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Sample records for comparative cadaver study

  1. Nerve damage assessment following implant placement in human cadaver jaws: an ex vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Murat, Sema; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Kılıç, Cenk; Ozen, Tuncer; Gurbuz, Ayhan

    2014-02-01

    The present study compared the use of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images and intra-oral radiographs in the placement of final implant drills in terms of nerve damage to cadaver mandibles. Twelve cadaver hemimandibles obtained from 6 cadavers were used. Right hemimandibles were imaged using peri-apical radiography and left hemimandibles using CBCT, and the images obtained were used in treatment planning for the placement of implant drills (22 for each modality, for a total of 44 final drills). Specimens were dissected, and the distances between the apex of the final implant drill and the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle and incisive nerve were measured using a digital calliper. Nerves were assessed as damaged or not damaged, and the Chi-square test was used to compare nerve damage between modalities (P < 0.05). Nerve damage occurred with 7 final drills placed based on peri-apical radiography (31.8%) and 1 final drill placed using CBCT images (4.5%). The difference in nerve damage between imaging modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.023), with CBCT outperforming intraoral film in the placement of final implant drills ex vivo. In order to prevent nerve damage, CBCT is recommended as the principal imaging modality for pre-implant assessment. PMID:22150347

  2. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    PubMed

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes.

  3. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    PubMed

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. PMID:27329696

  4. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics

    PubMed Central

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable. The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR. In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained. The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1–19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1–30.9) s] (P < 0.001). Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867. PMID:27196493

  5. A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Balta, Joy Y; Lamb, Clare; Soames, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Formalin had traditionally been used to preserve human material to teach gross anatomy. In 2008 the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) at the University of Dundee embarked on the use of the Thiel method of embalming. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference between formalin-embalmed cadavers (FEC) and Thiel-embalmed cadavers (TEC) used for teaching and surgical training. Three different questionnaires were prepared for data collection from undergraduate and postgraduate students and clinical staff. All undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as clinical staff commented on the appearance of the TEC. There was no overall consensus concerning the use of TEC, some respondents preferred TEC for the entire dissection, some only for certain areas such as the musculoskeletal system. On a technical level TEC were considered less hazardous then FEC by one-third of participants with fewer than 10% regarding TEC as more irritating than FEC. Psychologically, 32.7% of undergraduate students expressed the view that TEC made them feel more uncomfortable compared with FEC because of their life-like appearance. However, 57.1% of undergraduate students encountered the same uncomfortable feelings when viewing both TEC and FEC. The use of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach anatomy has an added value, though further research is required over longer periods of time to identify its best usage.

  6. Stent-Protected Carotid Angioplasty Using a Membrane Stent: A Comparative Cadaver Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan Guehne, Albrecht; Tsokos, Michael; Huesler, Erhard J.; Schaffner, Silvio R.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Hedderich, Juergen; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the performance of a prototype membrane stent, MembraX, in the prevention of acute and late embolization and to quantify particle embolization during carotid stent placement in human carotid explants in a proof of concept study. Methods. Thirty human carotid cadaveric explants (mild stenoses 0-29%, n = 23; moderate stenoses 30-69%, n = 3; severe stenoses 70-99%, n = 2) that included the common, internal and external carotid arteries were integrated into a pulsatile-flow model. Three groups were formed according to the age of the donors (mean 58.8 years; sample SD 15.99 years) and randomized to three test groups: (I) MembraX, n 9; (II) Xpert bare stent, n = 10; (III) Xpert bare stent with Emboshield protection device, n = 9. Emboli liberated during stent deployment (step A), post-dilatation (step B), and late embolization (step C) were measured in 100 {mu}m effluent filters. When the Emboshield was used, embolus penetration was measured during placement (step D) and retrieval (step E). Late embolization was simulated by compressing the area of the stented vessel five times. Results. Absolute numbers of particles (median; >100 {mu}m) caught in the effluent filter were: (I) MembraX: A = 7, B = 9, C = 3; (II) bare stent: A 6.5, B = 6, C = 4.5; (III) bare stent and Emboshield: A = 7, B = 7, C.=.5, D = 8, E = 10. The data showed no statistical differences according to whether embolic load was analyzed by weight or mean particle size. When summing all procedural steps, the Emboshield caused the greatest load by weight (p 0.011) and the largest number (p = 0.054) of particles. Conclusions. On the basis of these limited data neither a membrane stent nor a protection device showed significant advantages during ex vivo carotid angioplasty. However, the membrane stent seems to have the potential for reducing the emboli responsible for supposed late embolization, whereas more emboli were observed when using a protection device. Further studies are necessary

  7. Human cadavers Vs. multimedia simulation: A study of student learning in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saltarelli, Andrew J; Roseth, Cary J; Saltarelli, William A

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia learning system with a traditional undergraduate human cadaver laboratory. APR is a model-based multimedia simulation tool that uses high-resolution pictures to construct a prosected cadaver. APR also provides animations showing the function of specific anatomical structures. Results showed that the human cadaver laboratory offered a significant advantage over the multimedia simulation program on cadaver-based measures of identification and explanatory knowledge. These findings reinforce concerns that incorporating multimedia simulation into anatomy instruction requires careful alignment between learning tasks and performance measures. Findings also imply that additional pedagogical strategies are needed to support transfer from simulated to real-world application of anatomical knowledge.

  8. A randomised, single-blind technical study comparing the ultrasonic visibility of smooth-surfaced and textured needles in a soft embalmed cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Munirama, S; Joy, J; Columb, M; Habershaw, R; Eisma, R; Corner, G; Cochran, S; McLeod, G

    2015-05-01

    Visibility of the needle tip and shaft is important during ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia in order to prevent nerve trauma. Tip and shaft visibility is reduced when needles are inserted in-plane at wide angles and out-of-plane at narrow angles to the ultrasound probe. Although textured needles are more reflective than smooth needles, we hypothesised that poor visibility of the tip and shaft still remained using the above angle-probe combinations. In a single-blind study, we compared the visibility of a textured Tuohy needle, a textured single-shot needle and a conventional smooth-surfaced Tuohy needle when inserted into the biceps and deltoid muscles of a soft embalmed cadaver. One hundred and forty-four needles were block-randomised to in-plane and out-of-plane insertions at 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° to the ultrasound beam. Two blinded raters assessed needle tip visibility on video recordings of the insertions using a binary scale (0 = not visible, 1 = visible) and shaft visibility using a 5-point Likert scale. The median (IQR [range]) proportions of visible needle tips were 83% (67-83 [50-100]%) for the textured Tuohy, 75% (67-83 [33-83]%) for the textured single-shot needle and 33% (33-46 [0-50]%) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.0007). Median (IQR [range]) needle shaft visibility was rated as 4.0 (3.5-4.7 [3.0-4.9]) for the textured Tuohy, 4.0 (3.8-4.5 [2.7-4.9]) for the textured single-shot needle and 3.0 (2.4-3.3 [2.3-3.5]) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.015). Nevertheless, visibility was reduced at wide angles in-plane and narrow angles out-of-plane both for needle tips (p = 0.004) and shafts (p = 0.005).

  9. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  10. Permeation Studies of Captopril Transdermal Films Through Human Cadaver Skin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajesh Sreedharan; Nair, Sujith

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.

  11. Anatomic Characteristics of Pronator Quadratus Muscle: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the anatomic characteristics of the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle and the entry zone (EZ) of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) to this muscle by means of cadaver dissection. Methods We examined the PQ muscle and AIN in 20 forearms from 10 fresh cadavers. After identifying the PQ muscle and the EZ of the AIN, we measured the distances from the midpoint (MidP) of the PQ muscle and EZ to the vertical line passing the tip of the ulnar styloid process (MidP_X and EZ_X, respectively) and to the medial border of the ulna (MidP_Y and EZ_Y, respectively). Forearm length (FL) and wrist width (WW) were also measured, and the ratios of MidP and EZ to FL and of MidP and EZ to WW were calculated. Results The MidP was found to be 3.0 cm proximal to the ulnar styloid process or distal 13% of the FL and 2.0 cm lateral to the medial border of the ulna or ulnar 40% side of the WW, which was similar to the location of EZ. The results reveal a more distal site than was reported in previous studies. Conclusion We suggest that the proper site for needle insertion and motor point block of the PQ muscle is 3 cm proximal to the ulnar styloid process or distal 13% of the FL and 2 cm lateral to the medial border of the ulna or ulnar 40% side of the WW. PMID:27446787

  12. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  13. Anomalous abductor digiti minimi in Guyon canal: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Mario James; LaFay, Vicki; Ciani, Gioia; Carey, Paul; Parnes, Nata

    2016-10-01

    A routine cadaver dissection revealed a noteworthy anomalous muscle in the distal anterior forearm. Clinicians should be aware of this finding and consider it as a differential diagnosis in patients with wrist disorders such as ulnar tunnel syndrome from occlusion of the ulnar canal. A space-occupying lesion, such as the anomalous muscle found in this dissection, is an important potential source of ulnar canal obstruction.

  14. Anomalous abductor digiti minimi in Guyon canal: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Mario James; LaFay, Vicki; Ciani, Gioia; Carey, Paul; Parnes, Nata

    2016-10-01

    A routine cadaver dissection revealed a noteworthy anomalous muscle in the distal anterior forearm. Clinicians should be aware of this finding and consider it as a differential diagnosis in patients with wrist disorders such as ulnar tunnel syndrome from occlusion of the ulnar canal. A space-occupying lesion, such as the anomalous muscle found in this dissection, is an important potential source of ulnar canal obstruction. PMID:27685508

  15. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  16. The anterior centre-edge angle. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Crockarell, J R; Trousdale, R T; Guyton, J L

    2000-05-01

    The anterior centre-edge (VCA) angle quantifies the anterior cover of the femoral head, and angles of less than 20 degrees are considered abnormal. We have measured the VCA angles in hips without osteoarthritic changes. We took bilateral false-profile radiographs of nine female and 30 male cadavers without signs of osteoarthritis. The mean age at the time of death was 72 years (46 to 92). The mean VCA angle was 32.8 degrees (17.7 to 53.6). The SD was 7.9 degrees. Our findings suggest that the threshold of abnormality of the VCA angle may be slightly lower than previously thought. This information may be useful in counselling patients with asymptomatic acetabular dysplasia.

  17. Hamstring tendon harvesting--Effect of harvester on tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption; cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, C P; Alvi, F; Phaltankar, P; Gagey, O

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of hamstring tendon harvester used can influence harvested tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption. We compared two different types of tendon harvesters with regard to the length of tendon obtained and soft tissue disruption during hamstring tendon harvesting. Thirty six semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were harvested using either a closed stripper or a blade harvester in 18 paired knees from nine human fresh cadavers. Use of the blade harvester gave longer lengths of usable tendon whilst minimising the stripping of muscle and of any non-usable tendon. Our results suggest that the type of harvester per se can influence the length of tendon harvested as well as soft tissue disruption. Requesting such data from the industry prior to deciding which harvester to use seems desirable.

  18. Cadaver studies and their impact on the understanding of human adiposity.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P; Provyn, S; Marfell-Jones, M J

    The skinfold thickness is a much-used measurement for monitoring adiposity in a wide range of medical, health, occupational and sport science disciplines. Misconceptions abound, however, in its use, particularly that of purportedly predicting body 'fat' as opposed to 'adipose tissue'. To obtain data to investigate body composition and the extent to which anthropometry can be justifiably used to predict whole-body adiposity, an extensive dissection study was undertaken on 34 cadavers. In addition, to pre-empt questions on the applicability of cadaver data to living subjects, 40 elderly in vivo subjects of the same age range were compared with the cadaver population. No significant macro-morphological differences were found between males or females in the morbid and in vivo groups. Significant findings affect our previous understanding of the predictability of whole-body 'fat'. Skinfold compressibility was by no means constant; skin thickness varied with location in both sexes, females having thinner skin than males; there were significant sex differences in adipose tissue patterning. An identical thickness of adipose tissue did not necessarily contain the same concentrations of fat. Despite this variability, a relationship was demonstrated between aggregate skinfold measures and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass (as opposed to subcutaneous fat), this relationship being more evident in men. A strong relationship was found between subcutaneous adiposity and whole-body adiposity, and between direct skinfold depth measures and whole-body adiposity. The amount of visceral adipose tissue was the same in men and women, but in the men this represented a greater proportion of their total body adiposity. Further, the use of waist-to-hip girth ratio (WHR) was identified as an important predictor of health risk. These findings demonstrate that it is not sustainable to introduce a non-quantifiable error by transforming anthropometric values (skinfolds) into predictions of

  19. Variations in the anatomy of the thyroid gland: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Rajini, Thimmiah; Ramachandran, Archana; Savalgi, Geethanjali Basavraj; Venkata, Sivacharan Panchagnula; Mokhasi, Varsha

    2012-03-01

    Surgical removal of the thyroid gland is associated with risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, external branch of superior laryngeal nerves, inferior laryngeal nerves, and haematoma due to vascular damage and the chance of residual thyroid tissue being left in case of cancer and Graves' disease. The present study was designed to report the prevalence of anatomical variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland that will hopefully help to minimise the aforementioned complications related to thyroid surgery. A total of 52 male and 18 female properly embalmed cadavers were dissected. The thyroid gland was examined for the presence of the pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and partial or complete absence of isthmus. Length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of both the right and left lobe of the gland was recorded. A pyramidal lobe was present in 43.9% male and 22.2% female cadavers and was more prevalent on the left side of the median plane. Levator glandulae thyroideae was present in 34.6% male and 27.8% female cadavers. Isthmus was absent in 9.6% male and 5.6% female cadavers. The average length, greatest transverse and anteroposterior extent of right lobe was 4.43, 2.54 and 1.69 cm, respectively, whereas for the left lobe it was 4.21, 2.63 and 1.7 cm, respectively. The nature of the specimens studied, and the region where the study is carried out, affect the different goitre zones, age, sex, and race of population studied, all of which can contribute to the anatomical variations of the thyroid gland found in different reports by various authors.

  20. Eustachian Tube Dilation via a Transtympanic Approach in 6 Cadaver Heads: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Dean, Marc; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Poe, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube. To accomplish this, transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube was performed on 11 eustachian tubes (6 cadaver heads). The balloon catheter was introduced and passed through the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube transtympanically under endoscopic view and cannulated without incident in all cadavers. Computed tomography was then performed postprocedure to evaluate for inadvertent dilation of the bony eustachian tube, adverse placement of the balloon, or any bony fractures. The balloon was seen to be successfully inflated in the cartilaginous portion without damage to surrounding structures in all cases. This demonstrates that under endoscopic guidance, the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube can be feasibly cannulated and reliably traversed, allowing for targeted dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube from a transtympanic approach.

  1. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions: (1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; (2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; (3) 30 mmHg; (4) 60 mmHg; (5) 90 mmHg; (6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients.

  2. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  3. Intraosseous Vascular Access through the Anterior Mandible – A Cadaver Model Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldschalt, Christin; Doll, Sara; Ihle, Brit; Kirsch, Joachim; Mutzbauer, Till Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. Methodology/Principal Findings 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviation)s and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18). Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93). Conclusions/Significance Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies. PMID:25405476

  4. Trabecular microfractures in the acetabulum. Histologic studies in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, T; Azuma, H

    1984-08-01

    The distribution of trabecular microfractures was studied in 39 cadaveric acetabula. The mean age of the group with microfractures was 71 years and the mean age of the group without fractures was 60 years. Most of the microfractures were located at the subchondral, weight-bearing portion of the acetabulum. Our observations suggest that trabecular microfractures are involved in the formation of bone cysts.

  5. Feasibility study of a novel intraosseous device in adult human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Praveen; Lodha, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun Kr.; Dhingra, Renu; Karve, Jayant Sitaram; Jaggu, Srinivas Kiran; Bhargava, Balram

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to difficult intravenous (iv) access during emergency clinical situations. Existing IO solutions are expensive, require power supply and trained manpower; limiting their use in resource constrained settings. To address these limitations, a novel IO device has been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate functionality and safety of this device in adult human cadavers. Methods: The ability of the IO device to penetrate the proximal and/or distal tibia was evaluated in three adult cadavers. Subjective parameters of loss of resistance, stable needle hold, easy needle withdrawal and any damage to the device were evaluated during the study. The insertion time was the objective parameter measured. Four sets of radiographs per insertion confirmed the position of the needle and identified complications. Results: A single physician performed 12 IO access procedures using the same device. Penetration of proximal and/or distal tibia was achieved in all instances. It was successful in the first attempt in eight (66.7%) and during second attempt in the remaining. The mean time to insertion was 4.1 ± 3.1 sec. Appropriate insertion of needle in the intra-medullary space of bone was confirmed with radiological examination in 10 (83.3%) insertions. In two occasions after penetrating the cortical layer of bone, the device overshot the intra-medullary space, as detected by radiological examination. Device got bent during insertion in one instance. There was no evidence of needle breakage or bone fracture. The needle could be withdrawn effortlessly in all instances. Interpretation & conclusions: The novel IO device could successfully penetrate the adult cadaver bones in most cases. Further studies are needed to confirm these results on a large sample. PMID:27241639

  6. Permeation study of five formulations of alpha-tocopherol acetate through human cadaver skin.

    PubMed

    Mahamongkol, Hansa; Bellantone, Robert A; Stagni, Grazia; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol (AT) is the vitamin E homologue with the highest in vivo biological activity. AT protects against the carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of ionizing radiation and chemical agents, and possibly against UV-induced cutaneous damage. For stability consideration, alpha-tocopherol is usually used as its prodrug ester, alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA), which once absorbed into the skin is hydrolyzed to alpha-tocopherol, the active form. The objective of this research was to characterize in vitro the permeation properties of ATA from various solutions and gel formulations. Permeation studies were conducted using modified Franz diffusion cells and human cadaver skin as the membrane. Specifically, 5% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol acetate was formulated in the following vehicles: ethanol, isopropyl myristate, light mineral oil, 1% Klucel gel in ethanol, and 3% Klucel gel in ethanol (w/w). The receiver temperature was 37 degrees C. Samples from the receiver were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours and analyzed by HPLC for concentrations of alpha-tocopherol acetate and alpha-tocopherol. The permeabilities of ATA through human cadaver skin were 1.0x10(-4), 1.1x10(-2), 1.4x10(-4), 2.1x10(-4), and 4.7x10(-4) cm/h for the ethanol solution, isopropyl myristate solution, light mineral oil solution, 1% Klucel gel, and 3% Klucel gel, respectively. The results show that the formulation had relatively minor effects on the permeability coefficients of ATA through cadaver skin in all cases except for the isopropyl myristate solution.

  7. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A

  8. Finger injuries caused by power-operated windows of motor vehicles: an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K J; Konerding, M A; Prommersberger, K J; Rommens, P M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experimental cadaver study was to investigate which kinds of lesions could occur in jam events between the glass and seal entry of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows at two different closing forces. Ten hands of fresh cadaver specimens were used. Three different hand positions chosen to simulate real events in which a finger is jammed between the glass and seal entry of the window of a current motor vehicle were examined. The index, middle, ring, and little finger of each hand were separately jammed both at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joint at closing forces of 300 and 500 N with a constant window glass closing speed of 10 cm/s. Macroscopically visible injuries were documented and radiographs of all fingers were obtained in two standard planes. At a closing force of 300 N, contusion marks of the skin, palmar joint instabilities and superficial skin lesions occurred, whilst at 500 N superficial skin lesions, superficial and deep open crush injuries, and fractures were observed. The results of this study experimentally demonstrate the kinds of finger injuries that could be expected in real jam events between the glass and seal entry in automatic power-operated windows.

  9. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Samuel A.; Crawford, James V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver specimens. Main Outcome Measures. 10 otolaryngologists were given a photograph of the randomly ordered stapes pistons and asked to use the pictures to answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as circular, and 3 of 9 manual crimped pistons were described as circular (P < .05). 6 of 9 Nitinol pistons were considered to be in contact with >66% of the incus and 3 of 9 to be in contact with 34–66% of the incus. 3 of 9 manually crimped pistons were considered to be in contact with >66% of the incus, 3 with 34–66% contact and 3 with less than 34% contact. Conclusions. The Nitinol “smart” stapes pistons were considered to provide a more circular and circumferential crimping and to have greater contact with the long process of the incus than conventional stapes pistons. PMID:23724262

  10. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via the tri-vestibular routes: results of a preclinical cadaver feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Ook; Kim, Choung Soo; Song, Jee-Nam; Kim, Ju-Eun; Nam, Inn-Chul; Lee, So-Yoon; Chun, Byung-Joon; Cho, Jung-Hae; Joo, Young-Hoon; Cho, Kwang-Jae; Park, Young Hak; Kim, Min-Sik; Sun, Dong-Il

    2014-12-01

    The concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging experimental alternative to conventional surgery that eliminates skin incisions using an endoscope passed through a natural orifice (e.g., mouth, urethra, or anus). This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of thyroid resection via an entirely transoral tri-vestibular route using endoscopy, and to introduce NOTES to the head and neck area of medicine. We performed ten complete endoscopic thyroid lobectomies with central lymph node dissection via a tri-vestibular approach in fresh-frozen cadavers. A 5-mm endoscope with a deflectable tip was used to visualize the surgical field. Three cannulas were inserted through the midline and bilateral incision sites in the vestibule to position the instruments and endoscope. We refined and described the surgical technique in each step using video clips. We identified and preserved neighboring critical structures during surgery. We also confirmed that there were no obvious remnant thyroid tissues and no injury to the neighboring structures after exploration. The transoral tri-vestibular approach seems to provide a good view and surgical field for endoscopic thyroidectomy. However, the transoral approach for thyroidectomy remains experimental, and the detailed surgical technique should be refined via further clinical studies.

  11. Targeting of the pedunculopontine nucleus by an MRI-guided approach: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zrinzo, Laurence V; Massey, Luke A; Thornton, John; Parkes, Harold G; White, Mark; Yousry, Tarek A; Strand, Catherine; Revesz, Tamas; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan I; Holton, Janice L

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) plays a central role in the initiation and maintenance of gait. Translational research has led to reports on deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the rostral brainstem in parkinsonian patients. However, initial clinical results appear to be rather variable. Possible factors include patient selection and the wide variability in anatomical location of implanted electrodes. Clinical studies on PPN DBS efficacy would, therefore, benefit from an accurate and reproducible method of stereotactic localization of the nucleus. The present study evaluates the anatomical accuracy of a specific protocol for MRI-guided stereotactic targeting of the PPN in a human cadaver. Imaging at 1.5 and 9.4 T confirmed electrode location in the intended region as defined anatomically by the surrounding fiber tracts. The spatial relations of each electrode track to the nucleus were explored by subsequent histological examination. This confirmed that the neuropil surrounding each electrode track contained scattered large neurons morphologically consistent with those of the subnucleus dissipatus and compactus of the PPN. The results support the accuracy of the described specific MR imaging protocol.

  12. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  13. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  14. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery.

  15. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  16. An image-guided femoroplasty system: development and initial cadaver studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Sadowsky, Ofri; Armiger, Robert S.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Mears, Simon C.; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the development and initial cadaver studies using a prototype image-guided surgery system for femoroplasty, which is a potential alternative treatment for reducing fracture risk in patients with severe osteoporosis. Our goal is to develop an integrated surgical guidance system that will allow surgeons to augment the femur using patient-specific biomechanical planning and intraoperative analysis tools. This paper focuses on the intraoperative module, which provides real-time navigation of an injection device and estimates the distribution of the injected material relative to the preoperative plan. Patient registration is performed using intensity-based 2D/3D registration of X-ray images and preoperative CT data. To co-register intraoperative X-ray images and optical tracker coordinates, we integrated a custom optically-tracked fluoroscope fiducial allowing real-time visualization of the injection device with respect to the patient's femur. During the procedure, X-ray images were acquired to estimate the 3D distribution of the injected augmentation material (e.g. bone cement). Based on the injection progress, the injection plan could be adjusted if needed to achieve optimal distribution. In phantom experiments, the average target registration error at the center of the femoral head was 1.4 mm and the rotational error was 0.8 degrees when two images were used. Three cadaveric studies demonstrated efficacy of the navigation system. Our preliminary simulation study of the 3D shape reconstruction algorithm demonstrated that the 3D distribution of the augmentation material could be estimated within 12% error from six X-ray images.

  17. Anatomic variations of superficial peroneal nerve: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Rajini, T; Jayanthi, V; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Superficial peroneal nerve and its branches are frequently at risk for iatrogenic damage. Although different studies on anatomical variations of superficial peroneal nerve are available in the medical literature, such reports are rare from India. Hence the present study was undertaken on Indian population. A total of 60 specimens of inferior extremities from 30 properly embalmed and formalin fixed cadavers were dissected and examined for the location and course of the superficial peroneal nerve including number, level, course and distributions of branches. The superficial peroneal nerve in 28.3% specimens was located in the anterior compartment of the leg. In 8.3% specimens the superficial peroneal nerve branched before piercing between the peroneus longus and extensor digitorum longus muscle whereas in 11.7% specimens it branched after piercing the aforementioned muscles and before piercing the deep fascia. In 41 out of 60 specimens the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve branched into the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve distal to its emergence from the deep fascia and proximal to its relation to the extensor retinaculum. In 20 out of 60 specimens the accessory deep peroneal nerve, an additional branch from the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve, through its course in the anterior compartment of the leg passed deep to the extensor retinaculum and supplied the ankle and the dorsum of foot. Hopefully the present study will help in minimizing iatrogenic damage to the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches while performing arthroscopy, local anesthetic block, surgical approach to the fibula, open reduction and internal fixation of lateral malleolar fractures, application of external fixators, elevation of a fasciocutaneous or fibular flaps for grafting, surgical decompression of neurovascular structures, or miscellaneous surgery on leg, foot and ankle.

  18. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. PMID:26123620

  19. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect.

