical artificial pulley system to connect the muscle to the tendons. Both the suture-based and pulley-based procedures were conducted on N = 6 cadaver hands. The fingers' ability to close around four objects when the ECRL tendon was pulled was tested. Post-surgery hand function was evaluated based on the actuation force required to create a grasp and the slip between the fingers and the object after the grasp was created. When compared with the suture-based procedure, the pulley-based procedure (i) reduced the actuation force required to close all four fingers around the object by 45 % and (ii) improved the fingers' individual adaptation to the object's shape during the grasping process and reduced slip by 52 % after object contact (2.99° ± 0.28° versus 6.22° ± 0.66°). The cadaver study showed that the implanted engineering mechanism for attaching multiple tendons to one muscle significantly improved hand function in grasping tasks when compared with the current procedure.

  4. Evaluation of automatic image quality assessment in chest CT - A human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caro; De Crop, An; De Roo, Bieke; Smeets, Peter; Vergauwen, Merel; Dewaele, Tom; Van Borsel, Mathias; Achten, Eric; Van Hoof, Tom; Bacher, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of clinical image quality (IQ) is important to optimize CT protocols and to keep patient doses as low as reasonably achievable. Considering the significant amount of effort needed for human observer studies, automatic IQ tools are a promising alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate automatic IQ assessment in chest CT using Thiel embalmed cadavers. Chest CT's of Thiel embalmed cadavers were acquired at different exposures. Clinical IQ was determined by performing a visual grading analysis. Physical-technical IQ (noise, contrast-to-noise and contrast-detail) was assessed in a Catphan phantom. Soft and sharp reconstructions were made with filtered back projection and two strengths of iterative reconstruction. In addition to the classical IQ metrics, an automatic algorithm was used to calculate image quality scores (IQs). To be able to compare datasets reconstructed with different kernels, the IQs values were normalized. Good correlations were found between IQs and the measured physical-technical image quality: noise (ρ=-1.00), contrast-to-noise (ρ=1.00) and contrast-detail (ρ=0.96). The correlation coefficients between IQs and the observed clinical image quality of soft and sharp reconstructions were 0.88 and 0.93, respectively. The automatic scoring algorithm is a promising tool for the evaluation of thoracic CT scans in daily clinical practice. It allows monitoring of the image quality of a chest protocol over time, without human intervention. Different reconstruction kernels can be compared after normalization of the IQs. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coccygeal body revisited: An immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    To describe the normal anatomy and histology of the adult coccygeal body (CB) and to discuss about the origin and function, using immunohistochemistry, we examined 29 CBs found in 32 elderly donated cadavers without macroscopic pathology in the pelvis. The CB was usually located in or near the anococcygeal ligaments. It was almost always composed of multiple masses or nodules of round glomus cells (smooth muscle actin or SMA++). However, the CB sometimes contained abundant dilated veins with scattered glomus cells. Thus, the CBs varied from the glomus cell nodule-dominant type, through an intermediate morphology with a mixture of nodules and veins, to the vein-dominant type. Each glomus cell mass was surrounded by abundant sympathetic nerves. In all specimens, we found multiple abnormal arteries, each of which carried a glomus-like cell layer around the almost -obliterated vascular lumen; as well as an SMA-negative thick arterial wall containing abundant sympathetic nerves. The ligaments around the CB are known to be under strong mechanical stress from the pelvic floor. We considered abnormal arteries containing the unique internal layer as an intermediate between a normal muscular artery and a glomus cell mass of CB. Under long-termed mechanical stress, a muscular artery seems to lose smooth muscles with increased sympathetic nerve fibers, to compensate for the lack of muscle function. Taken together with fetal morphology (our recent report), some or most of the CBs might not be an arteriovenous shunt but a result of stress-induced acquired transformation of pericytes. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1826-1837, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. The mechanical behavior of locking compression plates compared with dynamic compression plates in a cadaver radius model.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael J; Brophy, Robert H; Campbell, Deirdre; Mahajan, Amit; Wright, Timothy M; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare the mechanical behavior of a locked compression plate, which uses threaded screw heads to create a fixed angle construct, with a dynamic compression plate construct in a cadaver radius model. Mechanical study with cyclic testing and high-speed optical motion analysis. Biomechanics laboratory at an academic institution. Eighteen pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radii were divided into 3 groups of 6 to be tested as a group in each of the following force applications: anteroposterior (AP) bending, mediolateral bending, or torsion. Each bone was osteotomized leaving a 5-mm fracture gap and then fixed with a plate. For each pair, 1 radius received a standard plate (limited-contact dynamic compression plates; LC-DCP), the contralateral radius was fixed with a locking compression plate (LCP), and specimens underwent cyclic loading. Normalized stiffness, average energy absorbed, and Newton-cycles to failure were calculated. In addition, a 3-dimensional, high-speed, infrared motion analysis system was used to evaluate motion at the fracture site. Construct stiffness, fracture site motion, cycles to failure, and energy absorption. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences between groups with time. In the torsion group, LCP specimens failed at 60% greater Newton-cycles than the LC-DCP (1473 vs. 918; P < 0.05). In the AP group, the LC-DCP absorbed significantly greater energy during 10,000 cycles compared with the LCP group (P < 0.05). The 2 constructs demonstrated different biomechanical behavior with time. As cycling progressed in the LC-DCP specimens under torsion testing, stiffness (measured at the actuator at the bone ends) did not change significantly; however, fracture motion (measured at the fracture surfaces) decreased significantly (P = 0.04). The LCP specimens did not display similar behavior. Our findings indicated that LCP constructs may demonstrate subtle mechanical superiority compared with the

  8. In vitro study of foot kinematics using a dynamic walking cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Nester, C J; Liu, A M; Ward, E; Howard, D; Cocheba, J; Derrick, T; Patterson, P

    2007-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on navicular, cuboid, cuneiform and metatarsal kinematics during walking and our objective was to study the kinematic contributions these bones might make to foot function. A dynamic cadaver model of walking was used to apply forces to cadaver feet and mobilise them in a manner similar to in vivo. Kinematic data were recorded from 13 cadaver feet. Given limitations to the simulation, the data describe what the cadaver feet were capable of in response to the forces applied, rather than exactly how they performed in vivo. The talonavicular joint was more mobile than the calcaneocuboid joint. The range of motion between cuneiforms and navicular was similar to that between talus and navicular. Metatarsals four and five were more mobile relative to the cuboid than metatarsals one, two and three relative to the cuneiforms. This work has confirmed the complexity of rear, mid and forefoot kinematics. The data demonstrate the potential for often-ignored foot joints to contribute significantly to the overall kinematic function of the foot. Previous emphasis on the ankle and sub talar joints as the principal articulating components of the foot has neglected more distal articulations. The results also demonstrate the extent to which the rigid segment assumptions of previous foot kinematics research have over simplified the foot.

  9. The Omental Pedicle Flap in Dogs Revised and Refined: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Doom, Marjan; Cornillie, Pieter; Simoens, Paul; Huyghe, Stephanie; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-08-01

    To expand current knowledge on the canine omental vasculature and refine the existing lengthening technique of the canine omentum. Ex vivo study. Canine cadavers (n=20). In 10 canine cadavers the omental arteries were mapped using intravascular latex injection and these results were used to create an omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery in 10 additional cadavers. The operating range of the flap was recorded with particular attention to the main regions of interest for omental transposition in dogs (axillary and inguinal regions). The superficial and deep omental leaves were each predominantly supplied by a left and a right marginal omental artery that anastomosed near the caudal omental border into a superficial and a deep omental arch, respectively. Anastomoses between arteries of the superficial and the deep omental leaves were weak and inconsistent, except for 1 anastomosis that was found in 8 of 10 dogs. By transposing the intact omentum, the right axilla could be reached in 3 dogs, both axillae in 1 dog, and both groins in all cadavers. In all cases, the omental pedicle reached to and beyond the axillary and inguinal regions. By unfolding the pedicle leaves, the width of the pedicle tip could be doubled. When lengthening the omentum is necessary to reach extra-abdominal structures, the omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery appears to preserve the omental vascular supply. These observations warrant further clinical trials to evaluate this new omtental flap technique in vivo. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Splenorenal shunt via magnetic compression technique: a feasibility study in canine and cadaver.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Li, Jianpeng; Lu, Jianwen; Zhu, Haoyang; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Hongke; Yang, Huan; Guo, Hongchang; Lv, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The concept of magnetic compression technique (MCT) has been accepted by surgeons to solve a variety of surgical problems. In this study, we attempted to explore the feasibility of a splenorenal shunt using MCT in canine and cadaver. The diameters of the splenic vein (SV), the left renal vein (LRV), and the vertical interval between them, were measured in computer tomography (CT) images obtained from 30 patients with portal hypertension and in 20 adult cadavers. The magnetic devices used for the splenorenal shunt were then manufactured based on the anatomic parameters measured above. The observation of the anatomical structure showed there were no special structural tissues or any important organs between SV and LRV. Then the magnetic compression splenorenal shunt procedure was performed in three dogs and five cadavers. Seven days later, the necrotic tissue between the two magnets was shed and the magnets were removed with the anchor wire. The feasibility of splenorenal shunt via MCT was successfully shown in both canine and cadaver, thus providing a theoretical support for future clinical application.

  11. Retracting Soft Tissue in Minimally Invasive Hip Arthroplasty Using a Robotic Arm: A Comparison Between a Semiactive Retractor Holder and Human Assistants in a Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Klug, Sebastian; Haselbacher, Matthias; Mayr, Eckart; Nogler, Michael

    2015-10-01

    All surgical procedures in orthopedics involve the retraction of soft tissue. In this study, the performance of 3 assistants holding the medial retractor during minimally invasive hip arthroplasty was compared with a semiactive retractor holder in a cadaver setup. A total of 40 measurements on 3 cadavers were carried out with each subject (3 human, 1 robot) measuring each cadaver 10 times. The retractor was equipped with a sensor array on both sides, to measure variations of the retracting pressures over a 2-minute interval. The semiactive retractor holder showed an almost constant performance compared with the test subjects. There was no significant reduction of the applied pressure and almost no variation during the 2-minute interval and across all measurements. The performance of the semiactive retractor holder was more stable than that of a human assistant, making it suitable for intraoperative usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Total mesorectal excision using a soft and flexible robotic arm: a feasibility study in cadaver models.

    PubMed

    Arezzo, Alberto; Mintz, Yoav; Allaix, Marco Ettore; Arolfo, Simone; Bonino, Marco; Gerboni, Giada; Brancadoro, Margherita; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna; Wurdemann, Helge; Noh, Yohan; Althoefer, Kaspar; Fras, Jan; Glowka, Jakob; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Cassidy, Gavin; Walker, Rich; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored by the European Commission, the FP7 STIFF-FLOP project aimed at developing a STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able manipulator for surgical operations, in order to overcome the current limitations of rigid-link robotic technology. Herein, we describe the first cadaveric series of total mesorectal excision (TME) using a soft and flexible robotic arm for optic vision in a cadaver model. TME assisted by the STIFF-FLOP robotic optics was successfully performed in two embalmed male human cadavers. The soft and flexible optic prototype consisted of two modules, each measuring 60 mm in length and 14.3 mm in maximum outer diameter. The robot was attached to a rigid shaft connected to an anthropomorphic manipulator robot arm with six degrees of freedom. The controller device was equipped with two joysticks. The cadavers (BMI 25 and 28 kg/m(2)) were prepared according to the Thiel embalming method. The procedure was performed using three standard laparoscopic instruments for traction and dissection, with the aid of a 30° rigid optics in the rear for documentation. Following mobilization of the left colonic flexure and division of the inferior mesenteric vessels, TME was completed down to the pelvic floor. The STIFF-FLOP robotic optic arm seemed to acquire superior angles of vision of the surgical field in the pelvis, resulting in an intact mesorectum in both cases. Completion times of the procedures were 165 and 145 min, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. No technical failures were registered. The STIFF-FLOP soft and flexible robotic optic arm proved effective in assisting a laparoscopic TME in human cadavers, with a superior field of vision compared to the standard laparoscopic vision, especially low in the pelvis. The introduction of soft and flexible robotic devices may aid in overcoming the technical challenges of difficult laparoscopic procedures based on standard rigid instruments.

  13. Variations in the anatomy of the thyroid gland: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Rajini, Thimmiah; Ramachandran, Archana; Savalgi, Geethanjali Basavraj; Venkata, Sivacharan Panchagnula; Mokhasi, Varsha

    2012-03-01

    Surgical removal of the thyroid gland is associated with risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, external branch of superior laryngeal nerves, inferior laryngeal nerves, and haematoma due to vascular damage and the chance of residual thyroid tissue being left in case of cancer and Graves' disease. The present study was designed to report the prevalence of anatomical variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland that will hopefully help to minimise the aforementioned complications related to thyroid surgery. A total of 52 male and 18 female properly embalmed cadavers were dissected. The thyroid gland was examined for the presence of the pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and partial or complete absence of isthmus. Length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of both the right and left lobe of the gland was recorded. A pyramidal lobe was present in 43.9% male and 22.2% female cadavers and was more prevalent on the left side of the median plane. Levator glandulae thyroideae was present in 34.6% male and 27.8% female cadavers. Isthmus was absent in 9.6% male and 5.6% female cadavers. The average length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of right lobe was 4.43, 2.54 and 1.69 cm, respectively, whereas for the left lobe it was 4.21, 2.63 and 1.7 cm, respectively. The nature of the specimens studied, and the region where the study is carried out, affect the different goitre zones, age, sex, and race of population studied, all of which can contribute to the anatomical variations of the thyroid gland found in different reports by various authors.

  14. Transcrestal maxillary sinus augmentation: Summers' versus a piezoelectric technique--an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Kühl, S; Kirmeier, R; Platzer, S; Bianco, N; Jakse, N; Payer, M

    2016-01-01

    Sinus floor augmentation using transalveolar techniques is a successful and predictable procedure. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of conventional hand instruments using mallets and osteotomes with that of piezoelectric-hydrodynamic devices for maxillary sinus floor elevation. In 17 undamaged cadaver heads on randomly allocated sites, Schneiderian membrane elevation was carried out transcrestally using piezosurgery and a hydrodynamic device or by conventional hand instrumentation. After simulation of sinus augmentation by the use of a radiopaque impression material, a post-operative CT scan was carried out and volumes were determined. Statistic significant differences between the two methods were evaluated by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. A mean graft volume of 0.29 ± 0.18 cm(3) (0.07-0.60 cm(3)) was measured for the Summers' technique compared to 0.39 ± 0.32 cm(3) (0.05-1.04 cm(3)) for the Sinus Physiolift(®) technique. There is no statistically significant difference with regard to trauma to the Schneiderian membrane or augmented volume. Both techniques generate expedient augmentation volume in the posterior atrophic maxilla. The piezoelectric technique can be recommended as an alternative tool to graft the floor of human maxillary sinuses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Eustachian Tube Dilation via a Transtympanic Approach in 6 Cadaver Heads: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Dean, Marc; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Poe, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube. To accomplish this, transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube was performed on 11 eustachian tubes (6 cadaver heads). The balloon catheter was introduced and passed through the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube transtympanically under endoscopic view and cannulated without incident in all cadavers. Computed tomography was then performed postprocedure to evaluate for inadvertent dilation of the bony eustachian tube, adverse placement of the balloon, or any bony fractures. The balloon was seen to be successfully inflated in the cartilaginous portion without damage to surrounding structures in all cases. This demonstrates that under endoscopic guidance, the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube can be feasibly cannulated and reliably traversed, allowing for targeted dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube from a transtympanic approach.

  16. Thoracoscopically assisted ligamentous release of the thoracic spine: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, K; Pieper, S; Prescher, A; Siebert, C H

    2000-01-01

    The surgical treatment of thoracic kyphosis frequently requires an anterior release, which can be carried out by an open or endoscopic technique. This study concerns the reference points which are essential from the anatomic view for minimizing the operative risks. Furthermore we wanted to find the most convenient video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) technique for transection of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL). Transection of the ALL, as well as discectomy, was performed using this technique. The extensive anatomic dissection of 12 fresh cadavers was performed to define possible technical errors and surgical complications. The development of new instruments has made the VATS approach to the ALL a viable alternative to open procedures. With the help of a standardized technique, the isolated thoracoscopic ligamentous transection required less time than the comparable open procedure. The anatomic study showed, that in no case was a ligation of the intercostal or segmental vessels necessary as part of the approach to the spine, once an adequate mobilization of the esophagus and azygos vein had been carried out. The risk of an ischemic lesion of the spinal cord was thereby reduced. The thoracoscopic, limited anterior release consisting of a multilevel transection of the ALL proved to be a rapid and reliable procedure. Our anatomic studies provides suitable the reference points.

  17. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions: (1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; (2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; (3) 30 mmHg; (4) 60 mmHg; (5) 90 mmHg; (6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Gliding Resistance of Flexor Tendon Associated with Carpal Tunnel Pressure: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions 1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; 2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; 3) 30 mmHg; 4) 60 mmHg; 5) 90 mmHg; 6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients. PMID:20661935

  19. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  20. Forces affecting orbital floor reconstruction materials--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, Falk; Steiner, Martin; Kern, Matthias; Wiltfang, Jörg; Möller, Björn; Lucius, Ralph; Becker, Stephan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the applied force and the displacement of the orbital contents after orbital floor reconstruction using artificially aged reconstruction materials in fresh frozen human heads and (ii) to analyze the puncture strength of the materials. Six fresh frozen human heads were used, and orbital floor defects in the right and left orbit were created by 3.0 J direct impacts on the globe and infraorbital rim. The orbital floor defect sizes and displacements were evaluated after a Le-Fort-I osteotomy. The orbital floor defect sizes were 208.3(SD, 33.4) mm(2) for the globe impacts and 221.8(SD, 53.1) mm(2) for the infraorbital impacts. The forces on the incorporated materials were approximately 0.003 N and 0.03 N for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The displacements of the materials were +0.9 mm and +0.7 mm for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The puncture strengths of the PDS-foil and collagen membrane decreased from approximately 70 N and 12 N at week 1 to approximately 5 N and 1.5 N at week 8 of artificial aging. The force applied to the orbital content is minimal, and the puncture strengths of the artificially aged materials are more than sufficient for the measured forces. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leakage of fluid around endotracheal tube cuffs: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Ewald, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the leakage of liquid past the cuffs of tracheal tubes in fresh frozen human heads. Methods Six truncated fresh frozen heads were used and intubated with 8.0 mm endotracheal tubes. The intracuff pressures tested were 30 and 100 cmH2O. Subsequently, 20 ml of each of two oral antiseptic rinses (0.2% chlorhexidine and octenidine [octenidol®, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany]) was applied for thirty seconds in the mouth. During the trial, leakage of the cuffs was examined. Results The sealing between the tracheal cuff and tracheal wall was leakage-proof for all tested intracuff pressures and all tested antiseptic rinses. However, approximately 5.6 ml and 1.8 ml leaked into the esophagus and remained as a cuff-puddle, respectively. Conclusions The sealing between an endotracheal tube cuff with an intracuff pressure of 30 cmH2O and the tracheal wall is leakage-proof during oral care with antiseptic rinsing. An increase of intracuff pressure to 100 cmH2O does not appear to be required. PMID:24363847

  2. Can the gracilis be used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee? A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Pailhé, Regis; Murgier, Jérôme; Reina, Nicolas; Lauwers, Frederic; Chiron, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a four-strand gracilis-only graft can be used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Cadaver study. This study involved 16 cadaver knees. The length and diameter of the native ACL were measured in each one. The same measurements were performed on a four-strand graft of the gracilis only, the semitendinosus only and both tendons. Student's t-test was used to compare the various conditions. The average diameter of the G4 construct was 0.07 mm greater (1%) than the native ACL (p=0.044). The average cross-sectional area of the G4 construct was 1.2 mm(2) greater (3.9%) than the native ACL (p=0.049). The G4 was on average 38.9 mm longer than the intra-articular portion of the ACL (p<0.001). A four-strand gracilis construct meets the anatomical specifications for use as an ACL reconstruction graft. By using the gracilis only, the morbidity associated with harvesting the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons should be reduced. Further studies must be performed to compare the biomechanical properties of this graft with other graft types and also to evaluate how this four-strand gracilis graft behaves in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A variation in the component separation technique that preserves linea semilunaris: a study in cadavers and a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marcus Vinicius Jardini; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; de Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos; Ayaviri, Natalia Alinda Montecinos; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the effect of the incision of the external oblique aponeurosis along the semilunaris in amount of tension present after the undermining of the anterior rectus sheaths. Forty fresh adult cadavers were studied and divided into two groups: group A (n=20) and group B (n=20). Traction indexes were compared in three situations: (1) before any aponeurotic undermining (similar on both groups); (2) after incision and undermining of the anterior rectus sheaths (similar on both groups) and (3) group A: after undermining of the external oblique muscles with the incision of their aponeurosis along the semilunaris and group B: undermining of a continuous layer of the anterior rectus sheaths and the external oblique aponeurosis, after release of the lateral aspect of the rectus sheaths. Significance of differences was assessed using non-parametric tests. There was a significant tension reduction after each stage of dissection in both supra- and infra-umbilical levels and on both groups. Comparisons between groups A and B did not show statistically significant differences in all sites and stages of the dissections. Therefore, both techniques showed similar aponeurotic tension reduction after each stage of the dissections in cadavers.

  4. Resistance of primary microsurgical repair of palmar digital nerves to finger mobilization: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Salazar Botero, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Pire, E; Honecker, S; Pereira, A; Matter-Parrat, V; Liverneaux, P A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of microsurgically repaired proper palmar digital nerves (PPDN) to mobilization. Thirty-nine PPDN from fresh forearms cadavers were transected and then sutured using 10/0 nylon. After skin closure, each finger was forcefully flexed and extended 10 times. Out of the 39 repaired nerves, two were elongated and four were ruptured; this amounts to a 15.38% complication rate. We recommend immobilization of nerve repairs, although this contradicts most recent studies. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of isometricity before and after total knee arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Markus S; Jeffcote, Benjamin O; Schirm, Andreas C; Jacob, Hilaire; Nicholls, Rochelle L

    2009-10-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) relies on soft tissue to regulate joint stability after surgery. In practice, the exact balance of the gaps can be difficult to measure, and various methods including intra-operative spreaders or distraction devices have been proposed. While individual ligament strain patterns have been measured, no data exist on the isometricity of the soft tissue envelope as a whole. In this study, a novel device was developed and validated to compare isometricity in the entire soft tissue envelope for both the intact and TKA knee. A spring-loaded rod was inserted in six cadaver knee joints between the tibial shaft and the tibial plateau or tibial tray after removing a 7 mm slice of bone. The displacement of the rod during passive flexion represented variation in tissue tension around the joint. The rod position in the intact knee remained within 1 mm of its initial position between 15 degrees and 135 degrees of flexion, and within 2 mm (+/-1.2 mm) throughout the entire range of motion (0-150 degrees). After insertion of a mobile-bearing TKA, the rod was displaced a mean of 6 mm at 150 degrees (p<0.001). The results were validated using a force transducer implanted in the tibial baseplate of the TKA, which showed increased tibiofemoral force in the parts of the flexion range where the rod was most displaced. The force measurements were highly correlated with the displacement pattern of the spring-loaded rod (r=-0.338; p=0.006). A simple device has been validated to measure isometricity in the soft tissue envelope around the knee joint. Isometricity measurements may be used in the future to improve implantation techniques during TKA surgery.

  6. Primary stability of simultaneously placed dental implants in extraoral donor graft sites: a human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Akkocaoglu, Murat; Cehreli, Murat Cavit; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Comert, Ayhan; Güzel, Elif; Dağdeviren, Attila; Akca, Kivanc

    2007-03-01

    To compare the primary stability of dental implants placed in fibula, iliac crest, and scapula of human cadavers. Straumann Dental Implants (Institut Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) 4.1 mmx10 mm in diameter were placed into bilateral fibula, iliac crest, and scapula of 4 fresh human cadavers. For the assessment of primary stability of implants, installation torque values (ITV) and removal torque values (RTV) were measured using a custom-made strain-gauged torque wrench, and resonance frequency analysis was carried out to quantify the implant stability quotients (ISQ). Bone specimens from each donor site were harvested to perform radiographic and histomorphometric analyses. Linear distance and optical density (OD) measurements were made on digitized parallel periapical radiographs and bone area fraction (BAF) was calculated on digitized images of decalcified histologic sections. Fibula donor site presented higher ITVs and RTVs and cortical bone height for implants than other sites (P<.05). BAF measurements for iliac crest were higher than fibula and scapula bone donor sites. OD was higher in the iliac crest followed by scapula and fibula. The primary mechanical stability of implants placed in the fibula is higher than those placed in the iliac crest and the scapula, although the bone mass and density around implants in latter sites are higher.

  7. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A

  8. Acoustic monitoring (RFM) of total hip arthroplasty - Results of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Unger, A C; Cabrera-Palacios, H; Schulz, A P; Jürgens, Ch; Paech, Andreas

    2009-06-18

    At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non- invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM) will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany) are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%)), regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  9. Finger injuries caused by power-operated windows of motor vehicles: an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K J; Konerding, M A; Prommersberger, K J; Rommens, P M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experimental cadaver study was to investigate which kinds of lesions could occur in jam events between the glass and seal entry of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows at two different closing forces. Ten hands of fresh cadaver specimens were used. Three different hand positions chosen to simulate real events in which a finger is jammed between the glass and seal entry of the window of a current motor vehicle were examined. The index, middle, ring, and little finger of each hand were separately jammed both at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joint at closing forces of 300 and 500 N with a constant window glass closing speed of 10 cm/s. Macroscopically visible injuries were documented and radiographs of all fingers were obtained in two standard planes. At a closing force of 300 N, contusion marks of the skin, palmar joint instabilities and superficial skin lesions occurred, whilst at 500 N superficial skin lesions, superficial and deep open crush injuries, and fractures were observed. The results of this study experimentally demonstrate the kinds of finger injuries that could be expected in real jam events between the glass and seal entry in automatic power-operated windows.

  10. Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study *

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Júlio Mott Ancona; Saad, Roberto; Dorgan, Vicente; Botter, Marcio; Gonçalves, Roberto; Rivaben, Jorge Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cadaver-based study was carried out in order to describe the pulmonary drainage surgical technique, to determine whether the site for the insertion of the chest tube is appropriate and safe, and to determine the anatomical relationship of the chest tube with the chest wall, lungs, large blood vessels, and mediastinum. METHODS: Between May and November of 2011, 30 cadavers of both genders were dissected. The cadavers were provided by the Santa Casa de São Paulo Central Hospital Mortuary, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A 7.5-cm, 24 F steel chest tube was inserted into the second intercostal space along the midclavicular line bilaterally, and we measured the distances from the tube to the main bronchi, upper lobe bronchi, subclavian vessels, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary arteries in the upper lobe, superior pulmonary vein, azygos vein, and aorta. Weight, height, and chest wall thickness, as well as laterolateral and posteroanterior diameters of the chest, were measured for each cadaver. RESULTS: Of the 30 cadavers dissected, 20 and 10 were male and female, respectively. The mean distance between the distal end of the tube and the main bronchi (right and left) was 7.2 cm (for both). CONCLUSIONS: The placement of a fixed-size chest tube in the specified position is feasible and safe, regardless of the anthropometric characteristics of the patients. PMID:23503481

  11. Intrathecal volume changes in lumbar spinal canal stenosis following extension and flexion: An experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Teske, Wolfram; Schwert, Martin; Zirke, Sonja; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Wiese, Matthias; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The spinal canal stenosis is a common disease in elderly. The thecal sac narrowing is considered as the anatomical cause for the disease. There is evidence that the anatomical proportions of the lumbar spinal canal are influenced by postural changes. The liquor volume shift during these postural changes is a valuable parameter to estimate the dynamic qualities of this disease. The aim of this human cadaver study was the determination of intrathecal fluid volume changes during the lumbar flexion and the extension. A special measuring device was designed and built for the study to investigate this issue under controlled conditions. The measuring apparatus fixed the lumbar spine firmly and allowed only flexion and extension. The dural sac was closed water tight. The in vitro changes of the intrathecal volumes during the motion cycle were determined according to the principle of communicating vessels. Thirteen human cadaver spines from the Institute of Anatomy were examined in a test setting with a continuous adjustment of motion. The diagnosis of the lumbar spinal stenosis was confirmed by a positive computer tomography prior testing. The volume changes during flexion and extension cycles were measured stepwise in a 2 degree distance between 18° flexion and 18° extension. Three complete series of measurements were performed for each cadaver. Two specimens were excluded because of fluid leaks from further investigation. The flexion of the lumbar spine resulted in an intrathecal volume increase. The maximum volume effects were seen in the early flexion positions of 2° and 4°. The spine reclination resulted in a volume reduction. The maximum extension effect was seen between 14° and 16°. According to our results, remarkable volume effects were seen in the early movements of the lumbar spine especially for the flexion. The results support the concept of the spinal stenosis as a dynamic disease and allow a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this

  12. Optimal positioning for emergent needle thoracostomy: a cadaver-based study.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kenji; Branco, Bernardino C; Eckstein, Marc; Shatz, David V; Martin, Matthew J; Green, Donald J; Noguchi, Thomas T; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-11-01

    Needle thoracostomy is an emergent procedure designed to relieve tension pneumothorax. High failure rates because of the needle not penetrating into the thoracic cavity have been reported. Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend placement in the second intercostal space, midclavicular line using a 5-cm needle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placement in the fifth intercostal space, midaxillary line, where tube thoracostomy is routinely performed. We hypothesized that this would result in a higher successful placement rate. Twenty randomly selected unpreserved adult cadavers were evaluated. A standard 14-gauge 5-cm needle was placed in both the fifth intercostal space at the midaxillary line and the traditional second intercostal space at the midclavicular line in both the right and left chest walls. The needles were secured and thoracotomy was then performed to assess penetration into the pleural cavity. The right and left sides were analyzed separately acting as their own controls for a total of 80 needles inserted into 20 cadavers. The thickness of the chest wall at the site of penetration was then measured for each entry position. A total of 14 male and 6 female cadavers were studied. Overall, 100% (40 of 40) of needles placed in the fifth intercostal space and 57.5% (23 of 40) of the needles placed in the second intercostal space entered the chest cavity (p < 0.001); right chest: 100% versus 60.0% (p = 0.003) and left chest: 100% versus 55.0% (p = 0.001). Overall, the thickness of the chest wall was 3.5 cm ± 0.9 cm at the fifth intercostal space and 4.5 cm ± 1.1 cm at the second intercostal space (p < 0.001). Both right and left chest wall thicknesses were similar (right, 3.6 cm ± 1.0 cm vs. 4.5 cm ± 1.1 cm, p = 0.007; left, 3.5 ± 0.9 cm vs. 4.4 cm ± 1.1 cm, p = 0.008). In a cadaveric model, needle thoracostomy was successfully placed in 100% of attempts at the fifth intercostal space but in only 58% at the traditional second

  13. Comparison of three different pelvic circumferential compression devices: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Knops, S P; Schep, N W L; Spoor, C W; van Riel, M P J M; Spanjersberg, W R; Kleinrensink, G J; van Lieshout, E M M; Patka, P; Schipper, I B

    2011-02-02

    Pelvic circumferential compression devices are designed to stabilize the pelvic ring and reduce the volume of the pelvis following trauma. It is uncertain whether pelvic circumferential compression devices can be safely applied for all types of pelvic fractures because the effects of the devices on the reduction of fracture fragments are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of circumferential compression devices on the dynamic realignment and final reduction of the pelvic fractures as a measure of the quality of reduction. Three circumferential compression devices were evaluated: the Pelvic Binder, the SAM Sling, and the T-POD. In sixteen cadavers, four fracture types were generated according to the Tile classification system. Infrared retroreflective markers were fixed in the different fracture fragments of each pelvis. The circumferential compression device was applied sequentially in a randomized order with gradually increasing forces applied. Fracture fragment movement was studied with use of a three-dimensional infrared video system. Dynamic realignment and final reduction of the fracture fragments during closure of the circumferential compression devices were determined. A factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise post hoc comparisons was performed to analyze the differences in pulling force between the circumferential compression devices. In the partially stable and unstable (Tile type-B and C) pelvic fractures, all circumferential compression devices accomplished closure of the pelvic ring and consequently reduced the pelvic volume. No adverse fracture displacement (>5 mm) was observed in these fracture types. The required pulling force to attain complete reduction at the symphysis pubis varied substantially among the three different circumferential compression devices, with a mean (and standard error of the mean) of 43 ± 7 N for the T-POD, 60 ± 9 N for the Pelvic Binder, and 112 ± 10 N for the SAM Sling. The

  14. Improving registration accuracy during total hip arthroplasty: a cadaver study of a new, 3-D mini-optical navigation system.

    PubMed

    Cross, Michael B; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Miller, Theodore T; Bogner, Eric A; Muir, Jeffrey M; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M

    2017-09-02

    Maintaining accuracy of component placement is an important step in ensuring the long-term stability of components during total hip arthroplasty (THA). Computer-assisted navigation has improved accuracy but errors associated with the registration process are known to impact the accuracy of final measurements. The purpose of this cadaver study was to determine the registration error associated with a novel mini-navigation system. 3 board-certified orthopaedic surgeons performed 4 THA procedures each via the posterolateral approach on 6 cadavers (12 hips) using the mini-navigation tool. Pre- and post-operative radiographs and post-operative computed tomography (CT) images were obtained. Image analysis was performed by 2 radiologists not involved in the surgical procedures. During registration, surgeons aligned the alignment rod with the anterior pelvic plane (APP) to provide a reference plane for comparison with traditional navigation. Cup position from the device was compared with measurements gathered from post-op imaging. The mean difference between CT and device measurements for inclination was -1.7° (standard deviation [SD] 4.9°), while the mean absolute difference was 4.2° (SD 3.2°). The mean difference between anteversion angles calculated from CT scans and from the device was -3.5° (SD 4.5°), with an absolute difference of 4.0° (SD 4.0°). 100% (12/12) of inclination measurements and 92% (11/12) of anteversion measurements fell within both the clinical and statistical limits of agreement when analyzed via the Bland-Altman technique. This study demonstrates that the registration error associated with this new mini-navigation system compares favourably with the known registration error associated with traditional navigation systems.

  15. Comparison of 2 canal preparation techniques in the induction of microcracks: a pilot study with cadaver mandibles.

    PubMed

    Arias, Ana; Lee, Yoon H; Peters, Christine I; Gluskin, Alan H; Peters, Ove A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study in a cadaver model was to compare 2 different shaping techniques regarding the induction of dentinal microcracks. Three lower incisors from each of 6 adult human cadaver skulls were randomly distributed into 3 groups: the control group (CG, no instrumentation), the GT group (GT Profile hand files; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), and the WO group (WaveOne; Dentsply Tulsa Dental). In the GT group, manual shaping in a crown-down sequence with GT Profile hand files was performed. In the WO group, Primary WaveOne files were used to the working length. Teeth were separated from the mandibles by careful removal of soft tissue and bone under magnification. Roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex using a low-speed saw. Color photographs at 2 magnifications (25× and 40×) were obtained. Three blinded examiners registered the presence of microcracks (yes/no), extension (incomplete/complete), direction (buccolingual/mesiodistal), and location. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests at P < .05. Microcracks were found in 50% (CG and GT) and 66% (WO) of teeth at 3 mm, 16.6% (CG) and 33.3% (GT and WO) at 6 mm, and 16.6% in all 3 groups at 9 mm from the apex. There were no significant differences in the incidence of microcracks between all groups at 3 (P = .8), 6 (P = .8), or 9 mm (P = 1). All microcracks were incomplete, started at the pulpal wall, and had a buccolingual direction. Within the limitations of this pilot study, a relationship between the shaping techniques (GT hand and WaveOne) and the incidence of microcracks could not be shown compared with uninstrumented controls. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ligamentous contributions to pelvic stability in a rotationally unstable open-book injury: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Adham; Moed, Berton R

    2014-10-01

    Due to the orientation of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), as the symphysis widens in an open-book pelvic ring disruption, it should displace inferiorly. The purposes of this study were to reconfirm this inferior displacement and to evaluate the relative contributions of the pubic symphysis (PS), the sacrotuberous/sacrospinous ligament complex (STL/SSL) and the anterior sacroiliac ligament (ASIL) to pelvic ring stability in a rotationally unstable open-book injury. For each of 6 cadaver pelves, the right hemipelvis was fixed to a table and the PS was sectioned. Under fluoroscopy, a manual external rotational force was then applied through the unfixed, left ilium. At the point of maximal displacement, a permanent AP image was obtained. With magnification corrected, horizontal (H) and vertical (V) displacements were measured. The pelves were then divided into two groups of three each. In Group 1, the PS release was followed by sectioning of the STL/SSL, and then the ASIL. In Group 2, the PS release was followed by sectioning of the ASIL and then the STL/SSL. The above described technique of manual manipulation and radiographic measurement was repeated after each stage of ligament release. The displacement after initial PS sectioning was not significantly different when comparing Group 1 to Group 2. In both groups, a significant and progressive increase in displacement was noted when the PS (H and V; p<0.05) and ASIL (H and V; p<0.05) were sectioned. However, there was no significant change with SSL/STL sectioning in either group. Vertical displacements were all directed inferiorly. The PS and ASIL are important in maintaining pelvic ring external rotational stability. However, the SSL/STL has little, if any, effect in this regard. Due to the orientation of the SIJ, external rotation of the hemipelvis, as in open-book injury, will show inferior vertical, as well as horizontal, displacement on the AP radiograph, despite the PSIL being intact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  17. The effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cofield, Robert H; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-05-01

    Patients with subacromial impingement were reported to show abnormal scapular positions during shoulder elevation. However, the relationship between the scapular positions and subacromial impingement is unclear. The purpose of this study was to biomechanically determine the effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior by using fresh frozen cadavers. The peak contact pressure on the coracoacromial arch was measured with a flexible tactile force sensor in 9 fresh frozen cadaver shoulders. The measurement was performed during passive glenohumeral elevation in the scapular plane ranging from 30° to 75°. The scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt were simulated by tilting the scapula in 5° increments up to 20°. The measurement was also performed with combination of scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt positions. The peak contact pressure decreased linearly with anterior tilt, and a significant difference between neutral scapular position (1.06 ± 0.89 MPa) and anterior tilt by 20° (0.46 ± 0.18 MPa) was observed (P < .05). However, the scapular positioning in the other directions did not change the peak contact pressure significantly. Furthermore, any combination of abnormal scapular positions did not affect peak contact pressure significantly. Scapular anterior tilt decreased peak contact pressure during passive shoulder elevation. In addition, scapular downward and internal rotations had little effect on peak contact pressure. The abnormal scapular motion reported in previous studies might not be directly related to symptoms caused by subacromial impingement. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of fixation and location on the stability of the markers in navigated total hip arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E; de la Barrera, J-L Moctezuma; Eller, G; Bach, C; Nogler, M

    2006-02-01

    In navigated total hip arthroplasty, the pelvis and the femur are tracked by means of rigid bodies fixed directly to the bones. Exact tracking throughout the procedure requires that the connection between the marker and bone remains stable in terms of translation and rotation. We carried out a cadaver study to compare the intra-operative stability of markers consisting of an anchoring screw with a rotational stabiliser and of pairs of pins and wires of different diameters connected with clamps. These devices were tested at different locations in the femur. Three human cadavers were placed supine on an operating table, with a reference marker positioned in the area of the greater trochanter. K-wires (3.2 mm), Steinman pins (3 and 4 mm), Apex pins (3 and 4 mm), and a standard screw were used as fixation devices. They were positioned medially in the proximal third of the femur, ventrally in the middle third and laterally in the distal portion. In six different positions of the leg, the spatial positions were recorded with a navigation system. Compared with the standard single screw, with the exception of the 3 mm Apex pins, the two-pin systems were associated with less movement of the marker and could be inserted less invasively. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and the dislocated hip rotated externally until the lower leg was parallel to the table (figure-four position), all the anchoring devices showed substantial deflection of 1.5 degrees to 2.5 degrees . The most secure area for anchoring markers was the lateral aspect of the femur.

  19. Anatomic Basis for Brachial Plexus Block at the Costoclavicular Space: A Cadaver Anatomic Study.

    PubMed

    Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Reina, Miguel Angel; Pangthipampai, Pawinee; Karmakar, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The costoclavicular space (CCS), which is located deep and posterior to the midpoint of the clavicle, may be a better site for infraclavicular brachial plexus block than the traditional lateral paracoracoid site. However, currently, there is paucity of data on the anatomy of the brachial plexus at the CCS. We undertook this cadaver anatomic study to define the anatomy of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS and thereby establish the anatomic basis for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block at this proximal site. The anatomy and topography of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS was evaluated in 8 unembalmed (cryopreserved), thawed, fresh adult human cadavers using anatomic dissection, and transverse anatomic and histological sections, of the CCS. The cords of the brachial plexus were located lateral and parallel to the axillary artery at the CCS. The topography of the cords, relative to the axillary artery and to one another, in the transverse (axial) plane was also consistent at the CCS. The lateral cord was the most superficial of the 3 cords and it was always anterior to both the medial and posterior cords. The medial cord was directly posterior to the lateral cord but medial to the posterior cord. The posterior cord was the lateral most of the 3 cords at the CCS and it was immediately lateral to the medial cord but posterolateral to the lateral cord. The cords of the brachial plexus are clustered together lateral to the axillary artery, and share a consistent relation relative to one another and to the axillary artery, at the CCS.

  20. Deformation pattern and load transfer of an uncemented femoral stem with modular necks. An experimental study in human cadaver femurs.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Cathrine H; Gjerdet, Nils R; Klaksvik, Jomar; Arthursson, Astvaldur J; Schnell-Husby, Otto; Wik, Tina S

    2016-02-01

    Modular necks in hip arthroplasty allow variations in neck-shaft angles, neck version and neck lengths and have been introduced to improve accuracy when reconstructing the anatomy and hip joint biomechanics. Periprosthetic bone resorption may be a consequence of stress shielding in the proximal femur after implantation of a femoral stem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the deformation pattern and load transfer of an uncemented femoral stem coupled to different modular necks in human cadaver femurs. A cementless femoral stem was implanted in twelve human cadaver femurs and tested in a hip simulator corresponding to single leg stance and stair climbing activity with patient-specific loading. The stems were tested with four different modular necks; long, short, retro and varus. The long neck was used as reference in statistical comparisons, as it can be considered the "standard" neck. The deformation of bone during loading was measured by strain gauge rosettes at three levels of the proximal femur on the medial, lateral and anterior side. The cortical strains were overall reduced on the medial and lateral side of femur, for all implants tested, and in both loading conditions compared to the unoperated femur. Although there were statistical significant differences between the necks, the results did not show a consistent pattern considering which neck retained or lost most strain. In general the differences were small, with the highest significant difference between the necks of 3.23 percentage points. The small differences of strain between the modular necks tested in this study are not expected to influence bone remodeling in the proximal femur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety of lumbar spine radiofrequency procedures in the presence of posterior pedicle screws: technical report of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Gazelka, Halena M; Welch, Tasha L; Nassr, Ahmad; Lamer, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether the thermal energy associated with lumbar spine radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) performed near titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws is conducted to the pedicle screws or adjacent tissues, or both, thus introducing potential for thermal damage to those tissues. Cadaver study. Cadaver laboratory equipped with fluoroscopy, surgical spine implements, and radiofrequency generator. No live human subject; a fresh frozen (and thawed) cadaver torso was used for the study. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of a fresh frozen cadaver torso with real-time fluoroscopic guidance. Conventional RFN cannula placement was performed at the level of pedicle screws and a control (nonsurgically altered) lumbar level. Neurotomy was performed with conventional radiofrequency lesioning parameters. Temperatures were recorded at multiple sites through thermistor probes. Direct contact of the radiofrequency cannula with the pedicle screws during conventional RFN produced a substantial increase in temperature in the surrounding soft tissues. A small increase in temperature occurred at the same sites at the control level. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws are capable of sustaining large increases in temperature when the radiofrequency probe comes in contact with the screw. These results are suggestive that pedicle screws could serve as a possible source of tissue heating and thermal injury during RFN. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trephination of the frontal sinuses and instillation of clotrimazole cream: a computed tomographic study in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Rachel; Baker, Martin; White, Lindsay; McConnell, James Fraser

    2013-04-01

    To use computed tomography (CT) to assess the distribution of surgically administered clotrimazole cream and associated filling of the frontal sinuses and caudal aspect of the nasal cavities in canine cadavers. Observational study. Small (n = 1) and medium-large (n = 11) breed canine cadavers. CT scans of 12 cadaveric canine heads were used to confirm absence of sinonasal disease. Then after creating an opening into the left and right frontal sinuses with a 3.2 mm Steinmann pin at standardized landmarks, clotrimazole cream (20 g) was instilled into each side. Postoperative CT scans of the heads was used to assess the distribution and degree of filling of the sinonasal cavities with clotrimazole cream, and to identify any damage to local structures. Filling was excellent in 22 sinuses, very poor in 2, and excellent in all caudal nasal cavities. Two cadavers had damage: unilateral penetration of the cranium (2) and unilateral penetration of the lateral sinus wall (1). Excellent filling of most of the frontal sinuses and caudal nasal cavity of cadavers with clotrimazole cream is achieved when administered by this technique. Damage to local structures may occur intraoperatively using this technique. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuai; Lu, Teng; Hu, Qiaolong; Yang, Baohui; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs) for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS) and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS) placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p < 0.05). In the axial plane, using RPDTs also significantly increased C1-LMS placement accuracy (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, although using RPDTs had a very high accuracy rate (100%) in C1-LMS placement, it was not statistically significant compared with the conventional method (p > 0.05). Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique. PMID:28004004

  4. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Lu, Teng; Hu, Qiaolong; Yang, Baohui; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs) for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS) and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS) placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p < 0.05). In the axial plane, using RPDTs also significantly increased C1-LMS placement accuracy (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, although using RPDTs had a very high accuracy rate (100%) in C1-LMS placement, it was not statistically significant compared with the conventional method (p > 0.05). Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique.