  20. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Essig, Harald; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the actual implant position relative to the preoperative planning for more fail-safe and consistent results. Pre-injury computed tomography (CT) was performed for 10 orbits in human cadavers, and complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created. The orbits were reconstructed using preformed orbital mesh through a transconjunctival approach under image-guided navigation and navigation by referencing orientating markers in the implant design. Ideal implant positions were planned using preoperative CT scans. Implant placement accuracy was evaluated by comparing the planned and realized implant positions. Significantly better translation (3.53 mm vs. 1.44 mm, p = 0.001) and rotation (pitch: -1.7° vs. -2.2°, P = 0.52; yaw: 10.9° vs. 5.9°, P = 0.02; roll: -2.2° vs. -0.5°, P = 0.16) of the placed implant relative to the planned position were obtained by implant-oriented navigation. Navigation-assisted surgery can be improved by using navigational markers on the orbital implant for orientation, resulting in fail-safe reconstruction of complex orbital defects and consistent implant positioning.

  1. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  2. Distribution of sensory nerve endings around the human sinus tarsi: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Rein, Susanne; Manthey, Suzanne; Zwipp, Hans; Witt, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels around the sinus tarsi. The superficial and deep parts of the fat pads at the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) as well as the subtalar joint capsule inside the sinus tarsi from 13 cadaver feet were dissected. The distribution of the sensory nerve endings and blood vessels were analysed in the resected specimens as the number per cm(2) after staining with haematoxylin-eosin, S100 protein, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, and protein gene product 9.5 using the classification of Freeman and Wyke. Free nerve endings were the predominant sensory ending (P < 0.001). Ruffini and Golgi-like endings were rarely found and no Pacini corpuscles were seen. Significantly more free nerve endings (P < 0.001) and blood vessels (P = 0.01) were observed in the subtalar joint capsule than in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER. The deep part of the fat pad at the IER had significantly more blood vessels than the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.012). Significantly more blood vessels than free nerve endings were seen in all three groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences in distribution were seen in terms of right or left side, except for free nerve endings in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.003). A greater number of free nerve endings correlated with a greater number of blood vessels. The presence of sensory nerve endings between individual fat cells supports the hypothesis that the fat pad has a proprioceptive role monitoring changes and that it is a source of pain in sinus tarsi syndrome due to the abundance of free nerve endings.

  3. A pilot study on ethanol-polyethylene glycol-formalin fixation of farm animal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Richardson, Kenneth C; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Most embalming of cadavers for anatomical dissection in veterinary medicine has used 6-10% formaldehyde resulting in discoloured and rigid specimens. This project produced teaching specimens of sheep, horse and calf cadavers having their musculoskeletal and visceral structures with a natural appearance using a fixation solution with lowered concentrations of formaldehyde (2% and 3%) together with ethanol and polyethylene glycols. Fixation parameters (palpable consistency, flexibility, colour, tissue hydration and odour) were assessed qualitatively by twice weekly dissections over two months for sheep and three months for horses and calf. Formaldehyde levels, measured in the breathing zone, were below the maximum allowable concentration in all specimens except for a 300 kg horse cadaver. To evaluate the effectiveness of the fixation solution in microbial inhibition, tissue samples were taken and analyzed for the presence of culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Single colonies of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Chryseobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from lungs, and Micrococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were isolated from one muscle sample.

  4. A pilot study on ethanol-polyethylene glycol-formalin fixation of farm animal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Richardson, Kenneth C; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Most embalming of cadavers for anatomical dissection in veterinary medicine has used 6-10% formaldehyde resulting in discoloured and rigid specimens. This project produced teaching specimens of sheep, horse and calf cadavers having their musculoskeletal and visceral structures with a natural appearance using a fixation solution with lowered concentrations of formaldehyde (2% and 3%) together with ethanol and polyethylene glycols. Fixation parameters (palpable consistency, flexibility, colour, tissue hydration and odour) were assessed qualitatively by twice weekly dissections over two months for sheep and three months for horses and calf. Formaldehyde levels, measured in the breathing zone, were below the maximum allowable concentration in all specimens except for a 300 kg horse cadaver. To evaluate the effectiveness of the fixation solution in microbial inhibition, tissue samples were taken and analyzed for the presence of culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Single colonies of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Chryseobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from lungs, and Micrococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were isolated from one muscle sample. PMID:22059293

  5. Histomorphological Study on Number of Acini of the Prostate Gland of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Zaman, U S; Choudhury, S; Ameen, S; Sultana, R; Tabassum, R; Nawshin, N; Azam, M S; Akhter, S M

    2016-04-01

    The prostate is made up of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands that are embedded in a framework of fibromuscular tissue and arranged in three concentric groups (mucosal, submucosal and main prostatic gland). The prostate consists of peripheral, central and transitional zone accounting for approximately 70%, 20% and 5% of the glandular substances. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects the transitional zone and carcinoma of the prostate affects the peripheral zone. The glandular tissue consists of numerous acini with frequent internal papillae. Follicular epithelium is variable but predominantly columnar and either single-layered or pseudostratified. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in number of acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (up to 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed following standard autopsy techniques. In the present study, total 60 slides were made for histological study from both central and peripheral zone of the prostate which were examined under low power objectives. The number of the acini of the prostate gland were counted and recorded. The mean number of the acini of the prostate gland was 16.45, 43.54 and 42.45 in Group A, B and C respectively in central zone and 30.08, 51.35 and 44.16 in Group A, B and C respectively in peripheral zone of the prostate. Variance analysis shows that mean differences were highly significant between Group A & B and Group C & A and non

  6. Histomorphological Study on Number of Acini of the Prostate Gland of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Zaman, U S; Choudhury, S; Ameen, S; Sultana, R; Tabassum, R; Nawshin, N; Azam, M S; Akhter, S M

    2016-04-01

    The prostate is made up of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands that are embedded in a framework of fibromuscular tissue and arranged in three concentric groups (mucosal, submucosal and main prostatic gland). The prostate consists of peripheral, central and transitional zone accounting for approximately 70%, 20% and 5% of the glandular substances. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects the transitional zone and carcinoma of the prostate affects the peripheral zone. The glandular tissue consists of numerous acini with frequent internal papillae. Follicular epithelium is variable but predominantly columnar and either single-layered or pseudostratified. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in number of acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (up to 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed following standard autopsy techniques. In the present study, total 60 slides were made for histological study from both central and peripheral zone of the prostate which were examined under low power objectives. The number of the acini of the prostate gland were counted and recorded. The mean number of the acini of the prostate gland was 16.45, 43.54 and 42.45 in Group A, B and C respectively in central zone and 30.08, 51.35 and 44.16 in Group A, B and C respectively in peripheral zone of the prostate. Variance analysis shows that mean differences were highly significant between Group A & B and Group C & A and non

  7. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  8. Bleeding simulation in embalmed cadavers: bridging the gap between simulation and live surgery.

    PubMed

    Inglez de Souza, Maria C C M; Matera, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, surgical education and training require the development of abilities that can be acquired in practical classes using currently available models such as cadaver training. Limited availability of cadavers, undesirable changes in tissue texture and the absence of bleeding are the main disadvantages of cadaver-based training compared to training in live animals. This study proposes a chemical cadaver preservation method aimed at overcoming the aforementioned limitations. Blood circulation could be reproduced in preserved cadavers, thereby enabling satisfactory simulation-based training of several surgical procedures, from incision to suture and including hemostatic techniques. The model in this study introduces a high-fidelity simulation training alternative to prepare students for the practice of surgery. In this manner, surgical interventions would be restricted to surgical cases and healthy animals would not be submitted to surgical procedures exclusively for learning purposes.

  9. Weight of uterus in bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Zaman, K S; Ahmed, M S; Rahman, M M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S

    2012-10-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the weight of uterus in Bangladeshi cadavers to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different groups and fixed in 10% formol-saline solution. This study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the weight of uterus. In this study our findings were compared with those of the references. Maximum weight of the uterus was found in age group B (13 to 45 years). It is about 51.35 ± 17.95 gm.

  10. A Cadaver Study of the Structures and Positions of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Ahmad Bagheri; Torkaman, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major knee structures. It consists of anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB). Rupture of the ACL is one of the most prevalent traumas among athletes. There are two ways to reconstruct the rupture; Single–bundle and double–bundle (DB) reconstruction. Precise study on bundles anatomy, the exact number of attachments and knee flexion angle with an appropriate place of bundles and also choosing the best angle for the grafts are so important in successful reconstructing of the bundles. In this research, the general attempt was to assess anatomy and the act of the ACL is and bundles in Iranian population. Methods: We obtained twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees (two females, ten males). The average age of them was 30 years; they were mostly between 27 and 34 years old. Initially, skin, muscles, and patellar and articular capsule were removed. Then, bundle attachments, knee movements in flexion angle, extension and stiffness of both bundles were evaluated. Thereafter, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180° angle knee flexion the bundles degree stiffness evaluated in different directions. During the process, to measure bundles size, digital camera for photography, oblique for measuring the angles, and micrometer were utilized. From all next of kin written consent testimonial form was obtained. Results: In all knees, two bundles were identified as distinct. AMB attachment location in the anterior region observed as semi-lunate and in one case, it was rounded. In all cases, two bundles of full knee extension were paralleled, and the AMB was anterior to the PLB; with increasing flexion angle, femoral attachment location of AMB was in back direction and femoral attachment location of PLB moved toward the front direction. Two bundles were in the most amount of cross state, which the angle was 90°. From the stiffness point of view in all 6 samples, the PLB had the most tension in extension state, and

  11. The effect of a low radiation CT protocol on accuracy of CT guided implant migration measurement: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Boettner, Friedrich; Sculco, Peter K; Lipman, Joseph; Saboeiro, Gregory; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The current study compared the impact of low radiation CT protocols on the accuracy, repeatability, and inter- and intra-observer variability of implant migration studies in total hip arthroplasty. Two total hip replacements were performed in two human cadavers and six tantalum beads were inserted into the femur similar to radiostereometric analysis. Six different 28 mm heads (-3 mm, 0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5.0 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm) were added to simulate five reproducible translations (maximum total point migration) of the center of the head. Three CT scans with varying levels of radiation were performed for each head position. The effective dose (mSv) was 3.8 mSv for Protocol A (standard protocol), 0.7 mSv for Protocol B and 1.6 mSv for Protocol C. Implant migration was measured in a 3-D analysis software (Geomagic Studio 7). The accuracy was 0.16 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.13 mm for Protocol B and 0.14 mm for Protocol C; The repeatability was 0.22 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.18 mm for Protocol B and 0.20 mm for Protocol C; ICC for inter observer reliability was 0.89, intra observer reliability was 0.95. The difference in accuracy between standard protocol A and the two low radiation protocols (B, C) was less than 0.05 mm. The accuracy, inter- and intra-observer reliability of all three CT protocols is comparable to radiostereometric analysis. Reducing the CT radiation exposure to numbers similar to an AP Pelvis radiograph (0.7 mSv protocol B) does not affect the accuracy of implant migration measurements. PMID:26425921

  12. The effect of a low radiation CT protocol on accuracy of CT guided implant migration measurement: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Boettner, Friedrich; Sculco, Peter K; Lipman, Joseph; Saboeiro, Gregory; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The current study compared the impact of low radiation CT protocols on the accuracy, repeatability, and inter- and intra-observer variability of implant migration studies in total hip arthroplasty. Two total hip replacements were performed in two human cadavers and six tantalum beads were inserted into the femur similar to radiostereometric analysis. Six different 28 mm heads (-3 mm, 0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5.0 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm) were added to simulate five reproducible translations (maximum total point migration) of the center of the head. Three CT scans with varying levels of radiation were performed for each head position. The effective dose (mSv) was 3.8 mSv for Protocol A (standard protocol), 0.7 mSv for Protocol B and 1.6 mSv for Protocol C. Implant migration was measured in a 3-D analysis software (Geomagic Studio 7). The accuracy was 0.16 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.13 mm for Protocol B and 0.14 mm for Protocol C; The repeatability was 0.22 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.18 mm for Protocol B and 0.20 mm for Protocol C; ICC for inter observer reliability was 0.89, intra observer reliability was 0.95. The difference in accuracy between standard protocol A and the two low radiation protocols (B, C) was less than 0.05 mm. The accuracy, inter- and intra-observer reliability of all three CT protocols is comparable to radiostereometric analysis. Reducing the CT radiation exposure to numbers similar to an AP Pelvis radiograph (0.7 mSv protocol B) does not affect the accuracy of implant migration measurements.

  13. Dispersal pattern of injectate following CT-guided perineural infiltration in the canine thoracolumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Kneissl, Sibylle; Breit, Sabine; Willmitzer, Florian; Thalhammer, Johann; Dengg, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of canine patients are presented with chronic thoracolumbar back pain and without compressive spinal lesions. In humans, spinal perineural infiltrations have been reported to have a favorable effect on pain control. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe the dispersal pattern of injectate following CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration in the canine thoracolumbar region. Seven fresh canine cadavers were first scanned using multislice CT and then CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration was performed at 42 sites from T13/L1 to L6/L7. The injectate for each site was a mixture of new methylene blue and iodinated contrast medium. Immediately following CT-guided injection, cadavers were frozen, cut, and dissected macro- and mesoscopically (using a magnifying glass) to identify anatomic structures that were infiltrated. In the majority of sites (64.3%), complete epidural and hypaxial staining of spinal nerve components (including the spinal ganglion, trunk, and ventral branch) was successfully achieved. However, no (11.9%) or unpredictable staining (9.5%) of nervous tissue occurred in some sites despite careful CT guidance and the application of relatively large volumes of injectate. Optimal results were achieved when the needle tip was positioned periforaminally ventral to the cranial contour of the cranial articular process. Findings from this ex vivo study indicated that CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration is feasible for testing in the canine thoracolumbar region and that successful nerve tissue infiltration would likely occur in the majority of sites. Future in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique. PMID:25263708

  14. An improved embalming procedure for long-lasting preservation of the cadaver for anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, S A; Hoshino, K

    1978-01-01

    A successful embalming procedure necessary for long-lasting preservation of the cadaver and its subsequent anatomical dissection has been undertaken in our laboratory. In short, the procedure consists of a preembalming treatment with blood clot disperser, removal of blood clots, drainage of blood, and arterial embalming with an embalming machine via both carotid and femoral triangles of the body. The embalming fluid is prepared from methyl alcohol and a small amount of formalin as the fixatives, ethylene glycol as a preservative, and liquefied phenol as a mould preventive. Coloring of the blood vessels is also useful in their identification. Other matters relevant to embalming problems are also discussed.

  15. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery using the CO2 laser: experimental studies in human cadaver eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud I.; Barequet, Irina S.; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Non-penetrating trabeculectomy (NPT) is a potential replacement to conventional trabeculectomy, as it eliminates the necessity of penetrating the eye which is the cause of most of the complications entailed by the latter operation. NPT however, requires considerable surgical skill, is time consuming and entails complications of its own. We have shown that it can be easily performed by using the CO2 laser to ablate the sclera and corneoscleral tissues to the required depth. The use of the CO2 laser eliminates the danger of inadvertent perforation, a common complication of NPT as the tissue ablation ceases when the end-point of the operation, the aqueous humor percolation, is reached. Our experiments, performed on animal and human cadaver eyes showed that CO2 laser NPT rapid is easily mastered and performed rapid and eliminates almost completely the risk of complications.

  16. ENTRY POINT FOR THE ANTEGRADE FEMORAL INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL: A CADAVER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; Galeno, Luiz; Teixeira, Thiago Martins; Franco, José Sergio; Hoffmann, Rolix; de Toledo Lourenço, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Giordano, Vincenzo; Pallottino, Alexandre; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the natural exit of the wire guides in major trochanter through retrograde femoral approach, in cadaver specimens. Material and Method: 100 femurs had been perforated between the femoral condyles, at 1.2 cm of the intercondylar region. A 3-mm straight wire guide was introduced, through retrograde approach, until the proximal extremity of femur was reached. Femurs were assessed for posterosuperior and anterosuperior portions of major trochanter, pear-shaped cavity, and upper median line between the head-neck and the major trochanter. Results: in 62%, the straight wire guides exited at the anterior surface of major trochanter. In the pear-shaped cavity, the median distance found was 1.0 cm and the interquartile range was 0.5 cm, initially expressing, in relation to pear-shaped cavity, better accuracy. Conclusion: the central axis of the medullar canal, at coronal plane, projected better accuracy in the region of the pear-shaped cavity. PMID:27077057

  17. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  18. Anteroposterior Laxity After Bicruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty Is Closer to the Native Knee Than ACL-Resecting TKA: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Halewood, Camilla; Traynor, Alison; Bellemans, Johan; Victor, Jan; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA would yield anteroposterior (AP) laxity closer to the native knee than a posterior cruciate ligament retaining (CR) TKA. A BCR TKA was designed and compared to CR TKA and the native knee using cadaver specimens. AP laxity with the CR TKA was greater than the native knee (P=0.006) and BCR TKA (P=0.039), but no difference was found between the BCR TKA and the native knee. No significant differences were found in rotations between the prostheses and the native knee. BCR TKA was shown to be surgically feasible, reduced AP laxity versus CR TKA, and may improve knee stability without using conforming geometry in the implant design.

  19. Transformation of a cadaver population: Analysis of a South African cadaver program, 1921-2013.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role in the teaching of anatomy in South Africa and in Africa. As recent cadaver numbers were declining at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and difficulty in procurement was being experienced, the purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the composition of our cadaver population over time so as to provide possible strategies to arrest the decline. A retrospective, quantitative analysis of cadaver records from the School of Anatomical Sciences between 1921 and 2013 was undertaken. Analysis included a comparison of Poisson counts and Fischer's exact test. A significant decrease in the number of cadavers received during the period 2000-2013 and a slow bequest program over the same period of time has led to concerns about the sustainability of teaching anatomy through dissection. Decreases in the numbers of males and cadavers of the black population group occurred between 1990 and 2013, and of bequests from 2000 to 2013. An influence on the cadaver population from a changing political climate and change in socioeconomic status of part of the population was perceived. Changes in sex and population group of the cadavers may have a long-term effect on teaching and research.

  20. A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Warren N.; Mason, Matthew J.; Foster, Craig D.; Shah, Chirag S.; Kopacz, James M.; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.; Bishop, Jennifer; Bey, Michael; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    High-speed biplane x-ray and neutral density targets were used to examine brain displacement and deformation during impact. Relative motion, maximum principal strain, maximum shear strain, and intracranial pressure were measured in thirty-five impacts using eight human cadaver head and neck specimens. The effect of a helmet was evaluated. During impact, local brain tissue tends to keep its position and shape with respect to the inertial frame, resulting in relative motion between the brain and skull and deformation of the brain. The local brain motions tend to follow looping patterns. Similar patterns are observed for impact in different planes, with some degree of posterior-anterior and right-left symmetry. Peak coup pressure and pressure rate increase with increasing linear acceleration, but coup pressure pulse duration decreases. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear are on the order of 0.09 for CFC 60 Hz data for these tests. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear increase with increasing linear acceleration, coup pressure, and coup pressure rate. Linear and angular acceleration of the head are reduced with use of a helmet, but strain increases. These results can be used for the validation of finite element models of the human head. PMID:18278591

  1. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  2. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    PubMed

    Tienen, T G; Buma, P; Scholten, J G F; van Kampen, A; Veth, R P H; Verdonschot, N

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the influence of tibial torque on the meniscal displacement during knee-joint flexion. Three tantalum beads were inserted in the medial meniscus of six human-cadaver joints. The knee joints were placed and loaded in a loading apparatus, and the movements of the beads were determined by means of RSA during knee-joint flexion and extension with and without internal tibial (IT) and external tibial (ET) torque. During flexion without tibial torque, all menisci moved in posterior and lateral direction. The anterior horn showed significantly greater excursions than the posterior horn in both posterior and lateral direction. Internal tibial torque caused an anterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau. External tibial torque caused a posterior displacement of the pathway. External tibial torque restricted the meniscal displacement during the first 30 degrees of knee-joint flexion. The displacements of the meniscus in this experiment were similar to the displacements described in the in vivo MRI studies. Furthermore, the application of tibial torque confirmed the relative immobility of the posterior horn of the meniscus. During external tibial torque, the posterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau during the first 30 degrees of flexion might be restricted by the attached knee-joint capsule or the femoral condyle. This model revealed representative meniscal displacements during simple knee-joint flexion and also during the outer limits of passive knee-joint motion.

  3. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Shi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Hong; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications. PMID:25518033

  4. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Mark C; Savoia, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with formaldehyde and/or with the above agents were compared for their formaldehyde levels under conditions that strictly controlled for air circulation and for locations and methods of testing, and during activities that simulated student dissecting. For InfuTrace, one cadaver was reinfused with InfuTrace after initial standard perfusion with formaldehyde; a second cadaver had InfuTrace injected into the thoracic and abdominal body cavities after formaldehyde perfusion. For Perfect Solution, the product was used for embalming a third cadaver in lieu of formaldehyde. For a control, a fourth cadaver was embalmed with the standard formaldehyde solution. Testing of personal and ambient room air samples and of fluid obtained from the cadavers was performed and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results indicated that both Perfect Solution, substituted for standard formaldehyde embalming, and InfuTrace infused through the vasculature after formaldehyde embalming, resulted in lower concentrations of formaldehyde than embalming with formaldehyde solution alone or in combination with body cavity injection of InfuTrace. These differences in formaldehyde concentrations are consistent across measuring methods, for example, of room air, of breathing zone air during cadaver handling and dissection, and of liquid samples obtained from the cadavers. Perfect Solution yielded suboptimum fixation and a different texture, color, and smell than the formaldehyde treatments.

  5. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  6. Cadaveric Spinal Surgery Simulation: A Comparison of Cadaver Types.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, James E; Yiasemidou, Marina; Watts, Anna L; Roberts, Dave J H; Timothy, Jake

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Single-blinded study. Objective To assess the suitability of three types of cadaver for simulating pedicle screw insertion and establish if there is an ideal. Methods Three types of cadaver-Thiel-embalmed, Crosado-embalmed, and formaldehyde-embalmed-were draped and the spines exposed. Experienced surgeons were asked to place pedicle screws in each cadaver and give written questionnaire feedback using a modified Likert scale. Soft tissue and bony properties were assessed, along with the role of simulation in spinal surgery training. Results The Thiel cadaver rated highest for soft tissue feel and appearance with a median score of 6 for both (range 2 to 7). The Crosado cadaver rated highest for bony feel, with a median score of 6 (range 2 to 7). The formaldehyde cadaver rated lowest for all categories with median scores of 2, 2.5, and 3.5, respectively. All surgeons felt pedicle screw insertion should be learned in a simulated setting using human cadavers. Conclusion Thiel and Crosado cadavers both offered lifelike simulation of pedicle screw insertion, with each having advantages depending on whether the focus is on soft tissue approach or technical aspects of bony screw insertion. Both cadaver types offer the advantage of long life span, unlike fresh frozen tissue, which means cadavers can be used multiple times, thus reducing the costs.

  7. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR “DIE PUNCH” DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. Methods: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. Results: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. Conclusion: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. PMID:27027079

  8. Robot-assisted C7 nerve root transfer from the contralateral healthy side: A preliminary cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Su; Ichihara, Satoshi; Prunières, Guillaume; Peterson, Brett; Facca, Sybille; Xu, Wen-Dong; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy and spastic hemiplegia may have extremely poor upper extremity function. Unfortunately, many current therapies and treatments for patients with spastic hemiplegia offer very limited improvements. One innovative technique for treating these patients is the use a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to neurotize the C7 nerve root in the affected limb. This may result not only in less spasticity in the affected limb, but also improved control and motor function vis-a-vis the new connection to the normal cerebral hemisphere. However, contralateral C7 transfers can require large incisions and long nerve grafts. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer procedure with the use of a prevertebral minimally invasive robot-assisted technique. In a cadaver, both sides of the C7 root were dissected. The right recipient C7 root was resected as proximally as possible, while the left donor C7 root was resected as distally as possible. With the use of the da Vinci (®) SI surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical ™, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), we were able to eliminate the large incision and use a much shorter nerve graft when performing contralateral C7 nerve transfer. PMID:27117122

  9. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  10. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. PMID:26336298

  11. Cadaveric Spinal Surgery Simulation: A Comparison of Cadaver Types

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, James E.; Yiasemidou, Marina; Watts, Anna L.; Roberts, Dave J. H.; Timothy, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-blinded study. Objective To assess the suitability of three types of cadaver for simulating pedicle screw insertion and establish if there is an ideal. Methods Three types of cadaver—Thiel-embalmed, Crosado-embalmed, and formaldehyde-embalmed—were draped and the spines exposed. Experienced surgeons were asked to place pedicle screws in each cadaver and give written questionnaire feedback using a modified Likert scale. Soft tissue and bony properties were assessed, along with the role of simulation in spinal surgery training. Results The Thiel cadaver rated highest for soft tissue feel and appearance with a median score of 6 for both (range 2 to 7). The Crosado cadaver rated highest for bony feel, with a median score of 6 (range 2 to 7). The formaldehyde cadaver rated lowest for all categories with median scores of 2, 2.5, and 3.5, respectively. All surgeons felt pedicle screw insertion should be learned in a simulated setting using human cadavers. Conclusion Thiel and Crosado cadavers both offered lifelike simulation of pedicle screw insertion, with each having advantages depending on whether the focus is on soft tissue approach or technical aspects of bony screw insertion. Both cadaver types offer the advantage of long life span, unlike fresh frozen tissue, which means cadavers can be used multiple times, thus reducing the costs. PMID:27190738

  12. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer.

  13. Gliding characteristics between flexor tendons and surrounding tissues in the carpal tunnel: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Osamura, Naoki; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel with varied wrist positions and tendon motion styles, which may help us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and repetitive hand motion. Eight fresh human cadaveric wrists and hands were used. The peak (PGR) and mean (MGR) gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were measured with the wrist in 0, 30, and 60 degrees of flexion and extension. While moving all three fingers together, the PGR at 60 degrees flexion was significantly higher than that at 0, 30, or 60 degrees extension. While moving the middle finger alone, the PGR at 60 and 30 degrees flexion was significantly higher than the PGR at 60 degrees extension. The PGR moving the middle finger FDS alone was significantly greater than that for all three digits moving together in 0, 30, and 60 degrees flexion. Differential finger motion with wrist flexion elevated the tendon gliding resistance in the carpal tunnel, which may be relevant in considering the possible role of wrist position and activity in the etiology of CTS.

  14. No statistically significant kinematic difference found between a cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilised Triathlon knee arthroplasty: a laboratory study involving eight cadavers examining soft-tissue laxity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N C; Ghosh, K M; Blain, A P; Rushton, S P; Longstaff, L M; Deehan, D J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the maximum laxity conferred by the cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) Triathlon single-radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for anterior drawer, varus-valgus opening and rotation in eight cadaver knees through a defined arc of flexion (0º to 110º). The null hypothesis was that the limits of laxity of CR- and PS-TKAs are not significantly different. The investigation was undertaken in eight loaded cadaver knees undergoing subjective stress testing using a measurement rig. Firstly the native knee was tested prior to preparation for CR-TKA and subsequently for PS-TKA implantation. Surgical navigation was used to track maximal displacements/rotations at 0º, 30º, 60º, 90º and 110° of flexion. Mixed-effects modelling was used to define the behaviour of the TKAs. The laxity measured for the CR- and PS-TKAs revealed no statistically significant differences over the studied flexion arc for the two versions of TKA. Compared with the native knee both TKAs exhibited slightly increased anterior drawer and decreased varus-valgus and internal-external roational laxities. We believe further study is required to define the clinical states for which the additional constraint offered by a PS-TKA implant may be beneficial.

  15. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus.

  16. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-02-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients.

  17. Bacteria detected on surfaces of formalin fixed anatomy cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tabaac, Burton; Goldberg, Geoffrey; Alvarez, Lia; Amin, Molly; Shupe-Ricksecker, Kathleen; Gomez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if anatomy cadavers fixed in a formalin solution are a possible source of introduction of microorganisms into the anatomy laboratory. Routinely preserved cadavers were sampled for microbiological contaminates prior to examination and dissection by anatomy students. Regions sampled include the axilla, oral/nasal cavity, and inguinal/perineal region. Using conventional bacteriologic culture and identification methods our research group was able to successfully recover and identify a variety of organisms from all cadavers and in all regions tested. The results indicate that cadavers processed with 10% buffered formalin have viable organisms on their surfaces that can be a source of contamination of laboratory equipment and clothing. Given the diversity of bacterial species cultured, preserved cadavers used for anatomy education as well as research must be considered a possible source for dissemination of bacterial organisms. This study underscores the importance of standard infection control protocols.

  18. Effect of wrist and ulna head position on gliding resistance of the extensor digitorum minimi and extensor digitorum communis III tendons: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan

    2006-04-01

    While attrition from sharp bony surfaces is the most common cause of extensor digiti minimi (EDM) tendon rupture, the etiology of other cases of spontaneous EDM tendon rupture is still unknown. Friction within the compartment may play a role, especially with ulna dislocation. The purpose of this study was to compare gliding resistance of the EDM tendon with that of a tendon which rarely ruptures spontaneously, the extensor digitorum communis of the middle finger (EDC III) tendon, under various wrist and ulna head positions. Eight fresh frozen cadavers were used. Gliding resistance between the tendon and its sheath in each compartment was measured in five different wrist positions and three different ulna head positions. Gliding resistance of the EDM tendon (0.13 +/- 0.03 N) was significantly greater than the EDC III tendon (0.09 +/- 0.03 N) (p < 0.05). For the EDM tendon, the gliding resistance in ulnar deviation or pronation was higher than the gliding resistance in neutral, radial deviation, or supination (p < 0.05), and the gliding resistance with ulnar lengthening (over 6 mm) or dorsal ulnar dislocation (over 9 mm) was higher than in neutral ulnar head positioning. For the EDC III tendon, the gliding resistance in ulnar deviation was significantly higher than the gliding resistance in neutral, radial deviation, or supination, or dorsal dislocation with ulnar lengthening (p < 0.05). Wrist ulnar deviation, ulnar dorsal dislocation (over 9 mm), and ulnar lengthening (over 6 mm) increased the gliding resistance of the EDM tendon. In patients at risk for EDM rupture, such as those with rheumatoid arthritis or distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis, avoiding such positions may be advantageous.

  19. Automated end-to-side anastomosis to the middle cerebral artery with C-Port xA: A feasibility study on human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Fontanella, Marco; Benevello, Chiara; Panciani, Pier Panciani; Ronchetti, Gabriele; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Stefini, Roberto; Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego; Ducati, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anastomosis to the superficial temporal artery is suitable in patients with functional and structural impairment of the middle cerebral artery (i.e., complex aneurysms and skull base tumors), as either definitive treatment or an additional safety measure. A shorter occlusion time or a non-occlusive technique is expected to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia following the procedure. In this cadaver study, we assessed the fitness of C-Port xA® device for use in superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass. Materials and Methods: Seven fixed human head specimens were prepared through eight pterional craniotomies. The superficial temporal artery was dissected and the sylvian fissure was opened to access the MCA. The C-Port xA was tested on each of the eight exposures. We recorded the lengths of both donor and recipient vessel, the durations of the procedure and the craniotomy, and sylvian scissure opening sizes. The bypass was then assessed by pressure injection of methylene blue in the donor vessel. Results: C-Port xA-assisted STA–MCA anastomosis was successfully accomplished in seven dissections. A minimum STA length of 7 cm, a sylvian scissure opening larger than 5 cm, and a craniotomy size of at least 6 × 6 cm appeared to be the requisites for a safe maneuverability of the device. The MCA occlusion time lasted in all cases less than 4.5 min, and we observed a clear improvement in time performance with growing experience. Conclusions: The results suggest that the C-Port xA device is suitable for STA–MCA bypass. We experienced a shorter occlusion time and a shorter learning curve compared to conventional techniques. Further miniaturization and special adaptation of this device may allow a future application even to deeper intracranial vessels. Clinical trials will have to assess the long-term results and benefits of this minimal occlusive technique. PMID:24049548

  20. A review of the evolution of intraosseous access in tactical settings and a feasibility study of a human cadaver model for a humeral head approach.

    PubMed

    Rush, Stephen; D'Amore, Jason; Boccio, Eric

    2014-08-01

    In the tactical setting, intraosseous (IO) access has become popular to treat hemorrhagic shock when peripheral intravenous access is difficult or impractical. The traditional sites most commonly used by combat medics, corpsmen, and Pararescuemen (PJs) include the sternum and tibial tuberosity. Recent studies have shown that the humeral head (HH) is an appropriate and effective access site for IO infusion and fluid resuscitation in the clinical setting. In this procedural feasibility study, we assessed the ability of 26 U.S. Air Force PJs to perform HH IO placement on fresh, unfixed human cadavers over two consecutive cadaver lab training sessions. Following a formal didactic session, which highlighted proper patient positioning and technique, the PJs were instructed to attempt to place an IO needle using both a drill and manual driver. Once performed, correct placement was reviewed by a physician and confirmed by aspiration of bone marrow. Rates of success were calculated on first and second pass. First pass success rates were 96% and 90.5% for the drill and driver, respectively. Both devices achieved 100% success by the second pass. Military field personnel would benefit from a HH approach, especially in the care and management of patients of explosive injuries.

  1. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1.5T and 3T MRI by the Use of a Cochlear Implant with Removable Magnet: An Experimental Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franca; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Leidolt, Lars; Vischer, Mattheus; Weder, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Caversaccio, Marco D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implants (CIs) are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans after CI with a removable magnet. Methods Three criteria (diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts) were assessed at 1.5T and 3T in five cadaver heads with CI. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. Results MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.5T and 3T. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. Conclusions The results indicate the possible advantages for 1.5T and 3T MR scanning of the brain in CI carriers with removable magnets. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies. PMID:26200775

  2. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations. PMID:26748499

  3. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  4. The protective effect of pulsed lavage against implant subsidence and micromotion for cemented tibial unicompartmental knee components: an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Sebastian; Rieger, Johannes S; Bruckner, Thomas; Kretzer, J Philippe; Clarius, Michael; Bitsch, Rudi G

    2014-04-01

    Cemented UKAs were performed in 12 pairs of human cadaver legs and the bone bed was cleansed using pulsed lavage (group A) and conventional syringe lavage (group B). Subsidence and micromotion of the loaded tibial trays were measured. There was a significant effect of BMD on subsidence (P = 0.043) but not on micromotion. Cement penetration of group A was significantly increased (P = 0.005). Group A showed a reduced implant subsidence (P = 0.025) and micromotion (P = 0.026) compared to group B. The group differences in micromotion and implant subsidence of UKA tibial components were statistically significant but rather small and might clinically be of minor importance. Nevertheless a worse bone quality adversely affected implant subsidence and pulsed lavage had a protective effect in these specimens.

  5. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Validation of an optical system to measure acetabular shell deformation in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Dold, Philipp; Bone, Martin C; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Joyce, Tom J; Deehan, David; Holland, James

    2014-08-01

    Deformation of the acetabular shell at the time of surgery can result in poor performance and early failure of the hip replacement. The study aim was to validate an ATOS III Triple Scan optical measurement system against a co-ordinate measuring machine using in vitro testing and to check repeatability under cadaver laboratory conditions. Two sizes of custom-made acetabular shells were deformed using a uniaxial/two-point loading frame and measured at different loads. Roundness measurements were performed using both the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system and a co-ordinate measuring machine and then compared. The repeatability was also tested by measuring shells pre- and post-insertion in a cadaver laboratory multiple times. The in vitro comparison with the co-ordinate measuring machine demonstrated a maximum difference of 5 µm at the rim and 9 µm at the measurement closest to the pole of the shell. Maximum repeatability was below 1 µm for the co-ordinate measuring machine and 3 µm for the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system. Repeatability was comparable between the pre-insertion (below 2 µm) and post-insertion (below 3 µm) measurements in the cadaver laboratory. This study supports the view that the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system fulfils the necessary requirements to accurately measure shell deformation in cadavers.

  7. Topohistology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in branches of the pelvic plexus: an immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Matsubara, Akio; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Although the pelvic autonomic plexus may be considered a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little information on its composite fibers is available. Using 10 donated elderly cadavers, we investigated in detail the topohistology of nerve fibers in the posterior part of the periprostatic region in males and the infero-anterior part of the paracolpium in females. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were used as parasympathetic nerve markers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used as a marker of sympathetic nerves. In the region examined, nNOS-positive nerves (containing nNOS-positive fibers) were consistently predominant numerically. All fibers positive for these markers appeared to be thin, unmyelinated fibers. Accordingly, the pelvic plexus branches were classified into 5 types: triple-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); double-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); nerves in arterial walls (nNOS-, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers-); non-parasympathetic nerves (nNOS-, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); (although rare) pure sensory nerve candidates (nNOS-, VIP-, TH-, thick myelinated fibers+). Triple-positive nerves were 5-6 times more numerous in the paracolpium than in the periprostatic region. Usually, the parasympathetic nerve fibers did not occupy a specific site in a nerve, and were intermingled with sympathetic fibers. This morphology might be the result of an "incidentally" adopted nerve fiber route, rather than a target-specific pathway. PMID:24693483

  8. [Kinematic investigations of the talocrural joint in human cadaver specimens. Basic studies for the development of a hinged fixator].

    PubMed

    Schmickal, T; Biglari, B; Wentzensen, A

    2002-11-01

    To determine the specifications of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, biomechanical investigations were performed on 20 human cadaver specimens and the talocrural axis was recorded by X-ray cinematography in all levels of the space. The results showed a medium variation of the axis in zero position (mean: 5.8 degrees ) from 3 degrees to 10 degrees in the anterior-posterior view. The span of the axis migration around zero position amounted to a minimum of 3 degrees and a maximum value of 10 degrees (mean: 7.2 degrees ). It could be ascertained that the axis kinetics does not move linearly in all cases. The talus rotation (the axle deviation from the sagittal plane) amounted to a minimum value of 2 degrees and a maximum value of 12 degrees (mean: 5.3 degrees ). In the transverse level, the axis kinetics was tracked by separate X-ray markings of the lateral and medial cortical of the talus in the zero point of the talocrural axis. The results were typical migration curves of the X-ray markings, demonstrating a ventral convex curve at the medial and lateral cortex. This migration of the cortex crossing point of the axis was geometrically entered in a coordinate system. The variance of the axis cortex crossing point at the medial cortical was X(M)=4.2 mm (min: 2 mm, max: 7 mm) and Y(M)=4.7 mm (2-7 mm), at the lateral cortical X(L)=3.7 mm (1-9 mm) and Y(L) =4.1 mm (1-8 mm). Regarding the clinical relevance for the development of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, the results indicate that an external axis guidance of these axoids is not possible, but that an adjusted axis is necessary taking into consideration the values measured using ligamentotaxis. PMID:12436327

  9. The Cadaveric Perfusion and Angiography as a Teaching Tool: Imaging the Intracranial Vasculature in Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Turkoglu, Erhan; Seckin, Hakan; Gurer, Bora; Ahmed, Azam; Uluc, Kutluay; Pulfer, Kari; Arat, Anıl; Niemann, David; Baskaya, Mustafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Study Aim To enhance the visualization of the intracranial vasculature of cadavers under gross examination with a combination of imaging modalities. Material and Methods A total of 20 cadaver heads were used to test two different perfusion techniques. First, fixed cadaver heads were perfused with water; second, fresh cadavers were perfused with saline and 10% formalin. Subsequently, brains were removed and fixed. The compounds used were silicone rubber, silicone rubber mixed with powdered barium sulfate, and silicone rubber mixed with tantalum dioxide prepared by the first perfusion technique and gelatin mixed with liquid barium prepared with the second technique. Conventional X-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), dynamic computed tomography (dCT), and postprocessing three-dimensional (3D) images were used to evaluate all the heads. Results Gelatinized barium was better visualized when compared with tantalum dioxide in conventional X-ray images. The blood vessels injected with either tantalum dioxide or gelatinized barium demonstrated a higher enhancement than the surrounding soft tissues with CT or dCT. The quality of the 3D reconstruction of the intracranial vasculature was significantly better in the CT images obtained from the gelatinized barium group. Conclusions Radiologic examinations of the heads injected with gelatinized barium facilitates the 3D understanding of cerebrovascular anatomy as an important tool for neuroanatomy training. PMID:25452903

  10. Entomopathogenic nematodes in insect cadaver formulations for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Matos, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Campos, Roberson; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Dolinski, Claudia; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2014-07-14

    This study evaluated the efficacy of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains in insect cadaver formulations against Rhipicephalus microplus and compared the efficacy of the most virulent EPNs applied in cadavers of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor. In the first experiment, infected G. mellonela larvae were used as the source of EPNs. Engorged females of R. microplus were placed in pots filled with soil and different numbers of G. mellonella larvae infected with one of four species of nematodes. All treatments with EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The EPNs of the genus Steinernema, except for the group exposed to Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, whose source nematodes included six larvae of G. mellonella, caused a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight produced per female. Steinernema feltiae SN applied with two, four, and six cadavers and S. carpocapsae ALL with two cadavers caused a reduction in hatching percentage of larvae of R. microplus (p<0.05). The percentage of control was above 95% in all groups treated with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and in the treatment with four larvae infected with S. feltiae SN. The second experiment followed the same methodology, using G. mellonella and T. molitor larvae infected by the two most virulent EPNs. H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1 in different formulations caused reduction in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The percentage of control were 82.4 and 84.9% for H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1, respectively, formulated in T. molitor, and reaching 99.9% in groups formulated with G. mellonella. The EPNs tested in insect cadaver formulation showed pathogenicity to engorged females of R. microplus and EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis formulated in G. mellonella larvae were more effective. PMID:24836639

  11. Accuracy of thoracolumbar transpedicular and vertebral body percutaneous screw placement: coupling the Rosa® Spine robot with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, M; Peltier, J

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new robotic device when coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance. Screws (D8-S1) were implanted during two separate cadaver sessions by coupling the Rosa(®) Spine robot with the flat-panel CT device. Of 38 implanted screws, 37 (97.4 %) were fully contained within the pedicle. One screw breached the lateral cortical of one pedicle by <1 mm. The mean ± SD accuracy (relative to pre-operative planning) was 2.05 ± 1.2 mm for the screw head, 1.65 ± 1.11 for the middle of the pedicle and 1.57 ± 1.01 for the screw tip. When coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance, the Rosa(®) Spine robot appears to be accurate in placing pedicle screws within both pedicles and the vertebral body. Large clinical studies are mandatory to confirm this preliminary cadaveric report. PMID:26530846

  12. Differences in length and cross-section of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons and their effect on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Pichler, W; Tesch, N P; Schwantzer, G; Fronhöfer, G; Boldin, C; Hausleitner, L; Grechenig, W

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this anatomical study was to explore the morphological variations of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons in length and cross-section and the statistical relationship between length, cross-section, and body height. We studied the legs of 93 humans in 136 cadavers. In 43 specimens (46.2%) it was possible to harvest the tendons from both legs. We found considerable differences in the length and cross-section of the semitendinosus and the gracilis tendons with a significant correlation between the two. A correlation between the length of the femur, reflecting height, and the length of the tendons was only observed in specimens harvested from women. The reason for this gender difference was unclear. Additionally, there was a correlation between the cross-sectional area of the tendons and the length of the femur. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of encountering insufficient length of tendon when undertaking reconstructive surgery as a result of anatomical variations between patients. PMID:18378932

  13. Macrophage density in pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles greatly exceeds that in other striated muscles: an immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sunki; Kitamura, Kei; Masaaki, Kasahara; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5–6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05–0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 µm in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 µm. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body. PMID:27722010

  14. The translucent cadaver: a follow-up study to gauge the efficacy of implementing changes suggested by students.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox(®) Statscan(®)) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student learning. This study, therefore, reports on the efficacy of implementing some of these suggestions. Suggestions incorporated into the follow-up study included: (1) The inclusion of eight strategically placed labeled digital X-ray images to the dissection halls, (2) The placement of both labeled and unlabeled digital X-ray images online, (3) The inclusion of informal oral questions on surface anatomy during dissection, (4) The requirement of students to submit individual drawings in addition to group drawings into their portfolios, and (5) Integrating information on how to recognize anatomical structures on X-rays into gross anatomy lectures given prior to dissection. Students were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the drawings, tests and questionnaires were compared to the results from the 2011 cohort. During 2012, an increased usage of the digital X-rays and an increase in practical test marks in three out of the four modules (statistically significant only in the cardiovascular module) were reported. More students from the 2012 cohort believed the images enhanced their experience of learning surface anatomy and that its use should be continued in future. The suggested changes, therefore, had a positive effect on surface anatomy education.

  15. Comparison of Hybrid Constructs with 2-Level Artificial Disc Replacement and 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Surgical Reconstruction of the Cervical Spine: A Kinematic Study in Whole Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoge; Zeng, Zheng; Van Hoof, Tom; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Bingxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-level cervical degeneration of the spine is a common clinical pathology that is often repaired by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the cervical spine after hybrid surgery compared with 2-level ACDF. Material/Methods Five freshly frozen, unembalmed whole human cadavers were used including 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51±8 years. After evaluating the intact spine for range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR), each cadaver underwent 4 consecutive surgeries: 2-level artificial disc replacement (ADR) from C4 to C6 (ADR surgery); 2-level ACDF from C4 to C6 (ACDF surgery); hybrid C4–5 ACDF and C5–6 ADR (ACDF+ADR surgery); and hybrid C4–5 ADR and C5–6 ACDF (ADR+ACDF surgery). The ROM and ICR of adjacent intact segments (C3–4; C6–7), and whole sagittal alignment were revaluated. Results Two-level ACDF resulted in increased ROM at C3–4 and C6–7 compared with intact spine. ROM was significantly different to intact spine using ACDF surgery at C3–C4 and C6–C7 and ROM was increased with ACDF+ADR surgery at C6–C7 (all P<0.05). No improvement in sagittal alignment was observed with any approach. The localization of the ICR shifted upwards and anteriorly at C3–C4 after reconstruction. ICR changes at C3–C4 were greatest for ADR+ACDF surgery and were significantly different to ACDF surgery (P<0.05), but not between ADR surgery and ACDF+ADR surgery. At C6–C7, the ICR was more posterior and superior than in the intact condition. The greatest change in ICR was observed in ACDF surgery at the C6–C7 level, significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions For 2-level reconstruction, hybrid surgery and ADR did not alter ROM and minimally changed ICR at the adjacent-level. The type of surgery had a significant impact on the ICR location. This suggests that hybrid surgery may be a viable option for 2

  16. [Anatomy cadaver ceremonies in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Kao, T; Ha, H

    1999-07-01

    The practice of holding annual ceremonies in honor of cadaver donors in Taiwan's medical schools has a history of nearly a hundred years. It originated in Japan, where such ceremonies have been widely held in medical schools since the practice was founded by Toyo Yamawaki, who was the first medical scholar in Japan to engage in dissection of the human body and was the author of the first anatomy book to appear in Japan, the Zoshi. The practice of holding donor ceremonies was introduced into Taiwan after the Jaiwu Sino - Japanese war, when the island became a Japanese colony. The tradition was upheld in the Viceroy's Medical School, the Viceroy's College of Medicine, and Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University College of Medicine, and continued since the restoration of Chinese power to the present. The practice of holding cadaver donor ceremonies in institutions of medical education is intended to express respect for the donor as well as to encourage the practice of cadaver donation to the benefit of medical education.

  17. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  18. Microscopic and submicroscopic studies on the peripheral nerve and the skeletal muscle of the female. cadaver found in the Han Tomb No.1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Feng, W H; Boa, Y H; Xue, J N; Ying, Y S

    1979-09-01

    The present paper deals with the microscopic and submicroscopic structures of the peripheral nerve of the lumbar plexus and the skeletal muscle of the m. psoas major of the ancient female cadaver buried about 2100 years ago, which was excavated from the Han Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui (Mawangtui) near Changsha, Hunan Province. The connective tissues in the peripheral nerve and the skeletal muscle of the ancient cadaver were found well preserved. Under the electron microscope were observed the characteristic periodic bands of the collagenous fibrils as well as some axons and degenerated myelin sheath in the lumbar plexus. And in some of the better preserved nerve fibers, their axons and myelin sheaths are readily discernible. In the m. psoas major, cross striations are clearly visible in some muscle fibers. The remains of a blood vessel with only their connective tissues left were observed in the nerve of the lumbar plexus. Bacterial spores appeared in the two tissues.

  19. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog.

  20. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog. PMID:25868075

  1. Entomofauna of a buried body: study of the exhumation of a human cadaver in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mariani, R; García-Mancuso, R; Varela, G L; Inda, A M

    2014-04-01

    This study focuses on insects and other arthropods sampled on the exhumation of an infant skeleton belonging to 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The body was buried in soil inside a wooden coffin in a grave 40cm deep, in autumn, and stored in the cemetery deposit after exhumation. Death records were obtained from the cemetery archive. Samples of faunal remains were recovered from wrappings, clothes, bones and soil samples, and were identified at different taxonomic levels depending on the stage of conservation. The dominant taxon was the muscid fly Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann). The relationships among the identified taxa and the moving of the corpse, from the burial context to the cemetery deposit, are discussed and used to create a hypothetical colonization sequence after death. The application of entomological data to anthropological research can provide valuable information for the interpretation of taphonomic processes and burial contexts.

  2. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  3. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  4. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  5. Time- and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase activity and cyanide concentration in excised mice organs and mice cadavers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Rao, Pooja; Yadav, Shiv K; Gujar, Niranjan L; Satpute, Ravindra M; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem stability of cyanide biomarkers is often disputed. We assessed the time and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and cyanide concentration in various organs of mice succumbing to cyanide. Immediately after death, excised mice organs and mice cadavers were stored at room temperature (35°C ± 5°C) or in frozen storage (-20°C ± 2°C). At various times after death, CCO activity and cyanide concentrations were measured in excised mice organs or organs removed from mice cadavers. The study revealed that (i) measuring both the biomarkers in mice cadavers was more reliable compared to excised mice organs, (ii) measuring temporal CCO activity and cyanide concentration in vital organs from mice cadavers (room temperature) was reliable up to 24 h, and (iii) CCO activity in the brain and lungs and cyanide concentration in organs from mice cadavers (frozen) were measurable beyond 21 days. This study will be helpful in postmortem determination of cyanide poisoning.

  6. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males <80 years with good bone quality. Since most hip fractures occur in old women with fragile bones, concern is raised regarding the use of standard 4GCFs in biomechanical experiments. In this study the stability of hip fracture fixations in 4GCFs was compared to human cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs.

  7. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  8. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  9. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen.

  10. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: Quantification of Bacterial Replication within Cadavers, Transmission via Cannibalism, and Inhibition of Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  11. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  12. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  13. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  14. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  15. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  16. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than...