  5. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Essig, Harald; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more predictable than traditional orbital reconstruction for optimal implant placement. Pre-injury computed tomography scans were obtained for 10 cadaver heads (20 orbits). Complex orbital fractures (Class III-IV) were created in all orbits, which were reconstructed using a transconjunctival approach with and without navigation. The best possible fit of the stereolithographic file of a preformed orbital mesh plate was used as the optimal position for reconstruction. The accuracy of the implant positions was evaluated using iPlan software. The consistency of orbital reconstruction was lower in the traditional reconstructions than in the navigation group in the parameters of translation and rotation. Implant position also differed significantly in the parameters of translation (p = 0.002) and rotation (pitch: p = 0.77; yaw: p < 0.001; roll: p = 0.001). Compared with traditional orbital reconstruction, navigation-assisted reconstruction provides more predictable anatomical reconstruction of complex orbital defects and significantly improves orbital implant position.

  6. Comparison of Measured and Estimated CT Organ Doses for Modulated and Fixed Tube Current:: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Padole, Atul; Deedar Ali Khawaja, Ranish; Otrakji, Alexi; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the directly measured and the estimated computed tomography (CT) organ doses obtained from commercial radiation dose-tracking (RDT) software for CT performed with modulated tube current or automatic exposure control (AEC) technique and fixed tube current (mAs). With the institutional review board (IRB) approval, the ionization chambers were surgically implanted in a human cadaver (88 years old, male, 68 kg) in six locations such as liver, stomach, colon, left kidney, small intestine, and urinary bladder. The cadaver was scanned with routine abdomen pelvis protocol on a 128-slice, dual-source multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner using both AEC and fixed mAs. The effective and quality reference mAs of 100, 200, and 300 were used for AEC and fixed mAs, respectively. Scanning was repeated three times for each setting, and measured and estimated organ doses (from RDT software) were recorded (N = 3*3*2 = 18). Mean CTDIvol for AEC and fixed mAs were 4, 8, 13 mGy and 7, 14, 21 mGy, respectively. The most estimated organ doses were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the measured organ doses for both AEC and fixed mAs. At AEC, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 14.7 mGy compared to mean measured organ doses of 12.3 mGy. Similarly, at fixed mAs, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 24 mGy compared to measured organ doses of 22.3 mGy. The differences among the measured and estimated organ doses were higher for AEC technique compared to the fixed mAs for most organs (P < 0.01). The most CT organ doses estimated from RDT software are greater compared to directly measured organ doses, particularly when AEC technique is used for CT scanning. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biportal neuroendoscopic microsurgical approaches to the subarachnoid cisterns. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Fries, G; Reisch, R

    1996-12-01

    A preclinical cadaver study was performed to develop the technique of biportal neuroendoscopic dissection in the subarachnoid space of the basal cisterns and to test the feasibility, utility, and safety of this new technique. In 23 fresh post-mortem adult human cadavers and 2 formalin-fixed adult human head specimen a total of 33 biportal endomicrosurgical dissections into and within the basal cisterns were carried out. Following suction of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space 0 degree-, 30 degrees-, and 70 degrees-lens-scopes (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with outer diameters of 4.2 mm and trochars with outer diameters of 5 to 6.5 mm were introduced into the surgical field. 6 different endoscopic routes to the basal cisterns and a total of 10 different combinations of these approaches for biportal endoneurosurgery could be described, but it was found that not all of them were useful and safe. The transventricular approach to the prepontine cisterns through the foramen of Monro and the floor of the third ventricle, biportally combined with a subfrontal or a subtemporal approach, turned out to be not safe enough as it was accompanied by traumatization of the fornix at the interventricular foramen and of the hypothalamus at the level of the tuber cinereum due to relaxation and caudal shift of the brain following suction of cerebrospinal fluid to clear the basal cisterns for the subfrontal or subtemporal approaches. Useful and safe endomicrosurgical approaches to the basal cisterns were: 1st subfrontal, either epidural or intradural, 2nd subtemporal, either anterior or posterior, and 3rd frontal interhemispheric. Various biportal combinations of these approaches are estimated to be feasible, useful, and safe enough to be performed during microsurgical procedures in the operating room. The biportal endomicrosurgical strategy allows for effective and safe dissections within the subarachnoid spaces of the basal cisterns. The tip of the microinstruments as

  8. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  9. Gastrocsoleus recession techniques: an anatomical and biomechanical study in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tinney, A; Khot, A; Eizenberg, N; Wolfe, R; Graham, H K

    2014-06-01

    Lengthening of the conjoined tendon of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis and soleus fascia is frequently used in the treatment of equinus deformities in children and adults. The Vulpius procedure as described in most orthopaedic texts is a division of the conjoined tendon in the shape of an inverted V. However, transverse division was also described by Vulpius and Stoffel, and has been reported in some clinical studies. We studied the anatomy and biomechanics of transverse division of the conjoined tendon in 12 human cadavers (24 legs). Transverse division of the conjoined tendon resulted in predictable, controlled lengthening of the gastrocsoleus muscle-tendon unit. The lengthening achieved was dependent both on the level of the cut in the conjoined tendon and division of the midline raphé. Division at a proximal level resulted in a mean lengthening of 15.2 mm (sd 2.0, (12 to 19), which increased to 17.1 mm (sd 1.8, (14 to 20) after division of the midline raphé. Division at a distal level resulted in a mean lengthening of 21.0 mm (sd 2.0, (18 to 25), which increased to 26.4 mm (sd 1.4, (24 to 29) after division of the raphé. These differences were significant (p < 0.001).

  10. Endoscopic versus Open Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Tantawy, Ahmed; Ibraheim, Ahmed; Solares, Arturo C.; Otto, Bradley A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Filho, Leo Ditzel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various lateral and anterior approaches to access the infratemporal fossa (ITF) have been described. We provide our observations regarding the endoscopic transpterygoid and preauricular subtemporal approaches, listing their respective advantages and limitations through cadaveric dissection. Methods A cadaver study was performed on five adult specimens. An endoscopic transpterygoid approach to the ITF was completed bilaterally in three specimens, and an open preauricular ITF approach was performed bilaterally in two specimens. Results After completing the cadaveric dissections, we studied differences between the endoscopic transpterygoid approach and open preauricular subtemporal approaches in regard to exposure and ease of dissection of different structures in the ITF. Conclusions In comparison with a lateral approach, the endonasal endoscopic transpterygoid approach provides better visualization and more direct exposure of median structures such as the nasopharynx, eustachian tube, sella, and clivus. We concluded that the endoscopic transpterygoid approach can be utilized to resect benign lesions and some select group of malignancies involving the infratemporal and middle cranial fossae. Open approaches continue to play an important role, especially in the resection of extensive malignant tumors extending to these regions. PMID:26401477

  11. [Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study].

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque de; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira Dos Santos; Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos da

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how occurs the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath through the axiliary infraclavicular space and hence prove the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, and 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study.

    PubMed

    de Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; da Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Permeability of the subsynovial connective tissue in the human carpal tunnel: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Osamura, Naoki; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the permeability of the normal carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue. Subsynovial connective tissue samples (10mm(2)) were obtained from 10 fresh frozen human cadavers without a history of carpal tunnel syndrome. The thickness of the sample was measured using a charge-coupled device laser displacement system. Each specimen was tested for permeability in a closed pressure chamber at 13.8, 41.3, 68.9 and 96.5 kPa. Since permeated flow was very low in all specimens, the permeability could be calculated only for eight specimens at 96.5 kPa pressure and for three specimens at 68.9 kPa. The mean permeability at 96.5 kPa was mean 0.89 (SD 0.93)x10(-14)m(4)/Ns and at 68.9 kPa was mean 1.04 (SD 1.54)x10(-14)m(4)/Ns. The subsynovial connective tissue is the most characteristic tissue in the carpal tunnel; it is found in no other location in such abundance. It is well known that carpal tunnel syndrome is the result of increased pressure within the carpal tunnel. This lack of permeability in the subsynovial connective tissue may explain the predisposition of this region for pressure buildup and subsequent neuropathy.

  14. Histological findings of the femoral bone after cement removal in hip revision. An experimental study of cadaver femurs with two different cement removal procedures.

    PubMed

    Porsch, M; Schmidt, J

    2003-06-01

    Cement removal in hip revision arthroplasty is often a time-consuming procedure, lengthy and tedious. Intraoperative bone damage is one of the more common complications. In the present study, the conventional cement removal method is compared with a new method by means of a histological study concerning potential negative effects to cortical or spongious bone. Histological studies on human cadaver femurs demonstrate no deleterious effects on the endosteal bone when cement was removed with this new device. The ballistically driven chiselling system (OrthoClast) is safe to the bone stock and shows no increased risk of bone damage over the conventional technique with mallet and chisel.

  15. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  16. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of this system is comparable. EMF

  17. Natural orifice vaginal sacrocolpopexy (NOVaS): a cadaver feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Noblett, Karen L; Murphy, Miles; Guerette, Nathan

    2012-04-01

    The primary objective was to determine the feasibility of a vaginal approach to sacrocolpopexy using a cadaver model. Secondary objectives were to measure the distance from the vaginal introitus to the sacrum and distances of the sacral fixation elements to other vital structures. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadavers were used. Specialized instruments were developed to optimize visualization and facilitate performance of the procedure. Five cadavers had a transperineal approach (an approach found unfeasible), and eight of the remaining nine had complete or partial completion of the transvaginal approach. The mean distance from the introitus to the promontory was 14.6 cm (12-16.5 cm). The mean distance from the sacral fixation elements to the aorta was 5.2 cm; common iliac artery, 3.5 cm; internal iliac artery, 3.25 cm; middle sacral artery, 1.75 cm, and ureters, 3.5 cm. The position of the sacral fixation elements was consistently at the level of S1-2. Vaginal sacrocolpopexy is feasible in a cadaver model.

  18. Prevention of Fat Embolism in Fat Injection for Gluteal Augmentation, Anatomic Study in Fresh Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Orozco-Rentería, David; Medina-Zamora, Pablo; Mota-Fonseca, Eduardo; García-Benavides, Leonel; Cuenca-Pardo, Jesus; Contreras-Bulnes, Livia; Ambriz-Plasencia, Ana Rosa; Curiel-Beltran, Jesus Aaron

    2017-05-09

    Liposuction is a popular surgical procedure. As in any surgery, there are risks and complications, especially when combined with fat injection. Case reports of fat embolism have described a possible explanation as the puncture and tear of gluteal vessels during the procedure, especially when a deep injection is planned. A total of 10 dissections were performed in five fresh cadavers. Each buttocks was divided into four quadrants. We focused on the location where the gluteal vessels enter the muscle and the diameter of the vessels. Colorant at two different angles was injected (30° and 45°). We evaluated the relation of the colorant with the main vessels. We found two perforators per quadrant. The thickness of the gluteal muscle was 2.84 ± 1.54 cm. The area under the muscle where the superior gluteal vessels traverse the muscle was located 6.4 ± 1.54 cm from the intergluteal crease and 5.8 ± 1.13 cm from the superior border of the muscle. The inferior gluteal vessels were located 8.3 ± 1.39 cm from the intergluteal crease and 10 ± 2.24 cm from the superior border of the muscle. When we compared the fat injected at a 30° angle, the colorant stayed in the muscle. Using a 45° angle, the colorant was in contact with the superior gluteal artery and the sciatic nerve. No puncture or tear was observed in the vessels or the nerve. The location where the vessels come in contact with the muscle, which can be considered for fat injection, were located in quadrants 1 and 3. A 30° angle allows for an injection into the muscle without passing into deeper structures, unlike a 45° injection angle.

  19. An image-guided femoroplasty system: development and initial cadaver studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Sadowsky, Ofri; Armiger, Robert S.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Mears, Simon C.; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the development and initial cadaver studies using a prototype image-guided surgery system for femoroplasty, which is a potential alternative treatment for reducing fracture risk in patients with severe osteoporosis. Our goal is to develop an integrated surgical guidance system that will allow surgeons to augment the femur using patient-specific biomechanical planning and intraoperative analysis tools. This paper focuses on the intraoperative module, which provides real-time navigation of an injection device and estimates the distribution of the injected material relative to the preoperative plan. Patient registration is performed using intensity-based 2D/3D registration of X-ray images and preoperative CT data. To co-register intraoperative X-ray images and optical tracker coordinates, we integrated a custom optically-tracked fluoroscope fiducial allowing real-time visualization of the injection device with respect to the patient's femur. During the procedure, X-ray images were acquired to estimate the 3D distribution of the injected augmentation material (e.g. bone cement). Based on the injection progress, the injection plan could be adjusted if needed to achieve optimal distribution. In phantom experiments, the average target registration error at the center of the femoral head was 1.4 mm and the rotational error was 0.8 degrees when two images were used. Three cadaveric studies demonstrated efficacy of the navigation system. Our preliminary simulation study of the 3D shape reconstruction algorithm demonstrated that the 3D distribution of the augmentation material could be estimated within 12% error from six X-ray images.

  20. A dissection and computer tomograph study of tarsal coalitions in 100 cadaver feet.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L B; Rühli, F J; Taylor, J; Ferris, L; Pope, R; Henneberg, M

    2003-03-01

    Most of the clinical studies report the incidence of tarsal coalitions (TC) as less than 1% but they disregard the asymptomatic coalitions. TC have been associated with degenerative arthritic changes. After X-rays, computer tomography (CT) is the most commonly used diagnostic test in the detection of TC. The aims of our study were to establish the incidence of TC; the association between TC and accessory tarsal bones and between TC and tarsal arthritis; and to assess the sensitivity of CT as a diagnostic tool in TC. We performed spiral CT scans of 100 cadaver feet (mean age at death 77.7+/-10.4), which were subsequently dissected. The dissections identified nine non-osseous TC: two talocalcaneal and seven calcaneonavicular. There was no osseous coalition. Tarsal arthritis was identified in 31 cases. Both talocalcaneal coalitions were associated with arthritis while none of the calcaneonavicular coalitions were associated with tarsal arthritis. The CT diagnosed an osseous talocalcaneal coalition and was suspicious of fibrocartilaginous coalitions in eight cases. There was correlation between dissection and CT in two talocalcaneal coalitions and three calcaneonavicular coalitions thus CT identifying 55.5% of the coalitions. CT did not diagnose four non-osseous coalitions and diagnosed errouresly four possible coalitions. In conclusion our study demonstrated that the incidence of non-osseous TC is higher than previously thought (12.72%). The calcaneonavicular coalitions are the most common single type (9.09%) and they do not seem to be associated with arthritic changes in the tarsal bones. Our CT results suggest that spiral CT has a low sensitivity in the detection of non-osseous coalitions and questions if multislice CT should be used routinely when TC are suspected.

  1. Relationship between axillary nerve and percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Dedeoğlu, Semih; Imren, Yunus; Kahraman, Sinan; Çakar, Murat; Öztürk, Kahraman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the axillary nerve and the percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate and to evaluate the risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. The study included 50 shoulders of 25 fresh frozen cadavers. A 5 cm incision was made from the anterolateral border of the acromion to the arm and a 5-hole 3.5-mm proximal humeral plate was inserted. The axillary nerve was then dissected. Plate holes which crossed the axillary nerve were noted. The distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion and the length of the arm were measured and their relations evaluated with a correlation test. The average arm length was 319 mm. The average distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion was 60 mm. There was a significant correlation between the arm length and acromion-axillary nerve distance (p<0.05). The plate was inserted under the deltoid fascia in all shoulders except one. There were no axillary nerve lesions. In 1 case, the distal end of the plate was inserted in the deltoid muscle. No constant relationship between the plate holes and the axillary nerve was detected. There is a risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. It must be ensured that the plate is inserted under the deltoid fascia during the surgery. The axillary nerve must be visible during application of the screws due to the impossibility of knowing which holes cross the axillary nerve.

  2. Transverse cervical and great auricular nerve distribution in the mandibular area: a study in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ella, Bruno; Langbour, Nicolas; Caix, Philippe; Midy, Dominique; Deliac, Philippe; Burbaud, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The angle of the jaw is innervated by the auricular branch of the superficial cervical plexus (SCP). Cervical cutaneous nerves of the CP carry the sensation from the antero-lateral cervical skin. It is clinically relevant to identify the cervical cutaneous nerve distribution and the nerve point using superficial landmarks but published studies describing the emerging patterns and cervical cutaneous nerve branch distributions in the mandible are rare. The overlap between the cervical and trigeminal and facial nerve distributions and anastomoses is highly variable. The objective of this study was to characterize the distribution of the SCP nerves in the different parts of the mandible. Two hundred and fifty fresh and formalin-fixed human cadaver heads were microdissected to observe the distribution of the transverse cervical (TCN) and great auricular (GAN) nerves. Two main groups (G1 and G2) based on the emergence of the TCN and GAN behind the posterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and three types (T1, T2, and T3) based on their distribution in the different mandibular parts were observed. Statistical analysis showed that parameters related to the mandibular side (P = 0.307), gender (P = 0.218), and group (P = 0.111) did not influence the facial distribution of these nerves. The only parameter influencing the distribution was the type of nerve (GAN and TCN) (P < 0.001). In the face, the SCP reached the mandible in 97% of cases, its distribution and extent were subject-dependent. These results confirmed that the SCP could supply accessory innervation to the mandible through the TCN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. Methods In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years) a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intra-operative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge), quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Results Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65). Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Conclusions Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays advantages over the established

  4. Anatomy and relations of the infraspinatus and the teres minor muscles: a fresh cadaver dissection study.

    PubMed

    Bacle, Guillaume; Gregoire, Jean-Marc; Patat, Frédéric; Clavert, Philippe; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Laulan, Jacky; Lakhal, Walid; Favard, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Despite their functional importance, the infraspinatus (ISP) and teres minor (TM) muscles have been little investigated. This study aimed to describe the macroscopic morphology, innervation, and inter-relations of the ISP and TM muscles. Forty fresh cadaver dissections and histologic analysis were performed. Three groups of specimens were distinguished according to the rotator cuff tendon status: (1) intact rotator cuff; (2) supraspinatus tendon tears with intact ISP tendon; and (3) both supraspinatus and ISP tendons torn. Muscle fiber organization and muscle and tendon length were recorded. ISP and TM innervation and fiber structure were studied. ISP muscles were composed of three groups of fiber organized in two planes: two superficial groups, with mean pennation angles of, respectively, 27° ± 4° and 23° ± 3° with respect to the axis of the central tendon of the underlying group. TMs were thick fusiform muscles showing a parallel organization; 26 specimens (67 %) had aponeuroses isolating the TM, with a mean length of 5.2 ± 2.7 cm. Rotator cuff lesions were associated with relatively greater ISP tendon than muscle length. Innervation of the ISP muscle comprised 2-4 main branches from the suprascapular nerve and that of the TM 1 branch from the axillary nerve. ISP muscle body morphology derives from three groups of fibers in two planes. The TM has a parallel organization. Several nerve branches innervate the ISP muscle, whereas only one supplies the TM. The limits between the two muscles bodies consist of an aponeurotic fascia in two-thirds of cases.

  5. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Filth Fly Activity Associated With Composted and Noncomposted Beef Cadavers and Laboratory Studies on Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Dubie, T R; Talley, J L; Payne, J B; Wayadande, A W; Dillwith, J; Richards, C

    2017-09-01

    Commercial livestock facilities are faced with the challenge of managing large amounts of waste including manure and animal mortalities. One method of disposing of dead animals is composting. The cadavers are enveloped in carbon material that creates a barrier between the dead tissue and the surrounding environment. Dead tissue can release materials that not only contaminate the soil but also the groundwater and nearby surface water. Animal cadaver composting is designed to facilitate decomposition without the aid of carrion-feeding insects and reduce the presence of common pathogens associated with animal waste and dead tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate insect activity associated with composted and exposed beef cadavers, specifically filth flies that can serve as mechanical vectors of important human pathogens such as E. coli 0157:H7. Greater numbers of all types of arthropods were trapped overall at the exposed animal site than the composted animal site. Most importantly, the number of filth flies was significantly lower at the composted site (P = 0.0009). Laboratory analysis of volatile organic compounds from composted and noncomposted rats indicated that known fly attractants such as dimethyl disulfide may be inhibited by the composting process. Implementing composting programs at livestock facilities could reduce the risk of flies spreading harmful pathogens to surrounding areas, including farms that grow fresh produce. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients.

  8. Distribution of sensory nerve endings around the human sinus tarsi: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Rein, Susanne; Manthey, Suzanne; Zwipp, Hans; Witt, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels around the sinus tarsi. The superficial and deep parts of the fat pads at the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) as well as the subtalar joint capsule inside the sinus tarsi from 13 cadaver feet were dissected. The distribution of the sensory nerve endings and blood vessels were analysed in the resected specimens as the number per cm(2) after staining with haematoxylin-eosin, S100 protein, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, and protein gene product 9.5 using the classification of Freeman and Wyke. Free nerve endings were the predominant sensory ending (P < 0.001). Ruffini and Golgi-like endings were rarely found and no Pacini corpuscles were seen. Significantly more free nerve endings (P < 0.001) and blood vessels (P = 0.01) were observed in the subtalar joint capsule than in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER. The deep part of the fat pad at the IER had significantly more blood vessels than the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.012). Significantly more blood vessels than free nerve endings were seen in all three groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences in distribution were seen in terms of right or left side, except for free nerve endings in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.003). A greater number of free nerve endings correlated with a greater number of blood vessels. The presence of sensory nerve endings between individual fat cells supports the hypothesis that the fat pad has a proprioceptive role monitoring changes and that it is a source of pain in sinus tarsi syndrome due to the abundance of free nerve endings.

  9. Minimally invasive endoscopic reconstruction technique of acute AC-joint dislocations: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Seil, Romain; Bachelier, Felix; Kohn, Dieter

    2006-07-01

    The treatment of acute Rockwood type III AC-joint dislocations is controversial. Problems related to open surgery are soft tissue healing, residual instability and the necessity of hardware removal. After non-operative therapy the cosmetic result may be problematic and in some cases symptomatic instabilities occur. The goal of the present cadaver study was to develop a new, minimally invasive technique for acute AC-joint reconstructions and to analyse its potential risk for neurovascular injuries. The surgical technique was based on an arthroscopically assisted reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments with a suture anchor (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) and a supplemental stabilization of the AC-joint capsule with a suture cerclage (Fibre Wire 2, Arthrex) performed on ten cadaveric shoulder specimens. After surgery all specimens were dissected to analyse the anatomy of the coracoclavicular ligament complex, the position of anchors and sutures and to measure the distance to the neurovascular structures at risk. The supraspinatus muscle was never injured by the Neviaser approach. The insertion of the suture anchors never failed, resulting in a secure and reproducible anchor position. The mean distance between the coracoid and suprascapular nerve was 1.8 cm (1.5-2.2), between the coracoid and the suprascapular artery 1.5 cm (1.3-1.9). These structures were never injured. The resulting force vector of the suture located between the anchor and the drill hole was close to the anatomic force vector of the coracoclavicular ligament complex. The suture cerclage was always correctly positioned. The presented technique is at minimal risk for the surrounding neurovascular structures and allows for a minimally invasive and anatomically correct reconstruction of the AC-joint. Further biomechanical analysis is needed to evaluate the strength of the reconstruction technique. The proposed technique might be a reasonable alternative to existing invasive techniques of open

  10. Distribution of sensory nerve endings around the human sinus tarsi: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Susanne; Manthey, Suzanne; Zwipp, Hans; Witt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels around the sinus tarsi. The superficial and deep parts of the fat pads at the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) as well as the subtalar joint capsule inside the sinus tarsi from 13 cadaver feet were dissected. The distribution of the sensory nerve endings and blood vessels were analysed in the resected specimens as the number per cm2 after staining with haematoxylin-eosin, S100 protein, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, and protein gene product 9.5 using the classification of Freeman and Wyke. Free nerve endings were the predominant sensory ending (P < 0.001). Ruffini and Golgi-like endings were rarely found and no Pacini corpuscles were seen. Significantly more free nerve endings (P < 0.001) and blood vessels (P = 0.01) were observed in the subtalar joint capsule than in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER. The deep part of the fat pad at the IER had significantly more blood vessels than the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.012). Significantly more blood vessels than free nerve endings were seen in all three groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences in distribution were seen in terms of right or left side, except for free nerve endings in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.003). A greater number of free nerve endings correlated with a greater number of blood vessels. The presence of sensory nerve endings between individual fat cells supports the hypothesis that the fat pad has a proprioceptive role monitoring changes and that it is a source of pain in sinus tarsi syndrome due to the abundance of free nerve endings. PMID:24472004

  11. Five surgical maneuvers on nasal mucosa movement in cleft palate repair: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dennis C; Patel, Kamlesh B; Parikh, Rajiv P; Skolnick, Gary B; Woo, Albert S

    2016-06-01

    This biomechanical study aims to characterize the nasal mucosa during palatoplasty, thereby describing the soft tissue attachments at different zones and quantifying movement following their release. Palatal nasal mucosa was exposed and divided in the midline in 10 adult cadaver heads. Five consecutive maneuvers were performed: (1) elevation of nasal mucosa off the maxilla, (2) dissection of nasal mucosa from soft palate musculature, (3) separation of nasal mucosa from palatine aponeurosis, (4) release of mucosa at the pterygopalatine junction, and (5) mobilization of vomer flaps. The mucosal movements across the midline at the midpalate (MP) and posterior nasal spine (PNS) following each maneuver were measured. At the MP, maneuvers 1-4 cumulatively provided 3.8 mm (36.9%), 4.9 mm (47.6%), 6.1 mm (59.2%), and 10.3 mm, respectively. Vomer flap (10.5 mm) elevation led to mobility equivalent to that of maneuvers 1-4 (p = 0.72). At the PNS, cumulative measurements after maneuvers 1-4 were 1.3 mm (10%), 2.4 mm (18.6%), 5.7 mm (44.2%), and 12.9 mm. Here, vomer flaps (6.5 mm) provided less movement (p < 0.001). Maneuver 4 yielded the greatest amount of movement of the lateral nasal mucosa at both MP (4.2 mm, 40.8%) and PNS (7.2 mm, 55.8%). At the MP, complete release of the lateral nasal mucosa achieves as much movement as the vomer flap. At the hard-soft palate junction, the maneuvers progressively add to the movement of the lateral nasal mucosa. The most powerful step is release of attachments along the posterior aspect of the medial pterygoid. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Percutaneous Release of the First Dorsal Extensor Compartment: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Güleç, Ali; Türkmen, Faik; Toker, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficiency of the percutaneous 18-G needle technique in releasing the fibro-osseous sheath over the first dorsal extensor compartment of the hand. Methods: Using anatomic landmarks, percutaneous release was performed with an 18-G needle on 48 wrists of 24 cadavers. The specimens were then dissected and examined for the completeness of the first dorsal extensor compartment release and any tendon or neurovascular injuries. The tunnel length, number of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, presence of an intertendinous septum, and the effects of these parameters on percutaneous release were evaluated. Results: Percutaneous release was performed on all of the wrists, and the evaluation of the adequacy of release revealed 25 complete releases, 21 partial releases, and 2 missed releases. There were 19 cases of tendon complications. No neurovascular injuries were noted. The mean tunnel length was 2.66 ± 30 cm, and the mean number of tendons was 2.75 ± 0.86. A septum was present in 33.3% of cases. Tunnel length and tendon number had no statistically significant effect on release, whereas the presence of a septum was significantly associated with inadequate tunnel release and the development of tendon complications. Conclusions: Percutaneous release of the first dorsal extensor compartment using an 18-G needle was associated with high rates of incomplete release and tendon damage in the presence of an intertendinous septum. Further study is required under ultrasound guidance to determine the usefulness of percutaneous release in the first dorsal extensor compartment. Clinical Relevance: Release with a percutaneous needle tip in De Quervain’s syndrome may provide the advantages of better cosmetic results with less scar formation and an early return to work. PMID:27826460

  13. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL.

  14. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  15. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Essig, Harald; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the actual implant position relative to the preoperative planning for more fail-safe and consistent results. Pre-injury computed tomography (CT) was performed for 10 orbits in human cadavers, and complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created. The orbits were reconstructed using preformed orbital mesh through a transconjunctival approach under image-guided navigation and navigation by referencing orientating markers in the implant design. Ideal implant positions were planned using preoperative CT scans. Implant placement accuracy was evaluated by comparing the planned and realized implant positions. Significantly better translation (3.53 mm vs. 1.44 mm, p = 0.001) and rotation (pitch: -1.7° vs. -2.2°, P = 0.52; yaw: 10.9° vs. 5.9°, P = 0.02; roll: -2.2° vs. -0.5°, P = 0.16) of the placed implant relative to the planned position were obtained by implant-oriented navigation. Navigation-assisted surgery can be improved by using navigational markers on the orbital implant for orientation, resulting in fail-safe reconstruction of complex orbital defects and consistent implant positioning.

  16. Site-dependent and interindividual variations in Denonvilliers' fascia: a histological study using donated elderly male cadavers.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Murakami, Gen; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-05-12

    Site-dependent and interindividual histological differences in Denonvilliers' fascia (DF) are not well understood. This study aimed to examine site-dependent and interindividual differences in DF and to determine whether changes in the current approach to radical prostatectomy are warranted in light of these histological findings. Twenty-five donated male cadavers (age range, 72-95 years) were examined. These cadavers had been donated to Sapporo Medical University for research and education on human anatomy. Their use for research was approved by the university ethics committee. Horizontal sections (15 cadavers) or sagittal sections (10 cadavers) were prepared at intervals of 2-5 mm for hematoxylin and eosin staining. Elastic-Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were also performed, using mouse monoclonal anti-human alpha-smooth muscle actin to stain connective tissues and mouse monoclonal anti-human S100 protein to stain nerves. We observed that DF consisted of disorderly, loose connective tissue and structures resembling "leaves", which were interlacing and adjacent to each other, actually representing elastic or smooth muscle fibers. Variations in DF were observed in the following: 1) configuration of multiple leaves, including clear, unclear, or fragmented behind the body and tips of the seminal vesicles, depending on the site; 2) connection with the lateral pelvic fascia at the posterolateral angle of the prostate posterior to the neurovascular bundles, being clear, unclear, or absent; 3) all or most leaves of DF fused with the prostatic capsule near the base of the seminal vesicles, and periprostatic nerves were embedded in the leaves at the fusion site; and 4) some DF leaves fused with the prostatic capsule anteriorly and/or the fascia propria of the rectum posteriorly. Site-dependent and interindividual variations in DF were observed in donated elderly male cadavers. All or most DF leaves are fused with the prostatic capsule near the base of the

  17. [Relationship of the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus tendons in the plantar midfoot. An anatomical cadaver study].

    PubMed

    Filan, P; Hart, R

    2011-01-01

    To verify, in cadaver specimens, the precise anatomic structure of cross-connection between the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons and to identify its position in relation to orientation points in the foot in view of the surgical technique for tendon transfer, including the necessity of subsequent tendon suture. A hundred cadaver legs (50 cadavers of 29 men and 21 women, all Caucasians) were dissected by an extensive medio-plantar approach. The anatomical relationship of the FHL and FDL tendons was studied. The distances measured were as follows: between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the FHL origin of a tendinous slip; between the slip and the calcaneal tubercle; and the total distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the calcaneal tubercle. In all cadaver legs, a cross-connection between the FHL and FDL tendons was present in the plantar midfoot. There was always a tendinous slip branching from the FHL tendon and running lateral and distal to the FDL tendon. The slip was attached to the FDL tendon distal to its branching for the toes; it either attached to only the FDL tendon for the second toe or it split to attach to the FDL tendon branches for the second and the third toe. The two configurations were referred to as type II and type II,III, respectively. Type II was found in both legs of 31 cadavers (62 %), and type II,III in 14 cadavers (28 %). In five cadavers (10 %) attachment was different in the right and the left foot. Expressed in absolute numbers, there were 67 type II attachments (two-thirds of the findings) and 33 type II,III attachments (one-third of the findings). The average distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the origin of an FHL tendinous slip was 7.3 (± 0.9 ) cm, the average distance between the origin of an FHL tendinous slip and the calcaneal tubercle was 9.2 (± 1.1) cm and the average distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and

  18. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  19. Anatomical study of the coracoid process in Mongolian male cadavers using the Latarjet procedure.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jianqiang; Dong, Lele; Zhao, Yanjun; Sun, Jinlei; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Chunzheng

    2016-10-24

    The Latarjet procedure addresses recurrent anterior shoulder instability in the context of a significant bony defect. However, the bony and soft tissue anatomy of the coracoid in coracoid transfer procedures has not yet been defined in Mongolian men. The aims of this study were to describe the soft tissue attachments of the coracoid regarding the bony anatomy, define the average amount of bone available for coracoid transfer, analyze the characteristics of the pectoralis minor and coracoid, and study the relationship between the bony dimensions of the coracoid and body length in Mongolian men. We dissected 30 shoulders from 15 male Mongolian cadavers, exposing the coracoid process and attached anatomical structures including the lateral clavicle and acromion, then measured the bony dimensions of the coracoid and the locations and sizes of the coracoid soft tissue footprints. The mean length of the coracoid available for transfer was 23.93 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the coracoid was 42.10 ± 2.3 mm, and the mean width and height of the coracoid midpoint were 15.29 ± 1.70 mm and 11.61 ± 1.98 mm, respectively. The pectoralis minor was part of the joint capsule and passed over the coracoid in some samples. The mutation rate of the pectoralis minor footprint, which was asymmetrical and irregular, was 23.33 %. Statistical analysis involved a multiple linear regression equation. The average amount of bone available for use in coracoid transfer in Mongolian men was less than that of other populations. Mutation of the pectoralis minor may induce intraoperative capsule injury because this muscle passes over the coracoid deep to the joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint and constitutes part of the shoulder joint, strengthening the joint. Statistically, higher coracoids appeared in shorter patients and longer coracoids appeared in taller patients. Surgically, great care should be taken to consider a patient's height to precisely implement the

  20. Bevel direction of epidural needles reliably predicts direction of catheter placement and contrast spread in human cadavers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shaparin, Naum; Bernstein, Jeffrey; White, Robert S; Kaufman, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    To confirm the relationship between bevel orientation, catheter direction, and radiopaque contrast spread in the lumbar region. Pilot cadaver study. Anatomy laboratory of a university hospital. Cadavers were randomized to two groups of 4 cadavers each. In Group 1, needle bevel direction at epidural entry was cephalad; in Group 2, it was caudad. After placement of each epidural catheter in L4-L5 interspace, 2 mL of radiopaque contrast was injected and a lumbar posterior-anterior radiograph was obtained. Catheter direction and direction of radiopaque contrast spread were collected. Due to the inability to access the epidural space secondary to surgical changes in the lumbar spine, one cadaver in the cephalad group was excluded. In 7 of 7 (100%) cadavers, the catheter tip direction according to the radiograph corresponded directly with bevel direction. A strong relationship exists between bevel orientation and catheter direction; however, catheter position does not reliably predict the direction in which the injected fluid spreads in all cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p < 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo. PMID:21819619

  2. Etiology of lingual nerve injuries in the third molar region: a cadaver and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M Anthony; Le, Hung

    2006-12-01

    It has been suggested that different etiologies of lingual nerve damage in the third molar area will produce a different clinical and histologic appearance in the nerve. If the clinical and histologic pictures were different, it could result in different treatments being recommended. Eight preserved cadavers (16 lingual nerves) were used for this study. As far as possible, the nerves were left in situ and damaged in a way that could be envisaged during third molar surgery. In each case, the damaged sections of nerve were photographed, resected, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned in 5 mum sections, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and examined histologically. The scalpel clinically produced a clean wound with sharply defined edges; this was confirmed histologically with minimal disruption to the fascicles. The 702 fissure bur produced a ragged stretch-type injury clinically, and histologically this was confirmed with an irregular-edged border to the lesion and stretching and internal damage to the fascicles immediately adjacent to the wound. The crush injury clinically caused considerable apparent damage to the nerve, which was confirmed histologically with crushing and disruption of the fascicles and reduction to approximately 25% of their preinjury thickness. The stretch injury clinically showed no damage, but histologically showed irregular internal disruption of the fascicles over the whole area subject to stretching movements. It does appear that different modalities in nerve injury produce a different type of injury both clinically and histologically. This information has implications for both natural clinical recovery and the indications for surgical intervention. Clinical recovery may occur best with close approximation of a sharp scalpel-type wound or excision of a crushed area of nerve with reapproximation of the nerve endings, but a ragged wound caused by a fissure bur may require excision back to healthy nerve with subsequent reapproximation, whereas

  3. Benefits and Pitfalls of Cadavers as Learning Tool for Ultrasound-guided Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Sinha, Sumit; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA), like other basic skills, should be learnt in a simulation laboratory before performing on the patient. Cadavers provide an ideal tool for learning sonoanatomy and skills required for performing UGRA. On the basis of preservation technique used, the cadavers can be formalin embalmed cadavers, Thiel cadavers (soft cadavers), and fresh frozen cadavers. We compared three types of cadavers for performing ultrasound-guided upper and lower limb blocks. We observed that fresh frozen and Thiel cadavers were less smelling and had more realistic appearance as compared to formalin embalmed cadavers. It was seen that Thiel cadavers were more flexible and hence, rotation of neck, shoulder and knee was easier. Although images seen in most cadavers were comparable with live subjects but, Thiel cadavers provided more realistic model. PMID:28298747

  4. The sutureless excimer laser assisted non-occlusive anastomosis (SELANA); a feasibility study in a pressurized cadaver model.

    PubMed

    van Doormaal, Tristan P C; van der Zwan, Albert; Aboud, Emad; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Krisht, Ali F; Regli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    To compare intracranial feasibility of the conventional Excimer laser assisted non-occlusive anastomosis (ELANA) with the new experimental sutureless ELANA (SELANA). Four pressurized human cadaver heads were bilaterally trepanated, using a combined pterional/pretemporal/transcavernous approach. In each head, seven ELANA anastomoses and seven contralateral SELANA anastomoses were constructed on (1) the proximal PCA/basilar artery (P1 segment/basilar artery; BA), (2) the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA, P2 segment), (3) the supraclinoidal internal carotid artery (ICA), (4) the ICA bifurcation, (5) the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA, A1 segment), (6) the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment), and (7) the distal MCA (M2 segment). In total, 26 of 28 ELANA anastomoses (93%) and 22 of 28 SELANA anastomoses (79%) could be completed. Two ELANA anastomoses on the BA could not be finished because of limited space. Six SELANA anastomoses could not be attached because the applicator did not facilitate an angulated anastomosis spot. Of the remaining anastomoses, more ELANA (eight) than SELANA (two) anastomoses could not be realized without manipulation of surrounding structures. The SELANA anastomoses were completed significantly faster than the ELANA, mean difference ranging from 11 min on the M2 to 107 min on the P1/BA. This comparative study shows potential advantages of the SELANA anastomosis over the ELANA anastomosis because during application, it causes less manipulation of surrounding structures while it is faster and easier. Further preclinical research should be performed in order to improve SELANA feasibility on angulated anastomosis spots and to assess long-term SELANA patency and endothelialization.

  5. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait?

    PubMed

    Nester, Christopher J

    2009-05-27

    This paper provides a summary of a Keynote lecture delivered at the 2009 Australasian Podiatry Conference. The aim of the paper is to review recent research that has adopted dynamic cadaver and invasive kinematics research approaches to better understand foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is not intended to systematically cover all literature related to foot and ankle kinematics (such as research using surface mounted markers). Since the paper is based on a keynote presentation its focuses on the authors own experiences and work in the main, drawing on the work of others where appropriate Two approaches to the problem of accessing and measuring the kinematics of individual anatomical structures in the foot have been taken, (i) static and dynamic cadaver models, and (ii) invasive in-vivo research. Cadaver models offer the advantage that there is complete access to all the tissues of the foot, but the cadaver must be manipulated and loaded in a manner which replicates how the foot would have performed when in-vivo. The key value of invasive in-vivo foot kinematics research is the validity of the description of foot kinematics, but the key difficulty is how generalisable this data is to the wider population. Through these techniques a great deal has been learnt. We better understand the valuable contribution mid and forefoot joints make to foot biomechanics, and how the ankle and subtalar joints can have almost comparable roles. Variation between people in foot kinematics is high and normal. This includes variation in how specific joints move and how combinations of joints move. The foot continues to demonstrate its flexibility in enabling us to get from A to B via a large number of different kinematic solutions. Rather than continue to apply a poorly founded model of foot type whose basis is to make all feet meet criteria for the mechanical 'ideal' or 'normal' foot, we should embrace variation between feet and identify it as an opportunity to develop patient

  6. Maximum forces acting on the abdominal wall: experimental validation of a theoretical modeling in a human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Konerding, Moritz A; Bohn, Michael; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Batke, Boris; Holste, Jörg-L; Wohlert, Stephen; Trzewik, Jürgen; Förstemann, Thorsten; Hartung, Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Incisional hernias following median laparotomy have a high incidence and recurrence rate after repair, so that a better understanding of the linea alba biomechanics is desirable. The mechanical stress exerted on the linea alba in living humans is primarily generated by the musculature. In this human cadaver study, intraabdominal pressure was simulated by insertion of a balloon that was increasingly filled to maximal pressures of 200 mbar. The related forces acting transversely on the linea alba at maximum pressure were found to be between 41.6 and 52.2N/cm (mean=45.9N/cm), which is in agreement with a recent modeling of the related forces.

  7. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Method Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Results Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. Conclusion This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients. PMID:26624990

  8. A novel method to measure femoral component migration by computed tomography: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Boettner, Friedrich; Sculco, Peter; Lipman, Joseph; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the most accurate technique to measure implant migration. However, it requires special equipment, technical expertise and analysis software and has not gained wide acceptance. The current paper analyzes a novel method to measure implant migration utilizing widely available computer tomography (CT). Three uncemented total hip replacements were performed in three human cadavers and six tantalum beads were inserted into the femoral bone similar to RSA. Six different 28 mm heads (-3, 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mm) were added to simulate five reproducible translations (maximum total point migration) of the center of the head. Implant migration was measured in a 3-D analysis software (Geomagic Studio 7). Repeat manual reconstructions of the center of the head were performed by two investigators to determine repeatability and accuracy. The accuracy of measurements between the centers of two head sizes was 0.11 mm with a CI 95 % of 0.22 mm. The intra-observer repeatability was 0.13 mm (CI 95 % 0.25 mm). The interrater-reliability was 0.943. CT based measurement of head displacement in a cadaver model were highly accurate and reproducible.

  9. Spinal cord bypass surgery with intercostal and spinal accessory nerves: an anatomical feasibility study in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Haque, Raqeeb M; Malone, Hani R; Bauknight, Martin W; Kellner, Michael A; Ogden, Alfred T; Martin, John H; Tanji, Kurenai; Winfree, Christopher J

    2012-02-01

    Despite extensive study, no meaningful progress has been made in encouraging healing and recovery across the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Spinal cord bypass surgery is an unconventional strategy in which intact peripheral nerves rostral to the level of injury are transferred into the spinal cord below the injury. This report details the feasibility of using spinal accessory nerves to bypass cervical SCI and intercostal nerves to bypass thoracolumbar SCI in human cadavers. Twenty-three human cadavers underwent cervical and/or lumbar laminectomy and dural opening to expose the cervical cord and/or conus medullaris. Spinal accessory nerves were harvested from the Erb point to the origin of the nerve's first major branch into the trapezius. Intercostal nerves from the T6-12 levels were dissected from the lateral border of paraspinal muscles to the posterior axillary line. The distal ends of dissected nerves were then transferred medially and sequentially inserted 4 mm deep into the ipsilateral cervical cord (spinal accessory nerve) or conus medullaris (intercostals). The length of each transferred nerve was measured, and representative distal and proximal cross-sections were preserved for axonal counting. Spinal accessory nerves were consistently of sufficient length to be transferred to caudal cervical spinal cord levels (C4-8). Similarly, intercostal nerves (from T-7 to T-12) were of sufficient length to be transferred in a tension-free manner to the conus medullaris. Spinal accessory data revealed an average harvested nerve length of 15.85 cm with the average length needed to reach C4-8 of 4.7, 5.9, 6.5, 7.1, and 7.8 cm. The average length of available intercostal nerve from each thoracic level compared with the average length required to reach the conus medullaris in a tension-free manner was determined to be as follows (available, required in cm): T-7 (18.0, 14.5), T-8 (18.7, 11.7), T-9 (18.8, 9.0), T-10 (19.6, 7.0), T-11 (18.8, 4.6), and T-12 (15

  10. Schneiderian membrane detachment using transcrestal hydrodynamic ultrasonic cavitational sinus lift: a human cadaver head study and histologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Troedhan, Angelo; Kurrek, Andreas; Wainwright, Marcel; Jank, Siegfried

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the osteogenic layer of the periosteum at the base of the sinus membrane to play a key role in bone regeneration after sinus lift procedures. Thus, atraumatic detachment of the sinus membrane with an intact periosteum seems mandatory. The present histologic study of fresh human cadaver heads investigated the detachment behavior and histologic integrity of the detached periosteum after application of the transcrestal hydrodynamic ultrasonic cavitational sinus lift (tHUCSL-INTRALIFT). A total of 15 sinuses in 8 fresh human cadaver heads were treated using tHUCSL-INTRALIFT. After surgery, they were checked macroscopically for damage to the sinus membrane and then processed for histologic inspection under light microscopy. A total of 150 histologic specimens, randomly selected from the core surgical sites, were investigated using hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Azan, and trichrome staining. None of the 150 inspected specimens showed any perforation or dissection of the periosteum from the subepithelial connective tissue and respiratory epithelium and were fully detached from the bony antrum floor. The connecting Sharpey fibers revealed to be cleanly separated from the sinus floor in all specimens. The results of the present study suggest tHUCSL-INTRALIFT should be used to perform predictable and safe detachment of the periosteum from the bony sinus floor as a prerequisite for undisturbed and successful physiologic subantral bone regeneration. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Return of the cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques. In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised. Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study. Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures. PMID:28723767

  12. Unexpected motor axons in the distal superficial radial and posterior interosseous nerves: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Okwueze, Martina I; Cardwell, Nancy L; Wolfort, Sean L; Nanney, Lillian B

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of motor variations in the nerves supplying muscles of the first web space was evaluated by a visual dissection and immunohistochemical analysis from 56 cadaver hands. By microscopic visualization, 30% of the superficial radial nerves (SRNs) sent branches into muscles of the first web space. Since these unexpected penetrating branches were expected to be sensory or proprioceptive, markers of sensory and motor axons were used for confirmation. Positive identifications of motor axons (as identified by positive immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase) were made in 30% of SRNs and in 28.5% of posterior interosseous nerves. Classical teachings that the SRNs and PINs are exclusively sensory have been brought into question. Our data are in agreement with the rare clinical finding that motor function occasionally persists following devastating injury to both the ulnar and median nerves. Anatomic prevalence for this variation appears much higher than previous descriptions have indicated.

  13. ENTRY POINT FOR THE ANTEGRADE FEMORAL INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL: A CADAVER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; Galeno, Luiz; Teixeira, Thiago Martins; Franco, José Sergio; Hoffmann, Rolix; de Toledo Lourenço, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Giordano, Vincenzo; Pallottino, Alexandre; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the natural exit of the wire guides in major trochanter through retrograde femoral approach, in cadaver specimens. Material and Method: 100 femurs had been perforated between the femoral condyles, at 1.2 cm of the intercondylar region. A 3-mm straight wire guide was introduced, through retrograde approach, until the proximal extremity of femur was reached. Femurs were assessed for posterosuperior and anterosuperior portions of major trochanter, pear-shaped cavity, and upper median line between the head-neck and the major trochanter. Results: in 62%, the straight wire guides exited at the anterior surface of major trochanter. In the pear-shaped cavity, the median distance found was 1.0 cm and the interquartile range was 0.5 cm, initially expressing, in relation to pear-shaped cavity, better accuracy. Conclusion: the central axis of the medullar canal, at coronal plane, projected better accuracy in the region of the pear-shaped cavity. PMID:27077057

  14. Construct damage and loosening around glenoid implants: A longitudinal micro-CT study of five cadaver specimens.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gregory S; Brenza, Jacob B; Paul, Emmanuel M; Armstrong, April D

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of failure of bone and cement leading to loosening of glenoid components following shoulder arthroplasty is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify and visualize potential mechanisms of mechanical failure within cadavers, cemented with two types of components, and subject to cyclic loading. Five glenoid cadaver bones were implanted with either a three-pegged polyethylene component, or prototype posteriorly augmented component which addresses posterior bone loss. Specimens were loaded by constant glenohumeral compression combined with cyclic anterior-posterior displacement of the humeral head relative to the glenoid. At six time points across 100,000 cycles, implant loosening micromotions were optically measured, and specimens were imaged by micro-computed tomography. Scans were 3D registered and inspected for crack initiation and progression, and micro-CT based time-lapse movies were created. Cement cracking initiated at stress concentrations and progressed with additional cyclic loading. Failure planes within trabecular bone and the bone-cement interface were identified in four of the five specimens. Implant subsidence increased to greater than 1.0 mm in two specimens. Cemented glenoid structural failure can occur within the cement, along planes of trabecular bone, or at the bone cement interface. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1053-1060, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium or paravaginal tissue: an immunohistochemical study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-03-01

    The paracolpium or paravaginal tissue is surrounded by the vaginal wall, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum (Denonvilliers' fascia). To clarify the configuration of nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium, we examined histological sections of 10 elderly cadavers. The paracolpium contained the distal part of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and its branches: the cavernous nerve, the nerves to the urethra and the nerves to the internal anal sphincter (NIAS). The NIAS ran postero-inferiorly along the superior fascia of the levator ani muscle to reach the longitudinal muscle layer of the rectum. In two nulliparous and one multiparous women, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum were distinct and connected with the superior fascia of the levator at the tendinous arch of the pelvic fasciae. In these three cadavers, the pelvic plexus and its distal branches were distributed almost evenly in the paracolpium and sandwiched by the pubocervical and Denonvilliers' fasciae. By contrast, in five multiparous women, these nerves were divided into the anterosuperior group (bladder detrusor nerves) and the postero-inferior group (NIAS, cavernous and urethral nerves) by the well-developed venous plexus in combination with the fragmented or unclear fasciae. Although the small number of specimens was a major limitation of this study, we hypothesized that, in combination with destruction of the basic fascial architecture due to vaginal delivery and aging, the pelvic plexus is likely to change from a sheet-like configuration to several bundles.

  16. Feasibility study of pre-clinical Thiel embalmed human cadaver for MR-guided focused ultrasound of the spine.

    PubMed

    Karakitsios, Ioannis; Mihcin, Senay; Saliev, Timur; Melzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive treatment option based on high acoustic absorption and minimal thermal conductivity of the bone to destroy nerves and reduce pain. There is lack of a preclinical validation tool with correct human anatomy. This work introduces usage of an ex-vivo Thiel embalmed human tissue model for preclinical verification of MRgFUS on intervertebral discs or bone metastases within the spinal body. Thiel embalmed human cadaver was subjected to FUS sonication of the vertebra (with energies 250J, 420J, 600J) and the intervertebral disc (with energies 310J, 610J, 950J) of the lumbar spine for 20s of sonication under MR guidance. For the vertebra, maximum temperatures were recorded as 38 °C, 58.3 °C, 69 °C. The intervertebral disc reached maximum temperatures of 23.7 °C, 54 °C, 83 °C. The temperature measurements showed that the spinal canal and adjacent organs were not heated > 0.1 °C. A heating pattern that can induce thermal ablation was achieved in the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. Adjacent structures and nerves were not heated in lethal levels. Thus, the Thiel embalmed human cadaver can be a safe and efficient model for preclinical study of application of MRgFUS on the upper lumbar spine.

  17. Evaluation of finger A3 pulley rupture in the crimp grip position-a magnetic resonance imaging cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Thomas; Adler, Werner; Schweizer, Andreas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf

    2015-09-01

    The correct diagnosis of an A3 pulley rupture is challenging for musculoskeletal radiologists. An A3 pulley rupture should in theory influence the shape of the proximal interphalangeal joint volar plate (VP) and the amount of bowstringing at level of the VP during finger flexion. The purpose of this study was to perform MRI with metric analysis of the VP configuration and VP bowstringing in cadaver fingers in the crimp grip position and to determine cut points for A3 pulley rupture. MRI in the crimp grip position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (fingers with A3 pulley rupture n = 16, fingers without A3 pulley rupture n = 5). The distances of the translation of the VP relative to the middle phalanx base, the distances between the flexor tendons and the VP body, and the distances between the flexor tendon and bone (TB) were measured. Statistical analysis showed significantly lower VP translation distances and significantly higher VP tendon distances if the A3 pulley was ruptured. A2 TB and A4 TB distances did not differ significantly in specimens with and without A3 pulley rupture. The optimal cut points for A3 pulley rupture were a VP translation distance <2.8 mm and a VP tendon distance >1.4 mm. Reduction of the VP translation distance and augmentation of the VP tendon distance are suitable indirect signs of A3 pulley rupture.

  18. The accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred pedicle screw insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine: a human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaquan; Wu, Chunyang; Huang, Zhongren; Pan, Zhimin; Li, Zhiyun; Zhong, Junlong; Chen, Yiwei; Han, Zhimin; Cao, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This is a cadaver specimen study to confirm new pedicle screw (PS) entry point and trajectory for subaxial cervical PS insertion. To assess the accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred PS insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine in cadaver cervical spine. Reported morphometric landmarks used to guide the surgeon in PS insertion show significant variability. In the previous study, we proposed a new technique (as called "notch-referred" technique) primarily based on coronal multiplane reconstruction images (CMRI) and cortical integrity after PS insertion in cadavers. However, the PS position in cadaveric cervical segment was not confirmed radiologically. Therefore, the difference between the pedicle trajectory and the PS trajectory using the notch-referred technique needs to be illuminated. Twelve cadaveric cervical spines were conducted with PS insertion using the lateral vertebral notch-referred technique. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the morphometric data from our previous study. After 3.5-mm diameter screw insertion, each vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle trajectory by CT scan. The pedicle trajectory and PS trajectory were measured and compared in axial plane. The perforation rate was assessed radiologically and was graded from ideal to unacceptable: Grade 0 = screw in pedicle; Grade I = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; Grade II = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter but less than one-second; Grade III = perforation more than one-second outside of the screw diameter. In addition, pedicle width between the acceptable and unacceptable screws was compared. A total of 120 pedicle screws were inserted. The perforation rate of pedicle screws was 78.3% in grade 0 (excellent PS position), 10.0% in grade I (good PS position), 8.3% in grade II (fair PS position), and 3.3% in grade III (poor PS position). The

  19. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  20. The effect of head position on the distribution of topical nasal medication using the Mucosal Atomization Device: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Habib, Al-Rahim R; Thamboo, Andrew; Manji, Jamil; Dar Santos, Rachelle C; Gan, Eng Cern; Anstead, Amy; Javer, Amin R

    2013-12-01

    The Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD) distributes medication throughout the paranasal sinuses for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Determining the optimal head position is important to ensure maximal delivery of medication to the sinus cavities. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the lying-head-back (LHB) and head-down and forward (HDF) position, on the distribution of topical nasal medication via MAD in cadaver specimens. Twenty specimens having received complete functional endoscopic sinus dissection were chosen. The MAD was used to administer 2 mL of fluorescein-impregnated saline solution through the nose in both the LHB and HDF positions. Fluorescein was identified on 11 predetermined anatomical areas using a blue light filter. Three blinded investigators assessed endoscopic images to determine the presence of fluorescein. A total of 440 anatomical locations (n = 20 cadavers) received administration of the fluorescein nasal spray in the LHB or HDF position. LHB position had significantly greater total distribution to all pertinent anatomical sites than the HDF position (76% vs 41%; p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.44). The proportion of staining was significantly greater for the ethmoid (p = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.66), frontal (p < 0.01; 95% CI, 0.20-0.80), and sphenoid sinuses (p = 0.03; 95% CI, 0.07-0.73) when compared to the HDF position. A greater distribution of medication to the sinonasal cavities was observed in the LHB position compared to the HDF position. These areas are of particular clinical relevance in postsurgical patients with refractory CRS. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Determination of the chest wall thicknesses and needle thoracostomy success rates at second and fifth intercostal spaces: a cadaver-based study.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Can; Akoglu, Haldun; Ozdemirel, Rifat Ozgur; Omeroglu, Elif; Ozpolat, Cigdem Ulubay; Onur, Ozge; Buyuk, Yalcin; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the chest wall thicknesses (CWTs) at second intercostal space (ICS) mid-clavicular line (MCL) and fifth ICS MAL directly, and compare the actual success rates of needle thoracostomies (NTs) by inserting a 5-cm-long syringe needle. Predictive values of weight, body mass index (BMI) and CWT were also analyzed. This study included 199 measurements of 50 adult fresh cadavers from both hemithoraces. Five-centimeter-long syringe needles were inserted and secured. Penetration into the pleural cavity was assessed, and CWTs at 4 locations were measured. Achieved power of this study for the primary aim of CWT comparison from 2(nd) and 5(th) ICSs was .94. Overall mean CWTs at 2(nd) ICS MCL and 5(th) ICS MAL were measured as 2.46 ± 0.78 and 2.89 ± 1.09, respectively, and 5(th) ICS MAL was found to be statistically thicker (P = .002). The success rate of NT at 2(nd) ICS MCL was 87% (95% CI, 80-94), and that at 5(th) ICS MAL was 78% (95% CI, 70-86; P = .3570). Only 6 (17.1%) of 35 failed NTs had a CWT greater than 5-cm. Needle thoracostomy has failed in 29 (14.9%) of 194 locations, despite a CWT less than 5-cm. Below a weight of 72 kg, BMI of 23 kg/m(2), or CWT of 2.4 cm, all NTs were successful. In this report, we present the largest cadaver-based cohort to date to the best of our knowledge, and we observed a statistically nonsignificant 9% more NT success rate at 2(nd) ICS at a power of 88% and statistically significant more success rate in males at 5(th) ICS was (47.7%). We also observed thinner CWTs and higher success rates than previous imaging-based studies. A BMI of 23 kg/m(2) or less and weight of 72 kg or less seem to accurately rule-out NT failure in cadavers, and they seem to be better predictors at the bedside. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anteroposterior Laxity After Bicruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty Is Closer to the Native Knee Than ACL-Resecting TKA: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Halewood, Camilla; Traynor, Alison; Bellemans, Johan; Victor, Jan; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA would yield anteroposterior (AP) laxity closer to the native knee than a posterior cruciate ligament retaining (CR) TKA. A BCR TKA was designed and compared to CR TKA and the native knee using cadaver specimens. AP laxity with the CR TKA was greater than the native knee (P=0.006) and BCR TKA (P=0.039), but no difference was found between the BCR TKA and the native knee. No significant differences were found in rotations between the prostheses and the native knee. BCR TKA was shown to be surgically feasible, reduced AP laxity versus CR TKA, and may improve knee stability without using conforming geometry in the implant design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying surgical access in eyebrow craniotomy with and without orbital bar removal: cadaver and surgical phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Zador, Zsolt; Coope, David J; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Eyebrow craniotomy is a recently described minimally invasive approach for tackling primarily pathology of the anterior skull base. The removal of the orbital bar may further expand the surgical corridor of this exposure, but the extent of benefit is poorly quantified. We assessed the effect of orbital bar removal with regards to surgical access in the eyebrow craniotomy using classic morphometric measurements in cadaver heads. Using surgical phantoms and neuronavigation, we also measured the 'working volume', a new parameter for characterising the volume of surgical access in these approaches. Silicon injected cadaver heads (n = 5) were used for morphometric analysis of the eyebrow craniotomy with and without orbital bar removal. Working depths and 'working areas' of surgical access were measured as defined by key anatomical landmarks. The eyebrow craniotomy with or without orbital bar removal was also simulated using surgical phantoms (n = 3, 90-120 points per trial), calibrated against a frameless neuronavigation system. Working volume was derived from reference coordinates recorded along the anatomical borders of the eyebrow craniotomy using the "α-shape algorithm" in R statistics. In cadaver heads, eyebrow craniotomy with removal of the orbital bar reduced the working depth to the ipsilateral anterior clinoid process (42 ± 2 versus 33 ± 3 mm; p < 0.05), but the working areas as defined by deep neurovascular and bony landmarks was statistically unchanged (total working areas of 418 ± 80 cm(2) versus 334 ± 48 cm(2); p = 0.4). In surgical phantom studies, however, working-volume for the simulated eyebrow craniotomies was increased with orbital bar removal (16 ± 1 cm(3) versus 21 ± 1 cm(3); p < 0.01). In laboratory studies, orbital bar removal in eyebrow craniotomy provides a modest reduction in working depth and increase in the working volume. But this must be weighed up against the added morbidity of the

  4. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  5. A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Warren N.; Mason, Matthew J.; Foster, Craig D.; Shah, Chirag S.; Kopacz, James M.; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.; Bishop, Jennifer; Bey, Michael; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    High-speed biplane x-ray and neutral density targets were used to examine brain displacement and deformation during impact. Relative motion, maximum principal strain, maximum shear strain, and intracranial pressure were measured in thirty-five impacts using eight human cadaver head and neck specimens. The effect of a helmet was evaluated. During impact, local brain tissue tends to keep its position and shape with respect to the inertial frame, resulting in relative motion between the brain and skull and deformation of the brain. The local brain motions tend to follow looping patterns. Similar patterns are observed for impact in different planes, with some degree of posterior-anterior and right-left symmetry. Peak coup pressure and pressure rate increase with increasing linear acceleration, but coup pressure pulse duration decreases. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear are on the order of 0.09 for CFC 60 Hz data for these tests. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear increase with increasing linear acceleration, coup pressure, and coup pressure rate. Linear and angular acceleration of the head are reduced with use of a helmet, but strain increases. These results can be used for the validation of finite element models of the human head. PMID:18278591

  6. Simulation of RIRS in soft cadavers: a novel training model by the Cadaveric Research On Endourology Training (CRET) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Skolarikos, Andreas; Tatar, İlkan; Binbay, Murat; Sofikerim, Mustafa; Yuruk, Emrah; Karakan, Tolga; Sargon, Mustafa; Demiryurek, Deniz; Miano, Roberto; Bagcioglu, Murat; Ezer, Mehmet; Cracco, Cecilia Maria; Scoffone, Cesare Marco

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the use of fresh-frozen concurrently with embalmed cadavers as initial training models for flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) in a group of urologists who were inexperienced in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Twelve urologists involved in a cadaveric fURS training course were enrolled into this prospective study. All the participants were inexperienced in fURS. Theoretical lectures and step-by-step tips and tricks video presentations on fURS were used to incorporate the technical background of the procedure to the hands-on-training course and to standardize the operating steps of the procedure. An 8-item survey was administered to the participants upon initiation and at the end of the course. Pre- and post-training scores were similar for each question. All the participants successfully completed the hands-on-training tasks. Mean pre-training duration [3.56 ± 2.0 min (range 1.21-7.46)] was significantly higher than mean post-training duration [1.76 ± 1.54 min (range 1.00-6.34)] (p = 0.008). At the end of the day, the trainers checked the integrity of the collecting system both by endoscopy and by fluoroscopy and could not detect any injury of the upper ureteral wall or pelvicalyceal structures. The functionality of the scopes was also checked, and no scope injury (including a reduction in the deflection capacity) was noted. The fURS simulation training model using soft human cadavers has the unique advantage of perfectly mimicking the living human tissues. This similarity makes this model one of the best if not the perfect simulator for an effective endourologic training.

  7. Comparison of Conventional Transcrestal Sinus Lift and Ultrasound-Enhanced Transcrestal Hydrodynamic Cavitational Sinus Lift for the Filling of Subantral Space: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Catros, Sylvain; Montaudon, Michel; Bou, Christophe; Da Costa Noble, Reynald; Fricain, Jean Christophe; Ella, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation of the posterior maxilla may require sinus-grafting procedures due to poor quality and low volume of bone. This can be accomplished using a "lateral window" sinus augmentation or with an osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE). The hydrodynamic ultrasonic cavitational sinus lift (HUCSL) (Intralift) is derived from the osteotome technique and allows the reduction of some of the traumatic effects of the osteotome technique. The aim of this study was to compare OSFE and the HUCSL procedures on fresh human cadaver heads. Primary outcomes were the height and width of the grafting area in the sinus floor area. Eighty-four maxillary sinuses were selected. On each fresh cadaver head, 2 sinus lifts were done using OSFE and HUCSL in the maxillary sinuses. Computerized tomography scans were performed on each head before and after the surgeries. Measurements were done on radiologic pictures using dedicated software, and the integrity of the sinus membrane was observed after dissecting the maxillae. The use of HUCSL resulted in a significantly higher sinus floor augmentation in the mesio-distal and bucco-palatal direction compared with the osteotome technique (P < .001). There was no correlation between mesio-distal and bucco-palatal diameters of sinus floor augmentation when only the osteotome protocol was considered (r = 0.27 and P = .08). In contrast, the mesio-distal and bucco-palatal diameters of floor augmentation were correlated when the HUCSL protocol was considered (r = 0.79, P < .001). HUCSL represents a good alternative method for sinus floor elevation.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of transosseous re-fixation of the deep fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments versus deep and superficial fibres: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Spies, Christian K; Niehoff, Anja; Unglaub, Frank; Müller, Lars P; Langer, Martin F; Neiss, Wolfram F; Oppermann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that the re-fixation of the deep and superficial fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments provide improved stability compared to reconstruction of the deep fibres alone. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities were used for biomechanical testing. Transosseous re-fixation of the deep fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments alone (single mattress suture group; n = 7) was compared to the transosseous re-attachment of the deep and superficial fibres (double mattress suture group; n = 7). Cyclic load application provoked palmar translation of the radius with respect to the rigidly affixed ulna. Creep, stiffness, and hysteresis were obtained from the load-deformation curves, respectively. Testing was done in neutral forearm rotation, 60° pronation, and 60° supination. The re-fixation techniques did not differ significantly regarding the viscoelastic parameters creep, hysteresis, and stiffness. Several significant differences of one cycle to the consecutive one within each re-fixation group could be detected especially for creep and hysteresis. No significant differences between the different forearm positions could be detected for each viscoelastic parameter. The re-fixation techniques did not differ significantly regarding creep, hysteresis, and stiffness. This means that the additional re-attachment of the superficial fibres may not provide greater stability to the DRUJ. Bearing in mind that the study was a cadaver examination with a limited number of specimens we may suppose that the re-attachment of the superficial fibres seem to be unnecessary. A gradual decline of creep and hysteresis from first to last loading-unloading cycle is to be expected and typical of ligaments which are viscoelastic.

  9. Dentinal Microcrack Development after Canal Preparation: A Longitudinal in Situ Micro-computed Tomography Study Using a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    De-Deus, Gustavo; César de Azevedo Carvalhal, Júlio; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Souza, Erick Miranda; Provenzano, José Claudio; Versiani, Marco Aurélio

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation with Reciproc and ProTaper Universal systems using an in situ cadaver model by means of a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging system. At autopsy, 8 maxillary bone blocks having at least the first and second premolar teeth (n = 16) were excised, scanned at a resolution of 13.18 μm, and randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 8) according to the preparation protocol: Reciproc and ProTaper Universal systems. Root canals were prepared up to R25 and F2 instruments in the Reciproc and ProTaper Universal groups, respectively. After the preparation procedures, the specimens were scanned again, and the registered preoperative and postoperative cross-section images of the roots (n = 19,060) were screened to identify the presence of dentinal defects. In the Reciproc group, 9176 cross-section images were analyzed, and no crack was observed. In the ProTaper Universal group, 244 of 9884 cross-section slices (2.46%) had dentinal defects; however, all defects were already present in the corresponding preoperative images, indicating that no new microcrack was created after canal preparation. In situ root canal preparation of maxillary premolars with Reciproc and ProTaper Universal systems did not induce the formation of dentinal microcracks in a cadaver model as observed by micro-CT. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin area quantification in preparation for concomitant upper extremity and face transplantation: a cadaver study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chad R; Zor, Fatih; Siemionow, Maria

    2011-05-15

    Numerous experiments in composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) have identified skin as the most antigenic, with recent experimentation from our laboratory finding a direct correlation between large antigenic skin loads and chimerism. Therefore, in preparation for clinical application of concomitant upper extremity (UExt) and face transplantation, we aimed to identify the exact skin quantities accompanying various upper UExt and concomitant scenarios using a cadaver study. Five fresh cadavers were obtained and dissections were performed to simulate five different UExt transplant levels. Exact skin quantities (cm²) and total body surface area (TBSA) percentages were calculated using digital image analysis for both unilateral and bilateral hand transplant levels. UExt measurements were then cross-analyzed with our laboratory's facial/scalp alloflap data for similar evaluation of various concomitant CTA scenarios. Skin quantities for unilateral hand transplants ranged from 335 (± 58) to 787 (± 82) cm², and from 670 (± 117) to 1575 (± 163) cm² for bilateral. Concomitant CTA quantities (from "unilateral wrist-level with face" to "bilateral elbow-level with face/scalp") extended from 1010 (± 81) to 2766 (± 202) cm², totaling a range of 5.6% to 15.4% TBSA. The findings presented here, for the first time, define exact skin quantities and TBSA percentages accompanying unilateral, bilateral, and concomitant hand/face transplant scenarios. Unilateral UExt transplants contain between 335 and 787 cm² and bilateral between 670 and 1575 cm². Concomitant face/scalp and UExt transplants contain between 1000 and 2800 cm², equating 5% to 15% TBSA. Furthermore, there exists a tremendous void in research and some inconsistencies between animal investigation and clinical experience related to large skin-bearing CTAs. These concerns warrant further investigation by all teams pursuing concomitant CTA.

  11. Nerves supplying the internal anal sphincter: an immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Gentaro; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-12-01

    Nerves serving the internal anal sphincter (NIAS) have been described as the lower rectal branches of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus. However, their topographical anatomy and fiber components have remained unclear. Using histological sections from ten elderly donated cadavers, we investigated the topographical anatomy and composite fibers of the NIAS using immunohistochemistry for S100 protein, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). At the 2-3 o'clock position in the lower rectum, the NIAS originated from nerves at the posterolateral corner of the prostate in males or in the lower paracolpium in females. The nerves ran inferiorly along the internal aspect of the levator ani muscle, and joined branches of the myenteric plexus at a level slightly above the epithelial junction. The NIAS contained both nNOS-positive parasympathetic nerve fibers and TH-positive sympathetic fibers, but VIP-positive fibers were few in number. The origin of the NIAS at the posterolateral corner of the prostate as well as in the lower paracolpium might be sacrificed or damaged during radical prostatectomy or tension-free vaginal tape insertion. Low anterior resection of rectal cancer will most likely render damage to the NIAS because of its intersphincteric course. Although the nerve composition of the NIAS is characterized by a higher proportion of sympathetic nerve fibers than the myenteric plexus in the large intestine, their role is unclear. However, evaluation of sphincteric function after surgery would appear to be difficult because of the complex control mechanism independent of nerve supply.

  12. Three-dimensional demonstration of the lymphatic system in the lower extremities with multi-detector-row computed tomography: a study in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shun; Suami, Hiroo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Yamada, Minoru; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Chang, David W; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has had a great impact on the staging and treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to study the lymphatic anatomy of the lower extremities by constructing three-dimensional images using multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT). To select appropriate contrast media for MDCT lymphatic imaging in a cadaver, we tested four kinds of contrast media by injecting them into fresh swine kidneys. After the suitable contrast medium was selected, 10 lower extremities from 5 fresh cadavers were studied. After injection of the contrast medium, each lower extremity was scanned with high-spatial-resolution MDCT. The zinc oxide mixture was found to be the most appropriate contrast formula for MDCT imaging of cadaver lymphatics in terms of CT value and no extravasation. The high-resolution MDCT imaging revealed two different superficial lymphatic pathways in the legs. One lymphatic pathway accompanying the great saphenous vein had a constant course and was connected to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. However, another pathway, along the small saphenous vein, was variable. Some of the deep lymphatic vessels bypassed the inguinal lymph nodes. Using a new protocol, we were able to construct three-dimensional images of the lower extremity lymphatics in a cadaver model. MDCT imaging provided novel information about two different superficial lymphatic pathways in the lower extremities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Can an Endplate-conformed Cervical Cage Provide a Better Biomechanical Environment than a Typical Non-conformed Cage?: A Finite Element Model and Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Hao-Cheng; Yin, Bo; Xia, Xin-Lei; Ma, Xiao-Sheng; Wang, Hong-Li; Yin, Jun; Shao, Ming-Hao; Lyu, Fei-Zhou; Jiang, Jian-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of endplate-conformed cervical cages by finite element method (FEM) analysis and cadaver study. Twelve specimens (C2 -C7 ) and a finite element model (C3 -C7 ) were subjected to biomechanical evaluations. In the cadaver study, specimens were randomly assigned to intact (I), endplate-conformed (C) and non-conformed (N) groups with C4-5 discs as the treated segments. The morphologies of the endplate-conformed cages were individualized according to CT images of group C and the cages fabricated with a 3-D printer. The non-conformed cages were wedge-shaped and similar to commercially available grafts. Axial pre-compression loads of 73.6 N and moment of 1.8 Nm were used to simulate flexion (FLE), extension (EXT), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Range of motion (ROM) at C4-5 of each specimen was recorded and film sensors fixed between the cages and C5 superior endplates were used to detect interface stress. A finite element model was built based on the CT data of a healthy male volunteer. The morphologies of the endplate-conformed and wedge-shaped, non-conformed cervical cages were both simulated by a reverse engineering technique and implanted at the segment of C4-5 in the finite element model for biomechanical evaluation. Force loading and grouping were similar to those applied in the cadaver study. ROM of C4-5 in group I were recorded to validate the finite element model. Additionally, maximum cage-endplate interface stresses, stress distribution contours on adjoining endplates, intra-disc stresses and facet loadings at adjacent segments were measured and compared between groups. In the cadaver study, Group C showed a much lower interface stress in all directions of motion (all P < 0.05) and the ROM of C4-5 was smaller in FLE-EXT (P = 0.001) but larger in AR (P = 0.017). FEM analysis produced similar results: the model implanted with an endplate-conformed cage presented a lower interface stress with a more

  14. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Shi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Hong; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications. PMID:25518033

  15. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Mark C; Savoia, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with formaldehyde and/or with the above agents were compared for their formaldehyde levels under conditions that strictly controlled for air circulation and for locations and methods of testing, and during activities that simulated student dissecting. For InfuTrace, one cadaver was reinfused with InfuTrace after initial standard perfusion with formaldehyde; a second cadaver had InfuTrace injected into the thoracic and abdominal body cavities after formaldehyde perfusion. For Perfect Solution, the product was used for embalming a third cadaver in lieu of formaldehyde. For a control, a fourth cadaver was embalmed with the standard formaldehyde solution. Testing of personal and ambient room air samples and of fluid obtained from the cadavers was performed and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results indicated that both Perfect Solution, substituted for standard formaldehyde embalming, and InfuTrace infused through the vasculature after formaldehyde embalming, resulted in lower concentrations of formaldehyde than embalming with formaldehyde solution alone or in combination with body cavity injection of InfuTrace. These differences in formaldehyde concentrations are consistent across measuring methods, for example, of room air, of breathing zone air during cadaver handling and dissection, and of liquid samples obtained from the cadavers. Perfect Solution yielded suboptimum fixation and a different texture, color, and smell than the formaldehyde treatments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Treatment of Middle Ear Ventilation Disorders: Sheep as Animal Model for Stenting the Human Eustachian Tube – A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Felicitas; Burghard, Alice; Salcher, Rolf; Scheper, Verena; Leibold, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders. PMID:25419714

  17. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Felicitas; Burghard, Alice; Salcher, Rolf; Scheper, Verena; Leibold, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  18. [History of collecting cadavers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kozai, Toyoko

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated how and from where medical students had acquired cadavers for research throughout Japanese history. At the beginning of dissection in the mid Edo era, they cut up executed prisoners granted by the Tokugawa Shyogunate to study internal body parts. After the Meiji Restoration, the social mechanism of delivering cadavers underwent a complete transformation and they began to utilize 1) dead bodies of inpatients who had received free medical treatment and 2) unclaimed bodies mainly from homes for the aged and prisons. It was quite recently that "kentai", voluntary body donation, became common practice of collecting cadavers. Consequently the history of cadavers submitted to dissection faithfully reflects the relation between medical science and society.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of an integrated fixation cage during fatigue loading: a human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Vivek; Peck, Jonathan H; Simon, David D; Helgeson, Melvin D; Nagaraja, Srinidhi

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar cages with integrated fixation screws offer a low-profile alternative to a standard cage with anterior supplemental fixation. However, the mechanical stability of integrated fixation cages (IFCs) compared with a cage with anterior plate fixation under fatigue loading has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of a screw-based IFC with a standard cage coupled with that of an anterior plate under fatigue loading. METHODS Eighteen functional spinal units were implanted with either a 4-screw IFC or an anterior plate and cage (AP+C) without integrated fixation. Flexibility testing was conducted in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) on intact spines, immediately after device implantation, and post-fatigue up to 20,000 cycles of FE loading. Stability parameters such as range of motion (ROM) and lax zone (LZ) for each loading mode were compared between the 2 constructs at multiple stages of testing. In addition, construct loosening was quantified by subtracting post-instrumentation ROM from post-fatigue ROM. RESULTS IFC and AP+C configurations exhibited similar stability (ROM and LZ) at every stage of testing in FE (p ≥ 0.33) and LB (p ≥ 0.23) motions. In AR, however, IFCs had decreased ROM compared with AP+C constructs at pre-fatigue (p = 0.07) and at all post-fatigue time points (p ≤ 0.05). LZ followed a trend similar to that of ROM in AR. ROM increased toward intact motion during fatigue cycling for AP+C and IFC implants. IFC specimens remained significantly (p < 0.01) more rigid than specimens in the intact condition during fatigue for each loading mode, whereas AP+C construct motion did not differ significantly (p ≥ 0.37) in FE and LB and was significantly greater (p < 0.01) in AR motion compared with intact specimens after fatigue. Weak to moderate correlations (R(2) ≤ 56%) were observed between T-scores and construct loosening, with lower T

  20. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  1. [Difference in the Spread of Injectate between Ultrasound Guided Pectoral Nerve Block I and II. A Cadaver Study].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masaru; Takaki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Takeshi; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    Pectoral nerve block (PECS block) is first reported by Blanco et al, and mainly used for analgesia for breast surgery in Japan. However, the spread of PECS block is unclear. Ultrasound guided PECS I and II blocks were performed in a cadaver, and the cadaver was dissected for evaluation of the spread of coloring matter. The coloring matter by PECS I block was spread to the axillary region between the major and minor pectoral muscles, while PECS II block remained over the fascia of the serratus muscle from mid-clavicular line to middle axillary line. Two possible routes to the axillary region by PECS I include: dorsal to the pectoral minor muscle through the clavipectoral fascia, and over the pectoral minor muscle to the axillary sheath. Our cadaveric evaluation suggests that PECS I block produces more analgesia of the axillary region than PECS II. Further evaluation is needed in more cadavers.

  2. Distance between intramuscular nerve and artery in the extraocular muscles: a preliminary immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Extraocular muscles are quite different from skeletal muscles in muscle fiber type and nerve supply; the small motor unit may be the most well known. As the first step to understanding the nerve-artery relationship, in this study we measured the distance from the arteriole (25-50 μm in thickness) to the nerve terminal twigs in extraocular muscles. With the aid of immunohistochemistry for nerves and arteries, we examined the arteriole-nerve distance at 10-15 sites in each of 68 extraocular muscles obtained from ten elderly cadavers. The oblique sections were nearly tangential to the muscle plate and included both global and orbital aspects of the muscle. In all muscles, the nerve twigs usually took a course parallel to muscle fibers, in contrast to most arterioles that crossed muscles. Possibly due to polyinnervation, an intramuscular nerve plexus was evident in four rectus and two oblique muscles. The arteriole-nerve distance usually ranged from 300 to 400 μm. However, individual differences were more than two times greater in each of seven muscles. Moreover, in each muscle the difference between sites sometimes reached 1 mm or more. The distance was generally shorter in the rectus and oblique muscles than in the levator palpebrae muscle, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The differences in arteriole-nerve distances between sites within each muscle, between muscles, and between individuals might lead to an individual biological rhythm of fatigue in oculomotor performance.

  3. Assessment of Thiel-Embalmed Cadavers as a Teaching Tool for Oral Anatomy and Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lone, Mutahira; McKenna, Joseph P; Balta, Joy Y; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Cryan, John F; Downer, Eric J; Toulouse, André

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers would provide a useful anatomy teaching tool for topics that cannot be approached using formalin-fixed cadavers such as oral cavity examination and maxillary anesthesia. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed bodies for performing oral examinations was assessed by asking first-year dental and dental hygiene students at a dental school in Ireland to identify oral structures on a classmate and on a Thiel-embalmed body. The study was conducted in 2016. The ease of location was compared in the two settings, and their quality was assessed on the cadavers. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach maxillary anesthesia was assessed by students' performing mock injections at five adjacent sites daily for five consecutive days, followed by inspection of the gingival surface by experienced anatomists and dentists. Data were obtained from 57 students, but only the 54 forms that were fully completed were analyzed, for an overall response rate of 85.7%. The results showed that most oral structures were more difficult to locate on cadavers. The texture and appearance of features in the cadavers were rated at a midpoint between realistic and unrealistic. The relative inexperience of the participants, the accumulation of fixative in the oral cavity, and discoloration were mentioned as potential confounding factors. Visual analysis of images obtained following repeated injections revealed no deterioration of the tissue. Importantly, the puncture marks appeared to reduce over time, suggesting that the gingival tissue maintains some elasticity following Thiel fixation. These findings suggest that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may be a useful tool to provide students more time to localize and study aspects of the oral cavity. Likewise, the recoiling capacity of gingival tissue suggests that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may provide an ideal tool for teaching injection technique of local anesthetics.

  4. Increasing pullout strength of suture anchors in osteoporotic bone using augmentation--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Volker; Ockert, Ben; Windolf, Markus; Sprecher, Christoph M; Mutschler, Wolf; Imhoff, Andreas; Postl, Lukas Karl Leo; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are of increasing clinical impact in the physically active elderly patients. Recent research revealed, that a high percentage of these patients present with significant loss of bone mineral density at the insertion site of the rotator cuff, thereby compromising suture anchorage for operative repair. We therefore hypothesized that augmentation of suture anchors improves biomechanical properties in low bone quality. 28 osteoporotic humeral heads were included in this biomechanical study. Bone quality at the anchor insertion sites (group 1: posterior-medial; group 2: anterior-lateral) within the greater tuberosity was analyzed using HR-pQCT (voxel size: 82μm). Anchor positions of identical quality were then randomized to either conventional screw anchorage or polymethylmethacrylat augmented screw anchorage. All anchors were cyclically ramp-loaded until pullout. Pullout strength accounted for 226N in group I for conventional anchorage and for 332N in augmented technique. In group 2 (anterior-lateral) the pullout strength was 209N (conventional) and 304N (augmented). Pull-out strength of augmented screw anchors was significantly higher in both groups (p<0.05). Compared to conventional insertion techniques, the cement augmentation technique increases the pullout strength of suture anchors in low bone quality significantly. Cement augmentation could therefore be a helpful tool for improved suture anchor stability, especially in locations of low bone quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Evaluation of Image-Guided Technologies in the Placement of Anterior Thoracic Vertebral Body Screws in Spinal Trauma: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yuan, Philip S; Smith, Harvey E; Hott, Jonathon; Sasso, Rick; Papadopoulos, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Image guidance provides additional anatomic information to the surgeon, which may allow more accurate insertion of spinal implants. Imprecise placement of anterior thoracic screws places the spinal cord and paraspinal structures at risk for injury. Image guidance may afford a safety benefit to patients when anterior thoracic screws are required in the setting of spinal stabilization after trauma. Objectives: To compare the accuracy of anterior thoracic screw placement using standard fluoroscopy, computer-assisted fluoroscopic image guidance, Iso-C3D image guidance, and electromagnetic fluoroscopic image guidance. Study Design: A surgical simulation study in human cadaver spine specimens. Methods: After an open thoracotomy approach, anterior thoracic screws were placed by experienced spine surgeons using 4 different image-guided techniques in 4 human cadaver thoracic spines. Screws were placed in the 9th, 10th, and 11th thoracic vertebrae of each specimen. The specimens were then examined with thin-cut computed tomography (CT) scans, and with sagittal and coronal reconstructions. Measurements included the distance of the screw from the spinal canal, the angle of the screw path in relation to a perpendicular to a line that bisects the spinous process, and the angle of screw divergence from the superior endplate. Results: There was no evidence of spinal canal penetrance with any of the image-guided techniques used to place anterior thoracic vertebral body screws. Screws inserted with standard fluoroscopy tended to aim anterolaterally by 18°. The image-guidance systems allowed more accurate placement of anterior thoracic screws in the transverse plane compared with standard fluoroscopy. There was no statistically significant difference in coronal plane screw angulation (angle of divergence with the superior endplate) between any of the imaging methods. Conclusions: Spinal image-guidance systems may allow spine surgeons to place anterior thoracic screws

  6. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation of the impact of various facet joint lesions on the primary stability of anterior plate fixation in cervical dislocation injuries: a cadaver study: Laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Oberkircher, Ludwig; Born, Sebastian; Struewer, Johannes; Bliemel, Christopher; Buecking, Benjamin; Wack, Christina; Bergmann, Martin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Krüger, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Injuries of the subaxial cervical spine including facet joints and posterior ligaments are common. Potential surgical treatments consist of anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior fixation. Because each approach has its advantages and disadvantages, the best treatment is debated. This biomechanical cadaver study compared the effect of different facet joint injuries on primary stability following anterior plate fixation. Fractures and plate fixation were performed on 15 fresh-frozen intact cervical spines (C3-T1). To simulate a translation-rotation injury in all groups, complete ligament rupture and facet dislocation were simulated by dissecting the entire posterior and anterior ligament complex between C-4 and C-5. In the first group, the facet joints were left intact. In the second group, one facet joint between C-4 and C-5 was removed and the other side was left intact. In the third group, both facet joints between C-4 and C-5 were removed. The authors next performed single-level anterior discectomy and interbody grafting using bone material from the respective thoracic vertebral bodies. An anterior cervical locking plate was used for fixation. Continuous loading was performed using a servohydraulic test bench at 2 N/sec. The mean load failure was measured when the implant failed. In the group in which both facet joints were intact, the mean load failure was 174.6 ± 46.93 N. The mean load failure in the second group where only one facet joint was removed was 127.8 ± 22.83 N. In the group in which both facet joints were removed, the mean load failure was 73.42 ± 32.51 N. There was a significant difference between the first group (both facet joints intact) and the third group (both facet joints removed) (p < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). In this cadaver study, primary stability of anterior plate fixation for dislocation injuries of the subaxial cervical spine was dependent on the presence of the facet joints. If the bone in one or both facet joints is damaged

  8. A comparison of human cadaver and augmented reality simulator models for straight laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Fabien; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the human cadaver model with an augmented reality simulator for straight laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition. Thirty-five sigmoid colectomies were performed on a cadaver (n = 7) or an augmented reality simulator (n = 28) during a laparoscopic training course. Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Objective structured technical skills assessment forms were completed by trainers and trainees independently. Groups were compared according to technical skills and events scores and satisfaction with training model. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both groups. For trainers and trainees, technical skills scores were considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. For trainers, generic events score was also considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. The main generic event occurring on both models was errors in the use of retraction. The main specific event occurring on both models was bowel perforation. Global satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p < 0.001). The human cadaver model was more difficult but better appreciated than the simulator for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy training. Simulator training followed by cadaver training can appropriately integrate simulators into the learning curve and maintain the benefits of both training methodologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Transformation of a cadaver population: Analysis of a South African cadaver program, 1921-2013.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role in the teaching of anatomy in South Africa and in Africa. As recent cadaver numbers were declining at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and difficulty in procurement was being experienced, the purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the composition of our cadaver population over time so as to provide possible strategies to arrest the decline. A retrospective, quantitative analysis of cadaver records from the School of Anatomical Sciences between 1921 and 2013 was undertaken. Analysis included a comparison of Poisson counts and Fischer's exact test. A significant decrease in the number of cadavers received during the period 2000-2013 and a slow bequest program over the same period of time has led to concerns about the sustainability of teaching anatomy through dissection. Decreases in the numbers of males and cadavers of the black population group occurred between 1990 and 2013, and of bequests from 2000 to 2013. An influence on the cadaver population from a changing political climate and change in socioeconomic status of part of the population was perceived. Changes in sex and population group of the cadavers may have a long-term effect on teaching and research. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Knee mechanics after repair of the anterior cruciate ligament. A cadaver study of ligament augmentation.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, L; Lew, W D; Lewis, J L; Hunter, R E

    1989-12-01

    An experimental knee-testing system was used to investigate the immediate postoperative mechanical state in knees with nonaugmented and augmented repairs of the anterior cruciate ligament. Ligament, repair tissue, and augmentation forces were measured using buckle transducers, and joint motion was measured using an instrumented spatial linkage during the application of 90 N anteriorly-directed tibial loads to seven fresh knee specimens at 0-90 degrees of flexion. Force and motion data were collected from each knee with an intact and excised anterior cruciate ligament, and after performing (1) a nonaugmented repair and an augmented repair using the Ligament Augmentation Device (3M Company) placed either (2) anatomically through the lateral femoral condyle or (3) in the over-the-top position. The forces in the nonaugmented repair and the repair with the augmentation in the two positions were greater than the forces in the intact anterior cruciate ligament with the knee under the same anterior loads; this difference from normal was not significant with the over-the-top augmentation. With the augmentation anatomically placed, the load sharing did not reduce the force in the repair tissue as compared with the nonaugmented case. The over-the-top augmentation, on the other hand, lowered the repair tissue forces at extension while avoiding high repair tissue forces in flexion. The tibia was consistently in an externally rotated configuration compared with normal in both the unloaded and anterior load states with all three repair procedures.