  17. Anorectal Transplantation in Human Cadavers: Mock Anorectal Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Nishizawa, Yuji; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Akita, Keiichi; Tashiro, Kensuke; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Background Anorectal transplantation is a method for patients who have lost their anorectal function or suffer from congenital anorectal dysfunction to recover this function, and this has been investigated in experimental animal models using pigs, dogs, and rats. In this study, we performed an examination of anorectal transplantation in human cadavers to investigate whether this procedure could be performed in patients. Methods A 77-year-old woman cadaver 1 was used as the donor and a 98-year-old woman cadaver 2 was used as the recipient. Initially, abdominoperineal excision of the anus and rectum (the Miles’ operation) was performed on the recipient. Next, an anorectal graft containing the pudendal nerve (PN), pudendal artery (PA), pudendal vein (PV), inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) was harvested from the donor. The donor graft was transplanted into the recipient by intestinal anastomosis and microneurovascular anastomoses orthotopically. Results The diameters of the PN (right/left), IMA, and IMV were 2.5 mm/2.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 1.5 mm, respectively, in cadaver 1, and 2.0 mm/2.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively, in cadaver 2. The length of the PN, PA, PV, IMA, and IMV in the graft was sufficient to allow proper anastomosis. Conclusion This preliminary study indicated that human anorectal transplantation was possible anatomically and technically. We anticipate our study will aid in the potential future application of this procedure to human patients. PMID:23874833

  18. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem.

  19. Levels of formaldehyde vapor released from embalmed cadavers in each dissection stage.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Yota; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Odaka, Yoko; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an aldehyde used in antiseptics and adhesives. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other institutes have linked FA to sick building syndrome and allergic diseases. Recent studies have reported that cadavers embalmed using formalin and ethanol-based preservative solutions release FA vapor during dissection and that FA vapor may adversely affect students and lecturers in gross anatomy laboratories. However, few details have been reported correlating dissection stage with increased FA vapor release. In this study, we evaluated the vapor level of FA released in each dissection stage. Six cadavers for which consent was given for use in anatomy research and education were examined in this study. Using an active sampling method, FA vapor was collected above the thoracoabdominal region of each dissected cadaver. FA was eluted from each sampler using acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our data show that FA levels significantly increase after skin incision and that the vapor level of FA released differs between male and female cadavers. We also found that subcutaneous adipose tissues of the thoracoabdominal-region release FA vapor and that female cadavers release significantly higher levels of FA per kilogram of subcutaneous adipose tissue than do male cadavers. Based on these data, we propose the methods be developed to prevent exposure to FA vapors released from cadavers.

  20. Lessons from the dead: the experiences of undergraduates working with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Brent Dean; Tomaka, Ashley; Innus, Cara; Patterson, Joel; Styn, Gary

    Dissection of a human cadaver is a time-honored tradition for teaching anatomy in medical education. However, in recent years, for a variety of reasons, including costs and ethical concerns, some medical programs have ceased cadaver dissection in exchange for virtual dissection of cadavers in cyberspace. Past research suggests that students find work on a cadaver to be distressing, but also rewarding. This study analyzed journal entries from 21 undergraduate students working with a cadaver in a gross anatomy course. An empirical, phenomenological analysis of the data identified 19 common themes among the participant's journal entries. In addition, the analysis disclosed how participants usually felt a need to justify the act of dissection. Finally, the analysis identified how students differed in the varied ways they coped with the ambiguous status of the cadaver, which was sometimes viewed as a deceased person while at other times experienced as a fascinating machine. Based on the findings, the researchers offer recommendations for helping students to better cope with the experience of cadaver dissection and to use the experience pedagogically to better prepare students for the stress of the medical world, especially issues surrounding death and dying. PMID:19320291

  1. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Imakuma, Ernesto Sasaki; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Meyer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. MATERIALS AND METHODS AND RESULTS: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. CONCLUSION: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy. PMID:27073318

  2. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  3. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  4. Comparative waste forms study

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  5. Effect of insect cadaver desiccation and soil water potential during rehydration on entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Spence, K O; Stevens, G N; Arimoto, H; Ruiz-Vega, J; Kaya, H K; Lewis, E E

    2011-02-01

    We examined the influence of insect cadaver desiccation on the virulence and production of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), common natural enemies of many soil-dwelling insects. EPNs are often used in biological control, and we investigated the feasibility of applying EPNs within desiccated insect cadavers. Desiccation studies were conducted using the factitious host, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, wax moth larvae) and three EPN species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 'HB1', Steinernema carpocapsae 'All', and Steinernema riobrave). Weights of individual insect cadavers were tracked daily during the desiccation process, and cohorts were placed into emergence traps when average mass losses reached 50%, 60%, and 70% levels. We tracked the proportion of insect cadavers producing infective juveniles (IJs), the number and virulence of IJs produced from desiccated insect cadavers, and the influence of soil water potentials on IJ production of desiccated insect cadavers. We observed apparent differences in the desiccation rate of the insect cadavers among the three species, as well as apparent differences among the three species in both the proportion of insect cadavers producing IJs and IJ production per insect cadaver. Exposure of desiccated insect cadavers to water potentials greater than -2.75 kPa stimulated IJ emergence. Among the nematode species examined, H. bacteriophora exhibited lower proportions of desiccated insect cadavers producing IJs than the other two species. Desiccation significantly reduced the number of IJs produced from insect cadavers. At the 60% mass loss level, however, desiccated insect cadavers from each of the three species successfully produced IJs when exposed to moist sand, suggesting that insect cadaver desiccation may be a useful approach for biological control of soil insect pests.

  6. Frequency of intracranial injury in cadavers with head trauma with and without scalp injury in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, Kamran; Heidari, Mansoure; Yousefinejad, Vahid; Okazi, Arash

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in patients with head injury. The aim of this study was to elucidate the frequency of intracranial injury in cadavers with head trauma with and without scalp injury in Tehran. In this analytical cross-sectional study, we investigated 187 cadavers who died due to head trauma in motor vehicle accident or after falling in Tehran from November 2013 to February 2014. Age, sex, mechanism of trauma, scalp injury, sub-scalp bruising, skull fracture, hemorrhage including subdural hemorrhage (SDH), epidural hemorrhage (EDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and contusion were recorded from examination and autopsy. One hundred and eighty seven cadavers (165 (88.2%) male and 22 (11.8%) female) with head injury with the mean age of 36.14 years (SD = 15) were recruited in this study. Mechanism of trauma was motor vehicle accident in 147 (78.6%) cadavers and falling in 40 (21.4%) cadavers. One hundred and fifty eight (84.5%) had SDH, 44 (23.5%) had EDH, 162 (86.6%) had SAH and 139 (74.3%) had contusion. Hemorrhage was seen in 132 (93%) cadavers who had scalp injury and 36 (80%) cadavers who did not have scalp injury (p = 0.01). Overall, 168 (89.8%) cadavers had hemorrhage and 139 (74.3%) had contusion. There was a significant correlation between intracranial injuries and scalp injury (p < 0.05). There was not a significant correlation between EDH and scalp injury (p = 0.52). Consequently, in patients with head trauma, complete examination should be performed but absence of findings in examination cannot exclude intracranial injury.

  7. Arthroscopic latarjet procedure: safety evaluation in cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado; Benegas, Eduardo; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Sunada, Edwin Eiji; Assunção, Jorge Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in cadavers. METHODS : Twelve cadaveric shoulders underwent arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in our laboratory for arthroscopy, by four different surgeons. Following surgery, the specimens were subjected to radiographic examination and evaluated by an independent examiner. Nineteen parameters were evaluated, including the coracoid graft fixation, positioning and angulation of the screws, neurological damage and integrity of tendons. RESULTS : Four procedures were considered to be satisfactory, with no difference among the surgeons. The mean angulation of the screws was 27.2°. The subscapularis splitting was, on average, 17.8mm from the upper edge. The coracoid graft was properly positioned relative to equator of the glenoid in 11 cases. There was no injury to the axillary or musculocutaneous nerves. The main complications were: interposition of soft tissue, suprascapular nerve injury, articular deviation of the graft, diastasis and conjoined tendon injury. CONCLUSION : The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure is a complex technique in which each step must be precise to reduce the risk of complications. Our study showed a high risk of failure of the procedure. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453657

  8. Regional differences in the density of Langerhans cells, CD8-positive T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages: a preliminary study using elderly donated cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Omine, Yuya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masaaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the local immune system in the face and external genitalia, i.e., the oral floor, lower lip, palpebral conjunctiva, anus and penis, we examined the distribution and density of CD1a-positve Langerhans cells, CD8-positive suppressor T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages using specimens from 8 male elderly cadavers. The density of Langerhans cells showed an individual difference of more than (or almost) 10-fold in the lip (oral floor). In the oral floor, Langerhans cells were often spherical. Submucosal or subcutaneous suppressor lymphocytes, especially rich in the oral floor and penile skin, migrated into the epithelium at 4 sites, except for the anus. In the conjunctiva, macrophage migration into the epithelium was seen in all 8 specimens. The density of suppressor lymphocytes showed a significant correlation between the oral floor and the lip (r=0.78). In contrast, the anal and penile skins showed no positive correlation in the density of all three types of immunoreactive cells examined. Overall, irrespective of the wide individual differences, the oral floor and conjunctiva seemed to be characterized by a rich content of all three cell types, whereas the penile skin was characterized by an abundance of suppressor lymphocytes. Based on the tables, as mean value, the relative abundance of three different cell types were as follows; CD1a-positive Langerhans cells (anus), CD8-positive lymphocytes (penis), and CD68-positive macrophages (lip). The present observations suggest that the local immune response is highly site-dependent, with a tendency for tolerance rather than rejection. PMID:26417477

  9. The influence of the strength of bone on the deformation of acetabular shells: a laboratory experiment in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Bone, M C; Dold, P; Flohr, M; Preuss, R; Joyce, T J; Aspden, R M; Holland, J; Deehan, D

    2015-04-01

    Concerns have been raised that deformation of acetabular shells may disrupt the assembly process of modular prostheses. In this study we aimed to examine the effect that the strength of bone has on the amount of deformation of the acetabular shell. The hypothesis was that stronger bone would result in greater deformation. A total of 17 acetabular shells were inserted into the acetabula of eight cadavers, and deformation was measured using an optical measuring system. Cores of bone from the femoral head were taken from each cadaver and compressed using a materials testing machine. The highest peak modulus and yield stress for each cadaver were used to represent the strength of the bone and compared with the values for the deformation and the surgeon's subjective assessment of the hardness of the bone. The mean deformation of the shell was 129 µm (3 to 340). No correlation was found between deformation and either the maximum peak modulus (r² = 0.011, t = 0.426, p = 0.676) or the yield stress (r² = 0.024, t = 0.614, p = 0.549) of the bone. Although no correlation was found between the strength of the bone and deformation, the values for the deformation observed could be sufficient to disrupt the assembly process of modular acetabular components.

  10. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  11. Cadavers Can Be Useful in Teaching Anatomy in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stencel, John; Moore, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents information on student interest, teaching problems, and learning outcomes regarding the use of cadavers as a teaching tool. Provides a list of Illinois Community Colleges using cadavers and a student questionnaire. (RT)

  12. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  13. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM. PMID:24428443

  14. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM.

  15. The effect of core suture flexor tendon repair techniques on gliding resistance during static cycle motion and load to failure: a human cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, T.; Larson, M. C.; Zhao, C.; An, K.-N.; Amadio, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a modification of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MMGH) tendon repair and to compare it with three other suture techniques. Twenty human flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were randomly assigned to the modified Pennington (MP) suture and the MMGH suture. These were compared to the modified Kessler (MK) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) sutures, using data from a previous study. All tendons were repaired with a similar epitendinous stitch and core sutures of 4-0 FiberWire. There was no significant difference in the normalized gliding resistance within the two-strand or four-strand core repair groups. The MP suture had significantly higher 2 mm gap force and ultimate load to failure than the MK suture. The MMGH suture had significantly higher 2 mm gap force and maximum failure ultimate load than the MGH suture. All repairs failed by knot unravelling. PMID:21987278

  16. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in mycosed cadavers of Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S; Thomas, M B

    2001-08-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on mycosed cadavers of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were assessed in the laboratory. Quantitative assessments of conidial production over 10 days under constant conditions showed that sporulation was optimized at RH > 96% and at temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees C. Under both these conditions >10(9) conidia/cadaver were produced. At 25 degrees C, conidial yield was maximized under conditions in which cadavers remained in contact with damp substrate. Relatively little sporulation occurred at 15 degrees C (< 3 x 10(7) conidia/cadaver) and 40 degrees C (< 4 x 10(6) conidia/cadaver) and no sporulation occurred at 10 or 45 degrees C. Following incubation, conidial yield was closely related to the water content of locust cadavers. In separate tests, locust cadavers were incubated for 10 days under diurnally fluctuating temperature and RH that comprised favorable (25 degrees C/100% RH) alternating with unfavorable (40 degrees C/80% RH) conditions for sporulation. In this case, fewer conidia were produced compared with cadavers that were incubated under the favorable conditions for an equal period cumulatively but were not periodically exposed to unfavorable conditions. However, this reduced sporulation observed with the fluctuating condition was not observed when cadavers were similarly incubated under favorable/unfavorable conditions of temperature but were not periodically exposed to the low RH condition. This result implies that sporulation is a dynamic process, dependent not only on periodic exposure to favorable RH but also on the interrelation of this with low RH. Associated tests and the monitoring of changes in cadaver weights imply that the mechanism driving the reduced sporulation under fluctuating RH is the net water balance of cadavers, i.e. the cumulative ability of the fungus/cadaver to adsorb water necessary for sporulation at high

  17. Terrestrial laser scanning to model sunlight irradiance on cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Sibyl Rae; Pan, Zhigang; Glennie, Craig L; Lynne, Aaron M; Haarman, Daniel P; Hill, John M

    2014-07-01

    Human decomposition is a dynamic process that is influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors. Measuring these influences, in particular abiotic factors, on the decomposition process is often a challenge for scientists. Recently, researchers have turned to the use of advanced remote sensing technologies in forensic investigations. In this study, a new methodology is described that utilizes precise 3D images captured using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to calculate total solar irradiance on a cadaver in a partially forested environment. To test this new measurement approach under actual field conditions, three cadavers were placed in an outdoor environment to decompose. Laser scans were taken the day of placement and used to calculate the total solar irradiance at time points of 24 h, 1 week, and 1 month from placement. The results show that as time progresses, different cadavers at the field site and different areas of the same cadaver receive varying amounts of solar irradiance. The modeling based on these laser scans can be used to create predictive images of solar irradiance that may provide researchers with a new tool to help quantitatively assess the effect of solar irradiance on a cadaver ecosystem.

  18. The impact of a cadaver-based airway lab on critical care fellows' direct laryngoscopy skills.

    PubMed

    Wise, E M; Henao, J P; Gomez, H; Snyder, J; Roolf, P; Orebaugh, S L

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of a cadaver-based airway lab on critical care medicine fellows' direct laryngoscopy skills and hypothesised that fellows can improve their self-reported percentage of glottic opening (POGO) scores in cadaver models to achieve POGO scores similar to that of expert faculty. Nineteen fellows attended an airway management skills laboratory utilising five modified cadavers. Initial fellow POGO (POGOi) visualised was recorded at the onset with direct laryngoscopy. Maximum fellow POGO score with optimised direct laryngoscopy was recorded after two additional hours of teaching and also during a testing phase several days later. Data was assessed for significant differences between trainee POGO scores at each time interval and between trainee POGO scores and expert scores. A departmental procedural database was utilised to examine success rates of intubation as a clinical correlation. Fellows' mean POGOi scores, averaged across all five specimens, were significantly lower than both their maximum POGO scores and their testing phase POGO scores. Mean POGOi scores for fellows, averaged over all five cadavers, were lower than the instructors' POGOi scores. There was no difference between fellows' and instructors' mean maximum POGO or mean testing phase POGO scores. Clinical success rates of intubation were over 98%. A short training session using modified cadavers can be utilised to teach new critical care medicine fellows additional techniques for airway management and assist them in obtaining higher POGO scores, similar to those of expert instructors. Success rates of clinical intubations were favourable in the wake of this training.

  19. Neuroanatomy and cadaver dissection in Italy: History, medicolegal issues, and neurosurgical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Frati, Alessandro; Salvati, Maurizio; Marinozzi, Silvia; Frati, Riccardo; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Piccirilli, Manolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Despite the significant Italian tradition of important anatomical studies, an outdated law historically influenced by the Catholic church restricts the use of cadavers for teaching and scientific purposes. The object of the present paper was to trace the historical evolution of the Italian anatomical tradition, particularly neuroanatomical studies, in relation to the juridical regulations on the use of cadavers today. Special attention was paid to the opportunities offered to neurosurgery by using cadavers and to the scientific and social issues in neurosurgical training in the twenty-first century. Considering the new Common European Constitution, the authors advocate a political solution from the European community to improve the quality of training in the disciplines with a social impact such as neurosurgery.

  20. Measurement of kidney cadmium in embalmed New Zealand cadavers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Ian C; Spencer, Emma; Lambert, Tessa; Holzenkaempfer, Meike; Gaw, Sally; Stringer, Mark

    2014-04-11

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic (carcinogenic) metal found in food because of its presence in the environment. New Zealand has elevated levels of Cd in soil due to the long term use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilisers. It is therefore likely that New Zealanders have a high Cd body burden which might have health implications. The aims of this study were to determine whether Cd levels in kidney cortex samples are affected by the embalming process and whether kidney cortex samples from embalmed cadavers (e.g. those used for medical student teaching purposes) can be used as a reliable indicator of Cd body burden. Kidney cortex samples from cadavers preserved with different embalming fluids were analysed for Cd by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A perfused pig kidney model was used to investigate the effects of embalming on kidney cortex Cd levels. We report considerable variability in Cd levels in kidney cortex samples according to the embalming fluid used; this suggests that the embalming fluid influences tissue Cd concentrations. All pig kidney model perfusions resulted in leaching of Cd from the kidney cortex. We conclude that analysis of Cd in embalmed tissues does not give a reliable indication of in-life Cd levels.

  1. Use of computer-aided holographic models improves performance in a cadaver dissection-based course in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A compelling, innovative approach to teaching gross anatomy is the use of computer-aided holographic models. They allow for clean, time-saving dissection, manipulation of structures and appreciation of anatomical relationships, and potential elimination of the need for cadavers. The present study tests the hypothesis that using holographic models improves mastery of anatomical information. First-year medical students were taught gross anatomy using the dissection of donor cadavers, manipulation of digitized 3-dimensional holographic renderings, and examination of plastinated specimens. The effectiveness of these approaches was assessed by comparing students' performance on identification questions on cadavers (qC), holographic models (qH), and plastinated specimens (qP). Students in the top quintile of the class performed strongly on qC, qH, and qP. In contrast, performance by students in the bottom quintile was uneven; they scored best on qH. Performance on the qP was relatively non-discriminating. Students in the top quintile scored higher on the biological sciences section of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) than students in the lowest quintile, whereas students in the lowest quintile had higher scores on the verbal section of their MCATs. The availability of different approaches for presenting gross anatomy improves the success of students in mastering the material, particularly for students struggling with the information. The use of holographic models apparently reaches students who may be challenged to learn the material using traditional approaches. This may be linked to potentially predictive information gleaned through performance on the MCAT. Clin. Anat. 29:917-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27501404

  2. Use of computer-aided holographic models improves performance in a cadaver dissection-based course in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A compelling, innovative approach to teaching gross anatomy is the use of computer-aided holographic models. They allow for clean, time-saving dissection, manipulation of structures and appreciation of anatomical relationships, and potential elimination of the need for cadavers. The present study tests the hypothesis that using holographic models improves mastery of anatomical information. First-year medical students were taught gross anatomy using the dissection of donor cadavers, manipulation of digitized 3-dimensional holographic renderings, and examination of plastinated specimens. The effectiveness of these approaches was assessed by comparing students' performance on identification questions on cadavers (qC), holographic models (qH), and plastinated specimens (qP). Students in the top quintile of the class performed strongly on qC, qH, and qP. In contrast, performance by students in the bottom quintile was uneven; they scored best on qH. Performance on the qP was relatively non-discriminating. Students in the top quintile scored higher on the biological sciences section of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) than students in the lowest quintile, whereas students in the lowest quintile had higher scores on the verbal section of their MCATs. The availability of different approaches for presenting gross anatomy improves the success of students in mastering the material, particularly for students struggling with the information. The use of holographic models apparently reaches students who may be challenged to learn the material using traditional approaches. This may be linked to potentially predictive information gleaned through performance on the MCAT. Clin. Anat. 29:917-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M.; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw–bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw–bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  4. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  5. The role of inter-prosthetic distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density in the development of inter-prosthetic fractures of the femur: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Weiser, L; Korecki, M A; Sellenschloh, K; Fensky, F; Püschel, K; Morlock, M M; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly common for a patient to have ipsilateral hip and knee replacements. The inter-prosthetic (IP) distance, the distance between the tips of hip and knee prostheses, has been thought to be associated with an increased risk of IP fracture. Small gap distances are generally assumed to act as stress risers, although there is no real biomechanical evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of IP distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density on the likelihood of an IP femoral fracture. A total of 18 human femur specimens were randomised into three groups by bone density and cortical thickness. For each group, a defined IP distance of 35 mm, 80 mm or 160 mm was created by choosing the appropriate lengths of component. The maximum fracture strength was determined using a four-point bending test. The fracture force of all three groups was similar (p = 0.498). There was a highly significant correlation between the cortical area and the fracture strength (r = 0.804, p < 0.001), whereas bone density showed no influence. This study suggests that the IP distance has little influence on fracture strength in IP femoral fractures: the thickness of the cortex seems to be the decisive factor.

  6. The role of inter-prosthetic distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density in the development of inter-prosthetic fractures of the femur: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Weiser, L; Korecki, M A; Sellenschloh, K; Fensky, F; Püschel, K; Morlock, M M; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly common for a patient to have ipsilateral hip and knee replacements. The inter-prosthetic (IP) distance, the distance between the tips of hip and knee prostheses, has been thought to be associated with an increased risk of IP fracture. Small gap distances are generally assumed to act as stress risers, although there is no real biomechanical evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of IP distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density on the likelihood of an IP femoral fracture. A total of 18 human femur specimens were randomised into three groups by bone density and cortical thickness. For each group, a defined IP distance of 35 mm, 80 mm or 160 mm was created by choosing the appropriate lengths of component. The maximum fracture strength was determined using a four-point bending test. The fracture force of all three groups was similar (p = 0.498). There was a highly significant correlation between the cortical area and the fracture strength (r = 0.804, p < 0.001), whereas bone density showed no influence. This study suggests that the IP distance has little influence on fracture strength in IP femoral fractures: the thickness of the cortex seems to be the decisive factor. PMID:25274925

  7. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  8. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.

  9. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  10. Studies on drug metabolism by fungi colonizing decomposing human cadavers. Part II: biotransformation of five model drugs by fungi isolated from post-mortem material.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro metabolic capacity of 28 fungal strains isolated from post-mortem material towards five model drugs: amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem. Each fungal strain was incubated at 25 °C for up to 120 h with each of the five models drugs. Cunninghamella elegans was used as positive control. Aliquots of the incubation mixture were centrifuged and 50 μL of the supernatants were diluted and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with product ion scanning. The remaining mixture was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation. The metabolic activity was evaluated through the total number of detected metabolites (NDM) produced in each model and fungal strains and the percentage of parent drug remaining (%RPD) after up to five days of incubation. All the tested fungal strains were capable of forming mammalian phase I metabolites. Fungi from the normal fungal flora of the human body such as Candida sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Trichosporon asahii) formed up to seven metabolites at %RPD values greater than 52% but no new fungal metabolites (NFM). In contrast, some airborne fungal strains like Bjerkandera adusta, Chaetomium sp, Coriolopsis sp., Fusarium solani and Mucor plumbeus showed NDM values exceeding those of the positive control, complete metabolism of the parent drug in some models and formation of NFM. NFM (numbers in brackets) were detected in four of the five model drugs: amitriptyline (18), metoprolol (4), mirtazapine (8), and zolpidem (2). The latter NFM are potential candidates for marker substances indicating post-mortem fungal metabolism. PMID:24898183

  11. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945). PMID:26512538

  12. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  13. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. RESULTS: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. CONCLUSION: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27279391

  14. A comparison of different embalming fluids on the quality of histological preservation in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, H D; Samalia, L; Gould, M; Hurst, P R; Woodroffe, M

    2005-01-01

    There are significant problems in obtaining normal human material for histology for teaching or research purposes. This study shows that tissue from cadavers embalmed for teaching can be used for routine histology. Twelve cadavers embalmed with four different formalin-containing embalming fluids were used (n = 3 per fluid): (1) formalin mix (10% formalin); (2) Dunedin mix (an alcohol-based fluid containing phenol); (3) Michigan mix (a water-based fluid); and (4) phenoxyethanol mix (an alcohol-based fluid containing phenoxyethanol). Tissue blocks of liver, heart, kidney, skin and skeletal muscle were taken from each cadaver, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), or Mallory trichrome (Malt). Each section was assigned an overall score based on the histological quality of the cellular components of the tissue. Sections were scored from 1 to 3 (1 = poor, 2 = satisfactory, 3 = good). Satisfactory sections were obtained from all cadavers except those embalmed with the Dunedin mix. The Michigan and phenoxyethanol fluids resulted in consistently good quality sections. No significant differences in tissue morphology were observed between the different stains. The clearest morphology was observed in the skin and skeletal muscle sections, and in tissues embalmed with fluids which do not contain phenol.