  11. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. Methods sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. Results in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. Conclusion the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL. PMID:26229829

  12. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part I: Endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Jansen, Jesper; Schreurs, Ruud; Saeed, Perooz; Beenen, Ludo; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    In the treatment of orbital defects, surgeon errors may lead to incorrect positioning of orbital implants and, consequently, poor clinical outcomes. Endoscopy can provide additional visualization of the orbit through the transantral approach. We aimed to evaluate whether endoscopic guidance during orbital reconstruction facilitates optimal implant placement and can serve as a convenient alternative for navigation and intra-operative imaging. Ten human cadaveric heads were subjected to thin-slice computed tomography (CT). Complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created in all eligible orbits (n = 19), which were then reconstructed using the conventional transconjunctival approach with or without endoscopic guidance. The ideal implant location was digitally determined using pre-operative CT images, and the accuracy of implant placement was evaluated by comparing the planned implant location with the postoperative location. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the degree of implant dislocation (translation and rotation) between the transconjunctival orbital reconstruction and the endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction groups. Endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction may facilitate the visualization of orbital defects and is particularly useful for training purposes; however, it offers no additional benefits in terms of accurate implant positioning during the anatomical reconstruction of complex orbital defects.

  13. Histomorphological study of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Ara, Z G; Chowdhury, A I; Ara, A; Mukta, T B

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to find out the number of germinal centre in human vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people to magnify the knowledge regarding the diverse number of germinal centre of human vermiform appendix in our population in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from July 2006 to June 2007. Total 40 appendices were collected for histological study of different age and sex during postmortem examination in the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College. This cross sectional study was done by convenient sampling technique. For convenience of differentiating the changes in number of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in relation to age and sex, findings were classified in four groups, Group A up to 20 years, Group B 21-35 years, Group C 36-55 years and Group D 56-70 years. In the present study the number of germinal centre was highest in Group B (52.38%) but in Group D it was nil. Here mean number of germinal centre in male (1.05) were more than in female (0.8).

  14. Maxillary Segmental Micro Osteotomy: A Human Cadaver Study on the Efficacy of the Technique.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Gelpi, Federico; Finotti, Marco; Testori, Tiziano

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic bone cutting was recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillofacial surgery because it offers improved precision and safety.This study examined the feasibility of minimally invasive orthodontic or preprosthetic surgery using a piezosurgery device for latero-posterior maxillary segmental osteotomy. Four fresh cadaveric heads were obtained for this study. Maxillary posterior osteotomy was performed using piezoelectric surgery. To preserve the vascular supply, only 1 vestibular incision was made during surgery. The Mectron Piezosurgery unit is a multipurpose device that uses micrometric ultrasonic piezoelectric vibrations with a variable frequency and cutting energy. The strategy for maxillary osteotomy included 1 horizontal osteotomy, 2 vertical osteotomies, and 1 palatal osteotomy performed transantrally without incision of the mucoperiosteum. The osteotomies were performed using a piezodevice (OT7-type inserts: 0.55 and 0.35 mm). In total, 1 horizontal cut (3 mm above the roots of the teeth), 2 vertical bone cuts, and 1 palatal osteotomy were made without incision of the palatal mucoperiosteum.Gentle dissection of the buccal fat pad was used to promote the healing of hard and soft tissues in the osteotomized zone. No damage to soft tissues, including the palatal mucosa, occurred. The buccal fat pad was mobilized easily without requiring an additional incision. The osteotomic sites were linear and clean in the palatal aspect. The integrity of the vascular network was maintained because of the lack of damage to the palatal mucosa. No chisels were used during the osteotomies. This cadaveric study shows the feasibility of using piezosurgery for segmental maxillary osteotomy. This report outlines a new and simple application of segmental maxillary micro-osteotomy.

  15. Cadaver study of the volume of the ovary in Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Perven, H A; Nurunnabi, A S M; Ara, S; Jahan, M U

    2014-04-01

    Reproductive age, ovarian reserve and reproductive capability may be determined from the volume of the ovary. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January to December 2009, to see the variation in the volume of the ovary with age in Bangladeshi women. The study was performed on 140 post mortem human ovaries collected from 70 unclaimed female dead bodies which were in the morgue under examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. The samples were divided into three age-groups including group A (10-13 years), group B (1445 years) & group C (46-52 years). Group A is pre-menarche group, group B represents reproductive age and group C is post menopausal group. The length, breadth and thickness of each ovary were measured by using a slide calipers. Then the volume of each ovary was determined by the product of its length, breadth and thickness multiplied by 0.524, according to the Prolate ellipsoid formula. The mean volume of the right ovary was found higher than that of the left one in all age groups (p < 0.001). The difference in mean volume of the ovary between group A & group B, group B & group C (p < 0.001) and group A & group C (p < 0.01) were also statistically significant. The volume of the ovary increases with age and then gradually starts to decrease from menopause.

  16. Surface flatness after bone cutting. A cadaver study of tibial condyles.

    PubMed

    Toksvig-Larsen, S; Ryd, L

    1991-02-01

    A methodologic study with which the cut surface could be quantified was performed on cadaveric tibial bone prepared for endoprosthetic components. Using sterilized, dental-imprint material and measuring with a Zeiss UMC 850, the characteristics of the cut surface were defined. A clinically flat surface was found to be uneven, with a maximum roughness between the uppermost and lowermost points of 1.0 and 2.4 mm for the bone surface and between 1.2 and 2.3 mm for the imprint. The flatness, defined as the standard deviation of the measuring points, was between 0.15 and 0.40 mm for the bone and 0.20 and 0.42 mm for the imprint. This lack of flatness creates gaps between the prosthesis and the bone.

  17. Is the distal radioulnar variance useful for identification of radial head prosthesis overlengthening? A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Kilian; Zhang, Wei; Strauss, Volker; Ries, Christian; Müller, Lars P; Burkhart, Klaus J

    2016-03-21

    Overlengthening by radial head prosthetic replacement leads to insufficient functionality and increased capitellar wear. It has been shown that in monopolar prostheses, the radial overlengthening by an overstuffed prosthesis leads to significant differences in the distal radioulnar variance at the wrist. This study evaluated ipsilateral ulnar variance as a predictor for overlengthening after implantation of a multipolar prosthesis. The radial heads of seven fresh frozen upper extremities were resected and a multipolar radial head prosthesis was implanted. Thereafter, the native radioulnar variance at the wrist was documented via fluoroscopy. The alignment of the distal radioulnar joint in neutral, pronated and supinated rotational positions of the forearm was recorded fluoroscopically, and digital image analysis was performed regarding radioulnar shifting. Statistical analysis of the difference between native height and the manipulated states did not show consistent significant differences with stepwise overlengthening of +1.5, +3, +4.5 and +6 mm and with respect to rotational position of the forearm (p > 0.05). Interclass correlation coefficients showed excellent interobserver reliability (ICC 96%), as did tests for intraobserver reliability (ICC 98-99%). No consistent influence of overlengthening on the alignment of the radius and ulna at the distal radioulnar joint was found after sequential overlengthening with a multipolar prosthesis. Maybe the ligamentous structures of the forearm prevent significant longitudinal dislocation of the radius, as the multipolar prosthesis gives way by at the radiocapitellar joint. According to the data of the present study, the ipsilateral wrist is not useful in diagnosing overlengthening of the radial column in multipolar prosthetic replacement of the radial head-in contrast to the reported results with monopolar prostheses.

  18. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; Prabhu, Latha Venkatraya; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Ranade, Anu Vinod; Madhyastha, Sampath

    2008-02-01

    The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side) male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a) the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b) the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c) measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41%) had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5%) and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%). In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15 cm by 0.35 - 6.4 cm and 2.8 - 20.8 cm by 0.2 0.5 cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  19. Kinematics of the Cervical Spine After Unilateral Facet Fracture: An In Vitro Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Chen, Linda; Uko, Linda; Zorrilla, Andres; Hauser, Spencer; Vives, Michael J

    2017-09-15

    Biomechanical study utilizing human cadaveric cervical spines. To quantitatively assess the effects on intervertebral motion of isolated unilateral cervical facet fracture, and after disruption of the intervertebral disc at the same level. Clinical evidence has indirectly suggested that cervical facet fractures involving 40% of the height of the lateral mass can cause instability of the involved segment. No study to date has demonstrated the kinematic effects of such an injury in a cadaveric model of the cervical spine. Nine six-segment cervical spines were defrosted and fixated to a spine motion simulator capable to apply unconstrained bending moments in the three anatomical planes. The spines were subjected to a maximum torque of 2 N · m in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending, and of 4 N · m in left and right axial rotation. Each spine was tested in the intact configuration (INTACT), and following two increasing degrees of injury at C4-C5: fracture of the facet (CF1), and CF1 with disruption of the intervertebral disc at the same level (CF2). Intervertebral kinematics was tracked via clusters of active markers fixated on each vertebra. Differences in kinematics between INTACT and the two injured configurations were assessed via one-way Analysis of Variance (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between INTACT and CF1 across all kinematic parameters (P > 0.05) at C4-C5. CF2, however, resulted in significant increase of flexion, left axial rotation, and left lateral bending with respect to INTACT (flexion at C4-C5: INTACT = 8.7° ± 3.5°; CF2 = 14.3 ± 5.7; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that superior articular facet fractures alone involving 40% of the lateral mass may not necessarily result in intervertebral instability under physiologic loading conditions. The addition of partial injury to the intervertebral disc, however, resulted in statistically significant increase in angular displacement

  20. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Gliding characteristics between flexor tendons and surrounding tissues in the carpal tunnel: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Osamura, Naoki; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel with varied wrist positions and tendon motion styles, which may help us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and repetitive hand motion. Eight fresh human cadaveric wrists and hands were used. The peak (PGR) and mean (MGR) gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were measured with the wrist in 0, 30, and 60 degrees of flexion and extension. While moving all three fingers together, the PGR at 60 degrees flexion was significantly higher than that at 0, 30, or 60 degrees extension. While moving the middle finger alone, the PGR at 60 and 30 degrees flexion was significantly higher than the PGR at 60 degrees extension. The PGR moving the middle finger FDS alone was significantly greater than that for all three digits moving together in 0, 30, and 60 degrees flexion. Differential finger motion with wrist flexion elevated the tendon gliding resistance in the carpal tunnel, which may be relevant in considering the possible role of wrist position and activity in the etiology of CTS.

  2. Human cadaver study evaluating a new measurement technique for graft volumes after sinus floor elevation.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Susanne; Wildburger, Angelika; Lorenzoni, Martin; Jakse, Norbert; Riedl, Regina; Weiglein, Andreas; Wegscheider, Walther; Kirmeier, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Volumetric data can be used as complementary information to characterize grafting materials. The aim of this cadaveric study was to analyze a noncommercial measurement technique based on the novel concept of an "interactive rigid registration algorithm" (IRRA). Parameters analyzed included the reproducibility of IRRA measurements and their reliability in comparison with the established measurement technique of "region growing segmentation thresholding" (RGST). Three human skulls were used to simulate a total of 18 sinus grafts, using three incremental grafting procedures in each sinus (three skulls ×t wo sinuses × three grafting increments). Radiopaque impression material was used for the simulated grafts, whose volumes were recorded by computed tomography from three different tilt angles. The reproducibility of IRRA measurements and the reliability of volumetric results obtained with both the IRRA and RGST techniques were evaluated by appropriate intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. ICC greater than 0.9 indicated close to perfect agreement of the results obtained with both methods and good reproducibility of the IRRA measurements. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated good inter-method and intramethod agreement. The IRRA measurement technique can be recommended as a noninvasive tool to evaluate graft volumes in human maxillary sinuses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Biomechanical effect of rotator cuff augmentation with an acellular dermal matrix graft: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Omae, Hiromichi; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Sperling, John W; An, Kai-Nan

    2012-10-01

    Acellular human dermal matrix grafts (Graftjacket; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) are used clinically for rotator cuff augmentation without a detailed understanding of their biomechanical effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of augmentation with dermal grafts on the biomechanical effects of rotator cuff repairs. Nine matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used. A single-row rotator cuff repair combined with an augmentation graft was performed on one shoulder, and a single-row repair was performed on the contralateral shoulder as a control. An acellular dermal matrix graft was sutured to the tendon medially and fixed to the humerus laterally. The constructs were preloaded at 10 N and then cyclically loaded between 10 and 180 N for 1000 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure at 1.0 mm/s. The maximum load of the augmentation group (560.2 N, SD 95.5) was greater than that of the control group (345.7 N, SD 60.8), while the linear stiffness of the augmentation group (65.2 N/mm, SD 15.6) was less than that of the control group (77.2 N/mm, SD 15.7). Reliable gap distance data were not obtained during cyclic loading in 5 of 9 augmented repairs due to the elasticity of the dermal matrix graft. The dermal matrix graft augmentation increased the maximum load but did not increase the linear stiffness. The elasticity of the dermal matrix graft affected the biomechanical effects of the augmented rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadaveric Spinal Surgery Simulation: A Comparison of Cadaver Types

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, James E.; Yiasemidou, Marina; Watts, Anna L.; Roberts, Dave J. H.; Timothy, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-blinded study. Objective To assess the suitability of three types of cadaver for simulating pedicle screw insertion and establish if there is an ideal. Methods Three types of cadaver—Thiel-embalmed, Crosado-embalmed, and formaldehyde-embalmed—were draped and the spines exposed. Experienced surgeons were asked to place pedicle screws in each cadaver and give written questionnaire feedback using a modified Likert scale. Soft tissue and bony properties were assessed, along with the role of simulation in spinal surgery training. Results The Thiel cadaver rated highest for soft tissue feel and appearance with a median score of 6 for both (range 2 to 7). The Crosado cadaver rated highest for bony feel, with a median score of 6 (range 2 to 7). The formaldehyde cadaver rated lowest for all categories with median scores of 2, 2.5, and 3.5, respectively. All surgeons felt pedicle screw insertion should be learned in a simulated setting using human cadavers. Conclusion Thiel and Crosado cadavers both offered lifelike simulation of pedicle screw insertion, with each having advantages depending on whether the focus is on soft tissue approach or technical aspects of bony screw insertion. Both cadaver types offer the advantage of long life span, unlike fresh frozen tissue, which means cadavers can be used multiple times, thus reducing the costs. PMID:27190738

  5. No statistically significant kinematic difference found between a cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilised Triathlon knee arthroplasty: a laboratory study involving eight cadavers examining soft-tissue laxity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N C; Ghosh, K M; Blain, A P; Rushton, S P; Longstaff, L M; Deehan, D J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the maximum laxity conferred by the cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) Triathlon single-radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for anterior drawer, varus-valgus opening and rotation in eight cadaver knees through a defined arc of flexion (0º to 110º). The null hypothesis was that the limits of laxity of CR- and PS-TKAs are not significantly different. The investigation was undertaken in eight loaded cadaver knees undergoing subjective stress testing using a measurement rig. Firstly the native knee was tested prior to preparation for CR-TKA and subsequently for PS-TKA implantation. Surgical navigation was used to track maximal displacements/rotations at 0º, 30º, 60º, 90º and 110° of flexion. Mixed-effects modelling was used to define the behaviour of the TKAs. The laxity measured for the CR- and PS-TKAs revealed no statistically significant differences over the studied flexion arc for the two versions of TKA. Compared with the native knee both TKAs exhibited slightly increased anterior drawer and decreased varus-valgus and internal-external roational laxities. We believe further study is required to define the clinical states for which the additional constraint offered by a PS-TKA implant may be beneficial.

  6. Neuronavigational endoscopic endonasal sellar and parasellar surgery using a 2-mm-diameter lens rigid-rod endoscope: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Federico; Oi, Shizuo; Samii, Amir; Paternó, Vincenzo; Feigl, Günther C; Lüdemann, Wolf; Samii, Madjid

    2007-04-01

    Most of the endoscopes used for endonasal transsphenoidal surgery use 4-mm diameter lenses. The applicability of a newly developed neuroendoscope with a lens diameter of only 2 mm was tested in endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The newly developed rigid-rod neuroendoscope with a 2-mm lens and an endoscope with a 4-mm lens were coupled with a navigation system and used for this comparative study. Comparison between the views obtained with these two devices was performed in a model and in formalin-fixed cadaver heads. A pure endonasal approach was used to reach and explore the sellar and parasellar regions. The navigation system was used to locate the same position in both lenses for image comparison. The sellar and parasellar regions could be reached and explored using the new endoscope with the 2-mm lens and an oval-shaped irrigation and suction channel. The visual field appeared to be reduced compared with that of the 4-mm lens. However, this reduction was compensated by greater mobility and easier introduction and maneuvering of the instruments at the sellar level. Reduced image size and brightness were also found using the 2-mm lens compared with the 4-mm lens. These differences could be overcome by increasing the amount of light and enlarging the image but with subsequent reduction in image resolution. The small diameter of this neuroendoscope resulted in good maneuverability and maintained a fine quality of vision. Children and patients with small nostrils are good candidates for the use of such a device.

  7. Accuracy of implant placement in the posterior maxilla as related to 2 types of surgical guides: a pilot study in the human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Noharet, Renaud; Pettersson, Andreas; Bourgeois, Denis

    2014-09-01

    The position of implants may have an effect on obtaining osseointegration without complications and on the outcome of the prostheses. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant placement with computer-guided surgery and freehand surgery in the atrophic area of the posterior maxilla. Six human cadavers (Kennedy-Applegate class I) were included in the study. The specimens were randomly classified into 2 categories by using a computer: computer-guided surgery (n=3) and freehand surgery (n=3). Thirty-nine implants were planned with the software. Two types of surgeries were performed. The preoperative computed tomography data were matched with the postoperative computed tomography data by using voxel-based registration software. The position of the planned implants was compared to the actual position of the implants. A multivariate analysis was used for each variable (bone density, length of implant, implant angulation, and surgical technique) to evaluate the effect of these variables on the implant accuracy (α=.05). The statistical tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov bootstrap) found that guided surgery offered significantly better accuracy for the platform (P=.002), apex (P=.001), and angle (P<.001). However, the accuracy of the 2 methods was similar for the depth parameter (P=.186). The bone density did not influence the implant placement accuracy. Computer-guided surgery was more accurate than a freehand approach for placing implants into bilateral edentulous zones in the posterior maxilla. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of robot-assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty: a controlled cadaver study using multiparameter quantitative three-dimensional CT assessment of alignment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Wan; Ha, Chul-Won; Do, Kwan-Hong; Kim, Chang-Young; Han, Jeong-Hoon; Na, Sang-Eun; Lee, Choong-Hee; Kim, Jae-Gyoon; Park, Youn-Soo

    2012-01-01

    A functional total knee replacement has to be well aligned, which implies that it should lie along the mechanical axis and in the correct axial and rotational planes. Incorrect alignment will lead to abnormal wear, early mechanical loosening, and patellofemoral problems. There has been increased interest of late in total knee arthroplasty with robotic assistance. This study was conducted to determine whether robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty is superior to the conventional surgical method with regard to the precision of implant positioning. Twenty knee replacements, comprising ten robot-assisted procedures and ten conventional operations, were performed on ten cadavers. Two experienced surgeons performed the surgeries. Both procedures on each cadaver were performed by the same surgeon. The choice of which procedure was to be performed first was randomized. Following implantation of the prosthesis, the mechanical axis deviation, femoral coronal angle, tibial coronal angle, femoral sagittal angle, tibial sagittal angle, and femoral rotational alignment were measured via 3D CT scanning. These variables were then compared with the preoperatively planned values. In the knees that underwent robot-assisted surgery, the mechanical axis deviation ranged from -1.94° to 2.13° (mean: -0.21°), the femoral coronal angle from 88.08° to 90.99° (mean: 89.81°), the tibial coronal angle from 89.01° to 92.36° (mean: 90.42°), the tibial sagittal angle from 81.72° to 86.24° (mean: 83.20°), and the femoral rotational alignment from 0.02° to 1.15° (mean: 0.52°) in relation to the transepicondylar axis. In the knees that underwent conventional surgery, the mechanical axis deviation ranged from -3.19° to 3.84° (mean: -0.48°), the femoral coronal angle from 88.36° to 92.29° (mean: 90.50°), the tibial coronal angle from 88.15° to 91.51° (mean: 89.83°), the tibial sagittal angle from 80.06° to 87.34° (mean: 84.50°), and the femoral rotational alignment from 0

  9. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-02-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients.

  10. The use of time-of-flight camera for navigating robots in computer-aided surgery: monitoring the soft tissue envelope of minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Klug, Sebastian; Moctezuma, Jose Luis; Nogler, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras can guide surgical robots or provide soft tissue information for augmented reality in the medical field. In this study, a method to automatically track the soft tissue envelope of a minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study is described. An algorithm for the TOF camera was developed and 30 measurements on 8 surgical situs (direct anterior approach) were carried out. The results were compared to a manual measurement of the soft tissue envelope. The TOF camera showed an overall recognition rate of the soft tissue envelope of 75%. On comparing the results from the algorithm with the manual measurements, a significant difference was found (P > .005). In this preliminary study, we have presented a method for automatically recognizing the soft tissue envelope of the surgical field in a real-time application. Further improvements could result in a robotic navigation device for minimally invasive hip surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and the costoclavicular space and their relationship to thoracic outlet syndrome: a study of 60 cadavers.

    PubMed

    Dahlstrom, Kelly A; Olinger, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome classically results from constrictions in 1 or more of 3 specific anatomical locations: the interscalene triangle, costoclavicular space, and coracopectoral tunnel. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging studies suggest that, of the 3 potential locations for constriction, the costoclavicular space is the most susceptible to compression. This study of human cadavers aims to expand on the descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and associated costoclavicular space. The interscalene angle, interscalene triangle base, and costoclavicular space were measured on 120 sides of embalmed human cadavers. Linear distances and angles were measured using a caliper and protractor, respectively. The data were analyzed by calculating the mean, range, and standard deviation. The range for the interscalene base was 0 to 21.0 mm with a mean of 10.7 mm. For the interscalene angle, the range was 4° to 22° with a mean of 11.3°. Measurements for the costoclavicular space ranged from 6 to 30.9 mm with a mean of 13.5 mm. No significant differences were observed between left and right interscalene triangles or costoclavicular spaces; furthermore, there were no differences between the sexes concerning these 2 locations. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of native acromioclavicular joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in the presence of the sternoclavicular joint: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Masionis, Povilas; Šatkauskas, Igoris; Mikelevičius, Vytautas; Ryliškis, Sigitas; Bučinskas, Vytautas; Griškevičius, Julius; Martin Oliva, Xavier; Monzó Planella, Mariano; Porvaneckas, Narūnas; Uvarovas, Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Where is over 100 reconstruction techniques described for acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction. Although, it is not clear whether the presence of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint influences the biomechanical properties of native AC ligaments and reconstruction techniques. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of native AC joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in cadavers with the SC joint still present. We tested eight fresh-frozen cadaver hemithoraces for superior translation (70 N load) and translation increment after 1000 cycles (loading from 20 to 70 N) in a controlled laboratory study. There were three testing groups created: native ligaments, the single coracoclavicular loop (SCL) technique, and the two coracoclavicular loops (TCL) technique. Superior translation was measured after static loading. Translation increment was calculated as the difference between superior translation after cyclic and static loading. Native AC ligaments showed significantly lower translation than the SCL ( p = 0.023) and TCL ( p = 0.046) groups. The SCL had a significantly lower translation increment than native AC ligaments ( p = 0.028). There was no significant difference between reconstruction techniques in terms of translation ( p = 0.865) and translation increment ( p = 0.113). Native AC joint ligaments had better static properties than both reconstruction techniques and worse dynamic biomechanical properties than the SCL technique. The SCL technique appeared to be more secure than the TCL technique. The presence of the SC joint did not have an observable influence on test results.

  13. Recovery of periodontopathogenic bacteria from embalmed human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nelson; Johnson, Roger B

    2005-01-01

    There is recent interest in recovery of periodontopathogenic bacteria from arterial and bronchial tissues to identify a link between periodontal and cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. This interest could provide a useful clinical correlation exercise for gross anatomy. Our objective was to perform a feasibility study to determine whether these bacteria could be recovered from two sites within eight (4 dentate, 4 edentulous) human embalmed cadavers from an anatomical dissection laboratory. Bacterial samples were collected from the right coronary artery and the right superior secondary bronchus and assayed for the presence and concentrations of the DNA of A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. corrodens, C. rectus, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, T. denticola, and F. nucleatum. Frequencies were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Correlations between the presence of teeth, bacterial species, and site were determined by a Spearman's rho correlation test. A. actinomycetemcomitans and B. forsythus frequencies were different between the sites in edentulous subjects (P <0.05); the frequency of B. forsythus was different in dentate and edentulous subjects at the bronchus site (P <0.05). Numerous significant correlations were identified between strains of bacteria, site, and presence of teeth. Thus, it is possible for the DNA of periodontopathogenic bacteria to be recovered from human embalmed cadavers. Collection and identification of these bacteria from these cadavers could be a useful clinical correlation exercise for dental students in a gross anatomy class.

  14. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p < 0.01); deep posterior from 34 (±7.9) to 161 (±15) (p < 0.01); superficial posterior from 33 (±0) to 140 (±13) (p < 0.01). We created a novel and measurable fascial compartment pressure measurement model in a fresh human cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of a Fresh-Tissue Cadaver Model for the Instruction of Dermatological Procedures: A Laboratory Study for Training Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Jose A; Costello, Collin M; Maarouf, Melody; McCrary, Hilary C; Zeitouni, Nathalie C

    2017-09-01

    A realistic model for the instruction of basic dermatologic procedural skills was developed, while simultaneously increasing medical student exposure to the field of dermatology. The primary purpose of the authors' study was to evaluate the utilization of a fresh-tissue cadaver model (FTCM) as a method for the instruction of common dermatologic procedures. The authors' secondary aim was to assess students' perceived clinical skills and overall perception of the field of dermatology after the lab. Nineteen first- and second-year medical students were pre- and post-tested on their ability to perform punch and excisional biopsies on a fresh-tissue cadaver. Students were then surveyed on their experience. Assessment of the cognitive knowledge gain and technical skills revealed a statistically significant improvement in all categories (p < .001). An analysis of the survey demonstrated that 78.9% were more interested in selecting dermatology as a career and 63.2% of participants were more likely to refer their future patients to a Mohs surgeon. An FTCM is a viable method for the instruction and training of dermatologic procedures. In addition, the authors conclude that an FTCM provides realistic instruction for common dermatologic procedures and enhances medical students' early exposure and interest in the field of dermatology.

  16. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1.5T and 3T MRI by the Use of a Cochlear Implant with Removable Magnet: An Experimental Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franca; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Leidolt, Lars; Vischer, Mattheus; Weder, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Caversaccio, Marco D

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans after CI with a removable magnet. Three criteria (diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts) were assessed at 1.5T and 3T in five cadaver heads with CI. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.5T and 3T. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. The results indicate the possible advantages for 1.5T and 3T MR scanning of the brain in CI carriers with removable magnets. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies.

  17. Acetabular Cartilage Thickness: Accuracy of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from Multidetector CT Arthrograms in a Cadaver Study1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bryce C; Peters, Christopher L.; Brown, Nicholas A. T.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively quantify the accuracy of hip cartilage thickness estimated from three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, generated by segmenting multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrograms by using direct physical measurements of cartilage thickness as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Four fresh-frozen cadaver hip joints from two male donors, ages 43 and 46 years, were obtained; institutional review board approval for cadaver research was also obtained. Sixteen holes were drilled perpendicular to the cartilage of four cadaveric acetabula (two specimens). Hip capsules were surgically closed, injected with contrast material, and scanned by using multidetector CT. After scanning, 5.3-mmcores were harvested concentrically at each drill hole and cartilage thickness was measured with a microscope. Cartilage was reconstructed in 3D by using commercial software. Segmentations were repeated by two authors. Reconstructed cartilage thickness was determined by using a published algorithm. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression were used to assess accuracy. Repeatability was quantified by using the coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), repeatability coefficient, and percentage variability. Results: Cartilage was reconstructed to a bias of −0.13 mm and a repeatability coefficient of ±0.46 mm. Regression of the scatterplots indicated a tendency for multidetector CT to overestimate thickness. Intra- and interobserver repeatability were very good. For intraobserver correlation, the coefficient of variation was 14.80%, the ICC was 0.88, the repeatability coefficient was 0.55 mm, and the percentage variability was 11.77%. For interobserver correlation, the coefficient of variation was 13.47%, the ICC was 0.90, the repeatability coefficient was 0.52 mm, and the percentage variability was 11.63%. Conclusion: Assuming that an accuracy of approximately ±0.5 mm is sufficient, reconstructions of cartilage geometry from

  18. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  19. The protective effect of pulsed lavage against implant subsidence and micromotion for cemented tibial unicompartmental knee components: an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Sebastian; Rieger, Johannes S; Bruckner, Thomas; Kretzer, J Philippe; Clarius, Michael; Bitsch, Rudi G

    2014-04-01

    Cemented UKAs were performed in 12 pairs of human cadaver legs and the bone bed was cleansed using pulsed lavage (group A) and conventional syringe lavage (group B). Subsidence and micromotion of the loaded tibial trays were measured. There was a significant effect of BMD on subsidence (P = 0.043) but not on micromotion. Cement penetration of group A was significantly increased (P = 0.005). Group A showed a reduced implant subsidence (P = 0.025) and micromotion (P = 0.026) compared to group B. The group differences in micromotion and implant subsidence of UKA tibial components were statistically significant but rather small and might clinically be of minor importance. Nevertheless a worse bone quality adversely affected implant subsidence and pulsed lavage had a protective effect in these specimens.

  20. Point Organ Radiation Dose in Abdominal CT: Effect of Patient Off-Centering in an Experimental Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Lira, Diego; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Primak, Andrew; Xu, George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2017-01-10

    To determine the effect of patient off-centering on point organ radiation dose measurements in a human cadaver scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol. A human cadaver (88 years, body-mass-index 20 kg/m(2)) was scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol on 128-slice dual source MDCT (Definition Flash, Siemens). A total of 18 scans were performed using two scan protocols (a) 120 kV-200 mAs fixed-mA (CTDIvol 14 mGy) (b) 120 kV-125 ref mAs (7 mGy) with automatic exposure control (AEC, CareDose 4D) at three different positions (a) gantry isocenter, (b) upward off-centering and (c) downward off-centering. Scanning was repeated three times at each position. Six thimble (in liver, stomach, kidney, pancreas, colon and urinary bladder) and four MOSFET dosimeters (on cornea, thyroid, testicle and breast) were placed for calculation of measured point organ doses. Organ dose estimations were retrieved from dose-tracking software (eXposure, Radimetrics). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance. There was a significant difference between the trends of point organ doses with AEC and fixed-mA at all three positions (p < 0.01). Variation in point doses between fixed-mA and AEC protocols were statistically significant across all organs at all Table positions (p < 0.001). There was up to 5-6% decrease in point doses with upward off-centering and in downward off-centering. There were statistical significant differences in point doses from dosimeters and dose-tracking software (mean difference for internal organs, 5-36% for fixed-mA & 7-48% for AEC protocols; p < 0.001; mean difference for surface organs, >92% for both protocols; p < 0.0001). For both protocols, the highest mean difference in point doses was found for stomach and lowest for colon. Measured absorbed point doses in abdominal CT vary with patient-centering in the gantry isocenter. Due to lack of consideration of patient positioning in the dose estimation on automatic software-over estimation of

  1. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Construct Validity of Fresh Frozen Human Cadaver as a Training Model in Minimal Access Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Macafee, David; Pranesh, Nagarajan; Horgan, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The construct validity of fresh human cadaver as a training tool has not been established previously. The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a method of training in minimal access surgery and determine if novices can be rapidly trained using this model to a safe level of performance. Methods: Junior surgical trainees, novices (<3 laparoscopic procedure performed) in laparoscopic surgery, performed 10 repetitions of a set of structured laparoscopic tasks on fresh frozen cadavers. Expert laparoscopists (>100 laparoscopic procedures) performed 3 repetitions of identical tasks. Performances were scored using a validated, objective Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. Scores for 3 consecutive repetitions were compared between experts and novices to determine construct validity. Furthermore, to determine if the novices reached a safe level, a trimmed mean of the experts score was used to define a benchmark. Mann-Whitney U test was used for construct validity analysis and 1-sample t test to compare performances of the novice group with the benchmark safe score. Results: Ten novices and 2 experts were recruited. Four out of 5 tasks (nondominant to dominant hand transfer; simulated appendicectomy; intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying) showed construct validity. Novices’ scores became comparable to benchmark scores between the eighth and tenth repetition. Conclusion: Minimal access surgical training using fresh frozen human cadavers appears to have construct validity. The laparoscopic skills of novices can be accelerated through to a safe level within 8 to 10 repetitions. PMID:23318058

  3. Comparison of the pull-out forces of bioabsorbable polylactide/glycolide screws (Biosorb and Lactosorb) and tacks: a study on the stability of fixation in human cadaver parietal bones.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Johanna; Leinonen, Sanna; Ilomäki, Jouko; Suokas, Esa; Törmälä, Pertti; Waris, Timo; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pull-out forces of bioabsorbable polylactide/glycolide (PLGA) tacks and screws in human cadaver parietal bones. Parietal bone pieces (c. 6 cm x 20 cm) were collected from five human male cadavers (age range: 47-75 years). Forty-nine BioSorbPDX (self-reinforced [SR] PLGA 80/20) tacks (1.5-mm diameter, 4.0-mm length), 47 BioSorbPDX (SR-PLGA 80/20) screws (1.5-mm diameter, 4.0-mm length), and 46 LactoSorb (PLGA 82/18) screws (1.5-mm diameter, 4.0-mm length) were applied. The tacks were applied to drill holes using a special applicator gun (no tapping or tightening). The screws were applied to drill holes in the traditional way using tapping and tightening with a screwdriver. A tensile testing machine was used. All the implants were tested thus: the head of the implant was held by an aluminum jig, and the jig was pulled with wire until implant failure. The testing pull speed was 10 mm/min. Means and SDs were calculated, and the data were analyzed using ANOVA. The pull-out force of the tacks was 115.9 +/- 8.3 N, that of Lactosorb screws was 112.9 +/- 12.1 N, and that of Biosorb screws was 110.4 +/- 8.9 N (statistically insignificant difference between the three groups). The most common reason for failure in the case of tacks was barb breakage (55.1%); it was thread breakage in the case of BioSorb screws (66%) and stem split in the case of Lactosorb screws (56%). Tacks seem to have a similar, perhaps even a little better, holding power to cranial bone as screws and can hence be recommended for clinical application, as the procedure saves time and, consequently, costs.

  4. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy.

    PubMed

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p < 0.0001) and 86 ± 8.6 vs. 38.4 ± 19.3 for tube thoracostomy (p < 0.0001). Improvement in comfort levels performing procedures after the cadaveric training was rated as 78.5 ± 13.3 for tube thoracostomy and 78.7 ± 14.3 for cricothyrotomy. All respondents felt this difference in fidelity to be important for procedural training with 21/22 respondents specifically citing the importance of superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to

  5. Comparison of time to obtain intraosseous versus jugular venous catheterization on canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Allukian, Alison R; Abelson, Amanda L; Babyak, Jonathan; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the time required and the success rate of personnel with 4 different levels of experience to place a humeral intraosseous (IO) catheter versus a jugular venous catheter (IV) in cadaver dogs. Prospective study. Veterinary university teaching hospital. Canine cadavers from recently euthanized dogs were obtained from the cadaver donation program between May and December 2014. Catheter placers (CPs) with varying clinical experience, including a first year emergency and critical care resident, a senior emergency veterinary technician (VTS certified), a final year veterinary student, and an ACVECC diplomate, participated in the study. Each CP catheterized a total of 6 dogs so that there was a total of 6 IO and 6 IV catheters placed, by automatic rotary insertion device (with an EZ-IO gun) and vascular cut-down technique, respectively, for each CP. Time for IO catheterization and IV catheterization was recorded and compared. The success of IO catheterization and IV catheterization was verified by visualization of an injection of iodinated contrast material under fluoroscopy within the medullary cavity or vessel. Twenty-four canine cadavers. Outcomes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The median time for all IO catheterization operators was faster at 55.4 seconds (range 15.0-153.0 s) compared to the median time for all IV catherization operators at 217.3 seconds (range 55.6-614 s). The success rate for IO and IV was equal at 87.5%. IO catheterization using an automatic rotary insertion device was performed more rapidly and successfully than jugular venous catheterization using a cut-down technique in canine cadaver. These findings suggest IO catheterization may be more efficient for gaining vascular access in the appropriate emergency clinical situations when preexisting IV access does not exist. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  6. An experimental study in six fresh human cadavers using a novel approach to avoid abdominal wall incisions in total colectomy: totally transanal laparoendoscopic single-site pull-through colectomy with J-pouch creation.

    PubMed

    Vahdad, M Reza; Cernaianu, Grigore; Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Faran, Samuel; Zemon, Harry; Boemers, Thomas; Foroutan, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    The use of transanal laparoscopic access to completely avoid abdominal wall incisions represents the most current evolution in minimally invasive surgery. The combination of single-site surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES™) can be used for totally transanal laparoendoscopic pull-through colectomy with J-pouch creation (TLPC-J). The aim of the present study was to provide evidence for the feasibility of TLPC-J in adult human cadavers. TLPC-J was performed in six fresh adult human cadavers. The procedure involved endorectal submucosal dissection from 1 cm above the dentate line to a point above the peritoneal reflection, where the rectal muscle was divided circumferentially. The edge of the mucosal cuff was closed distally in order to prevent fecal contamination and the endorectal tube was placed back into the abdomen. A Triport+™ or QuadPort+™ system was introduced transanally, and it served as a multiport device (MD). Resection of the entire colon, mobilization of the distal ileal segment, and extracorporeal suture of the ileal J-loop were performed via the transanal approach. The J-pouch was created using Endo GIA™. After removal of the MD, the J-pouch was sutured to the rectal wall. TLPC-J was performed in all cadavers, with a mean operation duration of 236 ± 22 min. Conversion to either transabdominal laparoscopy or laparotomy was not required in any of the cadavers. No bowel perforation or damage to other organs was observed. The use of a curved endoscope greatly facilitated visualization during transanal laparoscopic dissection for partial and total colectomy, making the procedure feasible. All specimens were retrieved through the anus, eliminating the need for additional transabdominal incisions. TLPC-J was technically feasible in adult human cadavers, and abdominal wall incisions were not required. However, clinical studies are needed to determine its feasibility in living adults.

  7. Cadaver treasure hunt: introducing geriatrics concepts in the anatomy class.

    PubMed

    McNicoll, Lynn; Fulton, Ana Tuya; Ritter, Dale; Besdine, Richard W

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an educational program introducing geriatrics to medical students during anatomy. Observational study of an educational intervention in medical school was the design utilized. First-year medical students in an anatomy laboratory were participants. The program consists of a lecture and a workshop. First, a geriatrics lecture early in the course presents demographic data on the cadavers, followed by comparison with national data on leading causes of death. Second, there is a "treasure hunt" in the anatomy laboratory conducted by geriatricians. Each geriatrician spends 45 minutes with one-four-student cadaver group at a time, reviewing anatomical findings and facilitating a discussion of clinical correlations and implications. A list of common anatomical findings, aging- and disease-related, is distributed to the students as an aid in identifying findings of interest. Students have been surprised to learn that the mean age of the 24 cadavers exceeded 80 years (mean 81, median 85 for 2 years), and that causes of death mirrored national data. The students begin understanding aging and appreciate the valuable resource of cadavers. The students acquire a new holistic perspective regarding their cadavers that is not apparent during the dissections. Students and faculty find the experience valuable in understanding the interplay of disease and aging. Evaluations have been mostly positive (82-87% positive responses). The anatomy lecture and "treasure hunt" experience are unique strategies for using cadavers to introduce geriatrics principles into the medical school.

  8. Influence of glenoid component design and humeral component retroversion on internal and external rotation in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Berhouet, J; Garaud, P; Favard, L

    2013-12-01

    A common disadvantage of reverse shoulder arthroplasty is limitation of the range of arm rotation. Several changes to the prosthesis design and implantation technique have been suggested to improve rotation range of motion (ROM). Glenoid component design and degree of humeral component retroversion influence rotation ROM after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The Aequalis Reversed™ shoulder prosthesis (Tornier Inc., Edina, MN, USA) was implanted into 40 cadaver shoulders. Eight glenoid component combinations were tested, five with the 36-mm sphere (centred seating, eccentric seating, inferior tilt, centred with a 5-mm thick lateralised spacer, and centred with a 7-mm thick lateralised spacer) and three with the 42-mm sphere (centred with no spacer or with a 7-mm or 10-mm spacer). Humeral component position was evaluated with 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40° of retroversion. External and internal rotation ROMs to posterior and anterior impingement on the scapular neck were measured with the arm in 20° of abduction. The large glenosphere (42 mm) was associated with significantly (P<0.05) greater rotation ROMs, particularly when combined with a lateralised spacer (46° internal and 66° external rotation). Rotation ROMs were smallest with the 36-mm sphere. Greater humeral component retroversion was associated with a decrease in internal rotation and a significant increase (P<0.05) in external rotation. The best balance between rotation ROMs was obtained with the native retroversion, which was estimated at 17.5° on average in this study. Our anatomic study in a large number of cadavers involved a detailed and reproducible experimental protocol. However, we did not evaluate the variability in scapular anatomy. Earlier studies of the influence of technical parameters did not take humeral component retroversion into account. In addition, no previous studies assessed rotation ROMs. Rotation ROM should be improved by the use of a large-diameter glenosphere with a spacer to

  9. The Cadaveric Perfusion and Angiography as a Teaching Tool: Imaging the Intracranial Vasculature in Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Turkoglu, Erhan; Seckin, Hakan; Gurer, Bora; Ahmed, Azam; Uluc, Kutluay; Pulfer, Kari; Arat, Anıl; Niemann, David; Baskaya, Mustafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Study Aim To enhance the visualization of the intracranial vasculature of cadavers under gross examination with a combination of imaging modalities. Material and Methods A total of 20 cadaver heads were used to test two different perfusion techniques. First, fixed cadaver heads were perfused with water; second, fresh cadavers were perfused with saline and 10% formalin. Subsequently, brains were removed and fixed. The compounds used were silicone rubber, silicone rubber mixed with powdered barium sulfate, and silicone rubber mixed with tantalum dioxide prepared by the first perfusion technique and gelatin mixed with liquid barium prepared with the second technique. Conventional X-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), dynamic computed tomography (dCT), and postprocessing three-dimensional (3D) images were used to evaluate all the heads. Results Gelatinized barium was better visualized when compared with tantalum dioxide in conventional X-ray images. The blood vessels injected with either tantalum dioxide or gelatinized barium demonstrated a higher enhancement than the surrounding soft tissues with CT or dCT. The quality of the 3D reconstruction of the intracranial vasculature was significantly better in the CT images obtained from the gelatinized barium group. Conclusions Radiologic examinations of the heads injected with gelatinized barium facilitates the 3D understanding of cerebrovascular anatomy as an important tool for neuroanatomy training. PMID:25452903

  10. Sequential monitoring of burials containing small pig cadavers using ground penetrating radar.

    PubMed

    Schultz, John J

    2008-03-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to monitor 12 pig burials in Florida, each of which contained a small pig cadaver. Six of the cadavers were buried in sand at a depth of 0.50-0.60 m, and the other six were buried in sand at a depth of 1.00-1.10 m to represent deep and shallow burials that are generally encountered in forensic scenarios. Four control excavations with no pig interment were also constructed as blank graves and monitored with GPR. The burials were monitored for durations of either 13 or 21 months, and were then excavated to correlate the decomposition state of the cadaver with the GPR imagery. Overall, this study demonstrated that it may be difficult to detect small cadavers buried in sand soon after they are skeletonized because the area surrounding the body, or the grave, may not provide a strong enough contrasting area to be detected by GPR when compared to that of the surrounding undisturbed soil. Also, depth of burial appears to influence grave detection because bodies that are buried at deeper depths may be detected for a longer period of time due to reduced decomposition rates.

  11. Teaching Transnasal Endoscopy to Graduate Students Without a Hospital or Simulation Laboratory: Pool Noodles and Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2017-08-15

    This study reports on a training opportunity in endoscopy in which speech-language pathology graduate students use inanimate objects and cadavers. Best practices for transnasal endoscopy in vivo require a physician to be nearby, but many graduate programs do not have this access. Endoscopy was offered as a graduate elective. Students (13 women) initially learned to manipulate the endoscope through the lumen of a swimming pool noodle that was embedded with trinkets. Endoscopic examination of inanimate objects became increasingly complex, followed by endoscopic examination of a cadaver. Pre- and postexamination measures and qualitative data from the 13 students revealed that students increased in confidence and in interest in this aspect of the field. All students met practical competencies for handling the endoscope, passing the endoscope on a narrow tube, and visualizing objects. Some students had the opportunity to pass the endoscope on a peer and did so successfully. For programs with a cadaver lab available, this protocol offers an affordable option compared with purchasing a simulator. For those with neither a cadaver lab nor a simulation lab, passing the endoscope on inanimate objects alone is beneficial to student development and learning.

  12. Cadaver-based Necrotizing Fasciitis Model for Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Mohty, Kurt M; Cravens, Matthew G; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini-Shervin, Bahareh; Irving, Steven C; Stea, Nicholas; Adhikari, Srikar

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a devastating infectious disease process that is characterized by extensive soft tissue necrosis along deep fascial planes, systemic toxicity, and high mortality. Ultrasound imaging is a rapid and non-invasive tool that can be used to help make the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis by identifying several distinctive sonographic findings. The purpose of this study is to describe the construction of a realistic diagnostic training model for necrotizing fasciitis using fresh frozen cadavers and common, affordable materials. Presently, fresh non-embalmed cadavers have been used at medical institutions for various educational sessions including cadaver-based ultrasound training sessions. Details for the preparation and construction of a necrotizing fasciitis cadaver model are presented here. This paper shows that the images obtained from the cadaver model closely imitate the ultrasound appearance of fluid and gas seen in actual clinical cases of necrotizing fasciitis. Therefore, it can be concluded that this cadaver-based model produces high-quality sonographic images that simulate those found in true cases of necrotizing fasciitis and is ideal for demonstrating the sonographic findings of necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:28507840

  13. Liver displacement during ventilation in Thiel embalmed human cadavers - a possible model for research and training in minimally invasive therapies.

    PubMed

    Eisma, Roos; Gueorguieva, Mariana; Immel, Erwin; Toomey, Rachel; McLeod, Graeme; Soames, Roger; Melzer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Respiration-related movement of organs is a complication in a range of diagnostic and interventional procedures. The development and validation of techniques to compensate for such movement requires appropriate models. Human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel method remain flexible and could provide a suitable model. In this study liver displacement during ventilation was assessed in eight Thiel embalmed cadavers, all of which showed thoracic and abdominal motion. Four cadavers displayed realistic lung behaviour, one showed some signs of pneumothorax after prolonged ventilation, one had limited filling of the lungs, and two displayed significant leakage of air into the thorax. A coronal slice containing the largest section through the liver was imaged with a real-time Fast Gradient Echo (FGR) MRI sequence: Craniocaudal displacement of the liver was then determined from a time-series of slices. The maximum liver displacement observed in the cadavers ranged from 7 to 35 mm. The ventilation applied was comparable to tidal breathing at rest and the results found for liver displacement are similar to values in the literature for respiratory motion of the liver under similar conditions. This indicates that Thiel embalmed cadavers have potential as a model for research and training in minimally invasive procedures.

  14. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  15. Influence of fixation point of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear on glenohumeral external rotation: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bargoin, K; Boissard, M; Kany, J; Grimberg, J

    2016-12-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°. Traction sutures were positioned on the latissimus dorsi muscle and a massive tear of the rotator cuff was created. We tested six different transfer positions. Muscle contraction of the latissimus dorsi was stimulated using 10-N and 20-N suspended weights. The point of fixation of the latissimus dorsi on the humeral head had an influence on the elbow-to-body external rotation and with 90° abduction (P<0.001). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation with the elbow to the body was the anterolateral position (P<0.016). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation at 90° abduction was the position centered on the infraspinatus footprint (P<0.078). The optimal point of fixation differs depending on whether external rotation is restored at 0° or 90° abduction. Fundamental study, anatomic study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Risks relating to posterior 2-portal arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis and articular surfaces abrasion quality achievable with these approaches: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Mouilhade, F; Oger, P; Roussignol, X; Boisrenoult, P; Sfez, J; Duparc, F

    2011-06-01

    Many techniques for arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis have been described since 1985. The procedure can be challenging because posterior and anterior portals are used conjointly with distraction. A posterior 2-portal approach was described in 2000. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of the freshening that can be achieved in the posterior subtalar joint using this approach. Does a posterior 2-portal approach allow for a complete freshening of the posterior subtalar joint? Freshening was performed through an arthroscopic posterior 2-portal approach on 10 cadavers. The quality of bone freshening and proximity of the neurovascular structures to the posterior portals were subsequently evaluated by dissection. There was one partial laceration of the sural nerve. The posteromedial portal was 6.8mm (95% CI: 4.4 to 9.2) away from the posterior tibial vascular pedicle. The entire talar and calcaneal articular surfaces of the posterior subtalar joint were freshened. In eight of 10 cases (95% CI: 48 to 95%), the posteromedial process of the talus prevented contact between fragments. This study showed that the entire posterior subtalar joint can be freshened through an arthroscopic posterior 2-portal approach with little morbidity. Level IV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pull-out stability of anchors for rotator cuff repair is also increased by bio-absorbable augmentation: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Postl, L K; Ahrens, P; Beirer, M; Crönlein, M; Imhoff, A B; Foehr, P; Burgkart, R; Braun, C; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a highly focused issue in current scientific research and clinical treatment. Especially in rotator cuff repair, the low bone quality of patients suffering from osteoporosis is an important issue. In this context, non-biological solutions using PMMA for anchor augmentation have been developed in the recent past. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether augmentation of suture anchors using bio-absorbable osteoconductive fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate results in improved failure load of suture anchors as well. Altogether 24 suture anchors (Corkscrew FT 1 Suture Anchors, Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) were evaluated by applying traction until pullout in 12 paired fresh frozen human cadaver humeri using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Inclusion criteria were an age of more than 64 years, a macroscopically intact RC and an intact bone. The anchors were evaluated at the anterolateral and posteromedial aspect of the greater tuberosity. 12 suture anchors were augmented and 12 suture anchors were conventionally inserted. The failure load was significantly enhanced by 66.8 % by the augmentation method. The fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate could be easily injected and applied. The bio-absorbable cement in this study could be a promising augmentation material for RC reconstructions, but further research is necessary-the material has to be evaluated in vivo.

  18. Macrophage density in pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles greatly exceeds that in other striated muscles: an immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sunki; Kitamura, Kei; Masaaki, Kasahara; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5–6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05–0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 µm in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 µm. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body. PMID:27722010

  19. Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck's Disease: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Karalezli, Nazım; Uz, Aysun; Esmer, Ali Fırat; Demirtaş, Mehmet; Taşcı, Arzu Gül; Kütahya, Harun; Ulusoy, Gürhan

    2013-01-01

    Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck's disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck's disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones. PMID:23606814

  20. Intrauterine structure of foot muscles in talipes equinovarus due to high-level myelomeningocele: a light microscopic study in fetal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Omeroğlu, Suna; Peker, Tuncay; Omeroğlu, Hakan; Gülekon, Nadir; Mungan, Tamer; Danişman, Nuri

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the light microscopic structure of extrinsic foot muscles in talipes equinovarus (TEV) deformity that developed during intrauterine life due to high-level myelomeningocele. Ten feet of five fetal cadavers ranging in age from 18 to 20 weeks were dissected. Five feet had typical TEV deformity and the other five feet did not have any deformity (control group). Under light microscopic examination quantitative measurement of both muscle fiber sizes and fibrosis in the muscle tissue were performed to investigate the denervation muscle atrophy. Mean muscle fiber size of the TEV group was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group in all foot muscles except the gastrocnemius muscle. The proportion of fibrosis due to denervation atrophy was significantly higher in the TEV group than in the control group in all muscles. This situation was most evident in the peroneus longus muscle. It was concluded that muscular imbalance due to significant muscular atrophy might be the cause of TEV deformity that developed during intrauterine life due to high-level myelomeningocele.

  1. Entomopathogenic nematodes in insect cadaver formulations for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Matos, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Campos, Roberson; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Dolinski, Claudia; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2014-07-14

    This study evaluated the efficacy of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains in insect cadaver formulations against Rhipicephalus microplus and compared the efficacy of the most virulent EPNs applied in cadavers of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor. In the first experiment, infected G. mellonela larvae were used as the source of EPNs. Engorged females of R. microplus were placed in pots filled with soil and different numbers of G. mellonella larvae infected with one of four species of nematodes. All treatments with EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The EPNs of the genus Steinernema, except for the group exposed to Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, whose source nematodes included six larvae of G. mellonella, caused a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight produced per female. Steinernema feltiae SN applied with two, four, and six cadavers and S. carpocapsae ALL with two cadavers caused a reduction in hatching percentage of larvae of R. microplus (p<0.05). The percentage of control was above 95% in all groups treated with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and in the treatment with four larvae infected with S. feltiae SN. The second experiment followed the same methodology, using G. mellonella and T. molitor larvae infected by the two most virulent EPNs. H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1 in different formulations caused reduction in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The percentage of control were 82.4 and 84.9% for H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1, respectively, formulated in T. molitor, and reaching 99.9% in groups formulated with G. mellonella. The EPNs tested in insect cadaver formulation showed pathogenicity to engorged females of R. microplus and EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis formulated in G. mellonella larvae were more effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. The translucent cadaver: a follow-up study to gauge the efficacy of implementing changes suggested by students.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox(®) Statscan(®)) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student learning. This study, therefore, reports on the efficacy of implementing some of these suggestions. Suggestions incorporated into the follow-up study included: (1) The inclusion of eight strategically placed labeled digital X-ray images to the dissection halls, (2) The placement of both labeled and unlabeled digital X-ray images online, (3) The inclusion of informal oral questions on surface anatomy during dissection, (4) The requirement of students to submit individual drawings in addition to group drawings into their portfolios, and (5) Integrating information on how to recognize anatomical structures on X-rays into gross anatomy lectures given prior to dissection. Students were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the drawings, tests and questionnaires were compared to the results from the 2011 cohort. During 2012, an increased usage of the digital X-rays and an increase in practical test marks in three out of the four modules (statistically significant only in the cardiovascular module) were reported. More students from the 2012 cohort believed the images enhanced their experience of learning surface anatomy and that its use should be continued in future. The suggested changes, therefore, had a positive effect on surface anatomy education.

  3. Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine: in vitro cadaver investigation and a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Oktenoglu, T; Erbulut, D U; Kiapour, A; Ozer, A F; Lazoglu, I; Kaner, T; Sasani, M; Goel, V K

    2015-08-01

    Pedicle screw-based dynamic constructs either benefit from a dynamic (flexible) interconnecting rod or a dynamic (hinged) screw. Both types of systems have been reported in the literature. However, reports where the dynamic system is composed of two dynamic components, i.e. a dynamic (hinged) screw and a dynamic rod, are sparse. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of a novel pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilisation system were investigated and compared with equivalent rigid and semi-rigid systems using in vitro testing and finite element modelling analysis. All stabilisation systems restored stability after decompression. A significant decrease in the range of motion was observed for the rigid system in all loadings. In the semi-rigid construct the range of motion was significantly less than the intact in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation loadings. There were no significant differences in motion between the intact spine and the spine treated with the dynamic system (P>0.05). The peak stress in screws was decreased when the stabilisation construct was equipped with dynamic rod and/or dynamic screws.

  4. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2017-07-18

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Comparison of anatomic landmarks and ultrasound guidance for intercostal nerve injections in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Anuj; Gofeld, Michael; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Hanlon, John; Johnson, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Intercostal nerve (ICN) injections are routinely performed under anatomic landmark or fluoroscopic guidance for acute and chronic pain indications. Ultrasound (US) is being used increasingly to perform ICN injections, but there is lack of evidence to support categorically the benefits of US over conventional techniques. We compared guidance with US versus anatomic landmarks for accuracy and safety of ICN injections in cadavers in a 2-phase study that included evaluation of deposition of injected dye by dissection and spread of contrast on fluoroscopy. A cadaver experiment was performed to validate US as an imaging modality for ICN blocks. In the first phase of the study, 12 ICN injections with 2 different volumes of dye were performed in 1 cadaver using anatomic landmarks on one side and US-guidance on the other (6 injections on each side). The cadaver was then dissected to evaluate spread of the dye. The second phase of the study consisted of 74 ICN injections (37 US-guided and 37 using anatomic landmarks) of contrast dye in 6 non-embalmed cadavers followed by fluoroscopy to evaluate spread of the contrast dye. In the first phase of the study, the intercostal space was identified with US at all levels. Injection of 2 mL of dye was sufficient to ensure compete staining of the ICN for 5 of 6 US-guided injections but anatomic landmark guidance resulted in correct injection at only 2 of 6 intercostal spaces. No intravascular injection was found on dissection with either of the guidance techniques. In the second phase of the study, US-guidance was associated with a higher rate of intercostal spread of 1 mL of contrast dye on fluoroscopy compared with anatomic landmarks guidance (97% vs 70%; P = 0.017). Ultrasound confers higher accuracy and allows use of lower volumes of injectate compared with anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections in cadavers. Ultrasound may be a viable alternative to anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections.

  6. The rate of anti-HIV seropositivity among donated cadavers: experience in a cadaver donation center.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Agthong, Sithiporn

    2002-01-01

    Cadavers are crucial for the medical education provided by medical schools. However, currently, donation is the only way to obtain cadavers for education in Thailand. Moreover, some traditional beliefs result in insufficient numbers of cadavers. Apart from finding donors, the occupational health of the workers in the cadaver donation center and the users, the medical students, residents, and staffs should be addressed. Screening for anti-HIV in donated organs is the current trend in transplantation medicine. Therefore, screening for anti-HIV in donated cadavers is useful. Here, we report the rate of anti-HIV seropositivity in cadavers in a 1-year period in our setting, the largest Thai Red Cross Society hospital. Of the total 84 cadavers received, two cadavers (2.4%) were anti-HIV seropositive. With the increasing rate of anti-HIV, screening for anti-HIV serology in donated cadavers for medical teaching is of great benefit.

  7. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope Force and Cervical Spine Motion during Intubation in Cadavers-Cadavers versus Patients, the Effect of Repeated Intubations, and the Effect of Type II Odontoid Fracture on C1-C2 Motion.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Bradley J; From, Robert P; Fontes, Ricardo B; Traynelis, Vincent C; Todd, Michael M; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Puttlitz, Christian M; Santoni, Brandon G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are to characterize (1) the cadaver intubation biomechanics, including the effect of repeated intubations, and (2) the relation between intubation force and the motion of an injured cervical segment. Fourteen cadavers were serially intubated using force-sensing Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes in random order, with simultaneous cervical spine motion recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. Motion of the C1-C2 segment was measured in the intact and injured state (type II odontoid fracture). Injured C1-C2 motion was proportionately corrected for changes in intubation forces that occurred with repeated intubations. Cadaver intubation biomechanics were comparable with those of patients in all parameters other than C2-C5 extension. In cadavers, intubation force (set 2/set 1 force ratio = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.81; P = 0.002) and Oc-C5 extension (set 2 - set 1 difference = -6.1 degrees; 95% CI, -11.4 to -0.9; P = 0.025) decreased with repeated intubations. In cadavers, C1-C2 extension did not differ (1) between intact and injured states; or (2) in the injured state, between laryngoscopes (with and without force correction). With force correction, in the injured state, C1-C2 subluxation was greater with the Airtraq (mean difference 2.8 mm; 95% CI, 0.7 to 4.9 mm; P = 0.004). With limitations, cadavers may be clinically relevant models of intubation biomechanics and cervical spine motion. In the setting of a type II odontoid fracture, C1-C2 motion during intubation with either the Macintosh or the Airtraq does not appear to greatly exceed physiologic values or to have a high likelihood of hyperextension or direct cord compression.

  8. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  9. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  10. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  11. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog.

  12. Do the dimensions of the distal phalanges allow suture anchor fixation of the flexor digitorum profundus? A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jain, D K; Kakarala, G; Compson, J; Singh, R

    2011-10-01

    This study was done to identify whether the dimensions of the distal phalanges allow suture anchor fixation of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. Forty pairs of hands were dissected to measure the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of distal phalanges of all digits. The mean anteroposterior depth of the distal phalanx at the insertion of the tendon was found to be 4.7 mm for the little finger, 5.4 mm for the ring finger, 5.9 mm for the middle finger, 5.4 mm for the index finger and 6.9 mm for the thumb respectively. The commonly available anchors and drill bits for fingers were found to be suboptimal for anchoring the flexor digitorum profundus tendon to the distal phalanx of the little finger. The drill bits used for these anchors were found to be too long for the little fingers and some ring and index fingers.

  13. Lunate trabecular structure: a radiographic cadaver study of risk factors for Kienböck's disease [corrected].

    PubMed

    Owers, K L; Scougall, P; Dabirrahmani, D; Wernecke, G; Jhamb, A; Walsh, W R

    2010-02-01

    The aetiology of Kienböck's disease is unknown. Ulnar variance and lunate shape are possible mechanical risk factors. This study assessed the trabecular structure in 29 cadaveric lunates using microCT and correlated this with ulnar variance and lunate shape on plain radiographs and with bone density assessed using conventional CT. The bony trabeculae within the lunate were shown to run almost perpendicular to the proximal and distal joint surfaces in the coronal plane; these trabeculae met the subchondral bone at an angle between 72-102 degrees. In lunates whose proximal and distal articular surfaces are not parallel, the trabecular orientation may be less able to resist compressive forces and more susceptible to fracture.

  14. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided.

  15. How many radiographs are needed to detect angular stable head screw cut outs of the proximal humerus - a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Spross, Christian; Jost, Bernhard; Rahm, Stefan; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Erhardt, Johannes; Benninger, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cut out of locking head screws is the most common complication of locking plates in fracture fixation of the proximal humerus with potentially disastrous consequences. Aim of the study was to find the single best and combination of radiographic projections to reliably detect screw cut outs. The locking plate was fixed to six cadaveric proximal humeri. Six different radiographs were performed: anteriorposterior in internal (apIR), in neutral (ap0) and in 30° external rotation (apER); axial in 30° (ax30) and 60° (ax60) abduction and an outlet view. Each head screw (n=9) was sequentially exchanged to perforate the humeral head with the tip and all radiographs were repeated for each cut out. Randomized image reading by two blinded examiners for cut out was done for single projection and combinations. Interrater agreement was 0.72-0.93. Best single projection was ax30 (sensitivity 76%) and the worst was the outlet view (sens. 17%). Standard combination of apIR/outlet reached a sens. of 54%. The best combination of two was: apER/ax30 (90% sens.), of three: apIR/apER/ax30 (96% sens.) and of four: apIR/ap0/apER/ax30 (100% sens.). Standard radiographs (ap/outlet), especially in internal rotation, may miss nearly half of screw cut outs. Single best radiographic projection was an axial view with 30° abduction. To account for all cut outs and correct screw position a combination of four projections was needed. These simple and feasible intraoperative and postoperative radiographs help to detect screw perforations of the locking plate reliably. I (Study of Diagnostic Test). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intrafemoral pressure measurement in different cement removal procedures during hip prosthesis replacement operations--experimental study with cadaver femora].

    PubMed

    Porsch, M; Schmidt, J; Brimmers, P; Menne, A; Merkle, W

    1998-03-01

    During primary hip arthroplasty an increase in intramedullary pressure (IMP) of up to 1000 mm Hg can be observed. As a result of this increased intrafemoral pressure, intramedullary constituents can pass into the venous circulation creating a risk of fat embolism syndrome (FES). In the present experimental study on 9 femora obtained from human corpses, we investigated the question as to whether various methods of cement removal during total hip revision arthroplasty are also associated with increased intramedullary pressure and a risk of FES. The IMP was recorded with a standardized experimental set-up during removal of cement from the proximal and distal regions, including removal of the cement "tip" and the intramedullary plug. The methods employed for this purpose included the osteotome and mallet, a compressed air powered chisel, and a modified intracorporal lithotripter. All the methods induced fluctuations in the IMP the highest values being recorded for the conventional method using the osteotome and mallet (45 mm Hg) and the lowest values for the intracorporeal lithotripter (7.5 mm Hg). Working on the distal cement caused higher fluctuations in comparison with the proximal region. The study failed to reveal any increase in mean IMP, and all measured values were in the low pressure range (considerably below 150 mm Hg). While there seems to be no apparent risk of an FES developing during removal of cement, careless manipulation of the distal cement plug may result in higher intrafemoral pressures--above 150 mm Hg--thus increasing the risk of a fat embolism syndrome.

  17. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with Thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton TI-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  18. Gross anatomical study of bilateral megaureters associated with renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder: an adult cadaver with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Naito, Munekazu; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Kawata, Shinichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Although bilateral megaureters are not an infrequent occurrence in the urinary tract, bilateral megaureters associated with bilateral renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder appear to be rare. In this paper, a cadaver case of an adult Japanese male with bilateral megaureters is described. In addition to describing and illustrating this case, the anatomy and etiology of these anomalous structures is discussed with a brief review of the literature.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the working area obtained by endoscope and microscope in pterional and orbitozigomatic approach to the basilar artery bifurcation using computed tomography based frameless stereotaxy: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Filipce, Venko; Ammirati, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Basilar aneurisms are one of the most complex and challenging pathologies for neurosurgeons to treat. Endoscopy is a recently rediscovered neurosurgical technique that could lend itself well to overcome some of the vascular visualization challenges associated with this pathology. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the basilar artery (BA) bifurcation (tip of the basilar) working area afforded by the microscope and the endoscope using different approaches and image guidance. Materials and Methods: We performed a total of 9 dissections, including pterional (PT) and orbitozygomatic (OZ) approaches bilaterally in five whole, fresh cadaver heads. We used computed tomography based image guidance for intraoperative navigation as well as for quantitative measurements. We estimated the working area of the tip of the basilar, using both a rigid endoscope and an operating microscope. Operability was qualitatively assessed by the senior authors. Results: In microscopic exposure, the OZ approach provided greater working area (160 ± 34.3 mm2) compared to the PT approach (129.8 ± 37.6 mm2) (P > 0.05). The working area in both PT and OZ approaches using 0° and 30° endoscopes was larger than the one available using the microscope alone (P < 0.05). In the PT approach, both 0° and 30° endoscopes provided a working area greater than a microscopic OZ approach (P < 0.05) and an area comparable to the OZ endoscopic approach (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Integration of endoscope and microscope in both PT and OZ approaches can provide significantly greater surgical exposure of the BA bifurcation compared to that afforded by the conventional approaches alone. PMID:25972933

  20. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  1. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  2. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  3. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  4. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  5. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males <80 years with good bone quality. Since most hip fractures occur in old women with fragile bones, concern is raised regarding the use of standard 4GCFs in biomechanical experiments. In this study the stability of hip fracture fixations in 4GCFs was compared to human cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Time- and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase activity and cyanide concentration in excised mice organs and mice cadavers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Rao, Pooja; Yadav, Shiv K; Gujar, Niranjan L; Satpute, Ravindra M; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem stability of cyanide biomarkers is often disputed. We assessed the time and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and cyanide concentration in various organs of mice succumbing to cyanide. Immediately after death, excised mice organs and mice cadavers were stored at room temperature (35°C ± 5°C) or in frozen storage (-20°C ± 2°C). At various times after death, CCO activity and cyanide concentrations were measured in excised mice organs or organs removed from mice cadavers. The study revealed that (i) measuring both the biomarkers in mice cadavers was more reliable compared to excised mice organs, (ii) measuring temporal CCO activity and cyanide concentration in vital organs from mice cadavers (room temperature) was reliable up to 24 h, and (iii) CCO activity in the brain and lungs and cyanide concentration in organs from mice cadavers (frozen) were measurable beyond 21 days. This study will be helpful in postmortem determination of cyanide poisoning.

  7. A novel cadaver-based educational program in general surgery training.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine E; Peacock, Warwick J; Tillou, Areti; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    To describe the development of a cadaver-based educational program and report our residents' assessment of the new program. An anatomy-based educational program was developed using fresh frozen cadavers to teach surgical anatomy and operative skills to general surgery (GS) trainees. Residents were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey evaluating perceptions of the program (6 questions formulated on a 5-point Likert scale) and comparing cadaver sessions to other types of learning (4 rank order questions). Large university teaching hospital. Medical students, residents, and faculty members were participants in the cadaver programs. Only GS residents were asked to complete the survey. Since its implementation, 150 residents of all levels participated in 13 sessions. A total of 40 surveys were returned for a response rate of 89%. Overall, respondents held a positive view of the cadaver sessions and believed them to be useful for learning anatomy (94% agree or strongly agree), learning the steps of an operation (76% agree or strongly agree), and increasing confidence in doing an operation (53% agree or strongly agree). Trainees wanted to have more sessions (87% agree or strongly agree), and believed they would spend free time in the cadaver laboratory (58% agree or strongly agree). Compared with other learning modalities, cadaver sessions were ranked first for learning surgical anatomy, followed by textbooks, simulators, web sites, animate laboratories, and lectures. Respondents also ranked cadaver sessions first for increasing confidence in performing a procedure and for learning the steps of an operation. Cost of cadavers represented the major expense of the program. Fresh cadaver dissections represent a solution to the challenges of efficient, safe, and effective general surgery education. Residents have a positive attitude toward these teaching sessions and found them to be more effective than other learning modalities. Copyright © 2012 Association of

  8. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  9. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  10. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  11. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  12. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  13. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than slaughter...

  14. Veterinary science student preferences for the source of dog cadavers used in anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Tiplady, Catherine; Lloyd, Shan; Morton, John

    2011-10-01

    Live animals and cadavers are integral to veterinary education. In the year of this survey (2008), and in at least the five preceding years, cadavers obtained by euthanasia of healthy pound dogs and ex-racing greyhounds were dissected by students, during their veterinary anatomy classes at the University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science. Students may have ethical concerns about this. An alternative approach was to use donated dog cadavers. These are owned pet dogs that have died of natural causes or have been euthanised for medical reasons, and have been donated by their owners for the purposes of veterinary education. Veterinary students at the School were surveyed in 2008, in order to determine their preferences for cadaver source. Data from 406 questionnaires were analysed. Third-year and fifth-year veterinary students were more likely than first-year students to prefer pound-dog/greyhound cadavers over donated cadavers for anatomy dissection (p ≤ 0.002). Between 32% and 45% of the students had no preference for either source of cadaver. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that veterinary students become more accepting of the euthanasia of unwanted healthy animals for education as they progress through the veterinary programme, in contexts such as the current study. This could occur due to increased acceptance of the euthanasia of healthy animals generally, a decline in moral development, desensitisation, and/or the belief that healthy animal cadavers offer a superior learning experience. 2011 FRAME.

  15. Postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in feline cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.

  16. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: Quantification of Bacterial Replication within Cadavers, Transmission via Cannibalism, and Inhibition of Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  17. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen.

  18. Robotic Transabdominal Control of the Suprahepatic, Infradiaphragmatic Vena Cava to Enable Level 3 Caval Tumor Thrombectomy: Pilot Study in a Perfused-Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Chopra, Sameer; Azhar, Raed A; Berger, Andre K; Metcalfe, Charles; Minetti, Michael; Carey, Joseph N; Ukimura, Osamu; Desai, Mihir; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-10-01

    To develop a robotic technique for exclusively transabdominal control of the suprahepatic, infradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava (IVC) to enable level 3 IVC tumor thrombectomy. Robotic technique was developed in three fresh, perfused-model cadavers. Preoperatively, inflow (right jugular vein) and outflow (left femoral vein) cannulae were inserted and connected to a centrifugal pump to establish a 10 mmHg pressure in the IVC for the water-perfused cadaver model. Using a five-port transperitoneal robotic approach, the falciform ligament was detached from the anterior abdominal wall toward its junction with the diaphragm and tautly retracted caudally; this adequately retracted the liver caudally as well. Triangular and coronary ligaments were incised, allowing ready visualization of suprahepatic/infradiaphragmatic IVC and right/left main hepatic veins. Under direct robotic visualization, IVC was circumferentially mobilized, vessel-looped, and controlled. All three robotic procedures were successfully completed transabdominally. Average robotic time to control the suprahepatic IVC was 37 minutes; in each case, the suprahepatic IVC was circumferentially controlled with a vessel-loop. There were no intraoperative complications. Length of the mobilized suprahepatic IVC measured between 2 and 3 cm. Right and left suprahepatic veins were clearly visualized in each case. Necropsy revealed no intra-abdominal/intrathoracic visceral or vascular injuries to the suprahepatic IVC, bilateral hepatic veins, or tributaries. We developed a novel robotic technique for transabdominal control of the suprahepatic infradiaphragmatic IVC in a perfused human cadaver model. This approach may extend the application of advanced robotic techniques for the performance of major vena caval, hepatic, and level 3 IVC renal tumor thrombus surgery.

  19. Simulation of the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (AMO Inc., Santa Ana, CA) in porcine cadaver iris was simulated using COMSOL (Comsol Inc., Burlington, MA) finite element software. Temperature increases up to 2.45 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ laser pulse energy and 24 second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris from the simulation with little variation in temperature profiles compared with specimens for the same laser energy illumination in experiment. : The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.23 °C temperature increase and, therefore, does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  20. The use of specially designed tasks to enhance student interest in the cadaver dissection laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-Il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout dissection. Student response and the effects of the tasks on examination scores were analyzed. The subjects of this study were 154 medical students who attended the dissection laboratory in 2009. Four tasks were given to teams of seven to eight students over the course of 2 weeks of lower limb dissection. The tasks were designed such that the answers could not be obtained by referencing books or searching the Internet, but rather through careful observation of the cadavers and discussion among team members. Questionnaires were administered. The majority of students agreed that the tasks were interesting (68.0%), encouraged team discussion (76.8%), and facilitated their understanding of anatomy (72.8%). However, they did not prefer that additional tasks be assigned during the other laboratory sessions. When examination scores of those who responded positively were compared with those who responded neutrally or negatively, no statistically significant differences could be found. In conclusion, the specially designed tasks assigned to students in the cadaver dissection laboratory encouraged team discussion and collaborative learning, and thereby generated interest in laboratory work. However, knowledge acquisition was not improved.

  1. Cadaver use at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Natalie R; Wilson, Rebecca J; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2011-04-01

    The Anthropological Research Facility allows actualistic studies evaluating human decomposition to be conducted in a controlled, scientific setting. These studies have had significant ramifications for forensic investigations. Donated cadavers are used to study the precise nature and timing of decomposition events. More than 1,000 bodies have been donated, and more than 2,000 individuals are registered for donation on their death. Initial studies using cadavers focused on gross morphological changes of human decomposition, while more recent research has delved into biochemical analyses. This research has contributed to the accuracy of time since death estimations, which may be critical in criminal investigations. Furthermore, the donated cadavers contribute to the unprecedented diversity of the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection, which allows for a wide range of skeletal-based research. The continuous supply of human cadavers is essential for these research endeavors, and the Forensic Anthropology Center strives to ensure that donor wishes are fulfilled and to assure donors that their invaluable gift will serve the scientific community for years to come.

  2. Surgical anatomy of the first extensor compartment: A systematic review and comparison of normal cadavers vs. De Quervain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z-Hye; Stranix, J T; Anzai, Lavinia; Sharma, Sheel

    2017-01-01

    De Quervain syndrome or tenosynovitis is a common wrist pathology caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant anatomic variation within the first extensor compartment. The terms "De Quervain's tenosynovitis" and "first extensor compartment anatomy" were comprehensively searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database. The presence of a septum within the first dorsal compartment, the number of APL (abductor pollicis longus), and EPB (extensor pollicis brevis) tendon slips were identified. A total of 574 articles were identified on initial search, of which 21 met inclusion criteria. There were 1901 normal cadaver specimens and 470 surgically treated De Quervain disease patients, whose data were available. A septum was present in 43.7% of normal cadavers versus 62.2% De Quervain patients with 58.5% (327 of 559) of the septi characterized as incomplete. There was a difference in the number of APL tendons with a single APL tendon slip noted in 18.3% of normal cadavers (200/1096) versus 27.2% of De Quervain patients (87/230). There was a difference in the number of EPB tendons between the normal cadavers and De Quervain's wrists with 2 or more EPB tendinous slips observed in 5.9% of normal cadavers compared with 2.9% of De Quervain patients. Significant anatomic variability exists within the first extensor compartment. Patients with De Quervain disease were more likely to have a septum dividing the compartment and a single slip of APL. These variations are clinically relevant in the pathophysiology and treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Prognostic studies. Level III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  4. Anorectal Transplantation in Human Cadavers: Mock Anorectal Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Nishizawa, Yuji; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Akita, Keiichi; Tashiro, Kensuke; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Background Anorectal transplantation is a method for patients who have lost their anorectal function or suffer from congenital anorectal dysfunction to recover this function, and this has been investigated in experimental animal models using pigs, dogs, and rats. In this study, we performed an examination of anorectal transplantation in human cadavers to investigate whether this procedure could be performed in patients. Methods A 77-year-old woman cadaver 1 was used as the donor and a 98-year-old woman cadaver 2 was used as the recipient. Initially, abdominoperineal excision of the anus and rectum (the Miles’ operation) was performed on the recipient. Next, an anorectal graft containing the pudendal nerve (PN), pudendal artery (PA), pudendal vein (PV), inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) was harvested from the donor. The donor graft was transplanted into the recipient by intestinal anastomosis and microneurovascular anastomoses orthotopically. Results The diameters of the PN (right/left), IMA, and IMV were 2.5 mm/2.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 1.5 mm, respectively, in cadaver 1, and 2.0 mm/2.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively, in cadaver 2. The length of the PN, PA, PV, IMA, and IMV in the graft was sufficient to allow proper anastomosis. Conclusion This preliminary study indicated that human anorectal transplantation was possible anatomically and technically. We anticipate our study will aid in the potential future application of this procedure to human patients. PMID:23874833

  5. Levels of formaldehyde vapor released from embalmed cadavers in each dissection stage.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Yota; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Odaka, Yoko; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an aldehyde used in antiseptics and adhesives. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other institutes have linked FA to sick building syndrome and allergic diseases. Recent studies have reported that cadavers embalmed using formalin and ethanol-based preservative solutions release FA vapor during dissection and that FA vapor may adversely affect students and lecturers in gross anatomy laboratories. However, few details have been reported correlating dissection stage with increased FA vapor release. In this study, we evaluated the vapor level of FA released in each dissection stage. Six cadavers for which consent was given for use in anatomy research and education were examined in this study. Using an active sampling method, FA vapor was collected above the thoracoabdominal region of each dissected cadaver. FA was eluted from each sampler using acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our data show that FA levels significantly increase after skin incision and that the vapor level of FA released differs between male and female cadavers. We also found that subcutaneous adipose tissues of the thoracoabdominal-region release FA vapor and that female cadavers release significantly higher levels of FA per kilogram of subcutaneous adipose tissue than do male cadavers. Based on these data, we propose the methods be developed to prevent exposure to FA vapors released from cadavers.

  6. The effect of direct measurement versus cadaver estimates of anthropometry in the calculation of joint moments during above-knee prosthetic gait in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Evan J; Requejo, Philip S; Fowler, Eileen G

    2008-01-01

    Joint reaction forces, moments and powers are important in interpreting gait mechanics and compensatory strategies used by patients walking with above-knee prostheses. Segmental anthropometrics, required to calculate joint moments, are often estimated using data from cadaver studies. However, these values may not be accurate for patients following amputation as prostheses are composed of non-biologic material. The purpose of this study was to compare joint moments using anthropometrics calculated from cadaver studies versus direct measurements of the residual limb and prosthesis for children with an above-knee amputation. Gait data were collected for four subjects with above-knee prostheses walking at preferred and fast speeds. Joint moments were computed using anthropometrics from cadaver studies and direct measurements for each subject. The difference between these two methods primarily affected the inertia couple (Ialpha term) and the inertial effect due to gravity, which comprised a greater percentage of the total joint moment during swing as compared to stance. Peak hip and knee flexor and extensor moments during swing were significantly greater when calculated using cadaver data (p<0.05). These differences were greater while walking fast as compared to slow speeds. A significant difference was not found between these two methods for peak hip and knee moments during stance. A significant difference was found for peak ankle joint moments during stance, but the magnitude was not clinically important. These results support the use of direct measurements of anthropometry when examining above-knee prosthetic gait, particularly during swing.

  7. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.; Kramer, D.M.; Geisinger, M.; Chilcote, W.; George, C.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Moodie, D.S.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton Tl-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Dark age of sourcing cadavers in developing countries: a Nigerian survey.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, G E; Udemezue, O O; Obikili, E N

    2011-10-01

    Throughout the history of medical science, the sourcing, storage, and management of cadavers for the study of gross anatomy have been problematic issues. As presented in this report, a study of these issues was conducted in the departments of anatomy of medical schools in Nigeria. To establish the extent and depth of the prevailing difficulties in the sourcing of cadavers, 18 (62.1%) of the Departments of Anatomy that qualified for this study were used. In sum, 94.4% of these schools reported an inadequate number of cadavers for study. The estimated ages of the cadavers were between 20 and 40 years and 85% of the schools reported more than 75% of the cadavers to be from the lower socioeconomic class. Altogether, 94.4% of the schools reported a male dominance of more than 95%. More than 72% of the schools reported that more than 90% of the cadavers were criminals that had been killed by shooting, less than 10% were unclaimed and unidentified corpses, and 0% originated from body bequest. No form of screening exercises for diseases and infective microorganisms was noted for all the schools, and there were no set standards for the acceptance or rejection of cadavers. Causative factors for the profile of available cadavers such as culture and religion were noted. This study was designed to look at various issues associated with the sourcing of cadavers for Anatomy education in typical developing African countries like Nigeria. As outlined in this report, the creation of legislation and the promotion and funding of programs highlighting the importance of body donation are crucial for improving the field of medical education.

  9. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem.

  10. Total mesorectal excision training in soft cadaver: feasibility and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya; Suansawan, Channarong

    2006-09-01

    The major problem in the treatment of rectal cancer is local recurrence. After the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME), the recurrent rate decreased from 100% to around 10%. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of organ and tissue plane preservation in soft cadaver and to assess the feasibility to perform the procedure (mobilization of colon and rectum, total mesorectal excision and stapler anastomosis) in soft cadaver. Colorectal Division, Department of Surgery and Surgical Training Center Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. Prospective descriptive study. Seven soft cadavers were used for total mesorectal excision (TME) training. These procedures were performed by 21 participants (1 soft cadaver for 3 participants). The procedures were done under the supervision of experienced colorectal surgeons. The successfulness, satisfaction in performing the procedure and the quality of organ preservation were evaluated using standardized questionnaires. Participants were satisfied about TME training in soft cadaver (mean 8.24-8.71) and rated that soft cadavers were good in terms of internal organs and tissue plane preservation (mean 7.19-8.19) (0 = extremely unsatisfied, 10 = extremely satisfied). Training of TME in soft cadaver is feasible. The similarity in tissue quality (texture, consistency, color) of the preserved organs to that of the living and the good feel of performing the procedure make the trainee better understand the techniques and improve their skills.

  11. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of levels of Insulin in cadaveric fluids, to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was carried out. To profile postmortem changes of Insulin, it was extracted at different intervals i.e. (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h), from the heart of 22 human cadavers. The cases included were the subjects of accidental deaths without any prior history of disease and their exact time of death was known. Immunoanalyzer Cobas e-411 instrument was used to detect the relationship between the amount of Insulin and PMI. Level of Insulin was measured in cardiac blood. Statically, significant correlations between levels of Insulin and PMI were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated. SPSS (version 12.0) was used for statistical analysis. Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y)=22.71-0.93 Insulin level (X)].