  15. Early Onset of Atherosclerosis of The Carotid Bifurcation in Newborn Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur; Sehirli, Ümit; Keskinoz, Elif Nedret; Cosgun, Erdal; Arbak, Serap; Yalin, Aymelek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy of arterial bifurcations affects blood flow and has a significant role in the development of vascular disease. Therefore, it is important to know the structural characteristics of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) and its branches for early onset of atherosclerosis in newborns. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of CCA in newborn cadavers. Materials and Methods Eight carotid arteries obtained from newborn cadavers were used. The outflow to inflow area ratios was calculated to evaluate vessel diameters. Additionally, scanning electron and light microscopic investigations were conducted with tissue samples. The brachial artery of each cadaver was used as controls. Correlation between area ratios and atherosclerotic endothelial damage was determined. Results Light microscopic investigations demonstrated that control group sections showed no positivity for Oil red O staining, while carotid bifurcation regions depicted widespread occurrence of intimal lipid accumulations. Scanning electron microscopic examination of control group sections presented regular endothelial topography, while carotid bifurcation region topography exhibited numerous blood cells and separated endothelial cells. Fibrin accumulation on endothelial surface in low area ratios was another important finding in the examination of its endothelial surface degeneration. The above-mentioned morphological findings seemed to be quite parallel to outflow to inflow area ratio data favouring low area and degeneration. Conclusion The correlation between area ratios and the histological characteristic of cerebral vessels of newborn cadavers indicate that early stages of atherosclerosis began in early embryologic life. PMID:27437199

  16. Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Fuster-Torres, María Á.; Tarazona, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper. PMID:25136429

  17. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses. PMID:24989440

  18. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  19. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  20. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status. PMID:24671729

  1. The left triangular ligament of the liver and the structures in its free edge (appendix fibrosa hepatis) in Chinese and Canadian cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gao, X H; Roberts, A

    1986-05-01

    The left triangular ligament of the liver was studied in 42 Chinese adult male cadavers and 50 Canadian adult cadavers. The free edge of the left triangular ligament was examined histologically in 37 of the Chinese and all 50 of the Canadian cadavers. The average length of the left triangular ligament in the 42 Chinese was 13.9 cm and 11.5 cm in the 50 Canadian. The Canadian sample was composed of 24 adult female cadavers with an average length of 10.7 cm and of 26 adult male cadavers with an average length of 12.3 cm. In a previous study (1980) of 58 Chinese adult male cadavers, the average length of the left triangular ligament was 12.7 cm. This resulted in an average length of 13.2 cm for the 100 Chinese cadavers. These findings greatly exceed the lengths given in the textbooks, and there is no significant difference between the male Chinese and Canadian cadavers. It was found that almost all the left triangular ligaments were attached to the superior surface of the left lobe of the liver. The left suprahepatic space was subdivided by this ligament into anterior and posterior spaces. Each of the left triangular ligaments had a long free edge which extended from the lateral extremity of the left lobe of the liver to the diaphragm. Histological examination of the free edges revealed the presence of blood vessels in all of the 37 Chinese suitable for study and the 50 Canadian cadavers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  3. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists.

  4. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  5. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  6. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  7. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  8. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Raquel G; Hughes, David P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  9. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Raquel G; Hughes, David P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested.

  10. Ultrasound-guided procedures in medical education: a fresh look at cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Riley; Means, Russel; Robertson, Jeffrey; Rappaport, Douglas; Schmier, Charles; Jones, Travis; Stolz, Lori Ann; Kaplan, Stephen Jerome; Adamas-Rappaport, William Joaquin; Amini, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Demand for bedside ultrasound in medicine has created a need for earlier exposure to ultrasound education during the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. Although bedside ultrasound is often used for invasive medical procedures, there is no standardized educational model for procedural skills that can provide the learner a real-life simulated experience. The objective of our study was to describe a unique fresh cadaver preparation model, and to determine the impact of a procedure-focused ultrasound training session. This study was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. A sixteen-item questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the session. Fifty-five third year medical students participated in this 1-day event during their surgical clerkship. Students were trained to perform the following ultrasound-guided procedures: internal jugular vein cannulation, femoral vein cannulation femoral artery cannulation and pericardiocentesis. Preparation of the fresh cadaver is easily replicated and requires minor manipulation of cadaver vessels and pericardial space. Fifty-five medical students in their third year participated in this study. All of the medical students agreed that US could help increase their confidence in performing procedures in the future. Eighty percent (95 % CI 70-91 %) of students felt that there was a benefit of learning ultrasound-based anatomy in addition to traditional methods. Student confidence was self-rated on a five-point Likert scale. Student confidence increased with statistical significance in all of the skills taught. The most dramatic increase was noted in central venous line placement, which improved from 1.95 (SD = 0.11) to 4.2 (SD = 0.09) (p < 0.001). The use of fresh cadavers for procedure-focused US education is a realistic method that improves the confidence of third year medical students in performing complex but critical procedures.

  11. Development and Initial Porcine and Cadaver Experience with Three-Dimensional Printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Equipment

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. Materials and Methods: We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. Results: The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm2, respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). Conclusions: In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future. PMID:24983138

  12. Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Usha; Dandekar, Kundankumar; Chavan, Sushama

    2015-01-01

    The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot's triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant) crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications. PMID:26788371

  13. Percutaneous absorption kinetics of topical metronidazole formulations in vitro in the human cadaver skin model.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni E

    2007-01-01

    Topical formulations containing identical active agents are available in various vehicles and concentrations, which may affect percutaneous absorption. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in different vehicles and concentrations as the active agent in 6 topical formulations. Formulations were applied to sections from 3 cadaver skin donors, and percutaneous absorption of metronidazole was measured over a 48-h test period through the finite dose technique and the use of Franz diffusion cells. Metronidazole penetrates into and through human cadaver skin. Data show the general ranking of delivery of similar concentrations of metronidazole according to vehicle as cream > lotion > gel. The 48-h penetration of metronidazole in the human cadaver skin model was greatest with cream formulations and lowest with gel formulations. These results reveal the importance of the vehicle selected for penetration of metronidazole into the skin. The relevant target zone in rosacea is the dermis because this is the area where inflammation takes place. Additional studies are warranted to examine absorption of metronidazole into the relevant target zone and the correlation of absorption with efficacy.

  14. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  15. Endovascular Placement of an Extraluminal Femoropopliteal Bypass Graft in Human Cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Maynar, Manuel; Llorens, Rafael; Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio; Qian Zhong; Lopera, Jorge; Castaneda, Wilfrido R.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. A method to create an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft using endovascular techniques was evaluated in situ on cadaver extremities in an attempt to develop a minimally invasive alternative technique for the management of infrainguinal occlusive arterial disease. Methods. The endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft was undertaken in 5 cadaver legs. Following percutaneous access to the popliteal artery (PA) or common femoral artery (CFA), a Rosch-Uchida needle was used to perforate the vascular wall, followed by the creation of an extraluminal tract using a looped wire and catheter. Once the desired level was reached the needle was again used to perforate the vascular wall of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or PA depending on the access used. Self-expanding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent-grafts were then deployed to establish the extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass connecting the two arterial puncture sites. Following dilatation of the stent-graft, angiography was performed to assess the endoprostheses and to look for contrast leaks. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 5 legs. Procedure time varied from 15 to 30 min. The angiographic studies performed immediately after completion of the bypass procedure showed patency of the grafts with no evidence of kinking or leakage in any of the cases. Conclusion. This study has proved that the endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft in human cadaver legs using endovascular techniques under fluoroscopic control is technically feasible.

  16. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection. PMID:27511051

  17. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    PubMed

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations.

  18. NOTE: An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J. C. W.; Huisman, Henk Jan; Kooloos, Jan G.; Huizenga, Henk; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients.

  19. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature.

  20. Image analysis of trabecular structure of the acetabulum in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taneda, H

    1987-11-01

    Trabecular structure of the acetabulum was studied in adult cadavers by means of image analysis. Two groups of trabecular patterns were distinguished in terms of orientation with reference to the frontal plane: one group runs concentric to the articular surface of the acetabulum, and the other rises perpendicular from it and runs radially. The density of the trabeculae tends to decrease with age, and density differences with age are more marked in non-weight-bearing than in weight-bearing regions. Older females, in comparison with males of the same age group, show lower trabecular density in non-weight-bearing regions. Regional differences were also noted with higher density in the anterosuperior and posteroinferior regions, decreasing centripetally from the margin of the acetabular fossa. The average density in weight-bearing regions was 6 per cent higher than that of non-weight-bearing regions. According to these findings, the trabecular pattern of the acetabulum has a structure responding to compressive and tensile stresses applied to the hip joints.

  1. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  2. Interpretation of postmortem change in cadavers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José L; Magaña, Concepción; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2004-09-01

    Estimating time since death is especially difficult in the examination of poorly preserved cadavers and depends on the experience of the examiner and comparison with previously documented cases showing similar characteristics. The present study reports on information obtained over the past ten years through the work of the Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense (LAF) of the Instituto Anatómico Forense de Madrid, Spain, in particular evaluating how the type of fracture influences postmortem change. From the original 225 forensic cases examined between 1992 and 2002 in the LAF, a sample of 29 cases were selected from various regions of the Spanish mainland. A data collection protocol was established to reflect factors which the existing specialized literature, documenting the relation existing in the sample analyzed between time since death and the extent of postmortem change, which in the environments examined are distributed into the following phases: Phase 1 (putrefaction): one week to one month on the surface and two months in water. Phase 2 (initial skeletonization): two months on the surface and five to six months in water. Phase 3 (advanced skeltonization): six months to 1.5 years on the surface and 2.5 years buried. Phase 4 (complete skeletonization): about one year on the surface and three years buried. This paper also provide useful information on the impact of carrion insect activity, location, climate, seasonality, and predator.

  3. Gastric femoral hernia in a male cadaver with gastroptosis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Apostolidis, S; Papadopoulou, A L; Vlasis, K; Totlis, T; Skandalakis, P

    2008-04-01

    The shape and the position of the stomach and its anatomic relations to the round viscera vary from individual to individual, but they also vary in the same subject depending on many factors. The downward displacement of the stomach is called gastroptosis. In the literature, there are only five case reports where the stomach constituted the content of a femoral hernia. The current study presents a case of a gastric femoral hernia in a cadaver along with a review of the relevant literature. During routine dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver with a very large stomach and gastroptosis, a femoral hernia containing a part of the great curvature of the stomach was found. The length of the hernia sac was 5 cm, and its width was 3.5 cm. There was a disposition of the intestinal coils to the posterior wall and the lesser pelvis. The cadaver's former medical history and skin observation before dissection excluded any previous abdominal surgery. This is the second case of stomach herniation through the femoral ring in a male subject ever reported. The symptoms in this pathology vary from complete absence to symptoms due to high stenosis of the digestive tract, stomach strangulation and stomach wall necrosis.

  4. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreases from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR-SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 weeks later. β-Cell replication, as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67, was 0.22 ± 0.03% at 4 weeks and 0.13 ± 0.03% at 14 weeks. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19-positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations of exendin-4, gastrin, and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections, but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis.

  5. Comparison between percutaneous fluoroscopic-guided and conventional open pedicle screw placement techniques for the thoracic spine: a safety evaluation in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Kwan, M K; Chiu, C K; Lee, C K; Chan, C Y W

    2015-11-01

    Percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is a well-established technique, however, no studies have compared percutaneous and open placement of screws in the thoracic spine. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the accuracy and safety of these techniques at the thoracic spinal level. A total of 288 screws were inserted in 16 (eight cadavers, 144 screws in percutaneous and eight cadavers, 144 screws in open). Pedicle perforations and fractures were documented subsequent to wide laminectomy followed by skeletalisation of the vertebrae. The perforations were classified as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: < 2 mm perforation, grade 2: 2 mm to 4 mm perforation and grade 3: > 4 mm perforation. In the percutaneous group, the perforation rate was 11.1% with 15 (10.4%) grade 1 and one (0.7%) grade 2 perforations. In the open group, the perforation rate was 8.3% (12 screws) and all were grade 1. This difference was not significant (p = 0.45). There were 19 (13.2%) pedicle fractures in the percutaneous group and 21 (14.6%) in the open group (p = 0.73). In summary, the safety of percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine between T4 and T12 is similar to that of the conventional open technique.

  6. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  7. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  8. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing < or =3% NaCl (Pseudomonas). Of the cadavers found near estuaries, bioluminescent and blue colonies developed from two of them on media containing 2-4% NaCl (Photobacterium, Vibrio, Listonella), but not from two others on plates containing 4% NaCl (at < or =3%; blue colonies, Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning.

  9. Relationship between morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and mandible in Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Mahito; Marushita, Yoichi; Sato, Toshio; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Itoh, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone and mandible using three-dimensional computed tomography. Hyoid bones were obtained from a total of 101 cadavers varying in age from 67 to 102 years. The percentage of symmetrical U-type and asymmetrical-type hyoid bones was low compared with symmetrical V type (14.9, 15.8, and 69.3 %, respectively), and no significant sex difference was observed. We found bilateral nonfusion in cadavers of advanced age at a rate of 22.7 % and bilateral complete fusion at a rate of 51.5 %. There were significant differences in metric variables (length and width) between males and females, but no significant differences in width among the different fusion types. There was no significant interaction effect of sex and degree of fusion. Strong significant associations were observed between size (length and width) of the hyoid bone and mandible in the nonfusion group, while the complete fusion group revealed a moderate correlation. We also investigated the hypothesis that the junction between the hyoid body and greater horn plays an important role in the movement of bones that have not yet ossified. However, no statistical difference was observed in the width between the two greater horns. The degree of fusion of the greater horn with the hyoid body may also affect relations of interdependencies between the hyoid bone and mandible, an important component to consider when assessing risk factors in the development of masticatory and swallowing function.

  10. Measurement of the temperature increase in the porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2010-02-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary measurements indicated that during typical surgical use, 50-60% of laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. To further evaluate iris laser exposure during femtosecond corneal surgery, we measured the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris in situ during direct illumination by the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser (AMO Inc. Santa Ana, CA) with an infrared thermal imaging camera. To replicate the illumination geometry of the eye during the surgery, an excised porcine cadaver iris was placed 1.5 mm from the flat glass contact lens. The temperature field was observed in twenty cadaver iris at laser pulse energy levels ranging from 1 to 2 μJ (corresponding approximately to surgical energies of 2 to 4 μJ per pulse). Temperature increases up to 2.3 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ per pulse and 24 second procedure time) were observed in the cadaver iris with little variation in temperature profiles between specimens for the same laser energy illumination. For laser pulse energy and procedure time characteristic to the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser the temperature increase was measured to be 1.2 °C. Our studies suggest that the magnitude of iris heating that occurs during such femtosecond laser corneal surgery is small and does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  11. Assessment of a Human Cadaver Model for Training Emergency Medicine Residents in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wesley; Wadman, Michael; Walker, Richard; Lomneth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess a human cadaver model for training emergency medicine residents in the ultrasound diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods. Single-blinded observational study using a human cadaveric model at an academic medical center. Three lightly embalmed cadavers were used to create three “normal lungs” and three lungs modeling a “pneumothorax.” The residents were blinded to the side and number of pneumothoraces, as well as to each other's findings. Each resident performed an ultrasound examination on all six lung models during ventilation of cadavers. They were evaluated on their ability to identify the presence or absence of the sliding-lung sign and seashore sign. Results. A total of 84 ultrasound examinations (42-“normal lung,” 42-“pneumothorax”) were performed. A sliding-lung sign was accurately identified in 39 scans, and the seashore sign was accurately identified in 34 scans. The sensitivity and specificity for the sliding-lung sign were 93% (95% CI, 85–100%) and 90% (95% CI, 81–99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the seashore sign were 80% (95% CI, 68–92%) and 83% (95% CI, 72–94%), respectively. Conclusions. Lightly embalmed human cadavers may provide an excellent model for mimicking the sonographic appearance of pneumothorax. PMID:24790999

  12. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenstrup, S.; Donà dalle Rose, L. F.; Jones, W. G.; Tugulea, L.; van Steenwijk, F. J.

    2002-09-01

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a survey. During 1997 and 1998 the working groups of EUPEN sent out a number of questionnaires to a number of institutions and to individual students. In this report we focus on issues relating to the workload to obtain a degree in physics as expressed in contact hours - lectures, problem solving, laboratory work - and private study time. The different teaching/learning styles are also considered. Some of the results have already been presented at conferences.

  13. Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  14. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  15. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  16. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  17. [Present and aspects for cadaver surgical training in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    In overseas countries the cadaver surgical training (CST) has been very common as evaluation systems for new operative method and medical devices. However, in Japan basic autopsy training is indispensable for nurturing doctors at schools of medicine, while the clinical doctors have been using cadavers for the progress and technique, or the like, of a surgery with the scope of clinical autopsy. In the consequence, in 2013 the guideline "Autopsy for clinical medicine training and research" was put in effect over a series of discussions for the purpose of society acknowledgement of CST. The subsidized project "Training for the development of practical technique of a surgery" by the Ministry of Health and Labor has been offered publicly for private organizations and expected a nationwide expansion. I review the current situation of CST in Japan and introduce CST at Ehime University School of Medicine. This editorial is based on the background of CST in Japan and referred to the outlook for the future.

  18. Biomechanical factors in human dermal bitemarks in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Bush, Mary A; Miller, Raymond G; Bush, Peter J; Dorion, Robert B J

    2009-01-01

    In bitemark analysis, the forensic odontologist must consider how the biomechanical properties of the skin contribute to distortion of the bitemark. In addition, one must consider how the bitemark can be distorted by postural movement of the victim after the bite has occurred. A fundamental review of the architecture and biomechanical properties of the dermis is described and evaluated through bites made on cadavers. In order to assess distortion, 23 bites from a single characterized dentition were made on un-embalmed cadaver skin. Bite indentations were photographed. Following various body manipulations they were re-photographed in different positions. Hollow volume overlays of the biting dentition were constructed, and metric analysis of the dentition and all bitemarks was completed. The overall intercanine, mesial to distal, and angle of rotation distortion was calculated. Of the 23 bites made, none were measurably identical, and in some cases, dramatic distortion was noted. PMID:19040674

  19. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    PubMed

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world.

  20. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  1. Feasibility of Arthroscopic Placement of Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis Grafts in the Cadaver Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Thorey, Fritz; Budde, Stefan; Ezechieli, Marco; Albrecht, Urs Vito; Ettinger, Max

    2013-01-01

    An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i) the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii) check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm) and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm). None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone. PMID:24191186

  2. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Fritz; Budde, Stefan; Ezechieli, Marco; Albrecht, Urs Vito; Ettinger, Max

    2013-01-01

    An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i) the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii) check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm) and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm). None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  3. Teaching the Comparative Approach to American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Stanley

    The rationale behind this book of five suggested or sample comparative units contains several elements: 1) an interdisciplinary social science approach to studying the American past, present, and future; and 2) a view of our country's history in terms of a world setting and in the light on contemporary concerns. The global comparative method…

  4. Comparative Rhetoric: Applications in African Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neher, William W.

    Comparative rhetoric studies the mode of public address among a specified group of people and the theories and values governing their public address in specific cultural contexts. Two ways to consider the subject of values in comparative rhetoric involve values as norms and values as appeals. Values assumed to be held by the audience are the bases…

  5. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  6. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  7. Comparative Review of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Barbara A.

    Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world history, and…

  8. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    PubMed

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  9. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    PubMed

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  10. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  11. A comparative study of fixation techniques for type II fractures of the odontoid process.

    PubMed

    Graziano, G; Jaggers, C; Lee, M; Lynch, W

    1993-12-01

    Primary screw fixation of a Type II odontoid fracture or non-union is an attractive alternative to posterior atlanto-axial arthrodesis in that normal cervical motion can be maintained. Eight cervical cadaver spines, ranging in age from 17-90 years, were used for study. Type II fractures of the dens were created using an osteotome. Simulated fractures were fixed using one or two 3.5-mm bone screws. After testing each screw fixation technique, the screws were removed and a posterior C1-C2 brooks sublaminar wiring was performed using four 18-gauge wires with wooden blocks to simulate bone graft. No significant differences were found between bending and torsional stiffnesses for the one-screw and two-screw specimens. No significant differences were found between one- and two-screw fixation when compared with primary C1-C2 wiring in torsion. One- or two-screw fixation was as stiff as primary C1-C2 wiring in bending. One or two screws offers similar stability for fixation for a dens fracture. One- and two-screw fixation is at least as stiff as primary C1-C2 wiring in torsion and one- or two-screw fixation is stiffer than primary C1-C2 wiring in bending. PMID:8303437

  12. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using…

  13. An individualistic approach to routine cadaver organ removal.

    PubMed

    Peters, D A

    1988-09-01

    Consenting to the taking of one's organs after death is a moral duty--the duty to consent--which derives from a more general moral duty--the duty to attempt an easy rescue of an endangered person. These two duties can be justified within the framework of factual and value beliefs associated with the general intellectual orientation called "individualism," which informs the liberal democratic tradition in the spirit of John Locke. Individualists value personal liberty and would accept these two duties on the ground that personal liberty is likely to be better protected and advanced in a society that abides by them than in a society that does not. The same reasoning justifies a social policy of routine removal of cadaver organs. Individualists would find it prudent to give up their right to be buried whole and adopt a policy of routine removal of cadaver organs, with organs distributed according to some principle of fair allocation. Since they recognize that their own organs will be of no use to them after death, giving up their right to be buried whole will not be viewed as a significant sacrifice of personal liberty. Some people of basic individualistic sympathies may, however, embrace additional special values that favor their being buried whole. To accommodate such persons, two compromises on a policy of routine taking of cadaver organs are possible: Allow these persons to "opt out" of the system by signing a legally binding document prohibiting the taking of their organs after death, or require everyone to state on their driver's licenses a positive or negative decision concerning organ removal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Activation of N, P, and A1 in patients and cadavers using radiation from the medical accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Rothmann, J.C.; Reinstein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that it is possible to monitor the activity of N and P following photoactivation of an anthropomorphic phantom, a patient, and five cadavers. Analysis of the annihilation peak in the spectra revealed the presence of N and P. A strong /sup 28/Al photopeak at 1.78 MeV due to neutron activation was identified in four cadavers and verified according to its half-life (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.30 min). The irradiation of the cadvers in the liver, lung, and skull always yielded the /sup 28/Al photopeak. Any possibility of inducing /sup 28/Al activity through (n,..cap alpha..) reaction of P was excluded. No Al contamination was found in the materials used to preserve the cadaver. The measured spectra with HP-Ge detector provided precision for N of about 2%, and for P 15%. Using NaI detector the precisions improved to 1% and 5% respectively. The quality of the deconvolution was evaluated using the low Chi- squares values, comparing the time integrals with the total number of counts in the peak, and inspection of the residual spectra. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Allocation of cadaver kidneys: new pressures, new solutions.

    PubMed

    Braun, W E

    1994-09-01

    Equitable allocation of human cadaver kidneys is complex and challenging, both from the ethical and scientific points of view. It is based on the principles of distributive justice and medical utility. However, the optimal application of ethical principles will require further resolution of medical issues that currently focus on the number of transplants for a single patient, six antigen matches, lesser degrees of HLA matching, marginal recipients, various positive cross-match situations, and cold ischemia time. New HLA matching techniques and enhanced computer organ allocation systems have the potential to surmount racial differences and increase significantly the number of compatible renal allografts.

  16. A cadaver knee simulator to evaluate the biomechanics of rectus femoris transfer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael C; Brown, Nicholas A T; Bachus, Kent N; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2009-07-01

    A cadaver knee simulator has been developed to model surgical transfer of the rectus femoris. The simulator allows knee specimens six degrees of freedom and is capable of modeling both the swing and stance phases of human gait. Experiments were conducted using a mechanical hinge analog of the knee to verify that time, flexion angle, and knee extension force measurements recorded when using the simulator were not influenced by its design or operation. A ballistic double pendulum model was used to model the swing phase of gait, and the contributions of hip and ankle torques and hamstrings cocontraction were included when modeling the stance phase of gait. When modeling swing, range of motion and time to peak knee flexion in swing for the hinge knee were similar to those of in vivo test subjects. Measurements of hinge knee extension force when modeling stance under various biomechanical conditions matched those predicted using an analytical model. Future studies using cadaver knee specimens will apply techniques described in this paper to further our understanding of changes in knee biomechanics caused by rectus femoris transfer surgery. PMID:19403312

  17. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  18. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  19. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  20. Comparative studies on serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keizo; Ishizaka, Kimishige

    1954-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken by the authors to determine the most reliable of the serodiagnostic tests for syphilis in current use in Japan. The criteria for the selection of sera, the way in which the standard tests were chosen, and the statistical method used for evaluating the results are described, and some of the detailed results are given. Five tests—the VDRL test, the agglutination test, Ogata's test, the Kahn test (with cardiolipin antigen), and Browning's test modified by Taniguchi (with cardiolipin antigen)—were found to be comparable in reliability to the Kolmer (Lederle) and VDRL (Lederle) tests employed in the USA. PMID:14364183

  1. Factor VIII-Related Antigen Detects Phenotypic Change of Sinusoidal to Vascular Endothelium in Hepatic Fibrosis of Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Ki M.; Sehgal, Priya; Harris, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    In advanced stages of hepatic fibrosis, the liver sinusoidal endothelium transforms to vascular endothelium with accompanying expression of factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg), a phenotypic marker of vascular endothelial cells. Liver fibrosis has been shown to be associated with aging and was found to be prevalent in elderly cadavers. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied FVIIIRAg expression in the livers of elderly cadavers with progressive stages of fibrosis. The vascular endothelium of portal tracts and central veins was stained for FVIIIRAg, providing an internal positive control. The incidence of FVIIIRAg expression was low in the sinusoids of livers that showed minimal fibrosis or perisinusoidal fibrosis but was increased in livers with advanced fibrosis (i.e., septa formation, bridging fibrosis, and cirrhosis). FVIIIRAg positive sinusoidal endothelial cells were distributed in loose aggregates in the periportal, periseptal, and midlobular parenchyma and were found less frequently in the centrilobular area. FVIIIRAg immune deposits appeared patchy and discontinuous along the sinusoidal lining, likely representing focalized transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium. There was a discrete localization of FVIIIRAg immunoreactivity in the foci of severe parenchymal fibrosis. Conclusion. FVIIIRAg is a reliable marker for detecting the transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium in advanced liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers. PMID:27437476

  2. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    PubMed

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful.

  3. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  4. Development of a desiccated cadaver delivery system to apply entomopathogenic nematodes for control of soil pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pentomopathogenic nematodes may be more capable of controlling soil pests when they are harbored by desiccated cadavers. A small-scale system was developed from a modified crop seed planter to effectively deliver desiccated nematode-infected cadavers into the soil. The system mainly consists of a me...