  12. Lessons from the dead: the experiences of undergraduates working with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Brent Dean; Tomaka, Ashley; Innus, Cara; Patterson, Joel; Styn, Gary

    Dissection of a human cadaver is a time-honored tradition for teaching anatomy in medical education. However, in recent years, for a variety of reasons, including costs and ethical concerns, some medical programs have ceased cadaver dissection in exchange for virtual dissection of cadavers in cyberspace. Past research suggests that students find work on a cadaver to be distressing, but also rewarding. This study analyzed journal entries from 21 undergraduate students working with a cadaver in a gross anatomy course. An empirical, phenomenological analysis of the data identified 19 common themes among the participant's journal entries. In addition, the analysis disclosed how participants usually felt a need to justify the act of dissection. Finally, the analysis identified how students differed in the varied ways they coped with the ambiguous status of the cadaver, which was sometimes viewed as a deceased person while at other times experienced as a fascinating machine. Based on the findings, the researchers offer recommendations for helping students to better cope with the experience of cadaver dissection and to use the experience pedagogically to better prepare students for the stress of the medical world, especially issues surrounding death and dying.

  13. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Imakuma, Ernesto Sasaki; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Meyer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. MATERIALS AND METHODS AND RESULTS: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. CONCLUSION: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy. PMID:27073318

  14. Using ATP-driven bioluminescence assay to monitor microbial safety in a contemporary human cadaver laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Maier, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a cost-effective method for assessing the levels of bacterial, yeast, and mold activity during a human dissection laboratory course. Nowadays, compliance with safety regulations is policed by institutions at higher standards than ever before. Fear of acquiring an unknown infection is one of the top concerns of professional healthcare students, and it provokes anti-laboratory anxiety. Human cadavers are not routinely tested for bacteria and viruses prior to embalming. Human anatomy dissecting rooms that house embalmed cadavers are normally cleaned after the dissected cadavers have been removed. There is no evidence that investigators have ever assessed bacterial and fungal activities using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven bioluminescence assays. A literature search was conducted on texts, journals, and websites regarding bacterial, yeast, and mold activities in an active cadaver laboratory. Midway into a clinical anatomy course, ATP bioluminescence assays were used to swab various sites within the dissection room, including entrance and exiting door handles, water taps, cadaver tables, counter tops, imaging material, X-ray box switches, and the cadaver surfaces. The results demonstrated very low activities on cadaver tables, washing up areas, and exiting door handles. There was low activity on counter tops and X-ray boxes. There was medium activity on the entrance door handles. These findings suggest an inexpensive and accurate method for monitoring safety compliance and microbial activity. Students can feel confident and safe in the environment in which they work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Current status of cadaver sources in Turkey and a wake-up call for Turkish anatomists.

    PubMed

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Coşkun, Osman; Öztürk, Adnan

    2017-06-28

    Persisting difficulties in body procurement in Turkey led to the acquisition of donated, unclaimed, autopsied, and imported bodies regulated under current legislature. Yet, no study had investigated the extent of the on-going cadaver problem. This study was aimed to outline cadaver sources in anatomy departments and their effectiveness by means of an online survey. Additionally, official websites of each department were investigated regarding any information on body donation. Unclaimed cadavers (84.8%) were the major source for anatomy departments, followed by donated (50%) and imported cadavers (39.1%). Foundation-based medical faculties were more likely to import cadavers (P = 0.008). There was a moderate increase (rs  = 0.567; P = 0.018) in donation registrations to our department after 2000. The departments in cities with significantly higher City-Based Gross Domestic Product measures (US$9,900 vs. US$16,772, P = 0.041), frequencies for mid- or high-school graduates (30.4% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.041), and frequencies for under- or post-graduates (13.1% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.24) had managed to use donated cadavers. Anatomy departments' major reasons for using unclaimed cadavers were education (45.9%), unclaimed cadavers being the only source (24.3%), and receiving inadequate donations (21.6%). Nine out of seventy-four departments (12.2%) provided information regarding body donation on their websites. Body procurement remains as a serious problem in Turkey and it is apparent that current legislature does not provide a sufficient cadaver inflow. Similarly, anatomy departments' effectiveness in public awareness of body donation and support in the National Body Donation Campaign seems questionable. Anat Sci Educ, © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Use of cadaver models in point-of-care emergency ultrasound education for diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Zaia, Brita E; Briese, Beau; Williams, Sarah R; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2012-10-01

    As the use of bedside emergency ultrasound (US) increases, so does the need for effective US education. To determine 1) what pathology can be reliably simulated and identified by US in human cadavers, and 2) feasibility of using cadavers to improve the comfort of emergency medicine (EM) residents with specific US applications. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey study assessed utility of cadaver simulation to train EM residents in diagnostic US. First, the following pathologies were simulated in a cadaver: orbital foreign body (FB), retrobulbar (RB) hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion. Second, we assessed residents' change in comfort level with US after using this cadaver model. Residents were surveyed regarding their comfort level with various US applications. After brief didactic sessions on the study's US applications, participants attempted to identify the simulated pathology using US. A post-lab survey assessed for change in comfort level after the training. Orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion were readily modeled in a cadaver in ways typical of a live patient. Twenty-two residents completed the pre- and post-lab surveys. After training with cadavers, residents' comfort improved significantly for orbital FB and RB hematoma (mean increase 1.6, p<0.001), bone fracture (mean increase 2.12, p<0.001), and joint effusion (1.6, p<0.001); 100% of residents reported that they found US education using cadavers helpful. Cadavers can simulate orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion, and in our center improved the comfort of residents in identifying all but pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  18. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  19. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of small and large-bore thoracostomy tubes for pleural space evacuation in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Fetzer, Tara J; Walker, Julie M; Bach, Jonathan F

    2017-05-01

    To determine if there is a difference in the amounts of air (A), low-viscosity fluid (LV), or high-viscosity fluid (HV) that can be aspirated from the pleural cavity of canine cadavers using small-bore (SB) or large-bore (LB) thoracostomy tubes. Prospective experimental ex vivo study. University teaching hospital. Thirty-six canine cadavers. Each cadaver was randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups (SB-A, LB-A, SB-LV, LB-LV, SB-HV, LB-HV). In each cadaver bilateral thoracostomy tubes (either SB or LB) were placed and 20 mL/kg of air, LV fluid, or HV fluid was instilled via 1 thoracostomy tube. Both tubes were aspirated and the volume aspirated was recorded and analyzed as a percentage of instilled air or fluid volume. The procedure was repeated on the contralateral hemithorax. There was no significant difference in air or fluid recovery when SB and LB groups were compared. Median (range) air recovery volumes in the SB-A and LB-A groups were 101.5% (94.4-115.8%) and 102.8% (94.1-107.8%), respectively (P = 0.898). Recovery of LV fluid was 93.5% (79.2-99.0%) for SB-LV and 85.8% (77.1-101.8%) for LB-LV cadavers (P = 0.305) and recovery percentages of HV fluid were 92.6% (86.1-96.2%) and 91.4% (74.2-96.4%) for SB-HV and LB-HV groups, respectively (P > 0.999). There was no significant difference between SB and LB groups when all substances were combined (94.1% [79.2-115.8%] and 93.5% [74.2-107.8%], respectively, P = 0.557). SB and LB thoracostomy tubes demonstrated similar efficacy in removing known amounts of air, LV fluid, and HV fluid from the pleural space of canine cadavers. Further study is necessary to determine if SB and LB thoracostomy tubes demonstrate similar efficacy in clinical veterinary patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  1. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J A; Dandorf, Stewart J; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001) and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001). The use of this novel cadaver model prevented extravasation of fluid

  2. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J.A.; Dandorf, Stewart J.; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Results Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001) and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of this novel cadaver

  3. Feasibility for mapping cartilage t1 relaxation times in the distal metacarpus3/metatarsus3 of thoroughbred racehorses using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC): normal cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Velleman, Mark; Dahlberg, Leif E; Fletcher, Lizelle; Lammentausta, Eveliina

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joints is one of the major causes of poor performance in horses. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) may be a useful technique for noninvasively quantifying articular cartilage damage in horses. The purpose of this study was to describe dGEMRIC characteristics of the distal metacarpus3/metatarsus3 (Mc3/Mt3) articular cartilage in 20 cadaver specimens collected from normal Thoroughbred horses. For each specimen, T1 relaxation time was measured from scans acquired precontrast and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min post intraarticular injection of Gd-DTPA(2-) (dGEMRIC series). For each scan, T1 relaxation times were calculated using five regions of interest (sites 1-5) in the cartilage. For all sites, a significant decrease in T1 relaxation times occurred between precontrast scans and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min scans of the dGEMRIC series (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in T1 relaxation times occurred between 60 and 180 min and between 120 and 180 min post Gd injection for all sites. For sites 1-4, a significant increase in T1 relaxation time occurred between 30 and 180 min postinjection (P < 0.05). Sites 1-5 differed significantly among one another for all times (P < 0.0001). Findings from this cadaver study indicated that dGEMRIC using intraarticular Gd-DTPA(2-) is a feasible technique for measuring and mapping changes in T1 relaxation times in equine metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint cartilage. Optimal times for postcontrast scans were 60-120 min. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings are reproducible in live horses. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  4. Effect of splenectomy on first cadaver kidney transplants.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, F P; Reckard, C R; Ketel, B L; Schulak, J A

    1980-01-01

    A prospective study was begun in January 1975 to evaluate the effect of splenectomy on graft and patient survival in recipients of first cadaver kidney transplants. Ninety-two cases were evaluated. Splenectomy increased the survival of both grafts and recipients. The benefit from splenectomy compensated readily for the perioperative morbidity of splenectomy and the long-term increased risk of sepsis from certain bacteria for the asplenic patient. Splenectomy exerted its effect by reducing the incidence and intensity of rejection episodes. It was not clear whether the observation resulted from a direct immunosuppressive effect of splenectomy or from the increased tolerance to azathioprine observed in asplenic recipients. Finally, splenectomy negated an effect of race that had been observed earlier for survival of cadaver transplants and recipients. PMID:7000012

  5. Urodynamic effects of a percutaneously controlled static hydraulic urethral sphincter in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Adin, Christopher A; Farese, James P; Cross, Alan R; Provitola, Mary K; Davidson, Jeffrey S; Jankunas, Hope

    2004-03-01

    To describe a percutaneously controlled static hydraulic urethral sphincter (SHUS) and evaluate urodynamic effects of the SHUS in canine cadavers. Cadavers of 6 adult female dogs. Cadavers were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanatized. Baseline maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and cystourethral leak point pressure (CLPP) were measured by use of a urethral pressure profilometer. An SHUS system was constructed by use of a silicone vascular occluder and subcutaneous infusion port. The SHUS system was then placed around the pelvic urethra in each cadaver. Measurements of MUCP and CLPP were repeated after varying occlusion of the SHUS (0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion). Baseline MUCP and CLPP values were compared with values obtained at 0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion of the SHUS by use of repeated-measures ANOVA. Mean +/- SD MUCP for canine cadavers was 7 +/- 1.3 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 127 +/- 53 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean CLPP was 11 +/- 8.6 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 73 +/- 38 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean MUCP and CLPP were significantly associated with the amount of occlusion. The SHUS had positive effects on MUCP and CLPP in canine cadavers. Therefore, additional evaluation of the SHUS in live dogs is warranted.

  6. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Tedford, Clark E; DeLapp, Scott; Jacques, Steven; Anders, Juanita

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level light therapy has been used successfully for the treatment of injury and disease of the nervous system. The use of PBM to treat injury and diseases of the brain requires an in-depth understanding of light propagation through tissues including scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength-dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Intact human cadaver heads (n = 8) were obtained for measurement of light propagation through the scalp/skull/meninges and into brain tissue. The cadaver heads were sectioned in either the transverse or mid-sagittal. The sectioned head was mounted into a cranial fixture with an 808 nm wavelength laser system illuminating the head from beneath with either pulsed-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW) laser light. A linear array of nine isotropic optical fibers on a 5 mm pitch was inserted into the brain tissue along the optical axis of the beam. Light collected from each fiber was delivered to a multichannel power meter. As the array was lowered into the tissue, the power from each probe was recorded at 5 mm increments until the inner aspect of the dura mater was reached. Intraparenchymal light penetration measurements were made by delivering a series of wavelengths (660, 808, and 940 nm) through a separate optical fiber within the array, which was offset from the array line by 5 mm. Local light penetration was determined and compared across the selected wavelengths. Unfixed cadaver brains provide good anatomical localization and reliable measurements of light scatter and penetration in the CNS tissues. Transcranial application of 808 nm wavelength light penetrated the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain

  7. Diagnosis of Complex Pulley Ruptures Using Ultrasound in Cadaver Models.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, Isabelle; Hugel, Arnica; Schöffl, Volker; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Pulley ruptures are common in climbing athletes. The purposes of this study were to determine the specific positioning of each pulley with regards to the joint, and to evaluate the ultrasound diagnostics of various pulley rupture combinations. For this, 34 cadaver fingers were analyzed via ultrasound, the results of which were compared to anatomic measurements. Different pulley ruptures were then simulated and evaluated using ultrasound in standardized dynamic forced flexion. Visualization of the A2 and A4 pulleys was achieved 100% of the time, while the A3 pulley was visible in 74% of cases. Similarly, injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys were readily observable, while A3 pulley injuries were more challenging to identify (sensitivity of 0.2 for singular A3 pulley, 0.5 for A2/A4 pulley and 0.33 for A3/A4 pulley ruptures). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the optimal tendon-bone distance for pulley rupture diagnosis, a threshold which was determined to be 1.9 mm for A2 pulley ruptures and 1.85 for A4 pulley ruptures. This study was the first to carry out a cadaver ultrasound examination of a wide variety of pulley ruptures. Ultrasound is a highly accurate tool for visualizing the A2 and A4 pulleys in a cadaver model. This method of pathology diagnosis was determined to be suitable for injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys, but inadequate for A3 pulley injuries. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HLA AND CROSS·REACTIVE ANTIGEN GROUP MATCHING FOR CADAVER KIDNEY ALLOCATION1

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Eliasziw, Michael; Gjertson, David; Terasaki, Paul I.; Fung, John J.; Trucco, Massimo; Martell, Joan; McMichael, John; Scantlebury, Velma; Shapiro, Ron; Donner, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Background Allocation of cadaver kidneys by graded human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility scoring arguably has had little effect on overall survival while prejudicing the transplant candidacy of African-American and other hard to match populations. Consequently, matching has been proposed of deduced amino acid residues of the individual HLA molecules shared by cross-reactive antigen groups (CREGs). We have examined the circumstances under which compatibility with either method impacted graft survival. Methods Using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, we studied the relationship between levels of conventional HLA mismatch and other donor and recipient factors on primary cadaver kidney survival between 1981 and 1995 at the University of Pittsburgh (n=1,780) and in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Scientific Registry during 1991–1995 (n=31,291). The results were compared with those obtained by the matching of amino acid residues that identified CREG-compatible cases with as many as four (but not five and six) HLA mismatches. Results With more than one HLA mismatch (>85% of patients in both series), most of the survival advantage of a zero mismatch was lost. None of the HLA loci were “weak.” In the UNOS (but not Pittsburgh) category of one-HLA mismatch (n=1334), a subgroup of CREG-matched recipients (35.3%) had better graft survival than the remaining 64.7%, who were CREG-mismatched. There was no advantage of a CREG match in the two- to four-HLA incompatibility tiers. Better graft survival with tacrolimus was observed in both the Pittsburgh and UNOS series. Conclusions Obligatory national sharing of cadaver kidneys is justifiable only for zero-HLA-mismatched kidneys. The potential value of CREG matching observed in the one-HLA-mismatched recipients of the UNOS (but not the Pittsburgh) experience deserves further study. PMID:9381546

  9. Bone conduction in Thiel-embalmed cadaver heads.

    PubMed

    Guignard, Jérémie; Stieger, Christof; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco; Arnold, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Sound can reach the inner ear via at least two different pathways: air conduction and bone conduction (BC). BC hearing is used clinically for diagnostic purposes and for BC hearing aids. Research on the motion of the human middle ear in response to BC stimulation is typically conducted using cadaver models. We evaluated middle ear motion of Thiel-embalmed whole-head specimens in terms of linearity, reproducibility, and consistency with the reported middle ear motion of living subjects, fresh cadaveric temporal bones, and whole-heads embalmed with a Non-Thiel solution of salts. We used laser Doppler vibrometry to measure the displacement of the skull, the umbo, the cochlear promontory, the stapes, and the round window in seven ears from four human whole-head specimens embalmed according to Thiel's method. The ears were stimulated with a Baha(®) implanted behind the auricle. The Thiel model shows promontory velocity similar to that reported in the literature for whole-heads embalmed with a Non-Thiel solution of salts (0- to 7-dB difference). The Thiel heads' relative velocity of the stapes with respect to the promontory was similar to that of fresh cadaver temporal bones (0- to 4-dB difference). The velocity of the umbo was comparable in Thiel-embalmed heads and living subjects (0- to 10-dB difference). The skull and all middle ear elements measured responded linearly to different stimulation levels, with an average difference less than 1 dB. The variability of repeated measurements for both short- (2 h; 4 dB) and long-term (4-16 weeks; 6 dB) repetitions in the same ear, and the difference between the two ears of the same donor (approximately 10 dB) were lower than the inter-individual difference (up to 25 dB). Thiel-embalmed human whole-head specimens can be used as an alternative model for the study of human middle ear mechanics secondary to BC stimulation. At some frequencies, differences from living subjects must be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  10. The sternalis muscle in cadavers: anatomical facts and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N A; Das, S; Maatoq Sulaiman, I; Hlaing, K P P; Haji Suhaimi, F; Latiff, A A; Othman, F

    2009-01-01

    The sternalis is an anomalous muscle located in the anterior wall of thorax and several past reports have described its presence with clinical implications. The sternalis muscle may be incidentally detected during routine cadaveric dissections and autopsies. We observed the presence of anomalous sternalis muscle on both sides of the anterior chest wall in 25 cadavers (n = 50), over a span of three years. Out of a 50 cases, we observed a single case of sternalis on the right side of the 55-year-old male cadaver (2%). The sternalis was found to be absent in the rest 49 cases (98%). The sternalis muscle displayed an oblique course in the anterior wall of the thorax. The muscle originated near the seventh costal cartilage extending obliquely upwards to insert into the second costal cartilage close to the sternum. The originating portion of the muscle was located at a distance of 3.5 cm lateral to the mid-sternal plane. The vertical length and the maximum width of the anomalous sternalis muscle measured 9 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. The fibers of the muscle vertically ascended upwards. No other associated anomalies were observed in the same cadaver. The presence of sternalis muscle is considered to be a rare variation with no earlier studies being performed in the Malaysian population. The anomalous sternalis muscle may be important for reconstructive surgeons performing mastectomy and radiologists interpreting mammograms. Thus, the sternalis muscle may be academically, anthropologically and surgically important.

  11. Cadavers Can Be Useful in Teaching Anatomy in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stencel, John; Moore, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents information on student interest, teaching problems, and learning outcomes regarding the use of cadavers as a teaching tool. Provides a list of Illinois Community Colleges using cadavers and a student questionnaire. (RT)

  12. Finite element model of the Jefferson fracture: comparison with a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Bozkus, H; Karakas, A; Hanci, M; Uzan, M; Bozdag, E; Sarioglu, A C

    2001-06-01

    This study tries to explain the reason why the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture, using two different biomechanical models: a finite element model (FEM) and a cadaver model used to determine strain distribution in C1 during axial static compressive loading. For the FEM model, a three-dimensional model of C1 was obtained from a 29-year-old healthy human, using axial CT scans with intervals of 1.0 mm. The mesh model was composed of 8200 four-noded isoparametric tetrahedrons and 37,400 solid elements. The material properties of the cortical bone of the vertebra were assessed according to the previous literature and were assumed to be linear isotropic and homogeneous for all elements. Axial static compressive loads were applied at between 200 and 1200 N. The strain and stress (maximum shear and von Mises) analyses were determined on the clinically relevant fracture lines of anterior and posterior arches. The results of the FEM were compared with a cadaver model. The latter comprised the C1 bone of a cadaver placed in a methylmethacrylate foam. Axial static compressive loads between 200 and 1200 N were applied by an electrohydraulic testing machine. Strain values were measured using strain gauges, which were cemented to the bone where the clinically relevant fracture lines of the anterior and posterior arches were located. As a result, compressive strain was observed on the outer surface of the anterior arch and inferior surface of the posterior arch. In addition, there was tensile strain on the inner surface of the anterior arch and superior surface of the posterior arch. The strain values obtained from the two experimental models showed similar trends. The FEM analysis revealed that maximum strain changes occurred where the maximum shear and von Mises stresses were concentrated. The changes in the C1 strain and stress values during static axial loading biomechanically prove that the Jefferson fracture is a burst fracture.

  13. Uterus retrieval in cadaver: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Akar, M Erman; Ozkan, O; Ozekinci, M; Sindel, M; Yildirim, F; Oguz, N

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe uterus retrieval in cadavers. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature could be successfully achieved in four of the presented cases. Special attention was given to dissection of bilateral ureters and hypogastric vasculature. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature and supporting sacrouterine,vesicouterine peritoneal folds is an anatomically feasible procedure in preparation for uterus transplantation.

  14. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM.

  15. Do K-wires made from shape memory alloys increase pull-out forces? A preliminary experimental cadaver study in bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Wiebking, U; Gösling, T; Monschizada, W; Rau, T; Krettek, C

    2007-06-01

    After osteosynthesis of the proximal humerus by Kirschner wires (K-wire), loosening and secondary loss can occur. This study tested primary fixation of wires made from a shape memory alloy (SMA) Nitinol (NiTi), compared to conventional steel K-wires by pull-out tests. Blocks of cancellous bone were tested with three wire types: NiTi-K-wire with split apex geometry and conventional steel K-wires with and without threads. We found that NiTi-wires can be pulled out of bone more easily than steel wires (P=0.05), even though the former had rougher surfaces. The application of NiTi-wires through bone produced no better stability in comparison to normal steel K-wires, because of triggering the memory effect. Further studies are required to determine if NiTi wires of another appropriate design, surface and localization are superior to conventional wires in the context of this application.

  16. Comparison of Ventilation With One-Handed Mask Seal With an Intraoral Mask Versus Conventional Cuffed Face Mask in a Cadaver Model: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Amack, Andrew J; Barber, Gary A; Ng, Patrick C; Smith, Thomas B; April, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    We compare received minute volume with an intraoral mask versus conventional cuffed face mask among medics obtaining a 1-handed mask seal on a cadaver model. This study comprised a randomized crossover trial of adult US Army combat medic volunteers participating in a cadaver laboratory as part of their training. We randomized participants to obtain a 1-handed mask seal during ventilation of a fresh unembalmed cadaver, first using either an intraoral airway device or conventional cuffed face mask. Participants obtained a 1-handed mask seal while a ventilator delivered 10 standardized 750-mL breaths during 1 minute. After a 5-minute rest period, they repeated the study with the alternative mask. The primary outcome measure was received minute volume as measured by a respirometer. Of 27 recruited participants, all completed the study. Median received minute volume was higher with the intraoral mask compared with conventional cuffed mask by 1.7 L (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.9 L; P<.001). The intraoral mask resulted in greater received minute volume received compared with conventional cuffed face mask during ventilation with a 1-handed mask seal in a cadaver model. The intraoral mask may prove a useful airway adjunct for ventilation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope Force and Cervical Spine Motion during Intubation in Cadavers—Cadavers vs. Patients, the Effect of Repeated Intubations, and the Effect of Type II Odontoid Fracture on C1-C2 Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Bradley J.; From, Robert P.; Fontes, Ricardo B.; Traynelis, Vincent C.; Todd, Michael M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Puttlitz, Christian M.; Santoni, Brandon G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to characterize: 1) cadaver intubation biomechanics, including the effect of repeated intubations; and 2) the relationship between intubation force and the motion of an injured cervical segment. Methods Fourteen cadavers were serially intubated using force-sensing Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes in random order, with simultaneous cervical spine motion recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. Motion of the C1-C2 segment was measured in the intact and injured state (Type II odontoid fracture). Injured C1-C2 motion was proportionately corrected for changes in intubation forces that occurred with repeated intubations. Results Cadaver intubation biomechanics were comparable to those of patients in all parameters other than C2-C5 extension. In cadavers, intubation force (Set 2/Set1 force ratio = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.46, 0.81]; P=0.002) and Oc-C5 extension (Set 2 –Set 1 difference = −6.1 degrees [95% CI: −11.4, −0.9]; P=0.025) decreased with repeated intubations. In cadavers, C1-C2 extension did not differ: 1) between intact and injured states; or 2) in the injured state, between laryngoscopes (with and without force correction). With force correction, in the injured state, C1-C2 subluxation was greater with the Airtraq (mean difference 2.8 mm [95% CI: 0.7, 4.9 mm]; P=0.004). Discussion With limitations, cadavers may be clinically relevant models of intubation biomechanics and cervical spine motion. In the setting of a Type II odontoid fracture, C1-C2 motion during intubation with either the Macintosh or Airtraq does not appear to greatly exceed physiologic values or to have a high likelihood of hyperextension or direct cord compression. PMID:26288267

  18. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in mycosed cadavers of Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S; Thomas, M B

    2001-08-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on mycosed cadavers of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were assessed in the laboratory. Quantitative assessments of conidial production over 10 days under constant conditions showed that sporulation was optimized at RH > 96% and at temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees C. Under both these conditions >10(9) conidia/cadaver were produced. At 25 degrees C, conidial yield was maximized under conditions in which cadavers remained in contact with damp substrate. Relatively little sporulation occurred at 15 degrees C (< 3 x 10(7) conidia/cadaver) and 40 degrees C (< 4 x 10(6) conidia/cadaver) and no sporulation occurred at 10 or 45 degrees C. Following incubation, conidial yield was closely related to the water content of locust cadavers. In separate tests, locust cadavers were incubated for 10 days under diurnally fluctuating temperature and RH that comprised favorable (25 degrees C/100% RH) alternating with unfavorable (40 degrees C/80% RH) conditions for sporulation. In this case, fewer conidia were produced compared with cadavers that were incubated under the favorable conditions for an equal period cumulatively but were not periodically exposed to unfavorable conditions. However, this reduced sporulation observed with the fluctuating condition was not observed when cadavers were similarly incubated under favorable/unfavorable conditions of temperature but were not periodically exposed to the low RH condition. This result implies that sporulation is a dynamic process, dependent not only on periodic exposure to favorable RH but also on the interrelation of this with low RH. Associated tests and the monitoring of changes in cadaver weights imply that the mechanism driving the reduced sporulation under fluctuating RH is the net water balance of cadavers, i.e. the cumulative ability of the fungus/cadaver to adsorb water necessary for sporulation at high

  19. Terrestrial laser scanning to model sunlight irradiance on cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Sibyl Rae; Pan, Zhigang; Glennie, Craig L; Lynne, Aaron M; Haarman, Daniel P; Hill, John M

    2014-07-01

    Human decomposition is a dynamic process that is influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors. Measuring these influences, in particular abiotic factors, on the decomposition process is often a challenge for scientists. Recently, researchers have turned to the use of advanced remote sensing technologies in forensic investigations. In this study, a new methodology is described that utilizes precise 3D images captured using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to calculate total solar irradiance on a cadaver in a partially forested environment. To test this new measurement approach under actual field conditions, three cadavers were placed in an outdoor environment to decompose. Laser scans were taken the day of placement and used to calculate the total solar irradiance at time points of 24 h, 1 week, and 1 month from placement. The results show that as time progresses, different cadavers at the field site and different areas of the same cadaver receive varying amounts of solar irradiance. The modeling based on these laser scans can be used to create predictive images of solar irradiance that may provide researchers with a new tool to help quantitatively assess the effect of solar irradiance on a cadaver ecosystem.

  20. Sequential monitoring of burials containing large pig cadavers using ground-penetrating radar.

    PubMed

    Schultz, John J; Collins, Mary E; Falsetti, Anthony B

    2006-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to monitor 12 pig burials in Florida, each of which contained a large pig cadaver. Six of the cadavers were buried in sand at a depth of 0.50-0.60 m, and the other six were buried at a depth of 1.00-1.10 m and were in contact with the upper surface of a clay horizon. Control excavations with no pig internment were also constructed as blank graves and monitored with GPR. The burials were monitored with GPR for durations of either 12-13 or 21-21.5 months when they were then excavated to correlate the decomposition state of the cadaver with the GPR imagery. Overall, cadavers in sand were easily detected for the duration of this study at 21.5 months, even when completely skeletonized. Conversely, in clay it became increasingly difficult to image the pig cadavers over the first year of burial, even when they still retained extensive soft tissue structures.

  1. Problems and prospects of acquistion of human cadaver for medical education in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    EwonuBari, Emue Bernard; Watson, Jacks Tamunotonye; Amaza, Danladi Sambo; Madueke, Nwegbu Maxwell; Donatus, Abue Andrew; Effiong, Onwih Etim

    2012-11-01

    To determine the factors affecting cadaver acquisition in Nigeria, and to find a solution to the problem. The research was conducted from May 2009 to November 2010 in the Anatomy and Histopathology Departments of selected medical schools and government hospitals in Nigeria. It was a retrospective study done on the basis of simple random sampling technique. A total of 38 questionnaires were distributed of which 34 were received and analysed statistically by percentage method. Problems identified in cadaver acquisition included: religion, culture, ignorance and love even after death. Steps which may change the scenario were identified as education, provision of ambulance and donation centres, improved acquisitions procedures and formalities, and government legislation. Alternatives to cadaver dissection include the use of audio-visual aids, models of body parts and anirnal bodies, but the scarcity of cadavers in most colleges will affect the quality of anatomical knowledge and subsequent clinical practice. The supply of cadavers will remain scarce and affected by religious and moral factors. There is a need to promote the concept of voluntary donation of one's body for the good of the others which is essentially a humanitarian approach and rewarding in terms of promoting the cause of medical education in Nigeria.

  2. Management of chest deformity caused by microtia reconstruction: Comparison of autogenous diced cartilage versus cadaver cartilage graft partial filling techniques.

    PubMed

    Go, Ju Young; Kang, Bo Young; Hwang, Jin Hee; Oh, Kap Sung

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent chest wall deformity after costal cartilage graft are ongoing. In this study, we introduce a new method to prevent donor site deformation using irradiated cadaver cartilage (ICC) and compare this method to the autogenous diced cartilage (ADC) technique. Forty-two pediatric patients comprised the ADC group (n = 24) and the ICC group (n = 18). After harvesting costal cartilage, the empty perichondrial space was filled with autologous diced cartilage in the ADC group and cadaver cartilage in the ICC group. Digital photographs and rib cartilage three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed to compare the preventive effect of donor site deformity. We compared the pre- and postoperative costal cartilage volumes using 3D-CT and graded the volumes (grade I: 0%-25%, grade II: 25%-50%, grade III: 50%-75%, and grade IV: 75%-100%). The average follow-up period was 20 and 24 months in the ADC and ICC groups, respectively. Grade IV maintenance of previous costal cartilage volume was evident postoperatively in 22% of patients in the ADC group and 82% of patients in the ICC group. Intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression were less in the ICC group. There were no complications or severe resorption of cadaver cartilage. ICC support transected costal ring and prevented stability loss by acting as a spacer. The ICC technique is more effective in preventing intercostal space narrowing and chest wall depression than the ADC technique. Samsung Medical Center Institution Review Board, Unique protocol ID: 2009-10-006-008. This study is also registered on PRS (ClinicalTrials.gov Record 2009-10-006). Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroanatomy and cadaver dissection in Italy: History, medicolegal issues, and neurosurgical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Frati, Alessandro; Salvati, Maurizio; Marinozzi, Silvia; Frati, Riccardo; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Piccirilli, Manolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Despite the significant Italian tradition of important anatomical studies, an outdated law historically influenced by the Catholic church restricts the use of cadavers for teaching and scientific purposes. The object of the present paper was to trace the historical evolution of the Italian anatomical tradition, particularly neuroanatomical studies, in relation to the juridical regulations on the use of cadavers today. Special attention was paid to the opportunities offered to neurosurgery by using cadavers and to the scientific and social issues in neurosurgical training in the twenty-first century. Considering the new Common European Constitution, the authors advocate a political solution from the European community to improve the quality of training in the disciplines with a social impact such as neurosurgery.

  4. Rupture length of the sinus membrane after 1.2 mm puncture and surgical sinus elevation: an experimental animal cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jank, Siegfried; Kurrek, Andreas; Wainwright, Marcel; Bek, Verena E; Troedhan, Angelo

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the rupture length of the sinus membrane after applying a defined 1.2 mm defect comparing 3 different techniques: Summers lift, balloon-assisted technique (BASL), and hydrodynamic ultrasonic cavitational sinus lift (HUCSL). Thirty fresh sheep heads (60 maxillary sinuses) were investigated. The sinus membrane was ruptured using a 1.2 mm pilot drill. Then Summers lift, BASL, and HUCSL were each performed on 20 sinuses, creating a 5 mm vertical lift of the sinus membrane. The length of the ruptured sinus membrane was measured before and after the experiment. The results of the different sinus lift techniques were compared using t tests. The t test showed that the Summers lift leads to a significantly higher rupture length (P = .05) than BASL. The comparison between Summers lift and HUCSL showed a significantly higher rupture length with the Summers lift (P < .005). The same significance (P < .005) was found when BASL was compared with HUCSL. Comparing the increasing rupture length of the sinus membrane during the experiment, the t test showed a significantly greater rupture using BASL or the Summers lift compared with HUCSL. The HUCSL technique yielded the lowest increase of rupture length compared with BASL and Summers lift. The technique therefore shows the lowest risk of a growing rupture of the sinus membrane in case of an iatrogenic puncture during preparation of the transcrestal approach. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound and cadaveric prosections as methods for teaching cardiac anatomy: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Griksaitis, Michael J; Sawdon, Marina A; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that groups were equally randomized. Students, divided into pre-existing teaching groups, were assigned to one of two conditions; "cadaver" or "ultrasound." Those in the cadaver group received teaching on the heart using prosections, whereas the ultrasound group received teaching using live ultrasound images of the heart. Immediately after teaching, students sat a post-test. Both teaching modalities increased students' test scores by similar amounts but no significant difference was found between the two conditions, suggesting that both prosections and ultrasound are equally effective methods for teaching gross anatomy of the heart. Our data support the inclusion of either cadaveric teaching or living anatomy using ultrasound within the undergraduate anatomy curriculum, and further work is needed to compare the additive effect of the two modalities. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Consequences of a Perthes-Bankart lesion in twenty cadaver shoulders.

    PubMed

    Pouliart, Nicole; Gagey, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether an anteroinferior capsulolabral lesion is sufficient to allow the humeral head to dislocate and whether a limited inferior approach for creating the lesions influenced the results compared with an all-arthroscopic approach. Four ligamentous zones of the glenohumeral capsule were sequentially detached from the glenoid neck and labrum in 20 cadaver shoulders through an inferior approach. Before and after each resection step, inferior stability was tested using a sulcus test and anterior stability using a drawer test and an apprehension maneuver. Dislocation was only possible when at least 3 zones were cut. This study confirmed that superior and posterior extension of the classic anteroinferior Perthes-Bankart lesion is necessary before the capsular restraint in external rotation and abduction is overcome and dislocation occurs. Lesions other than the Perthes-Bankart need to be investigated when recurrent dislocation is treated, because this anteroinferior injury is most probably not the sole factor responsible for the instability.

  7. An experimental model for training in renal transplantation surgery with human cadavers preserved using W. Thiel's embalming technique.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Ramiro; González, Carmen; Quicios, Cristina; Bueno, Gonzalo; García, Juan V; Arribas, Ana B; Clascá, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel cadaver-based model for practicing renal transplant (RT) surgery. A simulating model using cadavers preserved by Thiel's method is developed to teach surgical anatomy and operative skills in RT surgery. Participants were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey evaluating perceptions of the model and comparing cadaver sessions to other types of learning (rating questions from 0-10). Large university teaching hospital. A total of 28 residents, junior transplant surgeons, and faculty members were participants in the cadaver simulation. Overall, 9 cadavers were used with 17 grafts transplanted. Kidney procurement in human cadavers preserved using Thiel's embalming technique was performed following the conventional protocol; en bloc nephrectomy with the trunk of aorta and inferior vena cava. Bench surgery was performed, perfusing artery with saline and checking vascular permeability. Once suitability is established, RT was performed as is done in clinical practice. This embalming method enables tissue dissection that is comparable to the living body and provides suitable conditions for realistic RT simulation; handling human tissues and vessels in the same surgical field as the clinical scenario. This experimental model approximates to in vivo RT, providing a realistic and interesting learning to inexperienced surgeons. Overall, participants held a positive view of the cadaver sessions, believed them to be useful in their daily practice, and felt that the proposed model was similar to the clinical setting. Trainees believed that these practices improved skills and confidence in performing an RT. The proposed method of kidney procurement and RT in human cadavers preserved by Thiel's embalming technique is a promising, realistic, and reproducible method of practicing RT surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing the use of cadavers by integrating pathology during anatomy dissection.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët

    2016-11-01

    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and type of pathology lesions in a cadaver population (n = 127) used for medical dissection. This was done to gauge whether sufficient pathology lesions representative of all the organ systems were present in the cadaver population to warrant the use of cadavers as an additional pathology learning resource. This study demonstrated a wide variety of pathology lesions in different organ systems. The respiratory system was most affected with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions being the most common finding (seen in 76% of cadavers) followed by bronchopneumonia and emphysema. Other common pathology findings included atherosclerosis, colonic diverticula, and chronic pyelonephritis. Skeletal fractures and degenerative joint disease were also noted. This study shows that cadaveric dissection offers a chance to alert and expose students to a wide variety of gross pathology and histopathology. It has been suggested that most medical students will practice in primary health care and as such more attention should be given to the pathology of commonly encountered diseases. This is particularly true for developing countries, where diseases such as TB are commonly encountered. The integration of pathology into the dissection hall may therefore be beneficial to student learning while simultaneously optimizing the use of cadaver material. Anat Sci Educ 9: 575-582. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Lordosis restoration after anterior longitudinal ligament release and placement of lateral hyperlordotic interbody cages during the minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach: a radiographic study in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan S; Smith, Donald A; Dakwar, Elias; Baaj, Ali A; Mundis, Gregory M; Turner, Alexander W L; Cornwall, G Bryan; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2012-11-01

    In the surgical treatment of spinal deformities, the importance of restoring lumbar lordosis is well recognized. Smith-Petersen osteotomies (SPOs) yield approximately 10° of lordosis per level, whereas pedicle subtraction osteotomies result in as much as 30° increased lumbar lordosis. Recently, selective release of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and placement of lordotic interbody grafts using the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach (XLIF) has been performed as an attempt to increase lumbar lordosis while avoiding the morbidity of osteotomy. The objective of the present study was to measure the effect of the selective release of the ALL and varying degrees of lordotic implants placed using the XLIF approach on segmental lumbar lordosis in cadaveric specimens between L-1 and L-5. Nine adult fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were placed in the lateral decubitus position. Lateral radiographs were obtained at baseline and after 4 interventions at each level as follows: 1) placement of a standard 10° lordotic cage, 2) ALL release and placement of a 10° lordotic cage, 3) ALL release and placement of a 20° lordotic cage, and 4) ALL release and placement of a 30° lordotic cage. All four cages were implanted sequentially at each interbody level between L-1 and L-5. Before and after each intervention, segmental lumbar lordosis was measured in all specimens at each interbody level between L-1 and L-5 using the Cobb method on lateral radiography. The mean baseline segmental lordotic angles at L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 were -3.8°, 3.8°, 7.8°, and 22.6°, respectively. The mean lumbar lordosis was 29.4°. Compared with baseline, the mean postimplantation increase in segmental lordosis in all levels combined was 0.9° in Intervention 1 (10° cage without ALL release); 4.1° in Intervention 2 (ALL release with 10° cage); 9.5° in Intervention 3 (ALL release with 20° cage); and 11.6° in Intervention 4 (ALL release with 30° cage

  10. COMPARISON OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED VS. STANDARD LANDMARK TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING NOVICE OPERATORS IN PLACING NEEDLES INTO THE LUMBAR SUBARACHNOID SPACE OF CANINE CADAVERS.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Anne-Laure; Delguste, Catherine; Busoni, Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this technique can be challenging for novice operators. The aim of the current observational, prospective, ex vivo, feasibility study was to compare ultrasound-guided vs. standard anatomic landmark approaches for novices performing needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space using dog cadavers. Eight experienced operators validated the canine cadaver model as usable for training landmark and ultrasound-guided needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space based on realistic anatomy and tissue consistency. With informed consent, 67 final year veterinary students were prospectively enrolled in the study. Students had no prior experience in needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space or use of ultrasound. Each student received a short theoretical training about each technique before the trial and then attempted blind landmark-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques on randomized canine cadavers. After having performed both procedures, the operators completed a self-evaluation questionnaire about their performance and self-confidence. Total success rates for students were 48% and 77% for the landmark- and ultrasound-guided techniques, respectively. Ultrasound guidance significantly increased total success rate when compared to the landmark-guided technique and significantly reduced the number of attempts. With ultrasound guidance self-confidence was improved, without bringing any significant change in duration of the needle placement procedure. Findings indicated that use of ultrasound guidance and cadavers are feasible methods for training novice operators in needle placement into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Cadaver-specific CT scans visualized at the dissection table combined with virtual dissection tables improve learning performance in general gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Paech, Daniel; Giesel, Frederik L; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Kuner, Thomas; Doll, Sara

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefit of the incorporation of radiologic anatomy (RA), in terms of student training in RA seminars, cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables on the learning success in general anatomy. Three groups of a total of 238 students were compared in a multiple choice general anatomy exam during first-year gross anatomy: (1) a group (year 2015, n 1 = 50) that received training in radiologic image interpretation (RA seminar) and additional access to cadaver CT scans (CT + seminar group); (2) a group (2011, n 2 = 90) that was trained in the RA seminar only (RA seminar group); (3) a group (2011, n 3 = 98) without any radiologic image interpretation training (conventional anatomy group). Furthermore, the students' perception of the new curriculum was assessed qualitatively through a survey. The average test score of the CT + seminar group (21.8 ± 5.0) was significantly higher when compared to both the RA seminar group (18.3 ± 5.0) and the conventional anatomy group (17.1 ± 4.7) (p < 0.001). The incorporation of cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables significantly improved the performance of medical students in general gross anatomy. Medical imaging and virtual dissection should therefore be considered to be part of the standard curriculum of gross anatomy. • Students provided with cadaver CT scans achieved 27 % higher scores in anatomy. • Radiological education integrated into gross anatomy is highly appreciated by medical students. • Simultaneous physical and virtual dissection provide unique conditions to study anatomy.

  12. Development and initial porcine and cadaver experience with three-dimensional printing of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment.

    PubMed

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim; Landman, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm(2), respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future.

  13. Analysis of rugae in burn victims and cadavers to simulate rugae identification in cases of incineration and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, M; Limson, K S; Julian, R

    2005-06-01

    The most challenging situations in Forensic Odonto-Stomatology are mass disasters, where the forensic dentist is usually confronted with charred human remains or heavily decomposed or fragmented bodies. This article determines the extent of preservation of palatal rugae for use as an alternative identification tool in such situations, using a study group comprising burn victims and cadavers simulating forensic cases of incineration and decomposition. The thermal effects and the decomposition changes on the palatal rugae of burn victims with panfacial third degree burns and human cadavers in storage were respectively assessed and graded on a new scale. Ninety three percent of burn victims and 77% of human cadavers had Grade 0 changes (normal). When changes were noted, they were less pronounced than the generalized body involvement of burns in burn victims and the generalized body decomposition of human cadavers.

  14. Multicolor holography: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Rosa M.; Bernardo, Luis M.; Pinto, Joao L.

    2000-10-01

    A multicolor holography study case will be presented with emphasis on color control in different silver-halide materials. It has been systematized in order to compare the results obtained with Agfa 8E 75HD to those with Slavich PFG-01. Some experiments were made and the emulsion was manipulated before exposure to achieve high quality multicolored white light reflection holograms. This work has therefore been developed in order to obtain the various colors in a very well controlled way.