  5. Closure and the Cadaver Experience: A Memorial Service for Deeded Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schotzinger, Kathleen A.; Best, Elizabeth Kirkley

    1988-01-01

    Describes program to help novice medical students handle first experiences with the cadaver. Explains how program attempts to humanize the cadaver experience and enable students to recognize and address their feelings. Discusses orientation, program components, and memorial service for deeded bodies. (Author/NB)

  6. A Proposal for a Policy on the Ethical Care and Use of Cadavers and Their Tissues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champney, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent events have occurred that indicate the need for policies on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues in the United States. At present, there are policies that address the procurement, handling and disposition of cadavers, but there are no national or society sponsored policies that clearly state the ethically appropriate use…

  7. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  8. The effect of low- and high-velocity tendon excursion on the mechanical properties of human cadaver subsynovial connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Filius, Anika; Thoreson, Andrew R; Yang, Tai-Hua; Vanhees, Matthias; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel is the most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Fibrosis may result from damaged SSCT. Previous studies found that with low-velocity (2 mm/s), tendon excursions can irreversibly damage the SSCT. We investigated the effect of tendon excursion velocity in the generation of SSCT damage. Nine human cadaver wrists were used. Three repeated cycles of ramp-stretch testing were performed simulating 40%, 60%, 90%, and 120% of the middle finger flexor tendon superficialis physiological excursion with an excursion velocity of 60 mm/s. Energy and force were calculated and normalized by values obtained in the first cycle for each excursion level. Data were compared with low-velocity excursion data. For high-velocity excursions, a significant drop in the excursion energy ratio was first observed at an excursion level of 60% physiological excursion (p < 0.024) and that for low-velocity excursions was first observed at 90% physiological excursion (p < 0.038). Furthermore, the energy ratio was lower at 60% for high velocities (p ≤ 0.039). Increasing velocity lowers the SSCT damage threshold. This finding may be relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of SSCT fibrosis, such as that accompanying CTS, and a relationship with occupational factors.

  9. Comparative studies of atherosclerosis in swine

    PubMed Central

    Bijlenga, G.; Dahme, E.; Detweiler, D. K.; Gresham, G. A.; Grünberg, W.; Howard, A. N.; Kagan, A. R.; Kaplan, M. M.; van Nie, C. J.; Rubarth, S.; Sternby, N. H.; Stünzi, H.; Uemura, K.; Whitney, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    A survey of spontaneously occurring fatty streaks and fibrous plaques, considered as atherosclerosis, in 1637 swine in different European countries and the USA, using a standardized procedure, was undertaken to determine whether significant differences exist in the occurrence and extent of the disease in various groups of animals. At the same time a preliminary study on the possible relation of any differences observed in atherosclerosis to certain environmental and constitutional factors was carried out with the ultimate goal of contributing to the understanding of analogous problems in man. Statistically significant increases of fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in relation to: (a) increasing age, starting at 6 to 7 months, the earliest age period studied; (b) geographical locality; and (c) considerable as compared with moderate or slight physical activity at 1 year of age. Although not statistically significant, there was also a suggestive trend towards more atherosclerosis in pigs consuming soft water as compared with those consuming hard water. While these correlations may represent contributory factors to the increases of the changes noted in the abdominal aortas, it is not possible to pinpoint the importance of individual components because of the limited data and the large number of variables involved in this preliminary study. Studies in swine and other animals are being encouraged in which all variables but one are being kept constant to determine their possible role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:5299676

  10. 3D deformation and dynamics of the human cadaver abdomen under seatbelt loading.

    PubMed

    Lamielle, Sophie; Vezin, Philippe; Verriest, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallancien, Guy

    2008-11-01

    According to accident analysis, submarining is responsible for most of the frontal car crash AIS 3+ abdominal injuries sustained by restrained occupants. Submarining is characterized by an initial position of the lap belt on the iliac spine. During the crash, the pelvis slips under the lap belt which loads the abdomen. The order of magnitude of the abdominal deflection rate was reported by Uriot to be approximately 4 m/s. In addition, the use of active restraint devices such as pretensioners in recent cars lead to the need for the investigation of Out-Of-Position injuries. OOP is defined by an initial position of the lap belt on the abdomen instead of the pelvis resulting in a direct loading of the abdomen during pretensioning and the crash. In that case, the penetration speed of the belt into the abdomen was reported by Trosseille to be approximately 8 to 12 m/s. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the human abdomen in submarining and OOP. A total of 8 PMHS abdomens were loaded using a lap belt. In order to investigate the injury mechanisms, the abdominal deflection rate and the compression were imposed such that they were not correlated. The specimens were seated upright in a fixed back configuration. The lap belt was placed at the level of the mid-umbilicus, between the iliac crest and the 12th rib. The belt was pulled horizontally along the sides of the specimens causing a symmetrical loading of the abdomen. In addition to the local parameters such as the belt and back forces or the belt displacements, the 3D external deformation of the abdomen was recorded. The forces measured between the back of the cadaver and the seat showed that a mass effect should be taken into account in the abdominal behaviour in addition to viscosity. The back force was greater than the belt force in low speed (submarining like) tests while it was lower for high-speed (OOP like) tests. A lumped parameter model was developed to confirm the experimental results and

  11. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  12. Comparative study of hydrogenated and lithiated superhalogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Na; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Sun, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-09-01

    The structural features, properties and stability of two kinds of representative superhalogen compounds, namely hydrogenated superhalogens and lithiated superhalogens, are theoretically studied in detail, providing further insight into the behavior of superhalogens. According to topological analysis of the electron localization function, most of superhalogen clusters as a whole combine with Li atom through ionic bond(s). In contrast, the H atom tends to bind with superhalogen by covalent bond although a portion of superhalogens are broken upon hydrogenation. In addition, the electric properties of these superhalogen compounds are also obtained and compared with those of traditional acid and salt molecules.

  13. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  14. Comparative study of heart sound localization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukadem, A.; Dieterlen, A.; Hueber, N.; Brandt, C.; Raymond, P.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comparative study of five algorithms of heart sound localization, one of which, is a method based on radial basis function networks applied in a novel approach. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated according to a data base of 50 subjects in which there are 25 healthy subjects selected from the University Hospital of Strasbourg (HUS) and from theMARS500 project (Moscow) and 25 subjects with cardiac pathologies selected from the HUS. This study is made under the control of an experienced cardiologist. The performance of each method is evaluated by calculating the area under a receiver operating curve (AUC) and the robustness is shown against different levels of additive white Gaussian noise.

  15. Robotic replacement of the descending aorta in human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2006-09-01

    Robot-assisted replacement of the thoracic aorta was performed in a human cadaver. Temporary shunt bypass was established by inserting a left axillary artery catheter and directing it through the aortic arch toward the right femoral artery through the abdominal aorta. The technique utilized the da Vinci surgical system inserted through the 4-cm supramammary working port and two additional thoracoscopic ports. The working port allowed the introduction of an endoscope, endoscopic instruments, and artificial graft and suture materials. The aorta was dissected using the robotic instruments and was clamped with two transthoracic clamps. After transaction of the aorta, a 20-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft was cut and an end-to-end anastomosis was then performed with running 3-0 Prolene sutures with robotic instruments. The robotic system provides superior optics and allows for enhanced dexterity. Minimally invasive robotic replacement of the descending aorta is an effective procedure and may add benefits for both surgeon and patients. PMID:16934102

  16. It takes six to boogie: allocating cadaver kidneys in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, Ilias I N; Smits, Jacqueline M A; Persijn, Guido G; Frei, Ulrich; Claas, Frans H J

    2004-02-27

    In March 1996, a new allocation point system for cadaver kidneys, the Eurotransplant (ET) Kidney Allocation System (KAS), was introduced in ET, the first multinational organ exchange organization. The aims of ETKAS were to reduce average and maximum waiting time, to allow patients with rare human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes or combinations to receive an "optimal" offer, to keep the exchange rates between the participating countries balanced, and finally to keep optimal graft survival, by means of HLA matching. Elderly patients and highly sensitized patients profit in addition from special programs, the ET Senior Program and the Acceptable Mismatch Program, respectively. All kidneys are offered to the pool and are allocated according to the degree of HLA matching, mismatch probability, waiting time, distance from the donor center, and balance between the countries participating in ET. A summary of 6 years' experience with the ETKAS is presented in this article.

  17. Cadaver renal transplant outcome in recipients with autolymphocytotoxic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ettenger, R B; Jordan, S C; Fine, R N

    1983-05-01

    The major impact of autolymphocytotoxic antibodies (ALCA) on renal transplantation has been in the interpretation of the pretransplant crossmatch as a cause of false-positive results. Less attention has been paid to the direct affects of ALCA on renal allografts. We have examined the sera of 38 recipients of 41 cadaver renal allografts for the presence of ALCA. There were 9 patients with ALCA who received 10 allografts. In these allografts with ALCA, actuarial graft survival was significantly improved (P less than 0.05) over that of 31 transplants without ALCA. In recipients with ALCA, graft survival was 90% at six months and 60% at one and two years; in recipients without ALCA, graft survival was 48% at six months, 35% at one year and 24% at two years. ALCA may be exerting graft-enhancing properties by means of an autoregulatory effect upon the recipient's immunologic system.

  18. Training Medical Novices in Spinal Microsurgery: Does the Modality Matter? A Pilot Study Comparing Traditional Microscopic Surgery and a Novel Robotic Optoelectronic Visualization Tool.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Tubbs, R Shane; Page, Jeni; Chapman, Alexandra; Burgess, Brittni; Laws, Tyler; Warren, Haylie; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    The operative microscope has been a staple instrument in the neurosurgical operating room over the last 50 years. With advances in optoelectronics, options such as robotically controlled high magnification have become available. Such robotically controlled optoelectronic systems may offer new opportunities in surgical technique and teaching. However, traditionally trained surgeons may find it hard to accept newer technologies due to an inherent bias emerging from their previous background. We, therefore, studied how a medically naïve population in a pilot study would meet set microsurgical goals in a cadaver experiment using either a conventional operative microscope or BrightMatter™ Servo system, ​a robotically controlled optoelectronic system (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). We found that the relative ease in teaching medical novices with a robotically controlled optoelectronic system was more valuable when compared to using a modern-day surgical microscope. PMID:26973804

  19. Comparative QSAR studies on peptide deformylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Doddareddy, Munikumar Reddy; Cho, Yong Seo; Choo, Hyunah; Koh, Hun Yeong; Kang, Jae-Hoon; No, Kyoung Tai; Pae, Ae Nim

    2007-05-01

    Comparative quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses of peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitors were performed with a series of previously published (British Biotech Pharmaceuticals, Oxford, UK) reverse hydroxamate derivatives having antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli PDF, using 2D and 3D QSAR methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and hologram QSAR (HQSAR). Statistically reliable models with good predictive power were generated from all three methods (CoMFA r (2) = 0.957, q (2) = 0.569; CoMSIA r (2) = 0.924, q (2) = 0.520; HQSAR r (2) = 0.860, q (2) = 0.578). The predictive capability of these models was validated by a set of compounds that were not included in the training set. The models based on CoMFA and CoMSIA gave satisfactory predictive r (2) values of 0.687 and 0.505, respectively. The model derived from the HQSAR method showed a low predictability of 0.178 for the test set. In this study, 3D prediction models showed better predictive power than 2D models for the test set. This might be because 3D information is more important in the case of datasets containing compounds with similar skeletons. Superimposition of CoMFA contour maps in the active site of the PDF crystal structure showed a meaningful correlation between receptor-ligand binding and biological activity. The final QSAR models, along with information gathered from 3D contour and 2D contribution maps, could be useful for the design of novel active inhibitors of PDF. PMID:17333308

  20. A comparative study on monitored anesthesia care

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Jayashree; Sen, Bitan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness, hemodynamic changes and duration of sedation and analgesia between combinations of fortwin-phenergan-midazolam (FPM) and ketamine - midazolam (KM) along with local anesthesia for the surgeries done under the umbrella of monitored anesthesia care. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients undergoing surgeries as tympanoplasty, septoplasty, lip repair, dacrocystectomy and cataract under local anesthesia, randomly received either intravenous (IV) fortwin 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min followed by IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg plus IV phenergan 12.5 mg (Group FPM) or IV ketamine 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min plus IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg (Group KM). Sedation was titrated to Ramsay sedation score (RSS) of 3. Patients’ mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), saturation peripheral pulse, duration of sedation and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesic were recorded and compared. Satisfaction of patients (using a 1-7 point Likert verbal rating scale) and readiness for discharge towards (time to Aldrete score of 10) were also determined. Result: Group KM had significant rise in HR (20-25%) and MAP (25-30%) from 30 min after the bolus dose given until the end of the surgery in contrast to Group FPM. The target sedation level (RSS ≥ 3) was higher in Group FPM (n = 23 [92%]) as compared with Group KM (n = 12 [48%]). Time until need for rescue sedation was 66.96 ± 17.19 min in FPM and 32.80 ± 8.90 min in KM group. The patient satisfaction (Likert scale) is more with the FPM group (6.12 ± 0.83 vs. 4.40 ± 1.20). Conclusion: We found that the combination of FPM is superior to the KM combination as per the hemodynamic changes, duration of analgesia, patients’ satisfaction and efficacy of the drugs are concerned. PMID:25886327

  1. Comminuted olecranon fracture fixation with pre-contoured plate: Comparison of composite and cadaver bones

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton Jr, David A; Reilly, Danielle; Wipf, Felix; Kamineni, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether use of a precontoured olecranon plate provides adequate fixation to withstand supraphysiologic force in a comminuted olecranon fracture model. METHODS: Five samples of fourth generation composite bones and five samples of fresh frozen human cadaveric left ulnae were utilized for this study. The cadaveric specimens underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to quantify the bone quality. The composite and cadaveric bones were prepared by creating a comminuted olecranon fracture and fixed with a pre-contoured olecranon plate with locking screws. Construct stiffness and failure load were measured by subjecting specimens to cantilever bending moments until failure. Fracture site motion was measured with differential variable resistance transducer spanning the fracture. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U test with Monte Carlo Exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the composite bones and human cadaver bones. Failure modes differed in cadaveric and composite specimens. The load to failure for the composite bones (n = 5) and human cadaver bones (n = 5) specimens were 10.67 nm (range 9.40-11.91 nm) and 13.05 nm (range 12.59-15.38 nm) respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.007, 97% power). Median stiffness for composite bones and human cadaver bones specimens were 5.69 nm/mm (range 4.69-6.80 nm/mm) and 7.55 nm/mm (range 6.31-7.72 nm/mm). There was a significant difference for stiffness (P ˂ 0.033, 79% power) between composite bones and cadaveric bones. No correlation was found between the DEXA results and stiffness. All cadaveric specimens withstood the physiologic load anticipated postoperatively. Catastrophic failure occurred in all composite specimens. All failures resulted from composite bone failure at the distal screw site and not hardware failure. There were no catastrophic fracture failures in the cadaveric

  2. A comparative study of professional student stress.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert J; Gray, Sarah A; Sterling, Gerald; Reeves, Kathleen; DuCette, Joseph

    2009-03-01

    A study was conducted involving a group of 290 medical and dental students to directly compare perceived stress levels encountered during their education. A modified questionnaire based on Garbee et al.'s Dental Environmental Stress survey was provided to the students by either email or paper. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the sources of stress reported by medical and dental students, both male and female, were due to common factors. A multivariate statistical analysis was also conducted to measure stress differences by year in school. Through factor analysis, the survey question responses were grouped into five causal categories: academic performance, faculty relations, patient and clinic responsibilities, personal life issues, and professional identity. The overall findings show that dental students had greater levels of stress than medical students in three of the five categories. The only category in which medical students demonstrated greater stress levels than dental students was in professional identity. Measures of comparative levels of stress between male and female students for either profession did not demonstrate any significant differences. Stress levels related to clinical work varied significantly between the type of professional student and his or her year in school. PMID:19289722

  3. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  4. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  5. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  6. Sectioned Images and Surface Models of a Cadaver for Understanding the Dorsalis Pedis Flap.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kim, Bong Chul

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to represent the dorsalis pedis (DP) flap on sectioned images and surface models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the foot were obtained from a cadaver. The important structures in the sectioned images were outlined and stacked to create a surface model. The PDF file (53 MB) of the assembled models is accessible for free download on the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine Web site (http://anatomy.co.kr). In this file, the significant anatomic structures of the DP flap can be inspected in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures of the DP flap are described in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees gain a better understanding of the DP flap anatomy.

  7. Comparative study of pressure-flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Eri, Lars M; Wessel, Nicolai; Tysland, Ole; Berge, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Methods for quantification of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) are still controversial. Parameters such as detrusor opening pressure (p(det.open)), maximum detrusor pressure (p(det.max)), minimum voiding pressure (p(det.min.void)), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (P(det.Qmax)) separate obstructed from nonobstructed patients to some extent, but two nomograms, the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the linearized passive urethral resistance relation (LinPURR), are more accepted for this purpose, along with the urethral resistance algorithm. In this retrospective, methodologic study, we evaluated the properties of these parameters with regard to test-retest reproducibility and ability to detect a moderate (pharmacologic) and a pronounced (surgical) relief of bladder outlet obstruction. We studied the pressure-flow charts of 42 patients who underwent 24 weeks of androgen suppressive therapy, 42 corresponding patients who received placebo, and 30 patients who had prostate surgery. The patients performed repeat void pressure-flow examinations before and after treatment or placebo. The various parameters were compared. Among the bladder pressure parameters, P(det.Qmax) seemed to have some advantages, supporting the belief that it is the most relevant detrusor pressure parameter to include in nomograms to quantify BOO. In assessment of a large decrease in urethral resistance, such as after TURp, resistance parameters that are based on maximum flow rate as well as detrusor pressure are preferable. PMID:11948710

  8. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  9. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin. PMID:22782433

  10. Comparative study of silicon empirical interatomic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamane, H.; Halicioglu, T.; Tiller, W. A.

    1992-07-01

    We have performed a comparative study of six classical many-body potentials for silicon (Pearson, Takai, Halicioglu, and Tiller; Biswas and Hamann; Stillinger and Weber; Dodson, Tersoff 2, and Tersoff 3). Extensive static calculations have been performed using these potentials on Sin clusters (n=2-6), bulk point defects, elastic constants, polytypes, pressure-induced phase transformations, and surfaces [(111), (100), and (110)]. Similarities and differences between the six potentials have been identified, and their transferability as well as their accuracy with respect to experiment and first-principles methods have been assessed. In general, all of these potentials do a relatively poor job of modeling the energetics of small clusters as well as the various reconstructions of the Si(111) surface. They provide a fair to good description of the properties of bulk diamond cubic silicon, its intrinsic defects, and the Si(100) surface. Besides the fact that none of them models π bonding, their inability to be more transferable lies in their inadequate description of the angular forces. Each potential has its strengths and limitations, but none of them appears to be clearly superior to the others, and none is totally transferrable. However, despite their shortcomings we feel that some of these potentials will be useful in large-scale simulations of materials-related problems. They can give valuable insights into phenomena that are otherwise intractable to investigate either experimentally or via first-principles methods.

  11. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed.

  12. A Comparative Study of Principals' Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kyung Ae

    1989-01-01

    Compared are the managerial behaviors and beliefs of Korean and American secondary school principals. Generalizations are proposed in the areas of work hours, work pace, communication skills, organizational style, instructional leadership, and other managerial behaviors. (16 references) (SI)

  13. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  14. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  15. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  16. Contact pressures in the loaded human cadaver hip.

    PubMed

    Day, W H; Swanson, S A; Freeman, M A

    1975-08-01

    The purpose of the work described was to find the average pressure on each of several areas of the acetabular cartilage of the cadaver hip under physiological loads. By obtaining load-deflection curves for one chosen area of cartilage, firstly with all the cartilage present and then after the successive removal of other areas, the fractions of the original load carried by the several areas were found, and hence the average pressures on those areas. Seventeen hips (age range twenty-two to eighty-seven years) were examined. Local pressures varied from zero to 3.4 times the average pressure in each hip. The highest pressures in the series (about 4 to 5 megaNewtons per square metre) were on the areas of thin fibrocartilage which were identified at the zenith of certain acetabula. The results are too few to establish whether or not the pressure distribution was age-related. The higher pressures found are within the range which in other experiments has led to fatigue failure of femoral head cartilage, and it is suggested that hips in which such pressures exist under loads of three times body weight may be predisposed to osteoarthritis.

  17. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  18. Flip This Classroom: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Tiffany; Peters, Michelle L.; Willis, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the beliefs and attitudes of teachers using the flipped versus the traditional class model. Survey and interview data were collected from a matched sample of in-service teachers representing both models from a large suburban southeastern Texas school district. The Attitude Towards Technology Scale, the…

  19. International Practice and Comparative Legal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of knowledge of and sensitivity to the basic features of foreign legal systems on the part of lawyers doing international work is related to a general lack of legal scholarship. The methodology and subject matter of comparative law must be renewed and revived at a time when barriers between legal systems seem to be increasing. (MSE)

  20. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  1. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. PMID:26474731

  2. Catatonic schizophrenia: an international comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, R

    1986-04-01

    Thirty-five hospitalized catatonic schizophrenic patients from Sri Lanka were compared with 22 patients in the U.K. and 13 in Canada. The phenomenology was established using the Present State Examination. Results suggest that ethnicity, chronicity of illness and reception of neuroleptic treatment may influence the lower prevalence of catatonic symptoms among the U.K. and Canadian schizophrenics. Onset of illness appears to be among young adults and mutism, stupor, mannerisms, stereotypes and negativism were the common catatonic symptoms observed.

  3. Bacterial contamination control mats: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Meddick, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of six different types of contamination control mats currently in use at the entrances to theatre suites and other clean areas to remove bacteria-carrying particles from theatre trolley wheeels was compared. Marked differences in the effectiveness of this property were obtained; and all mats showed some disadvantages. Modification of one of the mats has resulted in improved efficiency under working conditions. Images Plate 1 PMID:267665

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Tilden, Evelyn B.

    1926-01-01

    obtained in culture, all the strains grow well on leptospira medium, as well as on blood slants. Growth takes place both at 26°C. and at 37°. The morphology of the organisms is considerably modified by cultivation. This is especially true of the plant flagellates. In the latex they have ribbon-like bodies, often twisted, and comparatively short flagella; the protoplasm is clear, almost hyaline. The flagellates seen in the gut and feces of insects are usually large, slender organisms, with flagella as long as or even longer than the body, which contains numerous volutin granules in the cytoplasm. In cultures under parallel conditions the flagellates from both these sources become shorter and thicker, the plant forms no longer appear flat and ribbon-like, and in general the organisms approach one another in morphological features. Even in the case of the least modified insect flagellates, i.e. those from flies, there is never exact correspondence between the natural and the cultivated forms. The morphological features of the cultivated flagellates vary according to the medium on which the organisms are grown and the age of the culture. The flagellates grown on the surface of blood slants are pyriform, with truncated anterior portion, and short flagellum; in the condensation water, however, the individuals are elongated and have long active flagella. On the leptospira medium the slender active forms with long flagella predominate. In the presence of fermentable carbohydrate, or in medium containing considerable acid, peculiar bifurcated or multifurcated individuals are seen. Similar forms have been seen under natural conditions. Cultures of Leishmania behave in the same way under the conditions described. There is a striking difference in rapidity of growth between the organisms isolated by us and the leishmanias, H. ctenocephali, and T. rotatorium. While the stock cultures of the group first mentioned multiply rapidly at 37°C., growth becoming visible within 24 hours, the

  5. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzimami, K. S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (WPP) and peak-to-peak signal height (HPP). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic.

  6. Comparative transport studies of ``1212'' superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    GAPUD,ALBERT; WU,JUDY; YAN,SHAOLIN; XIE,YI-YUAN; KANG,BYEONGWON; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-05-17

    HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}} (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  7. Comparative study of injection locked FET oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Arne

    1991-07-01

    A study of injection locked FET oscillators (ILO) is presented. Starting from large signal design considerations a comparison between reflection- and transmission-type injection locking is drawn. Bandwidth capabilities and the transfer of modulated signals are investigated by both experiments and computer simulations. In the examples studied the reflection type ILO shows superior preformances.

  8. A Comparative Study of Compression Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chris A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of compression devices used to increase the cost effectiveness of teleconferences by reducing satellite bandwidth requirements for the transmission of television pictures and accompanying audio signals. The main body of the report describes the comparison study of compression rates and their…

  9. Comparative study of five blood cardioplegia systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C J; Bednarski, A J; Beckley, P D

    1994-12-01

    Five blood cardioplegia delivery systems (Gish Straight Shot, Sorin BCD Advanced, Avecor MYOtherm, Baxter-Bentley HE-30, and Baxter-Bentley HE-30 Gold) were evaluated with respect to ease of rapid priming, coefficient of heat exchange, pressure drop, bubble trap capacity, and priming volume. Each system was placed in a roller pump circuit consisting of source and collection reservoirs, cardioplegia solution, and pre-post system pressure and temperature monitoring sites. A trial was performed on four units of each brand by first priming the circuit with 0.9% NaCl at 200 ml/min. Bovine blood (hematocrit 22%) was then introduced simulating use during bypass. Pressure drops across the heat exchanger were measured at flows of 200, 300, and 400 ml/min and at temperatures of 37 degrees, 19 degrees, and 4 degrees C. Coefficient of heat exchange was determined at 300 ml/min flow. Air was infused into the system to quantify the bubble trap capacity of the heat exchanger module. Priming volume of the entire system and of the heat exchanger module were determined by draining each into a graduated cylinder. The Sorin system had significantly less priming volume when compared to all others. The HE-30 units had significantly higher heat exchange coefficients compared to all other systems. Variability was noted in pressure drop at the highest flows and lowest temperatures. PMID:10150681

  10. A Comparative Study of Landmine Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; Elaraby, Sayed M.; El-Kordy, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    Several countries suffer from the existence of millions of buried landmines in their territories. These landmines have indefinite life, and may still cause horrific personal injuries and economic dislocation for decades after a war has finished. Therefore, there is a growing demand by these countries for reliable landmine inspection systems. There are several landmine detection techniques that can be used for this purpose. Each technique is suitable for detection under some conditions depending on the type of the landmine case, the explosive material, and the soil. This paper presents an overview of some of the existing landmine detection techniques. These techniques are briefly described and their merits and drawbacks are highlighted and compared. The purpose of this comparison is to shows the ideal conditions and the challenges for each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between landmine detection techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarm rate and effect of environmental conditions is presented.