  15. Geographic diversity of Helicobacter pylori in cadavers: forensic estimation of geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sayaka; Motani-Saitoh, Hisako; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-06-10

    A method for determining the geographical origin of unidentified cadavers by determining the genotype of Helicobacter pylori, which is latent in one-half of the world's population, was developed. In the first stage, DNA was extracted from samplings at 5 points in the gastric mucosa of 177 individuals randomly selected from cadavers undergoing medico-legal autopsy. 16S-rDNA of H. pylori DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 101 cadavers (57.0%); by sex, 74 of 123 (60.1%) males and 28 of 54 (46.4%) females were positive. There were no significant differences in H. pylori detection rate among the 5 sampling points of the gastric mucosa, cause of death, or age. In the second stage, amplified fragments of H. pylori vacA regions s and m from 17 individuals with the following ethnic backgrounds were sequenced: Japanese, 10; Chinese, 2; South Korean, 1; Taiwanese, 1; Thai, 1; Afghan, 1; and Filipino, 1. A phylogenetic tree constructed with these and 28 previously reported H. pylori strain sequences revealed 3 major gene clusters consisting of East Asian type I (Japanese, South Korean and Chinese), Western type II, and Southeast Asia type III. The Taiwanese and Filipino samples deviated from the clusters type III to which they typically belong. The ultimate aim of the present study was to develop a more accurate method of determining of geographic origin of unidentified cadavers through the combination of the present method with other, virus-based methods H. pylori DNA was detected from over half of the cadavers tested and vacA genotypes showed specificity to geographical origin. Therefore, these results suggest that the H. pylori genome provides valuable additional information for tracing the geographical origin of unidentified cadavers.

  16. Flexor hallux tendon transfer: comparative study through double or single approach

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Ortiz, Rafael Trevisan; Araújo, Antônio; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the FHL length difference obtained through a single approach and by a double combined approach. METHODS: 16 fresh cadavers, a total of 32 feet, were used to measure the FHL graft length. With the cadaver positioned in ventral decubitus, a posteromedial incision in the ankle and a second incision in the plantar cavus were performed. RESULTS: The average gain of tendon's length (GTL) was of 42.43 mm, the lowest value being 32 mm and the largest 48 mm. The comparative analysis of the GTL on the right and left sides through the paired "t" Test does not show statistical differences, with a p-value = 0.463 and a statistical power of 0.1443. The height analysis of the sample and the right and left GTL performed through linear regression do not show statistically significant differences, with a p-value of 0.38311 and 0.82640, respectively. CONCLUSION: Harvesting the FHL graft using a double combined approach yields a 42.43 mm length gain in comparison to harvesting using the single approach. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:25061420

  17. Evaluation of the iTClamp 50 in a human cadaver model of severe compressible bleeding.

    PubMed

    Mottet, Kelly; Filips, Dennis; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Atkinson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is a significant cause of preventable death. The iTClamp 50 is a temporary wound closure device designed to control bleeding within seconds of an injury. This study evaluates the ability of the iTClamp to control compressible bleeding in a human cadaver model. Sterile water was pumped through the major arteries to mimic blood flow. Full-thickness, elliptical segments of skin were excised; arteriotomies or complete transections were performed on the major arteries in the thigh (distal femoral), groin (common femoral), neck (carotid), and arm (brachial). Scalp wounds were created by making a 4.4-cm linear incision to the level of the bone. Fluid losses from the wounds were compared with and without the iTClamp applied and with and without movement of the cadaver. Angiographic images of pressure-injected contrast were obtained of the neck and groin wounds. Hematoma volumes and needle penetration depth into the skin were measured. In all wounds tested, application of the iTClamp significantly reduced fluid loss in all wounds studied (p < 0.05), and movement of the cadaver did not affect the function of the iTClamp. For example, in one groin wound, the average fluid loss during 1 minute was reduced from 728.4 ± 79.3 mL to 5.6 ± 3.4 mL. Distal flow was maintained during application of the iTClamp, as illustrated in angiographic images obtained of the iTClamp applied to the neck and groin wounds. The average needle penetration depth into the skin was 4.21 ± 0.02 mm; furthermore, the iTClamp did not cause any visible skin damage or skin tearing. The iTClamp is effective at controlling fluid loss from open wounds within multiple compressible areas. The iTClamp does not occlude distal flow, and aside from small needle punctures, there was no other visible skin damage or skin tearing.

  18. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M.; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw–bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw–bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  19. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability.

  20. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  1. The role of the anterolateral ligament in ACL insufficient and reconstructed knees on rotatory stability: A biomechanical study on human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tavlo, M; Eljaja, S; Jensen, J T; Siersma, V D; Krogsgaard, M R

    2016-08-01

    Studies suggest that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is important for knee stability. The purpose was to clarify ALL's effect on rotatory and anterior-posterior stability in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-insufficient and reconstructed knees and the effect of reconstruction of an insufficient ALL. Eighteen cadaveric knees were included. Stability was tested for intact (+ALL), detached (-ALL) and reconstructed (+ reALL) ALL, with ACL removed (-ACL) and reconstructed (+ACL) in six combinations. All were tested in 0, 30, 60, and 90 °C flexion. Anterior-posterior stability was measured with a rolimeter. Rotation with a torque of 8.85 Nm was measured photographically. The ALL was well defined in 78% of knees. ACL reconstruction had a significant effect on anterior-posterior stability. Detaching the ALL had a significant effect on internal rotatory stability and on anterior-posterior stability in ACL-insufficient knees. Reconstruction of ACL and ALL reestablished knee stability. The appearance of the ALL was not uniform. The ALL was an internal rotational stabilizer. Anatomical ALL reconstruction in combination with ACL reconstruction could reestablish stability. ALL reconstruction might be considered in patients with combined ACL and ALL tears, but the clinical effect should be established in a controlled clinical study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The ethics of human cadaver organ transplantation: a biologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1987-01-01

    The rights of the various individuals involved in decision-making in cadaver organ donation are considered, and there is discussion of the relation of human cadavers to the planetary biomass. I conclude that the rights of the potential recipient should outweigh those of the other parties concerned and that education and legislation should recognise and promote this. PMID:3669037

  3. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.

  4. Minimally invasive thoracolumbar costotransversectomy and corpectomy via a dual-tube technique: evaluation in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Musacchio, Michael; Patel, Nimesh; Bagan, Bradley; Deutsch, Harel; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Ratliff, John

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a promising new tool in the treatment of a variety of spinal disorders. MIS laminectomy techniques provide an effective means of achieving lumbar decompression. MIS corpectomy techniques have not been described. If feasible, such a technique would be optimal in the treatment of spinal metastatic disease, where traditional open techniques can result in a significant burden to a compromised patient. In this study, we explored the feasibility of a dual-tube minimally invasive thoracic corpectomy approach in a cadaver model. A minimally invasive thoracolumbar costotransversectomy and corpectomy were perfumed in eight adult cadavers. A dual-tube technique was used to perform a costotransversectomy followed by a corpectomy on one side, and through the opposite tube a transpedicular approach on the contralateral side. Pre- and postoperative CT scans of all cadavers were obtained to measure the cross-sectional area of the vertebral bodies in each specimen via a CT workstation. Reconstruction of the anterior column was attempted in some cadavers using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. A successful costotransversectomy and corpectomy were completed in each cadaver. A percutaneous delivery system was successful in allowing an anterior column reconstruction using PMMA as a strut graft in selected cadavers. We demonstrated that a dual-tube MIS approach to thoracic corpectomy is technically feasible. Additionally, spinal stabilization can be achieved via percutaneous PMMA administration. This approach may provide a minimally invasive option in the treatment of select spinal metastases.

  5. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  6. Reoperative lower extremity revascularization with cadaver vein for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Sarac, Timur P; Bena, James; Srivastava, Sunita; Ouriel, Kenneth; Clair, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated our experience using cryopreserved cadaver vein allografts (CVGs) for infrageniculate revascularization in patients with a history of failed bypass or no suitable autogenous vein. Records of all patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization with CVG for critical limb ischemia were reviewed. Patient demographics, vessel treated, and postoperative course were analyzed. Patients who had a redo cadaver vein bypass were compared to those with a first-time cadaver vein bypass. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with outcomes were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method with Cox proportional hazards. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 66 CVGs were done in 56 patients out of 1,726 total bypasses. There were 36 men and 20 women, and the mean age was 71.67 +/- 10.50 years. Mean follow-up was 12.12 +/- 14.16 months. Seventy-eight percent of patients had previous bypasses, and 50% of all failed bypasses were failed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypasses. Operative indications were tissue loss (73%) and ischemic rest pain (27%). The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index was 0.43 +/- 0.16, and this increased to 0.89 +/- 0.18 at 30 days (p = 0.001). Procedure-related complications included graft infection (3, 4%), graft thrombosis (3, 4%), pseudoaneurysm (3, 4%), and bleeding (2, 3%). Cumulative 1-year primary, primary assisted, secondary patencies, limb salvage, and survival rates with confidence intervals were 0.19 (0.10-0.36), 0.29 (0.18-0.47), 0.42 (0.29-0.60), 0.73 (0.62-0.86), and 0.77 (0.65-0.90). Reoperative procedures fared the same as primary procedures. Multivariable analysis showed that predictors for increased risk of secondary patency loss were age >70 (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.13, p = 0.009) and patients with secondary revascularization (HR = 3.36, p = 0.015). Older patients (HR = 2.92, p = 0.042) and those with renal insufficiency (HR = 2.92, p = 0.019) were at increased risk of mortality. CVG

  7. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age. PMID:28033339

  8. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Marissa; Cless, Daniel; Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age.

  9. Simulated training in colonoscopic stenting of colonic strictures: validation of a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Iordache, F; Bucobo, J C; Devlin, D; You, K; Bergamaschi, R

    2015-07-01

    There are currently no available simulation models for training in colonoscopic stent deployment. The aim of this study was to validate a cadaver model for simulation training in colonoscopy with stent deployment for colonic strictures. This was a prospective study enrolling surgeons at a single institution. Participants performed colonoscopic stenting on a cadaver model. Their performance was assessed by two independent observers. Measurements were performed for quantitative analysis (time to identify stenosis, time for deployment, accuracy) and a weighted score was devised for assessment. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used for nonparametric and parametric data, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used for reliability. Twenty participants performed a colonoscopy with deployment of a self-expandable metallic stent in two cadavers (groups A and B) with 20 strictures overall. The median time was 206 s. The model was able to differentiate between experts and novices (P = 0. 013). The results showed a good consensus estimate of reliability, with kappa = 0.571 (P < 0.0001). The cadaver model described in this study has content, construct and concurrent validity for simulation training in colonoscopic deployment of self-expandable stents for colonic strictures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of this model in terms of skill transfer to clinical practice. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Pressurized Cadaver Model in Cardiothoracic Surgical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christina L; Minneti, Michael; Sullivan, Maura E; Baker, Craig J

    2015-09-01

    Simulation is increasingly recognized as an integral aspect of thoracic surgery education. A number of simulators have been introduced to teach component cardiothoracic skills; however, no good model exists for numerous essential skills including redo sternotomy and internal mammary artery takedown. These procedures are often relegated to thoracic surgery residents but have significant negative implications if performed incorrectly. Fresh tissue dissection is recognized as the gold standard for surgical simulation, but the lack of circulating blood volume limits surgical realism. Our aim is to describe the technique of the pressurized cadaver for use in cardiothoracic surgical procedures, focusing on internal mammary artery takedown. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study of embedding methods.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, C J; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E

    2003-06-01

    Embedding experimental data is a common first step in many forms of dynamical analysis. The choice of appropriate embedding parameters (dimension and lag) is crucial to the success of the subsequent analysis. We argue here that the optimal embedding of a time series cannot be determined by criteria based solely on the time series itself. Therefore we base our analysis on an examination of systems that have explicit analytic representations. A comparison of analytically obtained results with those obtained by an examination of the corresponding time series provides a means of assessing the comparative success of different embedding criteria. The assessment also includes measures of robustness to noise. The limitations of this study are explicitly delineated. While bearing these limitations in mind, we conclude that for the examples considered here, the best identification of the embedding dimension was achieved with a global false nearest neighbors argument, and the best value of lag was identified by the mutual information function.

  12. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945).

  13. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  14. Paying respect to human cadavers: We owe this to the first teacher in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-03-06

    Every human cadaver which undergoes anatomical dissection enriches medical science and deserves to be treated with utmost respect. The aim of the present study is to identify the practices followed by medical schools across the globe to ensure that the human cadaver is treated with respect and dignity while it is utilized within the domain of medical education. The article undertakes a review of the literature and takes note of the practice of students taking an oath prior to dissecting cadavers whereby they reflect on their conduct and habits in the dissection room. It emphasizes the guidelines adopted by medical schools to ensure respectful handling of human cadavers during dissection and highlights traditional ways to honor them followed in some parts of the world. The article attempts to focus on the noble endeavor of funeral ceremonies to pay homage to the departed soul who enlightened the students with the knowledge of human anatomy. Finally it converges on the memorial services incorporated into anatomy programs to instill in students an appreciation of the humanity of those who went under the knife as a service to mankind. Based on the observations made in the present study some recommendations are also proposed regarding good practices in human cadaveric dissection. In order to bind science and humanity it is critical to realize our responsibility to reciprocate the anatomical gift of a human body with respect, compassion, care and dignity.

  15. Coordinated Multiple Cadaver Use for Minimally Invasive Surgical Training

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Brooks, H. Mark; Dhuy, S. Michael; Charest-Shell, Cynthia; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The human cadaver remains the gold standard for anatomic training and is highly useful when incorporated into minimally invasive surgical training programs. However, this valuable resource is often not used to its full potential due to a lack of multidisciplinary cooperation. Herein, we propose the coordinated multiple use of individual cadavers to better utilize anatomical resources and potentiate the availability of cadaver training. Methods: Twenty-two postgraduate surgeons participated in a robot-assisted surgical training course that utilized shared cadavers. All participants completed a Likert 4-scale satisfaction questionnaire after their training session. Cadaveric tissue quality and the quality of the training session related to this material were assessed. Results: Nine participants rated the quality of the cadaveric tissue as excellent, 7 as good, 5 as unsatisfactory, and 1 as poor. Overall, 72% of participants who operated on a previously used cadaver were satisfied with their training experience and did not perceive the previous use deleterious to their training. Conclusion: The coordinated use of cadavers, which allows for multiple cadaver use for different teaching sessions, is an excellent training method that increases availability of human anatomical material for minimally invasive surgical training. PMID:18237501

  16. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. RESULTS: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. CONCLUSION: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27279391

  17. Early Onset of Atherosclerosis of The Carotid Bifurcation in Newborn Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur; Sehirli, Ümit; Keskinoz, Elif Nedret; Cosgun, Erdal; Arbak, Serap; Yalin, Aymelek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy of arterial bifurcations affects blood flow and has a significant role in the development of vascular disease. Therefore, it is important to know the structural characteristics of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) and its branches for early onset of atherosclerosis in newborns. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of CCA in newborn cadavers. Materials and Methods Eight carotid arteries obtained from newborn cadavers were used. The outflow to inflow area ratios was calculated to evaluate vessel diameters. Additionally, scanning electron and light microscopic investigations were conducted with tissue samples. The brachial artery of each cadaver was used as controls. Correlation between area ratios and atherosclerotic endothelial damage was determined. Results Light microscopic investigations demonstrated that control group sections showed no positivity for Oil red O staining, while carotid bifurcation regions depicted widespread occurrence of intimal lipid accumulations. Scanning electron microscopic examination of control group sections presented regular endothelial topography, while carotid bifurcation region topography exhibited numerous blood cells and separated endothelial cells. Fibrin accumulation on endothelial surface in low area ratios was another important finding in the examination of its endothelial surface degeneration. The above-mentioned morphological findings seemed to be quite parallel to outflow to inflow area ratio data favouring low area and degeneration. Conclusion The correlation between area ratios and the histological characteristic of cerebral vessels of newborn cadavers indicate that early stages of atherosclerosis began in early embryologic life. PMID:27437199

  18. Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Fuster-Torres, María Á.; Tarazona, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper. PMID:25136429

  19. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession: evaluation in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Appel, A Joshua; Banerjee, Rahul; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new method of gastrocnemius recession using an endoscopic approach and to determine the accuracy of incision placement during gastrocnemius recession. Fifteen fresh-frozen cadaveric limbs underwent an endoscopic gastrocnemius recession utilizing a two-portal technique. All limbs were anatomically dissected after the procedure and each was examined for injury to the sural nerve. The ability to visualize the sural nerve intraoperatively, improvement in ankle dorsiflexion, time requirement for the procedure, incision size, and appropriateness of placement to facilitate recession were recorded for each specimen. An average of 83% of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis was transected in all 15 cadavers. After modifications of the technique, the final eight cadavers were noted to have had the entire (100%) gastrocnemius aponeurosis transected. Sural nerve injury occurred in one specimen (7%) in which the aponeurosis and the sural nerve were not well visualized. The sural nerve was definitively visualized during the procedure in 5 of 15 specimens (33%). No Achilles tendon injury was noted in any specimen. There was a mean improvement in ankle dorsiflexion of 20 degrees (range, 10 degrees-30 degrees) during full knee extension. The average length of time to perform the procedure was 20 minutes (range, 10-35 minutes). The average medial and lateral incision lengths used in the two-portal technique were 18 mm (range, 14-22 mm) and 17 mm (range, 12-19 mm), respectively, and the average distance from the midpoint of the medial incision to the level of the gastrocnemius-soleus junction was 26 mm (range, 5-60 mm). These results indicate that a complete gastrocnemius aponeurosis transection may be obtained utilizing a modified endoscopic gastrocnemius recession, but visualization of the sural nerve is poor with possible risk of iatrogenic nerve injury.

  20. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  1. Soft embalming of cadavers for training purposes: Optimising for long-term use in tropical weather.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raghuveer; Iyer, Subramania; Pillay, Minnie; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Ramu, Janarthanan

    2017-01-01

    Surgical and anatomical training has been found to be most optimally simulated in a cadaver than any other available methods. Soft embalming methods have made the bodies more 'lifelike' and better suited for training. The widely accepted soft embalming techniques, including Thiel embalming, are designed for temperate climates. Their use in tropical locations has been found to be associated with poor short-term and long-term preservation of the bodies. In fact, adequate reports from tropical countries on effective methods for soft embalming are lacking. This article details the modifications made in the Thiel embalming technique over a period of 2 years which has enabled us to preserve the anatomical features of bodies in an optimal way for longer periods in tropical conditions. This study was carried out in a tertiary care referral centre located in a tropical climate zone. A total of 13 frozen and thawed cadavers were used over a period of 2 years for developing such soft embalming technique. The efficacy of the technique was tested using these cadavers for varying types of surgical exercises on multiple occasions. The conventionally described technique of Thiel embalming did not provide desired results. Hence, various modifications to this technique were instituted which helped us to get superior quality of soft-embalmed cadavers. In the final year, these cadavers were used successfully for workshops in flap dissection. Head and neck access surgery, arthroscopic and laparoscopic procedures as well as mock face and hand transplant dissections. The Theil embalming technique for obtaining soft embalmed cadavers, even though found to be best in many centres in the world, has not been found to be suitable to tropical weather. By modifying it, we have succeeded in developing a technique suitable to the tropical weather. This technique yields cadavers suitable for various surgical simulation exercises. This technique also allows the body to be optimally used over

  2. Soft embalming of cadavers for training purposes: Optimising for long-term use in tropical weather

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Raghuveer; Iyer, Subramania; Pillay, Minnie; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Ramu, Janarthanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgical and anatomical training has been found to be most optimally simulated in a cadaver than any other available methods. Soft embalming methods have made the bodies more ‘lifelike’ and better suited for training. The widely accepted soft embalming techniques, including Thiel embalming, are designed for temperate climates. Their use in tropical locations has been found to be associated with poor short-term and long-term preservation of the bodies. In fact, adequate reports from tropical countries on effective methods for soft embalming are lacking. Materials and Methods: This article details the modifications made in the Thiel embalming technique over a period of 2 years which has enabled us to preserve the anatomical features of bodies in an optimal way for longer periods in tropical conditions. This study was carried out in a tertiary care referral centre located in a tropical climate zone. A total of 13 frozen and thawed cadavers were used over a period of 2 years for developing such soft embalming technique. The efficacy of the technique was tested using these cadavers for varying types of surgical exercises on multiple occasions. Results: The conventionally described technique of Thiel embalming did not provide desired results. Hence, various modifications to this technique were instituted which helped us to get superior quality of soft-embalmed cadavers. In the final year, these cadavers were used successfully for workshops in flap dissection. Head and neck access surgery, arthroscopic and laparoscopic procedures as well as mock face and hand transplant dissections. Conclusions: The Theil embalming technique for obtaining soft embalmed cadavers, even though found to be best in many centres in the world, has not been found to be suitable to tropical weather. By modifying it, we have succeeded in developing a technique suitable to the tropical weather. This technique yields cadavers suitable for various surgical simulation exercises. This

  3. Temperature increase in human cadaver retina during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Mikula, Eric; Kurtz, Ronald M; Juhasz, Tibor

    2010-04-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for ophthalmic surgery, including use in creating corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. During normal operation, approximately 50% to 60% of laser energy may pass beyond the cornea, with potential effects on the retina. As a model for retinal laser exposure during femtosecond corneal surgery, we measured the temperature rise in human cadaver retinas during direct illumination by the laser. The temperature increase induced by a 150-kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (Abbott Medical Optics) in human cadaver retinas was measured in situ using an infrared thermal imaging camera. To model the geometry of the eye during the surgery, an approximate 11x11-mm excised section of human cadaver retina was placed 17 mm behind the focus of the laser beam. The temperature field was observed in 10 cadaver retina samples at energy levels ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 microJ (corresponding approximately to surgical energies of 0.8 to 3.2 microJ per pulse). Maximal temperature increases up to 1.15 degrees C (corresponding to 3.2 microJ and 52-second illumination) were observed in the cadaver retina sections with little variation in temperature profiles between specimens for the same laser energy illumination. The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 0.2 degrees C temperature increase and do not therefore present a safety hazard to the retina. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. [Appropriate concentrations of antimicrobial agents in used cadaver pools].

    PubMed

    Sarsilmaz, M; Arifoğlu, Y; Tuncer, S; Akşit, D

    1992-10-01

    Samples for microbiologic culture were taken from 17 cadaver and 4 cadaver pools in the Department of Anatomy of Gülhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Military Faculty of Medicine. Samples were inoculated on bacteriologic and mycologic media and were incubated in aerobic and 10% CO2 atmosphere conditions. From 3 of 4 pools containing different concentration of phenol and formalin, pathogenic bacteria that might be present in normal flora and saprophytic fungi were isolated. In the guidance of these results, in order to keep the cadavers for a long time and laboratory safety, use of formalin and phenol not less than 5% and 4% concentrations of the cadavers respectively and the pools should be taken into consideration.

  5. Causes of failure to harvest cadaver kidneys for transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, A M

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-two possible donors of cadaver kidneys were referred to the Nuffield Transplantation Surgery Unit, Edinburgh, in 12 months. Only 12 (23%) yielded kidneys, while a further 12 were medically unsuitable as donors. Refusal by relatives to allow cadaver nephrectomy was the largest avoidable loss of potentially transplantable kidneys. A similar but unavoidable loss occurred through sudden death of the possible donor. PMID:769904

  6. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  7. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The Effects of Cadaver Orientation on the Relative Position of the Abdominal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Meghan K.; Hardy, Warren N.; Beillas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Biplane x-ray was used to image two cadavers in upright and inverted postures, and the three-dimensional variation in the relative abdominal organ position was quantified. The abdominal organs of each surrogate were instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally invasive approach. Imaging was performed with a known stomach volume, with residual air removed from the abdominal cavity, and with ventilation and perfusion. Marker positions were determined in two planar x-ray perspectives using target tracking software and projected into calibrated three-dimensional coordinates. Intuitive changes in organ position were observed with the effect of gravity in the upright orientation; in the superior-inferior direction, the separation between the most cranial and caudal diaphragm and liver markers was 95 mm to 169 mm. When inverted, the abdominal organs shifted cranially and fell within 66 to 81 mm in the superior-inferior direction. The relative change in position of the diaphragm markers, determined as the vector magnitude from the upright to the inverted position, was 99 to 121 mm. These data were scaled and compared to positional MRI data from nine human subjects in seated postures and the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) model geometry. The overall shapes and relative positions of the inverted cadaver organs compared better to the human subjects and model geometry. These results give rise to several issues for consideration when interpreting cadaver test results and comparing them to finite element simulations and their associated injury prediction abilities. PMID:24406959

  9. Comparative study of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Allier, C.P.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Bom, V.R.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    1998-06-01

    The authors studied three different types of silicon sensors: PIN diodes, circular drift detectors, both made at the Delft University of Technology (DUT), and Hamamatsu S5345 avalanche photodiodes. Measurements have been carried out in the same optimized experimental setup, both at room temperature and at low temperatures. Comparison is made for direct X-ray detection and CsI(Tl) scintillation light readout.

  10. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  11. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    von Hoermann, Christian; Ruther, Joachim; Ayasse, Manfred

    2012-08-14

    The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions:1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones?2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as well, virgin females can optimise

  12. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists.

  13. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  14. Uniqueness of the dentition as impressed in human skin: a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Miller, Raymond G; Bush, Peter J; Dorion, Robert B J; Bush, Mary A

    2009-07-01

    Bitemark interpretation assumes that the human dentition is unique and that its attributes can be accurately transferred to skin. A cadaver model was used to investigate whether the correct biter could be determined from similarly aligned dentitions once the dentitions were impressed in human skin. One-hundred dental stone models, which were measured and determined to be unique, were divided into 10 groups based upon similarities of mal-alignment patterns. One model was randomly selected from each group and bites were produced on unembalmed human cadavers. Metric/angular measurements and hollow volume overlays of the models were compared with the bites made. The percentage of dentitions from each group as well as the 100 dental model population that could not be excluded as the biter was determined. Results showed difficulty distinguishing the biter from individuals with similarly aligned dentitions and in some cases, an incorrect biter appeared better correlated to the bite.

  15. Accuracy of computer-guided implantation in a human cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yatzkair, Gustavo; Cheng, Alice; Brodie, Stan; Raviv, Eli; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    To examine the accuracy of computer-guided implantation using a human cadaver model with reduced experimental variability. Twenty-eight (28) dental implants representing 12 clinical cases were placed in four cadaver heads using a static guided implantation template. All planning and surgeries were performed by one clinician. All radiographs and measurements were performed by two examiners. The distance of the implants from buccal and lingual bone and mesial implant or tooth was analyzed at the apical and coronal levels, and measurements were compared to the planned values. No significant differences were seen between planned and implanted measurements. Average deviation of an implant from its planning radiograph was 0.8 mm, which is within the range of variability expected from CT analysis. Guided implantation can be used safely with a margin of error of 1 mm. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Comparison Between Two Methods of Face-Lift Surgery in Nine Cadavers: SMAS (Superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic System) Versus MACS (Minimal Access Cranial Suspension).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shabahang; Ahmadi, Aslan; Salem, Mohammad Mahdi; Safdarian, Mahdi; Ilkhani, Shahriar

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the average amounts of facial skin and muscle lifting in two different face-lift methods, superficial musculo-aponeurotic system (SMAS) plication and minimal access cranial suspension (MACS), to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in facial excursion. Thirty-six face-lift surgeries were performed on nine cadavers between October and December 2010. Both SMAS and MACS surgeries were done on each side of the cadaver faces. The average amounts of skin and muscle lifting up and out in three defined anatomical landmarks were compared between the two methods, SMAS plication and MACS lift procedure. Nine fresh cadavers with the mean age of 53 ± 6.7 years entered the study. Seven (77.8 %) were males and two (22.2 %) were females. The average amounts of lifting of the anatomical landmarks up and out were significantly greater in the SMAS plication method compared to the MACS lift procedure (P values <0.05), whereas facial symmetry was not significantly different between the two methods. The overall amounts of facial skin and muscle lifting by the SMAS plication method were greater than the MACS lift procedure. However, it does not justify ignoring the benefits of the MACS lift procedure in terms of less invasiveness and quicker recovery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Comparative pyrolysis studies of ethylarsines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. H.; Larsen, C. A.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    The pyrolysis of triethylarsine (TEAs), diethylarsine (DEAsH), and monoethylarsine (MEAsH 2) has been studied at atmospheric pressure in a flow tube reactor using mass spectrometry. He and D 2 were selected as the carrier gases to determine ambient effects and to isotopically label the pyrolysis products. For some experiments, supplemental C 2H 5 and CH 3 radicals, produced from pyrolysis of the co-reactants azoethane ((C 2H 5) 2N 2) and azomethane ((CH 3) 2N 2), were added to investigate the roles of C 2H 5 and CH 3 in the reactions. Significant D 2 effects have been observed for pyrolysis of TEAs but not for DEAsH and MEAsH 2. Pyrolysis of the latter could be enhanced by adding C 2H 5 radicals while the TEAs was nearly unaffected. With the presence of supplemental CH 3 radicals, 85% decomposition was induced for each precursor. The products included DEAsD, rather than DEAsH, for TEAs pyrolysis in D 2. However, DEAsH pyrolysis produced TEAs, and MEAsH 2 decomposed to yield DEAsH and arsine, in both ambients. This suggests that a β-elimination reaction is not a major step for any of the ethylarsine precursors. More likely, radical reactions occur. When trimethylgallium (TMGa) was added, the ethylarsine pyrolysis rates were accelerated due to the CH 3 radicals produced from TMGa pyrolysis. In addition, heterogeneous reactions have been observed for pyrolysis of ethylarsines, especially when a GaAs surface was involved.

  18. Comparison of 2 crestal sinus floor lift techniques performed on human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Llopet, Julien; Montaudon, Michel; Guillaud, Etienne; Ella, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 different techniques to lift the maxillary sinus floor through a crestal approach on fresh human cadaver heads: the Intralift technique using Piezosurgery and the Summers technique using osteotomy. Two different protocols were simulated on 11 fresh human cadaver heads or 22 maxillary sinuses. Inclusion criteria were: bilateral edentulous maxilla with a residual ridge height between 3 and 9 mm. CT scans were performed before and after surgery on all fresh cadaver heads. Both Intralift and Summers techniques were performed on the same maxilla on the 2 sinuses. The surgical procedure was performed by 2 independent operators, 1 experienced and 1 novice to compare the 2 results. The parameters assessed were the procedure duration and the sinus membrane preservation. The procedure duration was shorter when the operator was more experienced (P = 0.03). There was a correlation between the operator dexterity and the time required for surgery. The Intralift technique seemed safer for sinus membrane preservation. The Intralift technique is an interesting alternative to the Summers technique.

  19. Efficacy of orthotic immobilization of the unstable subaxial cervical spine of the elderly patient: investigation in a cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Bednar, Drew A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of soft, semirigid and hard cervical collars to immobilize the neck in a destabilized cadaver model. Design This is a laboratory experiment. Setting The anatomy research lab of McMaster University. Patients None. Fresh cadavers from elderly patients suffering terminal medical illness and free of cervical structural disease were studied. Interventions Destabilizing discoligamentous lesions of the neck were created in the cadavers. Radiographs were taken in maximum displacement in the prone, decubitus and side-bending positions, first unsupported and then with soft, semirigid and hard collars applied. Displacements in angulation and translation were measured from the radiographs. Outcome measures Radiographic displacement under gravity load. Results In all cases there was no effective limitation of pathological displacement, and in many cases displacement was increased after collar application. Conclusions Cervical collars do not effectively support the unstable neck, and may be ineffective in preventing pathological displacements. PMID:15362326

  20. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  1. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Raquel G; Hughes, David P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested.

  2. Morphometry of purkinje cell body of cerebellum in bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Rahman, M; Ara, A; Begum, T; Choudhury, S; Haque, N

    2010-10-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was performed by examining 30 (thirty) relatively fresh cerebellum. Out of them 20 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 10 and female 10) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 10 cerebellums from caesarian section of dead fetuses of both sexes (male 6 and female 4) age ranging from 34 weeks to 41 weeks. Specimen containing cerebellum was collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April'2009 to September'2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Samples were collected by using nonprobability sampling technique. The collected sample was grouped in to three age groups like Group A (34 to 41 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and two sex groups (male and female). Ten cerebellums were studied from each age group for this histological study. Sections were processed following standard histological procedure and were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Slides were examined under 15X40 magnifications and measurement of vertical and transverse diameter of the cell body were taken with the help of ocular micrometer. In this study, the mean difference of mean vertical and transverse diameter of Purkinje cell body between Groups A & B and Groups A & C was statistically highly significant (p<0.001) but differences between Groups B & C was statistically significant only in case of transverse diameter.

  3. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    PubMed

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  4. Introduction of a fresh cadaver laboratory during the surgery clerkship improves emergency technical skills.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William

    2015-08-01

    Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P < .001) and 38% (±17) (P < .001) in technical skills and clinical knowledge, respectively. When technical skills were compared between cohorts, there were no differences observed in both pre- and post-testing (P = .08). A fresh cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of a novel perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution comparing dural repair techniques: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Strickland, Ben A; Patel, Neil N; Jakoi, Andre M; Minneti, Michael; Zada, Gabriel; Acosta, Frank L; Hsieh, Patrick C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Liu, John C; Pham, Martin H

    2017-09-01

    Watertight dural repair is crucial for both incidental durotomy and closure after intradural surgery. The study aimed to describe a perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reconstitution and to compare spine dural repair techniques. The study is set in a fresh tissue dissection laboratory. The sample includes eight fresh human cadavers. A watertight closure was achieved when pressurized saline up to 40 mm Hg did not cause further CSF leakage beyond the suture lines. Fresh human cadaveric specimens underwent cannulation of the intradural cervical spine for intrathecal reconstitution of the CSF system. The cervicothoracic dura was then exposed from C7-T12 via laminectomy. The entire dura was then opened in six cadavers (ALLSPINE) and closed with 6-0 Prolene (n=3) or 4-0 Nurolon (n=3), and pressurized with saline via a perfusion system to 60 mm Hg to check for leakage. In two cadavers (INCISION), six separate 2-cm incisions were made and closed with either 6-0 Prolene or 4-0 Nurolon, and then pressurized. A hydrogel sealant was then added and the closure was pressurized again to check for further leakage. Spinal laminectomy with repair of intentional durotomy was successfully performed in eight cadavers. The operative microscope was used in all cases, and the model provided a realistic experience of spinal durotomy repair. For ALLSPINE cadavers (mean: 240 mm dura/cadaver repaired), the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage was observed at 66.7 (±2.9) mm Hg in the 6-0 Prolene group and at 43.3 (±14.4) mm Hg in the 4-0 Nurolon group (p>.05). For INCISION cadavers, the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage without hydrogel sealant was significantly higher in 6-0 Prolene group than in the 4-0 Nurolon group (6-0 Prolene: 80.0±4.5 mm Hg vs. 4-0 Nurolon: 32.5±2.7 mm Hg; p<.01). The mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage with the hydrogel sealants was not significantly different (6-0 Prolene: 100.0±0.0

  6. A radiologic and anatomic assessment of injectate spread following transmuscular quadratus lumborum block in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, S D; El-Boghdadly, K; Nasralah, Z; Sarwani, N; Nixon, A M; Chin, K J

    2017-01-01

    We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

  7. Development and Initial Porcine and Cadaver Experience with Three-Dimensional Printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Equipment

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. Materials and Methods: We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. Results: The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm2, respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). Conclusions: In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future. PMID:24983138

  8. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human cadaver corneal endothelial precursor cells on to a cadaver bovine's eye using a nanocomposite gel sheet.

    PubMed

    Parikumar, Periyasamy; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Ohbayashi, Akira; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2014-05-01

    In vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP) cells has been reported via production of cell aggregated spheres. However, to translate this procedure in human patients warrants maintaining the position of the eyeballs facing down for 36 h, which is not feasible. In this study, we report a method using a nanocomposite (NC) gel sheet to accomplish the integration of HCEP cells to the endothelium of cadaver bovine's eyes. HCEP cells were isolated from the corneal endothelium of a cadaver human eye and then expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) as reported earlier. For the study, three cadaver bovine eyes were used. The NC gel sheets were inserted into the bovine eyes', aligned and suture-fixed in position under the host endothelium. HCEP cells previously expanded in the TGP were harvested and injected using a 26-gauge syringe between the endothelium and the NC gel sheet. The eyes were left undisturbed for three hours following which the NC gel sheets were gently removed. The corneas were harvested and subjected to histopathological studies. Histopathological studies showed that all the three corneas used for NC gel sheet implantation showed the presence of engrafted HCEP cells, seen as multi-layered cells over the native endothelium of the bovine cornea. Examination of the NC gel sheets used for implantation showed that only very few corneal endothelial cells remained on the sheets amounting to what could be considered negligible. The use of the NC gel sheet makes HCEP cell transplantation feasible for human patients. Further in vitro basic studies followed by translational studies are necessary to bring this method for clinical application in appropriate indications.

  9. A comparison of retrobulbar and two peribulbar regional anesthetic techniques in dog cadavers.

    PubMed

    Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Pascoe, Peter J; Wisner, Erik R; Kahane, Nili; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2017-04-13

    To compare injectate distribution and likelihood of regional anesthesia to the orbit following retrobulbar (RB) or peribulbar (PB) injections in dog cadavers. Randomized, masked study. Twenty-four dog cadavers (aged 5.5-17 years, 2.0-36.3 kg). Orbits underwent one of three injection techniques with bupivacaine 0.5% and iohexol (1:1): ventrolateral RB injection (1-2 mL; 15 orbits), medial canthal PB injection (2-8 mL; PB-1; 16 orbits), or dorsomedial and ventrolateral PB injections (each 1-4 mL; PB-2; 16 orbits). The likelihood of successful regional anesthesia was estimated based on computed tomographic images scored for injectate volume of distribution at the base and within the extraocular muscle cone (EOMC), and injectate distribution around the optic nerve. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured before and after injections. Mixed-effects linear regression with post hoc Bonferroni contrast adjustments was performed. Significance was set at 0.05. A difference in injectate volume of distribution within or at the base of the EOMC was not detected among groups. The median optic nerve circumference of injectate distribution was significantly higher in the RB injected group than in the PB-2 group. Injectate distribution following RB, PB-1 and PB-2 injections was graded as likely to provide regional anesthesia within the EOMC in 40%, 19% and 31% of eyes, and at the EOMC base in 60%, 63% and 50% of eyes, respectively. The probability of likelihood to provide regional anesthesia was lower in dogs of higher body weights. The IOP was significantly higher than baseline following PB-1 (18 ± 14 mmHg) and in comparison with RB (2 ± 3 mmHg), but not different from PB-2 injection (10 ± 11 mmHg). None of the techniques reliably produced 'successful' injectate distribution based on this study's definitions; however, clinical assessment of anesthetic success is required. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary

  10. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Endovascular Placement of an Extraluminal Femoropopliteal Bypass Graft in Human Cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Maynar, Manuel; Llorens, Rafael; Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio; Qian Zhong; Lopera, Jorge; Castaneda, Wilfrido R.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. A method to create an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft using endovascular techniques was evaluated in situ on cadaver extremities in an attempt to develop a minimally invasive alternative technique for the management of infrainguinal occlusive arterial disease. Methods. The endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft was undertaken in 5 cadaver legs. Following percutaneous access to the popliteal artery (PA) or common femoral artery (CFA), a Rosch-Uchida needle was used to perforate the vascular wall, followed by the creation of an extraluminal tract using a looped wire and catheter. Once the desired level was reached the needle was again used to perforate the vascular wall of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or PA depending on the access used. Self-expanding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent-grafts were then deployed to establish the extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass connecting the two arterial puncture sites. Following dilatation of the stent-graft, angiography was performed to assess the endoprostheses and to look for contrast leaks. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 5 legs. Procedure time varied from 15 to 30 min. The angiographic studies performed immediately after completion of the bypass procedure showed patency of the grafts with no evidence of kinking or leakage in any of the cases. Conclusion. This study has proved that the endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft in human cadaver legs using endovascular techniques under fluoroscopic control is technically feasible.

  12. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  13. Temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M; Mikula, Eric R; Juhasz, Tibor

    2011-02-01

    To measure the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser as a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. Experimental study. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz commercial femtosecond laser in porcine cadaver iris was measured in situ using an infrared thermal imaging camera at pulse energy levels ranging from 1 to 2 μJ (corresponding approximately to surgical energies of 2 to 4 μJ per laser pulse). Temperature increases up to 2.3 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ and 24-second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris with little variation in temperature profiles between specimens for the same laser energy illumination. The 60 kHz commercial femtosecond laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.2 °C temperature increase and therefore does not present a safety hazard to the iris. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs.

    PubMed

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Huisman, Henk Jan; Kooloos, Jan G; Huizenga, Henk; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients.

  15. Cadaver-based abscess model for medical training

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael Stanley; Nelson, Joseph T; Kartchner, Jeffrey Zane; Yousef, Karl Andrew; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a rapid and noninvasive tool ideal for the imaging of soft tissue infections and is associated with a change of clinician management plans in 50% of cases. We developed a realistic skin abscess diagnostic and therapeutic training model using fresh frozen cadavers and common, affordable materials. Details for construction of the model and suggested variations are presented. This cadaver-based abscess model produces high-quality sonographic images with internal echogenicity similar to a true clinical abscess, and is ideal for teaching sonographic diagnostic skills in addition to the technical skills of incision and drainage or needle aspiration. PMID:28176889

  16. Colonoscopy tutorial software made with a cadaver's sectioned images.

    PubMed

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Hyung Seon; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2016-11-01

    Novice doctors may watch tutorial videos in training for actual or computed tomographic (CT) colonoscopy. The conventional learning videos can be complemented by virtual colonoscopy software made with a cadaver's sectioned images (SIs). The objective of this study was to assist colonoscopy trainees with the new interactive software. Submucosal segmentation on the SIs was carried out through the whole length of the large intestine. With the SIs and segmented images, a three dimensional model was reconstructed. Six-hundred seventy-one proximal colonoscopic views (conventional views) and corresponding distal colonoscopic views (simulating the retroflexion of a colonoscope) were produced. Not only navigation views showing the current location of the colonoscope tip and its course, but also, supplementary description views were elaborated. The four corresponding views were put into convenient browsing software to be downloaded free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr). The SI colonoscopy software with the realistic images and supportive tools was available to anybody. Users could readily notice the position and direction of the virtual colonoscope tip and recognize meaningful structures in colonoscopic views. The software is expected to be an auxiliary learning tool to improve technique and related knowledge in actual and CT colonoscopies. Hopefully, the software will be updated using raw images from the Visible Korean project.

  17. Scapholunate interosseus ligament reconstruction on a cadaver: A technique

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Prat, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute rupture of the scapholunate interosseus ligament is a relatively frequent occurrence which can be repaired primarily by direct suturing. However, patients are often seen a few weeks after injury when most of the ligament fibers have degenerated. This poses a challenge because direct repair can be difficult and long term results have not been satisfying. In the present study, a technique is presented to address this problem and its possible advantages are discussed. Materials and Methods: A fresh frozen wrist cadaver specimen, thawed to room temperature, was used to carry out the procedure. The scapholunate joint was exposed through a dorsal approach and stabilized using two percutaneous Kirschner wires. Using a U shaped chisel, a groove along the scapholunate articular margin was created to accommodate a strip from the extensor retinaculum as a ligament plasty. This has been secured using six anchor sutures and several pictures taken during the procedure to expose the key steps. Results: The ligamentoplasty presented in this article preserves most of the articular surface of proximal carpus and at the same time stabilizes the scapholunate joint. However, more in vivo research should be carried out to validate this treatment. Conclusion: The technique suggests a possible way to repair a ruptured scapholunate interosseus ligament that cannot be repaired primarily. Because osteointegration of the ligament strips is not possible in the present experiment, biomechanics of the construct cannot be fully tested. PMID:25298562

  18. Interpretation of postmortem change in cadavers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José L; Magaña, Concepción; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2004-09-01

    Estimating time since death is especially difficult in the examination of poorly preserved cadavers and depends on the experience of the examiner and comparison with previously documented cases showing similar characteristics. The present study reports on information obtained over the past ten years through the work of the Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense (LAF) of the Instituto Anatómico Forense de Madrid, Spain, in particular evaluating how the type of fracture influences postmortem change. From the original 225 forensic cases examined between 1992 and 2002 in the LAF, a sample of 29 cases were selected from various regions of the Spanish mainland. A data collection protocol was established to reflect factors which the existing specialized literature, documenting the relation existing in the sample analyzed between time since death and the extent of postmortem change, which in the environments examined are distributed into the following phases: Phase 1 (putrefaction): one week to one month on the surface and two months in water. Phase 2 (initial skeletonization): two months on the surface and five to six months in water. Phase 3 (advanced skeltonization): six months to 1.5 years on the surface and 2.5 years buried. Phase 4 (complete skeletonization): about one year on the surface and three years buried. This paper also provide useful information on the impact of carrion insect activity, location, climate, seasonality, and predator.

  19. High-resolution ultrasound analysis of subsynovial connective tissue in human cadaver carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Anke M; Belohlavek, Marek; Zhao, Chunfeng; Oh, Sang Ho; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan

    2006-10-01

    The carpal tunnel contains the median nerve, nine flexor tendons, two synovial bursae, and peritendinous subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). Fibrosis of the SSCT is the most consistent pathological finding in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. We investigated the anatomy and gliding characteristics of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and its adjacent SSCT with high-resolution ultrasound (15 MHz). Our hypotheses were that tendon and SSCT are distinguishable by ultrasound and that their velocities during tendon excursion are different. Qualitative ultrasound analysis of a flexor tendon and its SSCT was performed on five cadaver wrists and correlated to respective findings after anatomical study of the same cadavers. Quantitative Doppler velocity analysis of eight cadaver wrists was done to assess the sliding movement of the tendon and its SSCT within the carpal tunnel. No significant difference was found between the thickness of SSCT measured by ultrasound and that measured directly after dissection. The SSCT moved slower than its flexor tendon. The SSCT velocities were statistically different from the tendon velocities (t-test, p>0.001). High-resolution ultrasound is a very precise method to display the anatomy of the tendon and SSCT within the carpal tunnel, and their different velocities can be detected with Doppler. Noninvasive assessment of the thickness and velocity of the tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome by high-resolution sonography might be a new diagnostic tool for disorders affecting the SSCT, especially carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright (c) 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. The utility of cadaver-based approaches for the teaching of human anatomy: A survey of British and Irish anatomy teachers.

    PubMed

    Balta, Joy Y; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Blood and marrow cultures as indicators of bone contamination in cadaver donors.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Octavio V; Buck, Billy E; Hernandez, Maribel; Malinin, Theodore

    2003-04-01

    Of 770 cadaver bone donors evaluated, 185 had positive blood or ilium marrow aspirate cultures. These donors were matched with an immediately preceding or subsequent donor with negative blood and marrow cultures. Donors with cultures positive for skin contaminants only were not included in the study. Samples of the blood and bone marrow, surface swab cultures, and cultures of tissue samples of the excised skeletal tissues were obtained at the time of tissue procurement. There were 88 (48%) donors with similar microbial species recovered from the blood and ilium marrow. These donors had a higher rate of positive bone cultures (30%) than donors with positive blood (15%) or marrow cultures only (11%) or donors with negative blood and marrow culture results (7.3%). Recovery of similar isolates from the blood and marrow had a positive predictive value of 72% for the isolation of the same types of organisms from the excised tissues compared with 38% for donors with positive blood cultures only. Although not absolute predictors of tissue contamination, combined blood and bone marrow cultures were more reliable indicators of tissue contamination than blood cultures alone.

  2. A comparison of a traditional endotracheal tube versus ETView SL in endotracheal intubation during different emergency conditions: A randomized, crossover cadaver trial.

    PubMed

    Truszewski, Zenon; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Smereka, Jacek; Frass, Michael; Robak, Oliver; Nguyen, Bianka; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-11-01

    Airway management is a crucial skill essential to paramedics and personnel working in Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments: Lack of practice, a difficult airway, or a trauma situation may limit the ability of paramedics to perform direct laryngoscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Videoscope devices are alternatives for airway management in these situations. The ETView VivaSight SL (ETView; ETView Ltd., Misgav, Israel) is a new, single-lumen airway tube with an integrated high-resolution imaging camera. To assess if the ETView VivaSight SL can be a superior alternative to a standard endotracheal tube for intubation in an adult cadaver model, both during and without simulated CPR. ETView VivaSight SL tube was investigated via an interventional, randomized, crossover, cadaver study. A total of 52 paramedics participated in the intubation of human cadavers in three different scenarios: a normal airway at rest without concomitant chest compression (CC) (scenario A), a normal airway with uninterrupted CC (scenario B) and manual in-line stabilization (scenario C). Time and rate of success for intubation, the glottic view scale, and ease-of-use of ETView vs. sETT intubation were assessed for each emergency scenario. The median time to intubation using ETView vs. sETT was compared for each of the aforementioned scenarios. For scenario A, time to first ventilation was achieved fastest for ETView, 19.5 [IQR, 16.5-22] sec, when compared to that of sETT at 21.5 [IQR, 20-25] sec (p = .013). In scenario B, the time for intubation using ETView was 21 [IQR, 18.5-24.5] sec (p < .001) and sETT was 27 [IQR, 24.5-31.5] sec. Time to first ventilation for scenario C was 23.5 [IQR, 19-25.5] sec for the ETView and 42.5 [IQR, 35-49.5] sec for sETT. In normal airways and situations with continuous chest compressions, the success rate for intubation of cadavers and the time to ventilation were improved with the ETView. The time to glottis view, tube insertion

  3. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreas from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Jennifer-Hollister-Lock; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR/SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 wk later. β-cell replication as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67 was 0.22 ± 0.03 % at 4 wk and 0.13 ± 0.03 % at 14 wk. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium, and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19 positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations exendin-4, gastrin and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis. PMID:23321263

  4. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreases from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR-SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 weeks later. β-Cell replication, as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67, was 0.22 ± 0.03% at 4 weeks and 0.13 ± 0.03% at 14 weeks. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19-positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations of exendin-4, gastrin, and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections, but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis.

  5. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  6. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  7. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  8. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  9. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  10. "Live cadavers" for training in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Emad; Aboud, Ghaith; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Aboud, Talal; Rammos, Stylianos; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Hsu, Sanford P C; Koga, Sebastian; Arthur, Adam; Krisht, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Intraoperative rupture occurs in approximately 9.2% of all cranial aneurysm surgeries. This event is not merely a surgical complication, it is also a real surgical crisis that requires swift and decisive action. Neurosurgical residents may have little exposure to this event, but they may face it in their practice. Laboratory training would be invaluable for developing competency in addressing this crisis. In this study, the authors present the "live cadaver" model, which allows repetitive training under lifelike conditions for residents and other trainees to practice managing this crisis. The authors have used the live cadaver model in 13 training courses from 2009 to 2014 to train residents and neurosurgeons in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture. Twenty-three cadaveric head specimens harboring 57 artificial and 2 real aneurysms were used in these courses. Specimens were specially prepared for this technique and connected to a pump that sent artificial blood into the vessels. This setting created a lifelike situation in the cadaver that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation, and softness of tissue. A total of 203 neurosurgical residents and 89 neurosurgeons and faculty members have practiced and experienced the live cadaver model. Clipping of the aneurysm and management of an intraoperative rupture was first demonstrated by an instructor. Then, trainees worked for 20- to 30-minute sessions each, during which they practiced clipping and reconstruction techniques and managed intraoperative ruptures. Ninety-one of the participants (27 faculty members and 64 participants) completed a questionnaire to rate their personal experience with the model. Most either agreed or strongly agreed that the model was a valid simulation of the conditions of live surgery on cerebral aneurysms and represents a realistic simulation of aneurysmal clipping and intraoperative rupture. Actual performance improvement with this model will require detailed

  11. Do dental undergraduates think that Thiel-embalmed cadavers are a more realistic model for teaching exodontia?

    PubMed

    Hanson, C; Wilkinson, T; Macluskey, M

    2016-12-20

    Teaching exodontia to novice undergraduates requires a realistic model. Thiel-embalmed cadavers retain the flexibility of the soft tissues and could be used to teach exodontia. The objective was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers were perceived to be a more realistic model by undergraduates in comparison with mannequins. Over a period of 4 years (2011-2014), students were randomly assigned into two groups: those taught exodontia on mannequins only (NT) and those who also experienced cadaveric teaching (T). This was followed by an assessment. There were 174 students in the T group and 108 in the NT group. Sixty-five per cent of the T group and 69% of the NT group provided feedback. Ninety-eight per cent (98%) felt that they had been advantaged by being included in the group compared with 95% in the NT who felt disadvantaged. The majority (98%) thought that using the cadavers was advantageous and gave a realistic feel for soft tissue management (89%) and that it was similar to managing a patient (81%). Self-reported confidence in undertaking an extraction was not different between the two groups (P=.078), and performance in the extraction assessment was not significantly different between the two groups over the 4 years (P=.8). The Thiel-embalmed cadavers were well received by the students who found it a more realistic model for exodontia than a mannequin, even though this did not impact on their performance in a following assessment. Future work on these cadavers may be expanded to include surgical procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Targeting accuracy of transcranial magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound brain therapy: a fresh cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Dorian; Marsac, Laurent; Pernot, Mathieu; Boch, Anne-Laure; Guillevin, Rémy; Salameh, Najat; Souris, Line; Darrasse, Luc; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the accuracy of MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) brain therapy in human cadaver heads. Eighteen heads of fresh human cadavers were removed with a dedicated protocol preventing intracerebral air penetration. The MR images allowed determination of the ultrasonic target: a part of the thalamic nucleus ventralis intermedius implicated in essential tremor. Osseous aberrations were corrected with simulation-based time reversal by using CT data from the heads. The ultrasonic session was performed with a 512-element phased-array transducer system operating at 1 MHz under stereotactic conditions with thermometric real-time MR monitoring performed using a 1.5-T imager. Dissection, imaging, targeting, and planning have validated the feasibility of this human cadaver model. The average temperature elevation measured by proton resonance frequency shift was 7.9°C ± 3°C. Based on MRI data, the accuracy of MRgHIFU is 0.4 ± 1 mm along the right/left axis, 0.7 ± 1.2 mm along the dorsal/ventral axis, and 0.5 ± 2.4 mm in the rostral/caudal axis. Despite its limits (temperature, vascularization), the human cadaver model is effective for studying the accuracy of MRgHIFU brain therapy. With the 1-MHz system investigated here, there is millimetric accuracy.

  13. Measurement of the temperature increase in the porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2010-02-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary measurements indicated that during typical surgical use, 50-60% of laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. To further evaluate iris laser exposure during femtosecond corneal surgery, we measured the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris in situ during direct illumination by the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser (AMO Inc. Santa Ana, CA) with an infrared thermal imaging camera. To replicate the illumination geometry of the eye during the surgery, an excised porcine cadaver iris was placed 1.5 mm from the flat glass contact lens. The temperature field was observed in twenty cadaver iris at laser pulse energy levels ranging from 1 to 2 μJ (corresponding approximately to surgical energies of 2 to 4 μJ per pulse). Temperature increases up to 2.3 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ per pulse and 24 second procedure time) were observed in the cadaver iris with little variation in temperature profiles between specimens for the same laser energy illumination. For laser pulse energy and procedure time characteristic to the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser the temperature increase was measured to be 1.2 °C. Our studies suggest that the magnitude of iris heating that occurs during such femtosecond laser corneal surgery is small and does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  14. Assessment of a Human Cadaver Model for Training Emergency Medicine Residents in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wesley; Wadman, Michael; Walker, Richard; Lomneth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess a human cadaver model for training emergency medicine residents in the ultrasound diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods. Single-blinded observational study using a human cadaveric model at an academic medical center. Three lightly embalmed cadavers were used to create three “normal lungs” and three lungs modeling a “pneumothorax.” The residents were blinded to the side and number of pneumothoraces, as well as to each other's findings. Each resident performed an ultrasound examination on all six lung models during ventilation of cadavers. They were evaluated on their ability to identify the presence or absence of the sliding-lung sign and seashore sign. Results. A total of 84 ultrasound examinations (42-“normal lung,” 42-“pneumothorax”) were performed. A sliding-lung sign was accurately identified in 39 scans, and the seashore sign was accurately identified in 34 scans. The sensitivity and specificity for the sliding-lung sign were 93% (95% CI, 85–100%) and 90% (95% CI, 81–99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the seashore sign were 80% (95% CI, 68–92%) and 83% (95% CI, 72–94%), respectively. Conclusions. Lightly embalmed human cadavers may provide an excellent model for mimicking the sonographic appearance of pneumothorax. PMID:24790999

  15. Histological verification of the prehypogastric and ovarian ganglia confirms a bilaterally symmetrical organization of the ganglia comprising the aortic plexus in female human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The aortic plexus is a network of sympathetic nerves positioned along the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Recently, we characterized the aortic plexus and its ganglia (inferior mesenteric, left/right spermatic, and prehypogastric ganglion) in males; however, the literature minimally describes its anatomy in females. In the present study, we conducted the first histological examination of the left and right ovarian ganglia, while also investigating whether females, like males, exhibit a prehypogastric ganglion. The ganglia were dissected from embalmed (n = 32) and fresh (n = 1) human cadavers, and H&E staining was used to confirm the presence of a left ovarian ganglion in 31/31 specimens, a right ovarian ganglion in 29/29 specimens and a prehypogastric ganglion in 25/28 specimens. Comparable to the topographic arrangement in males, there is a bilateral organization of the ganglia comprising the aortic plexus in females. More specifically, the left and right ovarian ganglia were positioned in close relation to their respective ovarian artery, whereas the prehypogastric ganglion was positioned within the right cord of the aortic plexus, contralateral to the inferior mesenteric ganglion. Using immunohistochemistry, it was shown that all ganglia from the fresh cadaver stained positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, thereby confirming their sympathetic nature. Having provided the first topographical and histological characterization of the ovarian and prehypogastric ganglia in females, future studies should seek to determine their specific function.

  16. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  17. Cadaveric validation study of computational fluid dynamics model of sinus irrigations before and after sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John YK; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Methods Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on two fresh cadavers to open all eight sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240 mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/s (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. Results In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. Conclusions This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. PMID:26880742

  18. Cadaveric validation study of computational fluid dynamics model of sinus irrigations before and after sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John Y K; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on 2 fresh cadavers to open all 8 sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240-mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/second (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Radiographic Detectability of Retained Neuropatties in a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wangjian Thomas; Almack, Robert; Mawson, John B; Cochrane, David Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Counts are the commonest method used to ensure that all sponges and neuropatties are removed from a surgical site before closure. When the count is not reconciled, plain radiographs of the operative site are taken to determine whether the missing patty has been left in the wound. The purpose of this study was to describe the detectability of commonly used neuropatties in the clinical setting using digital technologies. Neuropatties were implanted into the anterior and posterior cranial fossae and the thoracolumbar extradural space of a mature male cadaver. Four neuropatty sizes were used: 3 × 1 in, 2 × ½ in, ½ × ½ in, and ¼ × ¼ in. Neuropatties, with size and location chosen at random, were placed in the surgical sites and anteroposterior/posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs were taken using standard portable digital radiographic equipment. Six clinicians reviewed the digital images for the presence or absence of neuropatties. The readers were not aware of the number and size of the patties that were included in each image. The detectability of neuropatties is dependent on the size of the neuropatty's radiopaque marker and the operative site. Neuropatties measuring 2 × ½ in and 3 × 1 in were detected reliably regardless of the operative site. ¼ × ¼ in neuropatties were poorly detected by neurosurgeons and radiologists in all three operative sites. Readers of various experience and background were similar in their ability to detect neuropatties under these conditions. Under simulated operating room conditions and using currently available neuropatties and plain radiograph imaging technology, small ¼-in and ½-in neuropatties are poorly visible/detectable on digital images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups at retention testing. The virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac mortality is associated with low levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the heart of cadavers with a history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Suwannahoi, Padiphat; Mahakranukrauh, Pasuk; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2009-10-01

    The benefits of omega-3 (ie, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 (ie, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) fatty acids on reducing cardiac mortality are still debated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues are associated with low cardiac mortality in Thai cadavers. One hundred fresh cadavers were examined in this study. The cause of death, history of coronary heart disease (CHD), and fish consumption habits were obtained from death certificates, cadaver medical record profiles, and a questionnaire to a person who lived with the subject before death. In each cadaver, biopsies of cardiac tissues were taken from the interventricular septum for measurement of fatty acid. Of the 100 cadavers (average age, 69 +/- 13 years), 60 were men. The frequency of fish consumption was directly associated with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues (P < .01). History of CHD and cause of death (cardiac vs noncardiac) were not significantly associated with levels of omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. However, in cadavers with a history of CHD, high levels of omega-3 and omega-6, particularly DHA and AA, were associated with low cardiac mortality (P < .05). Fish consumption is associated with levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues. Although omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are not associated with cardiac mortality in the overall studied population, their low levels (especially DHA and AA) in heart tissues are associated with high cardiac mortality in cadavers with a history of CHD.

  3. Snake scope camera assisted endotracheal intubation: a procedural skills training in cadaver to prepare preclinical students for their clerkships.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Apinuntrum, Prawit; Phetudom, Thavorn

    2012-02-01

    Preparing students to perform specific procedures on patients presents a challenge of student confidence in performing these tasks. This descriptive study determined the ability of the medical students to perform a basic clinical task after a short hands-on training workshop in cadavers. This basic procedural skills training was an attempt for developing conceptual understanding and increasing procedural skills in endotracheal intubation of the medical students. The students were trained to perform two different endotracheal intubations, uncomplicated intubation, and a traumatic difficult airway scenario. The training session consisted of two methods of endotracheal intubation, oral intubations using direct laryngoscopy (DL) in two cadavers with uncomplicated airway and the Flexible Snake Scope camera (FSSC) assisted nasal intubation procedures in two cadavers simulated trauma victims with difficult airway. In the assessment session, the students performed one timed trial with each device. All four cadavers were changed but the scenarios were the same. The groups of the medical students were randomly assigned to perform the tasks in one of two cadavers of the two scenarios. Thirty-two medical students participated in this training and assessment. The training session and the assessment lasted five hours and three hours respectively. No student was asked to perform the second trial. The average time for successful intubation with DL was 32.7 seconds (SD, 13.8 seconds) and for FSSC was 127.0 seconds (SD, 32.6 seconds). The intubation failure rate was 0% for the entire study. The medical students have the ability to accomplish a basic clinical task after a short hands-on training workshop.

  4. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  5. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  6. Effects of carpal tunnel release on the relative motion of tendon, nerve, and subsynovial connective tissue in a human cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of flexor retinaculum division (simulated carpal tunnel release) on the relative motion of flexor tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in human cadaver specimens. Using fluoroscopy, we measured the relative motion of middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in twelve human cadavers with simulated fist motion. Measurements were obtained for three wrist positions: neutral; 60 degrees flexion; and 60 degrees extension. The shear index was defined as the difference in motion between two tissues (tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, or nerve) relative to tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel, the flexor retinaculum was cut and the testing procedure was repeated. With an intact flexor retinaculum, the wrist flexion position showed significantly less displacement for the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve relative to tendon displacement, and thus the highest potential shear strain between subsynovial connective tissue-tendon, and tendon-nerve. The wrist extension position also had a significantly higher potential shear strain for tendon-nerve compared to the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the differences in shear index among wrist positions were reduced. For the wrist flexion position, the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve displacements significantly increased, indicating lower shear index values. These findings suggest that division of flexor retinaculum reduces the potential shear strain and thus possibly the risk of shear injury to tissues with the carpal tunnel.

  7. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Release on the Relative Motion of Tendon, Nerve, and Subsynovial Connective Tissue in a Human Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D.; Zobitz, Mark E.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of flexor retinaculum division (simulated carpal tunnel release) on the relative motion of flexor tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in human cadaver specimens. Methods Using fluoroscopy, we measured the relative motion of middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in twelve human cadavers with simulated fist motion. Measurements were obtained for three wrist positions: neutral; 60 degrees flexion; and 60 degrees extension. The shear index was defined as the difference in motion between two tissues (tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, or nerve) relative to tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel, the flexor retinaculum was cut and the testing procedure was repeated. Findings With an intact flexor retinaculum, the wrist flexion position showed significantly less displacement for the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve relative to tendon displacement, and thus the highest potential shear strain between subsynovial connective tissue-tendon, and tendon-nerve. The wrist extension position also had a significantly higher potential shear strain for tendon-nerve compared to the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the differences in shear index among wrist positions were reduced. For the wrist flexion position, the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve displacements significantly increased, indicating lower shear index values. Interpretation These findings suggest that division of flexor retinaculum reduces the potential shear strain and thus possibly the risk of shear injury to tissues with the carpal tunnel. PMID:18644662

  8. Comparative Review of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Barbara A.

    Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world…

  9. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  10. Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  11. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    PubMed

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world.

  12. The amount of information provided in articles published in clinical anatomy and surgical and radiologic anatomy regarding human cadaveric materials and trends in acknowledging donors/cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Coşkun, Osman; Gürtekin, Başak; Kale, Ayşin

    2016-12-01

    Appreciating the contribution of donor-cadavers to medical education is a well observed practice among anatomists. However, the appreciation of their contribution in research and scientific articles remains dubious. We aimed to evaluate how much data anatomists provide about specimens they have used and how frequently anatomists acknowledge their cadavers in published articles. We evaluated all articles performed on human cadaveric specimens that were published in Clinical Anatomy and Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy between January 2011 and December 2015. We evaluated how much data on the demographics, preservation method(s), source, and ethical/legal permissions regarding cadavers were provided. We also evaluated the number of articles that acknowledged donor-cadavers. The majority of articles provided demographic data (age and sex) and preservation method used in the article. The source of the specimens was not mentioned in 45.6 % of the articles. Only 26.2 % of the articles provided a degree of consent and only 32.4 % of the articles reported some form of ethical approval for the study. The cadavers and their families were acknowledged in 17.7 % of the articles. We observed that no standard method for reporting data has been established. Anatomists should collaborate to create awareness among the scientific community for providing adequate information regarding donor-cadavers, including source and consent. Acknowledging donor-cadavers and/or their families should also be promoted. Scientific articles should be used to create a transparent relationship of trust between anatomists and their society.

  13. Ultrasound imaging in cadavers: training in imaging for regional blockade at the trunk.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ban; Dillane, Derek; Pillay, Jennifer; Walji, Anil

    2008-02-01

    The unique strategy of using cadaveric models for teaching ultrasound-guided blocks has been described for blocks of the upper and lower extremities. This report considers the parallels between cadaveric and live imaging relevant to scanning of the trunk. The inter-individual variation between subjects (particularly for epidural blocks) is also considered, for practicing ultrasound-guided or supported trunk and central neuraxial techniques. Ultrasound images using a portable machine C60 5-2 MHz curved array probe or HFL38 13-6 MHz linear array probe were obtained from scanning the trunk of a male adult cadaver, and were compared with ultrasound and magnetic resonance images from an adult male volunteer. Ultrasound imaging at the midline of the spine in the transverse/coronal plane provided an overview of the vertebral column, while scanning in a medial-to-lateral direction using longitudinal/sagittal plane sequentially localized the spinous, articular and transverse process. At the thoracic spine, further lateral longitudinal scanning will identify costal structures with the rib necks alternating with the hyperechoic ligamentous tissue of the costovertebral joints. Ultrasound imaging in the live subject in the paramedian longitudinal plane could be used at the thoracic and lumber spinal levels to capture the optimal ultrasound window of the epidural space. Imaging in the cadaver, especially when viewing the epidural space, is primarily limited by the tissue rigidity and lack of spine flexibility. Cadavers may provide viable training options for practicing ultrasound imaging and real-time ultrasound needle guidance for nerve blocks at the trunk and epidural space. The training can be performed in a stress-free pre-clinical environment without time constraints and the potential for patient discomfort.

  14. Musical preferences and learning outcome of medical students in cadaver dissection laboratory: A Nigerian survey.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, G E; Nto, J N; Agu, A U; Ekezie, J; Esom, E A

    2016-11-01

    Background music has been reported to enhance learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory. This study was designed to determine the impact of various forms of musical genre and some of their characteristics on students' learning outcome in the dissection laboratory. Some selected musical genre in vocal and non-vocal forms and at different tempi and volume were played as background music (BM) to 253 Medical and Dental students during various sessions of cadaver dissection. Psychological Stress assessment was done using Psychological stress measure-9. Participants love for music, preferred musical genre and other musical characteristics were assessed. The impact of the various musical genre and their characteristics on learning was done via written examination on the region dissected during each musical session. A positive relationship was noted between students' preference for musical genre during leisure with their preference for BM during private study time (P<0.01). Statistically significant differences (P<0.01) were established in the impacts of the selected musical genre on some selected learning factors. Country and Classical music gave the highest positive impact on the various learning factors in CDL followed by R&B. No significant difference was noted between the cognitive values of vocal and non-vocal music. Classical music most effectively reduced the stress induced by dissection in the CDL while Reggae and High life musical genre created a more stressful environment than regular background noise (P<0.01). Moderate volume level and Tempo were most preferred during both cadaver dissection activity and leisure hours. This study shows statistically significant differences in the cognitive values of some of the studied musical genre and their various characteristics. The inability to isolate the particular musical genre with these desired properties could account for the controversies in the reports of the role of music in academic environment.

  15. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ device versus traditional airway suction in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Lipe, Demis N; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations.

  16. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  17. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. A cadaver lab training facility to facilitate laparoscopic liver resection.

    PubMed

    White, Steve A; Satchidanand, Rajesh Y; French, Jeremy J; Tait, Ian Z; Manas, Derek M

    2014-08-01

    Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common; however, doubts still remain regarding its more widespread application and whether it improves patient outcome. The authors would like to present their experience of using a dedicated cadaver laparoscopic training laboratory to facilitate the introduction of a laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) program. A course was designed by a faculty of experienced, advanced laparoscopic surgeons providing an intensive 2-day course of lectures, debate, exchange, and practical hands-on with a live link to clinical LLR operations. Participant evaluation and feedback for each course was analyzed. After 4 courses (2007 to 2009) and 32 participants, scores were graded from 1 (poor) to 6 (excellent no improvement). The course was graded for content, structure, delivery, resources, facility, and value for money. The overall rating for cadaver teaching sessions scored as follows: score 6 (43%), score 5 (32%), and score 4 (25%). A dedicated cadaver LLR facility is not only an excellent method to train individuals for safe introduction of clinical liver resection program but it also has the potential to provide certification within this growing technique.

  19. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  20. A comparative study of digital and anatomical techniques in skull base measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, H A; Yang, Y; Wang, H W; Meng, Q L; Ren, X H; Liu, Y G

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of measurements of the skull base made using computed tomography (CT) images and an image-guided surgery system with those made using scientific callipers in order to evaluate the practicability of replacing conventional direct anatomical measurements with digitized techniques in skull base surgery. Important bony landmarks and parameters were measured using the three different methods in 25 cadaver skull bases. No statistically significant differences were observed between the methods. Coefficient of variation calculations indicated that data obtained from CT images was the most stable. Digital methods of navigation have the potential to reflect individual skull base anatomical features more accurately than traditional group-based data, but it is important to assess their accuracy. This study demonstrated that CT imageology and image-guided surgery systems can provide accurate anatomical measurements. Digital methods are also more flexible and less variable, and may have wide applications in this field. Though not perfect, digital imaging is a promising tool for skull base surgery.

  1. World Studies through a Comparative Constitutional Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of understanding the development of democracy around the world by comparative study of constitutions. Uses the development of the Japanese constitution after World War II as a case study. Describes the work of the team appointed by General Douglas MacArthur and the significance of the clause guaranteeing equal rights for…

  2. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Herrin, Sean O.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies. PMID:28210274

  3. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  4. Death Becomes Them: Bacterial Community Dynamics and Stilbene Antibiotic Production in Cadavers of Galleria mellonella Killed by Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, Amanda C.; Slough, Greg; Hoinville, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae killed by entomopathogenic nematodes are thought to contain bacterial communities dominated by a single bacterial genus, that of the nematode's bacterial symbiont. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile bacterial community dynamics in greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae cadavers killed by Heterorhabditis nematodes and their Photorhabdus symbionts. We found that, although Photorhabdus strains did initially displace an Enterococcus-dominated community present in uninfected G. mellonella insect larvae, the cadaver community was not static. Twelve days postinfection, Photorhabdus shared the cadaver with Stenotrophomonas species. Consistent with this result, Stenotrophomonas strains isolated from infected cadavers were resistant to Photorhabdus-mediated toxicity in solid coculture assays. We isolated and characterized a Photorhabdus-produced antibiotic from G. mellonella cadavers, produced it synthetically, and demonstrated that both the natural and synthetic compounds decreased G. mellonella-associated Enterococcus growth, but not Stenotrophomonas growth, in vitro. Finally, we showed that the Stenotrophomonas strains described here negatively affected Photorhabdus growth in vitro. Our results add an important dimension to a broader understanding of Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus biology and also demonstrate that interspecific bacterial competition likely characterizes even a theoretically monoxenic environment, such as a Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus-parasitized insect cadaver. IMPORTANCE Understanding, and eventually manipulating, both human and environmental health depends on a complete accounting of the forces that act on and shape microbial communities. One of these underlying forces is hypothesized to be resource competition. A resource that has received little attention in the general microbiological literature, but likely has ecological and evolutionary importance, is dead/decaying multicellular organisms

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of a second generation headless compression screw for ankle arthrodesis in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Somberg, Andrew Max; Whiteside, William K; Nilssen, Erik; Murawski, Daniel; Liu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Many types of screws, plates, and strut grafts have been utilized for ankle arthrodesis. Biomechanical testing has shown that these constructs can have variable stiffness. More recently, headless compression screws have emerged as an evolving method of achieving compression in various applications but there is limited literature regarding ankle arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical stability provided by a second generation fully threaded headless compression screw compared to a standard headed, partially threaded cancellous screw in a cadaveric ankle arthrodesis model. Twenty fresh frozen human cadaver specimens were subjected to simulated ankle arthrodesis with either three standard cancellous-bone screws (InFix 7.3mm) or with three headless compression screws (Acumed Acutrak 2 7.5mm). The specimens were subjected to cyclic loading and unloading at a rate of 1Hz, compression of 525 Newtons (N) and distraction of 20N for a total of 500 cycles using an electromechanical load frame (Instron). The amount of maximum distraction was recorded as well as the amount of motion that occurred through 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 cycles. No significant difference (p=0.412) was seen in the amount of distraction that occurred across the fusion site for either screw. The average maximum distraction after 500 cycles was 201.9μm for the Acutrak 2 screw and 235.4μm for the InFix screw. No difference was seen throughout each cycle over time for the Acutrak 2 screw (p-value=0.988) or the InFix screw (p-value=0.991). Both the traditional InFix type screw and the second generation Acumed Acutrak headless compression screws provide adequate fixation during ankle arthrodesis under submaximal loads. There is no demonstrable difference between traditional cannulated partially threaded screws and headless compression screws studied in this model. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2010-07-15

    Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) or locate clandestine graves. Yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. Presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate PMI and locate clandestine graves. To address this, we buried juvenile rat (Rattus rattus) cadavers (approximately 18 g wet weight) in three contrasting soils from tropical savanna ecosystems located in Pallarenda (sand), Wambiana (medium clay), or Yabulu (loamy sand), Queensland, Australia. These soils were sieved (2mm), weighed (500 g dry weight), calibrated to a matric potential of -0.01 megapascals (MPa), -0.05 MPa, or -0.3 MPa (wettest to driest) and incubated at 22 degrees C. Measurements of cadaver decomposition included cadaver mass loss, carbon dioxide-carbon (CO(2)-C) evolution, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), protease activity, phosphodiesterase activity, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) and soil pH. Cadaver burial resulted in a significant increase in CO(2)-C evolution, MBC, enzyme activities, NRN and soil pH. Cadaver decomposition in loamy sand and sandy soil was greater at lower matric potentials (wetter soil). However, optimal matric potential for cadaver decomposition in medium clay was exceeded, which resulted in a slower rate of cadaver decomposition in the wettest soil. Slower cadaver decomposition was also observed at high matric potential (-0.3 MPa). Furthermore, wet sandy soil was associated with greater cadaver decomposition than wet fine-textured soil. We conclude that gravesoil moisture content can modify the relationship between temperature and cadaver decomposition and that soil microorganisms can play a significant role in cadaver breakdown. We also conclude that soil NRN is a more reliable indicator of gravesoil than soil pH.

  7. Olecranon tension plating or olecranon tension band wiring? A comparative biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gruszka, Dominik; Arand, Charlotte; Nowak, Tobias; Dietz, Sven-Oliver; Wagner, Daniel; Rommens, Pol

    2015-05-01

    The complication rate of a tension band wiring (TBW) used for the internal fixation of olecranon fractures remains high. The aim of this study was to compare the stability of a novel olecranon tension plate (OTP) with TBW in a simulated fracture model. We tested 12 fresh frozen-pairs of cadaver proximal ulnae treated with OTP and TBW under cyclic loading. The elbow motion ranged from full extension to 90° of flexion, and the pulling force of the triceps tendon ranged from 50 to 350 N. The displacement of the fracture fragments was measured continuously. Data were assessed statistically using the Wilcoxon test with significance level of p < 0.05. The cyclic loading tests showed median displacements of the fracture fragments of 0.25 mm using OTP and 1.12 mm for TBW. Statistical analysis showed the difference to be substantial (p = 0.086) but not statistically significant. No plate breakage or screw loosening occurred. The concept of replacing prominent K-wires at the proximal end of the ulna using an low-profile plate with classical lag and multidirectional angle-stable screws demonstrated biomechanical advantages over TBW.

  8. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  9. Scleral intraocular pressure measurement in cadaver eyes pre- and postkeratoprosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles C; Chen, Aiyin; Jeng, Bennie H; Porco, Travis C; Ou, Yvonne; Han, Ying

    2014-04-09

    We correlated scleral IOP to assigned IOP using pneumatonometry in cadaver eyes before and after Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation. Corneal IOP and scleral IOP at the superonasal, superotemporal, inferotemporal, and inferonasal quadrants were measured using pneumatonometry in six cadaver eyes cannulated with an infusion line with assigned IOP held at 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm Hg. Measurements of scleral IOP at the same location were repeated after a KPro was implanted. Correlations between scleral IOP and assigned IOP were analyzed for the entire group of eyes, and for each individual eye before and after KPro. One eye was tested by another masked grader for interobserver variability. Scleral IOP measured higher than corneal IOP by a mean of 13.2 mm Hg. For group analysis, pre-KPro scleral IOP had a positive and linear correlation with assigned IOP in all quadrants (P < 0.00001), and this correlation was preserved after KPro implantation (P < 0.00001). There was strong interobserver agreement in all measurement sites (P < 0.001). In analyses of individual eyes, scleral IOP measured at the inferotemporal quadrant confirmed the strong linear association between scleral IOP and assigned IOP before and after KPro for all study eyes. A Bland-Altman plot showed that the difference in scleral IOP between pre-KPro and post-KPro eyes fell mostly within ± 5 mm Hg. Scleral IOP measured by pneumatonometry may be used to estimate IOP in cadaver eyes with and without keratoprosthesis. This may be a potential modality for assessing IOP for patients with corneal pathology or keratoprosthesis.

  10. Optimal training for emergency needle thoracostomy placement by prehospital personnel: didactic teaching versus a cadaver-based training program.

    PubMed

    Grabo, Daniel; Inaba, Kenji; Hammer, Peter; Karamanos, Efstathios; Skiada, Dimitra; Martin, Matthew; Sullivan, Maura; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Tension pneumothorax can rapidly progress to cardiac arrest and death if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional didactic slide-based lectures (SBLs) as compared with fresh tissue cadaver-based training (CBT) for placement of needle thoracostomy (NT). Forty randomly selected US Navy corpsmen were recruited to participate from incoming classes of the Navy Trauma Training Center at the LAC + USC Medical Center and were then randomized to one of two NT teaching methods. The following outcomes were compared between the two study arms: (1) time required to perform the procedure, (2) correct placement of the needle, and (3) magnitude of deviation from the correct position. During the study period, a total of 40 corpsmen were enrolled, 20 randomized to SBL and 20 to CBT arms. When outcomes were analyzed, time required to NT placement was not different between the two arms. Examination of the location of needle placement revealed marked differences between the two study groups. Only a minority of the SBL group (35%) placed the NT correctly in the second intercostal space. In comparison, the majority of corpsmen assigned to the CBT group demonstrated accurate placement in the second intercostal space (75%). In a CBT module, US Navy corpsmen were better trained to place NT accurately than their traditional didactic SBL counterparts. Further studies are indicated to identify the optimal components of effective simulation training for NT and other emergent interventions.

  11. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems.

  12. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  13. Stabilization of 2-column thoracolumbar fractures with orthoses: a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Rubery, Paul T; Brown, Robert; Prasarn, Mark; Small, John; Conrad, Bryan; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    A gross anatomic and motion analysis study in cadavers. Assess spinal motion in a cadaveric spinal fracture model and investigate the ability of external orthoses to control this motion. External orthoses are frequently prescribed for patients who have experienced burst fracture of the thoracolumbar spine. Despite the substantial expense involved, there is little data confirming their value. A T12 burst fracture model was created in 5 lightly embalmed cadavers by resecting the anterior and middle columns of the T12 vertebra through a thoracolumbar anterior approach to the spine. An electromagnetic motion tracking and analysis system was used to track angular and linear displacement at the fracture during routine patient maneuvers. Several commonly used orthoses, including an extension brace and both an "off-the-shelf" and custom-molded thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), were applied to the cadavers and the affect on fracture site motion was assessed. Application of all 3 styles of brace resulted in angular motion of 8° to 12° in flexion-extension, 11° to 20° in axial rotation, and 8° to 10° of lateral bending. Brace application resulted in linear displacement of 29 to 46 mm in the medial-lateral plane, 21 to 23 mm in the axial plane, and 21 to 37 mm in the anterior-posterior plane. During logrolling maneuvers, TLSO style braces diminished angular motion, although residual motion in the range of 5° remained. TLSO style braces had little effect on linear translation. When placed in a seated position in bed, TLSO style braces diminished flexion and extension modestly, but did not influence lateral bending or linear translation. Extension style braces had no effect on fracture motion during any activity tested. In a cadaver model of a burst fracture, there is surprising angular and linear motion at the fracture during common hospital activities. TLSO orthoses can decrease angular motion but do not effect translation at the fracture. An extension orthosis

  14. Cement Augmentation in Sacroiliac Screw Fixation Offers Modest Biomechanical Advantages in a Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, Georg; Dodd, Andrew E; Unno, Florence; Wong, Angus; Amiri, Shahram; Lefaivre, Kelly A; Guy, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Sacroiliac screw fixation in elderly patients with pelvic fractures is prone to failure owing to impaired bone quality. Cement augmentation has been proposed as a possible solution, because in other anatomic areas this has been shown to reduce screw loosening. However, to our knowledge, this has not been evaluated for sacroiliac screws. We investigated the potential biomechanical benefit of cement augmentation of sacroiliac screw fixation in a cadaver model of osteoporotic bone, specifically with respect to screw loosening, construct survival, and fracture-site motion. Standardized complete sacral ala fractures with intact posterior ligaments in combination with ipsilateral upper and lower pubic rami fractures were created in osteoporotic cadaver pelves and stabilized by three fixation techniques: sacroiliac (n = 5) with sacroiliac screws in S1 and S2, cemented (n = 5) with addition of cement augmentation, and transsacral (n = 5) with a single transsacral screw in S1. A cyclic loading protocol was applied with torque (1.5 Nm) and increasing axial force (250-750 N). Screw loosening, construct survival, and sacral fracture-site motion were measured by optoelectric motion tracking. A sample-size calculation revealed five samples per group to be required to achieve a power of 0.80 to detect 50% reduction in screw loosening. Screw motion in relation to the sacrum during loading with 250 N/1.5 Nm was not different among the three groups (sacroiliac: 1.2 mm, range, 0.6-1.9; cemented: 0.7 mm, range, 0.5-1.3; transsacral: 1.1 mm, range, 0.6-2.3) (p = 0.940). Screw subsidence was less in the cemented group (3.0 mm, range, 1.2-3.7) compared with the sacroiliac (5.7 mm, range, 4.7-10.4) or transsacral group (5.6 mm, range, 3.8-10.5) (p = 0.031). There was no difference with the numbers available in the median number of cycles needed until failure; this was 2921 cycles (range, 2586-5450) in the cemented group, 2570 cycles (range, 2500-5107) for the sacroiliac specimens, and

  15. Infective agents in fixed human cadavers: a brief review and suggested guidelines.

    PubMed

    Demiryürek, Deniz; Bayramoğlu, Alp; Ustaçelebi, Semsettin

    2002-08-15

    Cadavers remain a principal teaching tool for anatomists and medical educators teaching gross anatomy. Infectious pathogens in cadavers that present particular risks include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, the AIDS virus HIV, and prions that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS). It is often claimed that fixatives are effective in inactivation of these agents. Unfortunately cadavers, even though they are fixed, may still pose infection hazards to those who handle them. Specific safety precautions are necessary to avoid accidental disease transmission from cadavers before and during dissection and to decontaminate the local environment afterward. In this brief review, we describe the infectious pathogens that can be detected in cadavers and suggest safety guidelines for the protection of all who handle cadavers against infectious hazards.

  16. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  17. Hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and cancer in elderly cadavers.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ki M; Kwong, Allison J; Chu, Edward; Hoo, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and cancer in the elderly population remains unknown. Human cadavers used in anatomy teaching, which come largely from older adults, may provide liver tissue for examining their pathologies. Livers were obtained from 68 cadavers (mean age 82.1 ± 10.4 years) with diverse causes of death in the Anatomy course at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red and evaluated for steatosis, fibrosis, cancer, and lipofuscin. Tissue preservation was graded as good in 38.2% of the embalmed livers, fair in 36.7%, and poor in 25.0%. Steatosis was observed in 35.3% of the livers, central vein fibrosis in 49.2%, perisinusoidal fibrosis in 63.2%, portal tract (PT) fibrosis in 47.0%, septa formation in 44.1%, bridging fibrosis in 30.8%, and cirrhosis in 4.4%. One hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and six metastatic tumors were detected. Lobular inflammation occurred in 20.8% of the livers and PT inflammation in 38.8%. Nine livers showed minimal change. Lipofuscin was detected in 60.2% of the livers. Steatosis, fibrosis, and cancer are highly prevalent in elderly cadavers with diverse causes of death. The prevalence of steatosis and fibrosis is consistent with the data in patients with specific liver diseases. Steatosis alongside fibrosis can accelerate the progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis and ultimately HCC. Though not indicated as the primary cause of death, the liver injury may have compromised hepatic functions and enhanced disease susceptibility, thereby exacerbating the health conditions in this elderly population.

  18. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  19. A new malleostapedotomy prosthesis. Experimental analysis by laser doppler vibrometer in fresh cadaver temporal bones.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Luis A; Manzano, María T; Hidalgo, Antonio; Hernández, Alberto; Sabas, Juan; Lara, Hugo; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Herrero, David

    One of the problems with total ossicular replacement prostheses is their stability. Prosthesis dislocations and extrusions are common in middle ear surgery. This is due to variations in endo-tympanic pressure as well as design defects. The design of this new prosthesis reduces this problem by being joined directly to the malleus handle. The aim of this study is to confirm adequate acoustic-mechanical behaviour in fresh cadaver middle ear of a new total ossicular replacement prosthesis, designed using the finite elements method. Using the doppler vibrometer laser, we analysed the acoustic-mechanical behaviour of a new total ossicular replacement prosthesis in the human middle ear using 10 temporal bones from fresh cadavers. The transfer function of the ears in which we implanted the new prosthesis was superimposed over the non-manipulated ear. This suggests optimum acoustic-mechanical behaviour. The titanium prosthesis analysed in this study demonstrated optimum acoustic-mechanical behaviour. Together with its ease of implantation and post-surgical stability, these factors make it a prosthesis to be kept in mind in ossicular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-y