  11. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Mess, A

    2010-10-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape and relationship to maternal tissues. This greatly influenced the work of Otto Grosser, who became better known in part because his work was more accessible to other scientists and clinicians. Strahl described the development of the fetal membranes across a broad range of mammalian orders extending his observations beyond parturition to the post partum involution of the uterus. He paid close attention to structures designed for histotrophic nutrition including the areolae of moles, haemophagous organs of carnivores and tenrecs and chorionic vesicles of lemurs and lorises. We here provide a summary of some of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed.

  12. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ankle Joint in Cadaver Specimens, Volunteers, and Patients After Different Cartilage Repair Techniques at 7 T

    PubMed Central

    Zbýň, Štefan; Brix, Martin O.; Juras, Vladimir; Domayer, Stephan E.; Walzer, Sonja M.; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Apprich, Sebastian; Buckenmaier, Kai; Windhager, Reinhard; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of cartilage repair techniques such as microfracture (MFX) or matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) is to produce repair tissue (RT) with sufficient glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a direct and noninvasive evaluation of the GAG content in native cartilage and RT. In the femoral cartilage, this method was able to distinguish between RTs produced by MFX and MACT having different GAG contents. However, it needs to be clarified whether sodium MRI can be useful for evaluating RT in thin ankle cartilage. Thus, the aims of this 7-T study were (1) to validate our sodium MRI protocol in cadaver ankle samples, (2) to evaluate the sodium corrected signal intensities (cSI) in cartilage of volunteers, (3) and to compare sodium values in RT between patients after MFX and MACT treatment. Materials and Methods Five human cadaver ankle samples as well as ankles of 9 asymptomatic volunteers, 6 MFX patients and 6 MACT patients were measured in this 7-T study. Sodium values from the ankle samples were compared with histochemically evaluated GAG content. In the volunteers, sodium cSI values were calculated in the cartilages of ankle and subtalar joint. In the patients, sodium cSI in RT and reference cartilage were measured, morphological appearance of RT was evaluated using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system, and clinical outcome before and after surgery was assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and Modified Cincinnati Knee Scale. All regions of interest were defined on morphological images and subsequently transferred to the corresponding sodium images. Analysis of variance, t tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients were evaluated. Results In the patients, significantly lower sodium cSI values were found in RT than in reference cartilage for the MFX (P = 0.007) and MACT patients (P = 0.008). Sodium cSI and

  13. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  14. Articulation of Quality Teaching: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarneh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and then contrast the New South Wales Department of Education and Training's model of quality teaching with the Jordanian Ministry of Education's conception of quality teaching, looking particularly at potential differences in interpretation. A content analysis methodology was used. Each perspective has been…

  15. Social Studies. Language Arts: Comparative World Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    The elective (7-9) course in world religions outlined in this guide is designed to fit the quinmester organization of schools. The course is described as a study of world religions, focusing on religion as an institution in society. It includes effects of religion on people, governments, and internal relations. The guide is divided according to:…

  16. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  17. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  18. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education

    PubMed Central

    Randall, K; Anderson, MP

    2015-01-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27433237

  19. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Jennifer Elaine; Randall, K; Anderson, M P

    2015-02-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-04-15

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  1. Earthquake correlations and networks: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Krishna Mohan, T R; Revathi, P G

    2011-04-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  2. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-04-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E EULEEJ1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.69.06610669, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  3. Variations of Thickness of Splenic Capsule of Different Age and Sex in Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Shumi, M S; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Sultana, R

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms. These diverse entities can all cause rapid splenic enlargement, producing a thin, tense splenic capsule that is susceptible to rupture. Understanding of splenic capsular structure may help explain mechanical properties of the normal and diseased spleen. Histological changes are evident in advancing age along with functional capability of the human spleen. This cross sectional descriptive study was done to measure the thickness of splenic capsule to establish the difference between sexes of different age groups in Bangladeshi cadaver. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from June 2013 to July 2014. A total 30 human spleen were collected by purposive sampling technique from October 2013 to April 2014, among them 14 were male and 16 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. For convenience of differentiating the thickness of splenic capsule in relation to age and sex, the collected specimens were divided into three groups like Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) & Group C (41 to 60 years). Each group was again divided into male & female groups. In this study 10 slides from each age group were chosen for measuring the thickness of splenic capsule and examined under low power objective. In present

  4. Variations of Thickness of Splenic Capsule of Different Age and Sex in Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Shumi, M S; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Sultana, R

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms. These diverse entities can all cause rapid splenic enlargement, producing a thin, tense splenic capsule that is susceptible to rupture. Understanding of splenic capsular structure may help explain mechanical properties of the normal and diseased spleen. Histological changes are evident in advancing age along with functional capability of the human spleen. This cross sectional descriptive study was done to measure the thickness of splenic capsule to establish the difference between sexes of different age groups in Bangladeshi cadaver. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from June 2013 to July 2014. A total 30 human spleen were collected by purposive sampling technique from October 2013 to April 2014, among them 14 were male and 16 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. For convenience of differentiating the thickness of splenic capsule in relation to age and sex, the collected specimens were divided into three groups like Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) & Group C (41 to 60 years). Each group was again divided into male & female groups. In this study 10 slides from each age group were chosen for measuring the thickness of splenic capsule and examined under low power objective. In present

  5. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  6. Comparative study on dermatoglyphics in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante

    2009-12-01

    According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.

  7. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    PubMed

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments.

  8. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the

  9. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the

  10. Prediction of skull fracture risk for children 0-9 months old through validated parametric finite element model and cadaver test reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-09-01

    Skull fracture is one of the most common pediatric traumas. However, injury assessment tools for predicting pediatric skull fracture risk is not well established mainly due to the lack of cadaver tests. Weber conducted 50 pediatric cadaver drop tests for forensic research on child abuse in the mid-1980s (Experimental studies of skull fractures in infants, Z Rechtsmed. 92: 87-94, 1984; Biomechanical fragility of the infant skull, Z Rechtsmed. 94: 93-101, 1985). To our knowledge, these studies contained the largest sample size among pediatric cadaver tests in the literature. However, the lack of injury measurements limited their direct application in investigating pediatric skull fracture risks. In this study, 50 pediatric cadaver tests from Weber's studies were reconstructed using a parametric pediatric head finite element (FE) model which were morphed into subjects with ages, head sizes/shapes, and skull thickness values that reported in the tests. The skull fracture risk curves for infants from 0 to 9 months old were developed based on the model-predicted head injury measures through logistic regression analysis. It was found that the model-predicted stress responses in the skull (maximal von Mises stress, maximal shear stress, and maximal first principal stress) were better predictors than global kinematic-based injury measures (peak head acceleration and head injury criterion (HIC)) in predicting pediatric skull fracture. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using age- and size/shape-appropriate head FE models to predict pediatric head injuries. Such models can account for the morphological variations among the subjects, which cannot be considered by a single FE human model.

  11. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

  12. Too Fresh Is Unattractive! The Attraction of Newly Emerged Nicrophorus vespilloides Females to Odour Bouquets of Large Cadavers at Various Stages of Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    von Hoermann, Christian; Steiger, Sandra; Müller, Josef K.; Ayasse, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The necrophagous burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides reproduces on small carcasses that are buried underground to serve as food for their offspring. Cadavers that are too large to bury have previously been postulated to be important food sources for newly emerged beetles; however, the attractiveness of distinct successive stages of decomposition were not further specified. Therefore, we investigated the potential preference of newly emerged N. vespilloides females for odour bouquets of piglet cadavers at specific stages of decomposition. Analyses of walking tracks on a Kramer sphere revealed a significantly higher mean walking speed and, consequently, a higher mean total track length when beetles were confronted with odour plumes of the decomposition stages ‘post-bloating’, ‘advanced decay’ or ‘dry remains’ in comparison with the solvent control. Such a change of the walking speed of newly emerged N. vespilloides females indicates a higher motivation to locate such food sources. In contrast to less discriminating individuals this behaviour provides the advantage of not wasting time at unsuitable food sources. Furthermore, in the advanced decay stage, we registered a significantly higher preference of beetles for upwind directions to its specific odour plume when compared with the solvent control. Such a change to upwind walking behaviour increases the likelihood that a large cadaver will be quickly located. Our findings are of general importance for applied forensic entomology: newly emerged N. vespilloides females on large cadavers can and should be regarded as potential indicators of prolonged post mortem intervals as our results clearly show that they prefer emitted odour bouquets of later decomposition stages. PMID:23516497

  13. A novel, resorbable suture anchor: pullout strength from the human cadaver greater tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Stanford, R E; Harrison, J; Goldberg, J; Sonnabend, D H; Alvis, M; Walsh, W R

    2001-01-01

    The pullout strength of a collagen bone anchor that creates interference fixation as the result of radial swelling on hydration was compared with a Mitek rotator cuff anchor after insertion into the greater tuberosity of human cadaver humeri. Bones were fully hydrated at 37 degrees C. Stiffness, peak load, and the mode of failure were recorded. Real and apparent bone densities were measured. Peak load for the collagen anchor at 15 minutes (121.0N +/- 81.3N) was greater than at 2 minutes (60.5N +/- 38.5N) after insertion (P <.05). At between 5 and 60 minutes after insertion, peak loads for the Mitek and the collagen anchors did not differ. After 30 minutes from insertion, the mode of failure of the collagen anchor changed from pullout with minor body damage to pullout with major body damage. Peak load at pullout correlated with bone density for the Mitek (P <.05, r = 0.516) but for the collagen bone anchor appeared unaffected by bone density. PMID:11408913

  14. Effects of five hindfoot arthrodeses on foot and ankle motion: Measurements in cadaver specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yanxi; Qiang, Minfei; Hao, Yini

    2016-01-01

    Single, double, and triple hindfoot arthrodeses are used to correct hindfoot deformities and relieve chronic pain. However, joint fusion may lead to dysfunction in adjacent articular surfaces. We compared range of motion in adjacent joints before and after arthrodesis to determine the effects of each procedure on joint motion. The theory of moment of couple, bending moment and balanced loading was applied to each of 16 fresh cadaver feet to induce dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, internal rotation, external rotation, inversion, and eversion. Range of motion was measured with a 3-axis coordinate measuring machine in a control foot and in feet after subtalar, talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, double, or triple arthrodesis. All arthrodeses restricted mainly internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion. The restriction in a double arthrodesis was more than that in a single arthrodesis, but that in a calcaneocuboid arthrodesis was relatively low. After triple arthrodeses, the restriction on dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements was substantial, and internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion were almost lost. Considering that different arthrodesis procedures cause complex, three-dimensional hindfoot motion reductions, we recommend talonavicular or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved functions of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion before operation, subtalar or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved abduction/adduction, and talonavicular arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved eversion/inversion. PMID:27752084

  15. Relative strength of scleral tunnel incisions with internal corneal lips constructed in cadaver eyes.

    PubMed

    Ernest, P H; Lavery, K T; Kiessling, L A

    1993-07-01

    We constructed scleral tunnel wounds with internal corneal lips and sutureless closures in ten cadaver eyes without previous intraocular surgery. Each wound differed in width, total incision length, and internal corneal lip size. At a low and high range of initial intraocular pressure (IOP, 10 to 15 mm Hg or 20 to 25 mm Hg), we compared the wounds' resistance to leakage during application of external pressure. A square wound with a 4.0 mm width and 4.0 mm overall length, including a 1.5 mm corneal lip, had the optimum wound dimensions. These produced a stable incision that resisted leakage at external pressures up to 525 pounds per square inch equally well at both IOP ranges. Leakage occurred at lower external pressures for wounds with greater width, smaller corneal lips, or wound widths that were greater than wound lengths; such wounds were also more prone to leakage at the low IOP range. When constructed properly and adequately, the 4.0 mm wide scleral tunnel incision with 1.5 mm internal corneal lip is a strong and safe wound for sutureless cataract surgery.

  16. Development of a new system for guidewire-assisted tracheal intubation: manikin and cadaver evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dhara, S S; McGlone, D J; Skinner, M W

    2016-01-01

    Guided intubation using a tracheal tube and semi-rigid introducer is associated with technical difficulties, failure and traumatic complications. We describe the development of a new system of guidewire-assisted tracheal intubation that may circumvent these problems. A reinforced silicone tracheal tube was modified with a guide channel built inside its wall, and a nitinol non-kinking guidewire was matched to this channel. Both anterograde and retrograde tracheal intubation were evaluated in a test rig, an airway manikin and then in preserved and fresh cadavers. There was minimal resistance to passage of the guidewire through the guide channel when the modified tube was in an anatomical configuration, in contrast to moderate resistance when an Airway Exchange Catheter was passed through a PVC tracheal tube. Intubation using the new equipment required increased force in the manikin and preserved cadavers, but minimal force in fresh cadavers. Resistance to tracheal tube advancement in preserved cadavers was overcome by withdrawal followed by 90° rotation, but this manoeuvre was not required in fresh cadavers. We suggest that the combination of the modified tracheal tube and matching guidewire may allow easy and reliable single-step guided tracheal intubation when used in patients.

  17. Morphological observation of the horseshoe kidney with special reference to the vascular system in 2 Japanese cadavers.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Iimura, Akira; Terayama, Hayato; Naito, Munekazu; Itoh, Masahiro

    2005-11-01

    Two cases of the horseshoe kidney in Japanese cadaver were reported in this paper. The kidneys and their associated vessels in the retroperitoneal cavity were carefully examined, and the histological examination of the isthmus was performed. In Case 1, four arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. One right and two left renal arteries were distributed to the apical, upper, middle and posterior regions of the kidney, respectively, and the artery of isthmus entered the lower segments and the isthmus. In Case 2, six arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. Among three arteries arose from the inferior end of the aorta and entered the lower segments and the isthmus. Histological study revealed that the isthmuses consisted of collecting tubes, glomeruli and urinary tubules and fibrous connective tissue. The incidence of the horseshoe kidney during the dissecting practice at Tokyo Medical University in a period of 24 years from 1980 to 2003 was estimated to be 0.16% (2 out of the 1,219 cadavers). The anatomical and embryological significance of this anomaly and its associated vascular system were discussed. And the histology of the parenchymal structure of the isthmus in the horseshoe kidney containing either fibrous connective tissue or renal parenchyma was also analyzed in this report.

  18. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on pelvic measurements in three-dimensional multidetector computed tomographic images.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of stature estimation by measuring the pelvic bones of Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). We assessed 3D reconstructed images of 210 Japanese subjects (108 males, 102 females) who had undergone postmortem CT between May 2011 and November 2013. We defined the linear distance from the anterosuperior margin of the left and right anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) to the posterior margin of the left and right ischial spines as the LSS and RSS, respectively. We also defined the linear distance from the anterosuperior margin of the left and right ASIS to the anteroinferior margin of the left and right ischial tuberosities as the LST and RST, respectively. The correlation between the cadaver stature (CS) and each parameter (LSS, LST, RSS, and RST) was evaluated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analysis was performed for stature estimation. All four parameters correlated significantly with stature independent of sex, suggesting that they can be used as a tool for stature estimation. The LST had the closest correlation with stature in both sexes.

  19. Subfracture insult to the human cadaver patellofemoral joint produces occult injury.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, P J; Haut, R C

    1995-11-01

    The current criterion used by the automotive industry for injury to the lower extremity is based on visible bone fracture. Studies suggest, however, that chronic joint degeneration may occur after subfracture impact loads on the knee. We hypothesized that subfracture loading of the patellofemoral joint could result in previously undocumented microtrauma in areas of high contact pressure. In the current study, seven patellofemoral joints from human cadavers were subjected to impact with successively greater energy until visible fracture was noted. Transverse and comminuted fractures of the patella were noted at 6.7 kN of load. Approximately 45% of the impact energy then was delivered to the contralateral joint. Subfracture loads of 5.2 kN resulted in no gross bone fracture in five of seven specimens. Histological examination of the patellae horizontal split fracture in the subchondral bone, at the tidemark, or at the interface of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. The trauma appeared predominantly on the lateral facet, adjacent to or directly beneath preexisting fibrillation of the articular surface. Surface fibrillation was noted in histological sections of control patellae (not subjected to impact loading), but occult damages were not observed. Although the mechanism of this occult trauma is unknown, similar damage has been shown to occur from direct shear loading. As these microcracks can potentiate a disease process in the joint, this study may suggest that the current criterion for injury, based on bone fracture alone, is not sufficiently conservative.

  20. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  1. Comparative mirror cleaning study: a study on removing particulate contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Karrie D.

    2006-08-01

    A mirror cleaning study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of three cleaning methods in their ability to remove particulate contamination from reflective mirror surfaces. Presently, the detergent bath, solvent rinse, and CO II snow cleaning methods are the most commonly used optical cleaning techniques within the optics industry. These techniques are also commonly used by the Optics Branch/Code 551 at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to remove particulate contamination from optical surfaces. In this experimental study, the above-mentioned cleaning methods were used to clean twelve uncoated silicon wafers, twelve gold coated silicon wafers, and twelve gold coated silicon wafers with a silicon oxide protective coating. CO II snow cleaning had an average removal percentage of 84%, followed by the solvent rinse at 74%, and the detergent bath at 61%. In addition to the average removal percentage, this comparative study was designed to: (1) determine the cleaning ability of each method based on the number and size of removed particles; (2) assess the risk of surface damage for each cleaning procedure; (3) evaluate each cleaning method as a function of its initial "qualitative" contamination level ("fairly clean", "dirty", and "very dirty"). The particulate cleanliness of all wafers was characterized using Image Analysis and Image-Pro Plus 5.0 software. In addition, the experimental design and experimental results were analyzed using JMP/Statistical Analytical Software Version 6.0.

  2. Friendly Skulls, Mechanical Bodies: Encounters with Cadavers in a Medical School in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and cadavers trigger fear and produce contradictory responses. In these circumstances, allegedly Western models of learning and the exposure to death have to be appropriated to become viable. Furthermore, references to the religious and cultural backgrounds of students shape their responses. According to students, death is an event when the deceased acquires supernatural powers; thus, they take shield in religion to ward off potential dangers caused by spirits. The exposure to the interior of the body also produces heightened feelings of religiosity and perceiving the body as a miracle. Befriending skulls and body parts and giving them names are strategies to humanize dead bodies and render them familiar. However, in order to legitimize working with cadavers and the dissection of bodies, students tend to dehumanize cadavers and observe them as mechanical objects.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Tenotomy of Biceps Tendon: Technical Feasibility on Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Mauri, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Aliprandi, Alberto; Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Randelli, Pietro Simone

    2016-10-01

    We tested the technical feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous tenotomy of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) in cadavers. Both shoulders of two fresh cadavers were scanned anteriorly to evaluate the extra-articular portion of the LHBT. Under ultrasound monitoring, a scalpel was advanced obliquely up to touch the superficial medial side of the LHBT, cutting it until the tendon was not visible anymore. Ultrasound evaluation was repeated after the procedure, and anatomic dissection was performed. The procedure was 100% feasible: four cuts were made to completely sever the tendon; the duration was less than 1 min. Skin incision measured 5 mm in two cases and 6 mm in two cases. Anatomic dissection confirmed complete tendon cut in all cases with proximal and distal tendon stumps very close to each other. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous LHBT tenotomy was 100% technically feasible in cadavers with a quick procedure and minimal cutaneous incision. PMID:27471117

  4. Friendly Skulls, Mechanical Bodies: Encounters with Cadavers in a Medical School in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and cadavers trigger fear and produce contradictory responses. In these circumstances, allegedly Western models of learning and the exposure to death have to be appropriated to become viable. Furthermore, references to the religious and cultural backgrounds of students shape their responses. According to students, death is an event when the deceased acquires supernatural powers; thus, they take shield in religion to ward off potential dangers caused by spirits. The exposure to the interior of the body also produces heightened feelings of religiosity and perceiving the body as a miracle. Befriending skulls and body parts and giving them names are strategies to humanize dead bodies and render them familiar. However, in order to legitimize working with cadavers and the dissection of bodies, students tend to dehumanize cadavers and observe them as mechanical objects. PMID:26222437

  5. Some sociocultural aspects of cadaver organ donation: recent rulings from Iran.

    PubMed

    Raza, M; Hedayat, K M

    2004-12-01

    Cultural and social factors strongly influence cadaveric organ donation and removal. In Muslim countries such as Iran, there is general public resistance to removal of organs despite clear rulings from religious leaders. Recently, some religious authorities have waived family permission and allowed cadaver organ removal even if the deceased person had not made a declaration for organ donation. Scholars have also exempted physicians from paying a legal penalty for removing organs in such cases. Cadaver organ donation is also allowed if the deceased person has made a declaration that money obtained from the recipient be spent to pay his debts or for public welfare and that the organ be used to save a life. There is no restriction on organ donation between people of different religions in normal circumstances. We conclude that these rulings should positively influence present sociocultural cadaver organ donation trends in Iran.

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Tenotomy of Biceps Tendon: Technical Feasibility on Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Mauri, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Aliprandi, Alberto; Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Randelli, Pietro Simone

    2016-10-01

    We tested the technical feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous tenotomy of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) in cadavers. Both shoulders of two fresh cadavers were scanned anteriorly to evaluate the extra-articular portion of the LHBT. Under ultrasound monitoring, a scalpel was advanced obliquely up to touch the superficial medial side of the LHBT, cutting it until the tendon was not visible anymore. Ultrasound evaluation was repeated after the procedure, and anatomic dissection was performed. The procedure was 100% feasible: four cuts were made to completely sever the tendon; the duration was less than 1 min. Skin incision measured 5 mm in two cases and 6 mm in two cases. Anatomic dissection confirmed complete tendon cut in all cases with proximal and distal tendon stumps very close to each other. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous LHBT tenotomy was 100% technically feasible in cadavers with a quick procedure and minimal cutaneous incision.

  7. [The forensic expertise of cadavers of females suspected to be victims of sexually motivated homicide].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2004-01-01

    According to the author's independent observations, the criminal, as a rule, strangles his victim in sex-related murders. In cases of suspected sex-related murders of women, the female urogenital system needs to be examined as an anatomically whole preparation. It was proven that the spermatozoid structure (in the cadaveric vagina, whose condition was optimal) began to change from week 2 with almost all their heads being destroyed by the end of week 6. When cadavers are found in 1.5-2 months after the event, there is no reason to give up examinations of the sperm from cadaver.

  8. [Arterial embalming method of the cadaver and its application to research].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, A; Fujimoto, K; Yoshii, I; Matsumoto, S; Nishitani, K; Ikeda, K

    1993-08-01

    Ever since 1974, the cadaver has been embalmed by the arterial embalming method, using pre-embalming fluid with blood clot disperser and cell conditioner for the removal of blood clots and drainage of blood, at the Department of Anatomy of the Kawasaki Medical School. According to this method, the cadavers are always very well fixed so that they can be used for not only anatomical dissection but also research for the vascular system by vasography, kinematics of the joint and other histologic examinations. In this report we have described our embalming procedure concretely and its application to research.

  9. Colorectal and uterine movement and tension of the inferior hypogastric plexus in cadavers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypotheses on somatovisceral dysfunction often assume interference by stretch or compression of the nerve supply to visceral structures. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of pelvic visceral movement to create tension of the loose connective tissue that contains the fine branches of the inferior hypogastric nerve plexus. Methods Twenty eight embalmed human cadavers were examined. Pelvic visceral structures were displaced by very gentle 5 N unidirectional tension and the associated movement of the endopelvic fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus that this caused was measured. Results Most movement of the fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus was obtained by pulling the rectosigmoid junction or broad ligament of the uterus. The plexus did not cross any vertebral joints and the fascia containing it did not move on pulling the hypogastric nerve. Conclusions Uterine and rectosigmoid displacement produce most movement of the fascia containing the hypogastric nerve plexus, potentially resulting in nerve tension. In the living this might occur as a consequence of menstruation, pregnancy or constipation. This may be relevant to somatovisceral reflex theories of the effects of manual therapy on visceral conditions. PMID:22520735

  10. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    PubMed Central

    Martinkevich, P.; Rahbek, O.; Møller-Madsen, B.; Søballe, K.; Stilling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (LCLO). Methods LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose and poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. Results Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. Conclusion RSA is a precise tool for the evaluation of stability in LCLO. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:78–83. PMID:25957380

  11. Sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver for understanding the deep circumflex iliac artery flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Chul; Chung, Min Suk; Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap from sectioned images and stereoscopic anatomic models using Visible Korean, for the benefit of medical education and clinical training in the field of oromandibular reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the pelvic area were obtained from a cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. The PDF (portable document format) file (size, 30 MB) of the constructed models is available for free download on the Web site of the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine (http://anatomy.co.kr). In the PDF file, the relevant structures of the DCIA flap can be seen in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures associated with the DCIA flap are displayed in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees better understand the anatomy associated with DCIA flap.

  12. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  13. Radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver crystalline lenses.

    PubMed

    Manns, Fabrice; Fernandez, Viviana; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean Marie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of human cadaver lenses in situ using a corneal topography system. Measurements were performed on 13 pairs of eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR-CTS). The age of the donors ranged from 46 to 93 years, with an average age of 76.4 years. Anterior lens topography was measured after excision of the cornea and iris. Posterior lens topography was measured after sectioning the posterior segment and adherent vitreous. The PAR-CTS files providing raw surface height were exported for analysis. In each surface, 18 meridians separated by 10 degrees were fitted using conic sections to obtain values of the apical radius of curvature (R) and shape factor (p). The average apical radius of curvature and asphericity were R=10.15+/-1.39mm and p=4.27+/-1.39 for the anterior surface and R=-6.25+/-0.79mm and p=-0.64+/-1.85 for the posterior surface. A significant variation of the radius of curvature and shape factor as a function of the meridian angle (lens astigmatism) was found in some lenses. Contrary to previous findings, the anterior lens surface was found to steepen toward the periphery.

  14. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

  15. Portable Document Format File Showing the Surface Models of Cadaver Whole Body

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae

    2012-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents. PMID:22876049

  16. A comparative study of pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine by freehand versus image-assisted technique: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Archit; Chauhan, Vijendra; Singh, Deepa; Shailendra, Raghuvanshi; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Juyal, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: New and expensive technology such as three-dimensional computer assisted surgery is being used for pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine. Their availability, expenses and amount of radiation exposure are issues in a developing country. On the contrary, freehand technique of pedicle screw placement utilizes anatomic landmarks and tactile palpation without fluoroscopy or navigation to place pedicle screws. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the accuracy of freehand and image-assisted technique to place pedicle screws in the dorsolumbar spine of cadavers by an experienced surgeon and a resident. Evaluation was done using dissection of pedicle and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Materials and Methods: Ten cadaveric dorsolumbar spines were exposed by a posterior approach. Titanium pedicle screws were inserted from D5 to L5 vertebrae by freehand and image-assisted technique on either side by an experienced surgeon and a resident. CT was obtained. A blinded radiologist reviewed the imaging. The spines were then dissected to do a macroscopic examination. Screws, having evidence of cortical perforation of more than 2 mm on CT, were considered to be a significant breach. Results: A total of 260 pedicle screws were placed. The surgeon and the resident placed 130 screws each. Out of 130 screws, both of them placed 65 screws each by freehand and image- assisted technique each. The resident had a rate of 7.69% significant medial and 10.76% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 9.23% significant lateral breach. The expert surgeon had a rate of 6.15% significant medial and 1.53% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 6.15% significant lateral breach on CT evaluation. Conclusion: Freehand technique is as good as the image-assisted technique. Under appropriate supervision, residents

  17. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  18. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  19. Entomofauna resource distribution associated with pig cadavers in Bogotá DC.

    PubMed

    Segura, N A; Bonilla, M A; Usaquén, W; Bello, F

    2011-03-01

    A cadaver represents a temporal energy-loaded resource, which provides arthropods with food, protection and a place in which to find a mate. Insects are usually the first organisms to discover and colonize a cadaver; as decomposition progresses, insects colonize cadavers in a predictable sequence. This work aimed to establish cadaverous entomofauna relationships with regard to stages of decomposition and environmental conditions using multiple correspondence analysis and thereby to identify the way in which insects distribute a perishable and changing resource. Entomofauna were thus collected in a semi-rural area near Bogotá from the cadavers of three pigs (Sus scrofa L.) which had been shot. Environmental variables were recorded for each sampling. Multiple correspondence analyses were carried out for adult forms belonging to Diptera and Coleoptera families and stages of decomposition, and for Diptera and Coleoptera adult forms and environmental conditions. Stages of decomposition were a primary determining factor for structuring four guilds of entomofauna. However, environmental conditions influenced insect activity and were therefore a relevant factor in the structure of the entomofauna community. The results showed that the insects' distribution of available resources was related to changes in the stage of decomposition. PMID:21143612

  20. Entomofauna resource distribution associated with pig cadavers in Bogotá DC.

    PubMed

    Segura, N A; Bonilla, M A; Usaquén, W; Bello, F

    2011-03-01

    A cadaver represents a temporal energy-loaded resource, which provides arthropods with food, protection and a place in which to find a mate. Insects are usually the first organisms to discover and colonize a cadaver; as decomposition progresses, insects colonize cadavers in a predictable sequence. This work aimed to establish cadaverous entomofauna relationships with regard to stages of decomposition and environmental conditions using multiple correspondence analysis and thereby to identify the way in which insects distribute a perishable and changing resource. Entomofauna were thus collected in a semi-rural area near Bogotá from the cadavers of three pigs (Sus scrofa L.) which had been shot. Environmental variables were recorded for each sampling. Multiple correspondence analyses were carried out for adult forms belonging to Diptera and Coleoptera families and stages of decomposition, and for Diptera and Coleoptera adult forms and environmental conditions. Stages of decomposition were a primary determining factor for structuring four guilds of entomofauna. However, environmental conditions influenced insect activity and were therefore a relevant factor in the structure of the entomofauna community. The results showed that the insects' distribution of available resources was related to changes in the stage of decomposition.

  1. The Use of Specially Designed Tasks to Enhance Student Interest in the Cadaver Dissection Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…

  2. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  3. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  4. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and Their Implications for Bone Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The human zero-gravity locomotion simulator and the cadaver simulator offer a powerful combination for the study of the implications of exercise for maintaining bone quality during space flight. Such studies, when compared with controlled in-flight exercise programs, could help in the identification of a strain threshold for the prevention of bone loss during space flight.

  5. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-06-01

    Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD) total volume and total surface area of the orbital cavities was 24.27 ± 3.88 cm and 32.47 ± 2.96 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference in volume (P = 0.315) or surface area (P = 0.566) between the 2 orbital cavities.The stereological technique proved to be a robust and unbiased method that may be used as a gold standard for comparison with automated computer software. Future imaging studies in blow-out fracture patients may be based on individual and relative calculation involving both herniated volume and fractured surface area in relation to the total volume and surface area of the uninjured orbital cavity.

  6. [Approach to the jugular foramen and related structures - an analysis of the surgical technique based on cadaver simulation].

    PubMed

    Ladziński, Piotr; Maliszewski, Mariusz; Kaspera, Wojciech; Szczygieł, Majchrzak; Tymowski, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This study presents consecutive stages of the approach to the jugular foramen and related structures. Eleven simulations of the approach were performed on non-fixed human cadavers without any known pathologies in the head and neck. The consecutive stages of the procedure were documented with photographs and schematic diagrams. The starting point for the discussed approach is removal of the mastoid and petrosal parts of the temporal bone, as well as the jugular process and the jugular tuberculum. It allows penetration of the jugular foramen from the back. Widening of the approach enables penetration of the jugular foramen from above and the front. Approach to the jugular foramen is a reproducible technique, which provides surgical penetration of this foramen and related structures. This approach is particularly useful in the surgical treatment of tumours expanding in the petrous pyramid, surroundings of the petrosal part of the internal carotid artery, cerebellopontine angle, subtemporal fossa and nervous-vascular bundle of the neck. PMID:21866483

  7. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  8. Technology-Enhanced Consultation in Counselling: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Jones, W. Paul; Coker, J. Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental studies comparing technology-enhanced counselling consultation were conducted with a sample of 147 students enrolled in an undergraduate counselling and consultation course for elementary and secondary teachers. Study 1 (N = 76) compared the effectiveness of counselling consultation using telephone, text chat, or text chat…

  9. Biomechanics of humerus fracture fixation by locking, cortical, and hybrid plating systems in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, George B; Creekmore, Tina; Mukherjee, Debi P; Ogden, Alan L; Anissian, Lucas; Marymont, John V

    2010-08-11

    The goal of this study was to discover how locking or cortical screws or a hybrid of both would perform in stabilizing a simulated humerus fracture. We simulated stripping of screw threads or poor bone quality by overdrilling the screw hole, and also studied a control group with no overdrilling. A total of 38 fresh frozen cadaver humeri were divided into 2 groups: 16 undergoing overdrilling with a drill bit 0.3 mm less than the diameter of the screw and 22 undergoing no overdrilling. A 4-point bending test followed torsional fatigue of 1000 cycles with an amplitude of +/-10 degrees. The post-fatigued samples were retested in the same way after tightening the loose screws if necessary. Finally, each fatigued specimen was tested for failure in torsion at 0.5 Hz by applying a maximum rotational displacement of 60 degrees .The bending stiffness values (Nm/mm) of cortical and locking screws, with the exception of the hybrid system, were significantly higher for the overdrilled group than the non-overdrilled (cortical, 6.9 vs 5.6; locking, 9.1 vs 6.3; hybrid, 8.4 vs 6.8). Fatigue had no effect on the bending stiffness of all the screw/plate systems (cortical, 6.9 vs 7.4; locking, 9.1 vs 8.8; hybrid, 8.5 vs 8.1). The overdrilling had no effect on the failure loads and displacements for all the screws except cortical screws, where the failure displacement was significantly higher for the overdrilling group. The torsional stiffness retentions after 1000 cycles were significantly different for overdrilled specimens in the cortical screws group only.Overdrilling had a minimal effect on bending and torsional properties. The results of the locking and hybrid were close, and the cortical screw had only slightly lower bending stiffness.

  10. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  11. Stability of anterior vertebral body screws after kyphoplasty augmentation. An experimental study to compare anterior vertebral body screw fixation in soft and cured kyphoplasty cement.

    PubMed

    Linhardt, O; Lüring, C; Matussek, J; Hamberger, C; Herold, T; Plitz, W; Grifka, J

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to compare the stability of anterior vertebral body screws after implantation in soft or cured kyphoplasty cement. Anterior vertebral body screws were inserted in a total of 30 thoracolumbar vertebrae of ten different human specimens: ten screws were implanted in non-augmented vertebrae (group 1), ten screws were placed in soft cement (group 2), and ten screws were placed in cured cement (group 3). The screws were then tested for biomechanical axial pullout resistance. Mean axial pullout strength was 192 N (range: 10-430 N) in group 1, 364 N (range: 65-875 N) in group 2, and 271 N (range: 35-625 N) in group 3. The paired Student's t-test demonstrated a significant difference between pullout strength of groups 1 and 2 (p= 0.0475). No significant difference was seen between pullout strength of groups 1 and 3 (p= 0.2646) and between groups 2 and 3 (p= 0.3863). We achieved a 1.9 times higher pullout strength with kyphoplasty augmentation of osteoporotic vertebrae compared with the pullout strength of non-augmented vertebrae. Implantation of anterior vertebral body screws in cured cement is a satisfactory method. With this method we found a 1.4 times higher pullout strength than non-augmented vertebrae.

  12. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n = 20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research.

  13. Teacher Training and Multiculturalism: National Studies. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Raul, Ed.

    This book presents outcomes of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) studies on teacher training in eight countries (Bolivia, the Czech Republic, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritius, Poland, Senegal, and Tunisia) representing different levels of development and different regions of the world but who are facing a common…

  14. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  15. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  16. [Comparative study on nutmeg, mace and their processed products].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Li, J

    1997-09-01

    The contents of volatile oil, myristicin, safrol and methyleugenol, as well as the composition and content of fatty oil in nutmeg, mace and their processed products were comparatively studied. The composition of volatile oil and the detection of trimyristin were compared by TLC. A scientific basis for the development and application of mace has thus been provided. PMID:11038942

  17. A Comparative Study of Croatian and Hungarian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena; Nikolov, Marianne; Otto, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This comparative research aims to provide insights into how Croatian and Hungarian 8th graders' proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) compares to one another in relation to organizational macro factors. A total of 717 14-year-old students participated in the study in two neighboring regions and towns of Croatia and Hungary examining…

  18. A Comparative Study of Document Retrieval Systems of Nursing Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Virginia Kathleen Joseph

    Intended to provide the nursing community with a comparative analysis of four major computerized document retrieval systems and one manual system providing coverage of the nursing literature, this study compares the indexing vocabulary, database coverage, and retrieval performance of the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC),…

  19. Comparative Mirror Cleaning Study: 'A Study on Removing Particulate Contamination'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Karrie

    2007-01-01

    The cleanliness of optical surfaces is recognized as an industry-wide concern for the performance of optical devices such as mirrors and telescopes, microscopes and lenses, lasers and interferometers, and prisms and optical filters. However, no standard has been established for optical cleaning and there is no standard definition of a 'clean' optical element. This study evaluates the effectiveness of commonly used optical cleaning techniques based on wafer configuration, contamination levels, and the number and size of removed particles. It is concluded that cleaning method and exposure time play a significant factor in obtaining a high removal percentage. The detergent bath and solvent rinse method displayed an increase in effective removal percentage as the contamination exposure increased. Likewise, CO2 snow cleaning showed a relatively consistent cleaning effectiveness. The results can help ensure mission success to flight projects developed for the NASA Origins Program. Advantages and disadvantages of each of the optical cleaning methods are described.

  20. Debridement of cartilage lesions before autologous chondrocyte implantation by open or transarthroscopic techniques: a comparative study using post-mortem materials.

    PubMed

    Drobnic, M; Radosavljevic, D; Cör, A; Brittberg, M; Strazar, K

    2010-04-01

    We compared the quality of debridement of chondral lesions performed by four arthroscopic (SH, shaver; CU, curette; SHCU, shaver and curette; BP, bipolar electrodes) and one open technique (OPEN, scalpel and curette) which are used prior to autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The ex vivo simulation of all five techniques was carried out on six juvenile equine stifle joints. The OPEN, SH and SHCU techniques were tested on knees harvested from six adult human cadavers. The most vertical walls with the least adjacent damage to cartilage were obtained with the OPEN technique. The CU and SHCU methods gave inferior, but still acceptable results whereas the SH technique alone resulted in a crater-like defect and the BP method undermined the cartilage wall. The subchondral bone was severely violated in all the equine samples which might have been peculiar to this model. The predominant depth of the debridement in the adult human samples was at the level of the calcified cartilage. Some minor penetrations of the subchondral end-plate were induced regardless of the instrumentation used. Our study suggests that not all routine arthroscopic instruments are suitable for the preparation of a defect for ACI. We have shown that the preferred debridement technique is either open or arthroscopically-assisted manual curettage. The use of juvenile equine stifles was not appropriate for the study of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. PMID:20357342

  1. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  2. Evaluation of the effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of skin samples obtained from canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Jennifer K; Selmic, Laura E; Garrett, Laura D; Singh, Kuldeep

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples. SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3). RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment. PMID:27580116

  3. Confirming Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission from a cadaver to an embalmer using molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Janelle A; Meissner, Jeanne Sullivan; Ahuja, Shama Desai; Shashkina, Elena; O'Flaherty, Tholief; Proops, Douglas C

    2015-05-01

    Genotyping results and epidemiologic investigation were used to confirm tuberculosis transmission from a cadaver to an embalmer. This investigation highlights the utility of genotyping in identifying unsuspected epidemiologic links and unusual transmission settings. In addition, the investigation provides additional evidence for the occupational risk of tuberculosis among funeral service workers and indicates a need for education about tuberculosis risk and the importance of adhering to appropriate infection control measures among funeral service workers.

  4. First report of maggots of family Piophilidae recovered from human cadavers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nazni, W A; Jeffery, J; Sa'diyah, I; Noorjuliana, W M; Chen, C D; Rohayu, S A; Hafizam, A H; Lee, H L

    2008-08-01

    Piophila casei (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Piophilidae) is reported from human cadavers in two separate forensic cases for the first time in Malaysia. Both bodies were found indoors. The first case, was that of a male of unknown nationality and age and also contained maggots of the muscid Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The second case was a female Chinese whose body also contained other species of maggots but these were not identifiable.

  5. Mapping the lateral extent of human cadaver decomposition with soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Owings, C G; Alexander, M B; Larison, N; Bytheway, J A

    2012-03-10

    Soil below decomposing cadavers may have a different lateral spatial extent depending upon whether scavengers have access to the human cadaver or not. We examined the lateral spatial extent of decomposition products to a depth of 7cm of soils beneath two decomposing corpses, one in which the subject was autopsied, unclothed and placed under a wire cage to restrict scavenger access and one in which the subject was not autopsied, unclothed and exposed to scavengers. The two bodies had accumulated degree days (ADD) of 5799 and 5469 and post mortem interval (PMI) of 288 and 248d, respectively. The spatial extent for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON) for both bodies was large but similar suggesting some movement off site for both compounds. Mean DOC was 1087±727 and 1484±1236μgg(-1) dry soil under the two corpses relative to 150±68μgg(-1) in upslope control soils. Sulfate tended to have 'hot spots' of lower values relative to the control soils indicative of anaerobic respiration. pH was lower and electrical conductivity was higher in the soil under both decomposing cadavers relative to control soils. Some of the nutrients examined downslope of the human remains were significantly higher than control soils upslope suggesting movement of decomposition products off-site which could be an important factor when using human remains detector dogs.

  6. Inception of cadaver dissection and its relevance in present day scenario of medical education.

    PubMed

    Rath, Gayatri; Garg, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    The concept of dissection for acquiring knowledge about the structure of human body was started in 15th century and barber--surgeons used to demonstrate various structures at the professors command. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) was the first medical student to dissect the cadaver and also continued with it even as a professor. Slowly and steadily its importance was realised. Once autopsy was accepted as a ideal parameter to establish the causes of death, the importance of dissection got enhanced. Cadavers were obtained earlier from the grave robbings and mortuaries, which was followed by, an Anatomy Act of 1832, by which unclaimed bodies were provided to the anatomy department. For last two decades, many persons started donating their bodies to the department of anatomy. In India, mostly unclaimed bodies are handed over to anatomy department for teaching and research purpose. Cadavers teach students during 1st professional course, autopsy teaches again in IInd and IIIrd professional courses and even later on throughout the career. Dissection helps in developing a spatial and tactile appreciation for the fabric of the human body that cannot be achieved by prosection or computerised learning aids alone. PMID:17058553

  7. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  8. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  9. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  10. Living With and Learning about Radioactivity: A Comparative Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Documents a quasi-scientific comparative study of two groups of 'recent school leavers' in the UK. Studies non-science university undergraduates and explores whether people living with the immediacy and relevance of higher-than-average levels of radioactivity were more knowledgeable and emotionally detached than a similar group removed from this…

  11. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  12. Joachim Wach and the Study of Religion: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the life and career of Joachim Wach, a proponent of comparative study of religion (CSR). Reports that Wach envisioned "Religionwissenschaft," a unitary science taking a systematic approach to the study of religion using elements of theology, philosophy, and social science. Presents Wach's "basic and eternal" questions on ultimate…

  13. A comparative study between shielded and open coplanar waveguide discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Harokopus, W. P., Jr.; Ponchak, G. E.; Katehi, L. P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between open and shielded coplanar waveguide (CPW) discontinuities is presented. The space domain integral equation method is used to characterize several discontinuities such as the open-end CPW and CPW series stubs. Two different geometries of CPW series stubs (straight and bent stubs) are compared with respect to resonant frequency and radiation loss. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to different CPW shunt stubs is evaluated experimentally. The notion of forced radiation simulation is presented, and the results of such a simulation are compared to the actual radiation loss obtained rigorously. It is shown that such a simulation cannot give reliable results concerning radiation loss from printed circuits.

  14. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  15. Long bone (humerus, femur, tibia) measuring procedure in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Menéndez Garmendia, Antinea; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge A; Hernández, Francisco; Wesp, Julie K; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a measuring methodology for long bones of the limbs (humerus, femur, and tibia) of human corpses. Measurements of cadaveric height and long bone lengths were conducted on 72 corpses (20 females and 52 males) from the School of Medicine at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Additionally, these measurements were compared with those taken from dry bones of a subsample of individuals. Our results show marginal differences (TEM% = 0.59) between cadaveric and dry bone measurements, resulting from different osteometric technical procedures. This note outlines the measuring methodology, which will be subsequently used to create regression formulas for stature estimation.

  16. Comparing comparators: a look at control arms in kidney cancer studies over the years

    PubMed Central

    Bracarda, S; Porta, C; Sisani, M; Marrocolo, F; Paglino, C; Hamzaj, A; D Buono, S; Sternberg, C N

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of frequently positive randomised clinical trials have been completed, allowing new consideration of the present therapeutic armamentarium for advanced renal cell carcinoma. These studies were predominantly designed to compare the experimental drugs with 1 of 2 active control arms: interferon alpha-2a or sorafenib. Different from expectations, the final results of some of these studies were not in line with the predictions, and the reasons have not been fully investigated. Consequently, there is a great need for careful analysis of the studies carried out so far, chiefly the role and validity of the control arms. In this regard, the examination of patient baseline characteristics and other factors of potential interest seems fundamental for a correct analysis of the results of these trials and consequent optimal use of the available targeted agents. PMID:25375270

  17. Comparing comparators: a look at control arms in kidney cancer studies over the years.

    PubMed

    Bracarda, S; Porta, C; Sisani, M; Marrocolo, F; Paglino, C; Hamzaj, A; D Buono, S; Sternberg, C N

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of frequently positive randomised clinical trials have been completed, allowing new consideration of the present therapeutic armamentarium for advanced renal cell carcinoma. These studies were predominantly designed to compare the experimental drugs with 1 of 2 active control arms: interferon alpha-2a or sorafenib. Different from expectations, the final results of some of these studies were not in line with the predictions, and the reasons have not been fully investigated. Consequently, there is a great need for careful analysis of the studies carried out so far, chiefly the role and validity of the control arms. In this regard, the examination of patient baseline characteristics and other factors of potential interest seems fundamental for a correct analysis of the results of these trials and consequent optimal use of the available targeted agents. PMID:25375270

  18. [ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINES: DATA FROM DIRECT COMPARATIVE STUDIES].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, M I; Vasiliev, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control, however available vaccines are subject to certain limitations. Adjuvanted vaccines are a promising approach, however available adjuvants have a suboptimal effectiveness and safety profile. Data from direct comparative trials are necessary for selection of optimal adjuvants among currently available and search for novel safe and effective adjuvants for next generation influenza vaccines. Data from published direct comparative studies of adjuvants for influenza vaccines are summarized, a lack of such studies is noted, especially those using adequate methods and designs and comparing adjuvants of major groups (nature/source and mechanism of action). Several promising approaches of adjuvant research and development could be identified: chitosan-based adjuvants, oil-in-water emulsions and multi-component formulations (depot + immune modulating components).

  19. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers

    PubMed Central

    Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  20. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  1. Comparative and Developmental Study of the Immune System in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Ohta, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Xenopus laevis is the model of choice for evolutionary, comparative, and developmental studies of immunity, and invaluable research tools including MHC-defined clones, inbred strains, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies are available for these studies. Recent efforts to use Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis for genetic analyses have led to the sequencing of the whole genome. Ongoing genome mapping and mutagenesis studies will provide a new dimension to the study of immunity. Here we review what is known about the immune system of X. laevis integrated with available genomic information from S. tropicalis. This review provides compelling evidence for the high degree of similarity and evolutionary conservation between Xenopus and mammalian immune systems. We propose to build a powerful and innovative comparative biomedical model based on modern genetic technologies that takes take advantage of X. laevis and S. tropicalis, as well as the whole Xenopus genus. PMID:19253402

  2. A comparative study of nuclear accident consequences for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Yeung, Mankit Ray )

    1993-02-01

    A two-dimensional dispersion and consequence model called RADIS has been developed and used to perform a site-specific investigation of the consequences and risks for Hong Kong as a result of a potential accident at the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The study uses the 1986 Hong Kong weather and demographic data to determine the accident consequences for Hong Kong. The overall cumulative occurrence frequency distributions of early fatality, early injury, latent cancer, and thyroid nodule are compared with those of WASH-1400 and a United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) study. This study is generally consistent with the WASH-1400 results and exhibits less conservatism than the UKAEA study.

  3. Efficiency study comparing two helicopter planetary reduction stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the efficiency of two helicopter transmission planetary reduction stages. Experimental measurements and analytical predictions were made. The analysis predicted and experiments verified that one planetary stage was a more efficient design due to the type of planet bearing used in the stage. The effects of torque, speed, lubricant type, and lubricant temperature on planetary efficiency are discussed.

  4. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  5. Block or Day Release? A Comparative Study of Engineering Apprentices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, B. M.

    The purpose of this report is to compare part-time day release and block release schemes available to apprentices and trainees in the engineering industry. (Block release provides for one or more periods of continuous attendance at college for study and workshop instruction; one session does not exceed 18 weeks.) The main focus is on educational…

  6. Comparative Study of Bacterial Growth in Magnet Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derek; Masood, Samina

    It has been shown that magnetic fields affect bacterial growth. A comparative study of growth rates for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with different types of magnetic fields is done. Special focus is placed upon growth within liquid media, and the effect of magnetic fields relative to the chosen growth medium is considered.

  7. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  8. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  9. Comparative Studies on Sino-Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Today education is internationalization. Both China and Canada have their own strong merits of higher education. This paper approaches comparative studies on differences of Sino-Canadian higher education from new points, so as to achieve an inspiration to the development of Chinese higher education: preserve relative independence between higher…

  10. Different Underlying Neurocognitive Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, D.; Finzi, A.; Benassi, M.; Bolzani, R.; Facoetti, A.; Giovagnoli, S.; Ruffino, M.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of several specific neurocognitive functions in developmental dyslexia (DD). The performances of 60 dyslexic children and 65 age-matched normally reading children were compared on tests of phonological abilities, visual processing, selective and sustained attention, implicit learning, and executive…

  11. The Social Sciences and the Comparative Study of Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joseph, Ed.

    Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences…

  12. The Syntax of Bilingual Children: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, Patricia D.

    The interview techniques developed by Carol Chomsky were used in a comparative study of the language acquisition of 32 bilingual and monolingual third grade students. After these students were matched for age, socioeconomic status, IQ, family environment (both parents in the home), and reading ability, they were placed in four…

  13. Louis, Hildegarde, and Mary: A Comparative Study in Infant Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Coral

    Studies of bilingual infants are in disagreement as to the point at which the child distinguishes two languages in his linguistic environment. In this paper, data from two classic works by linguist-parents on bilingual infants are compared with data collected from the author's own bilingual daughter. Five types of behavior are described which…

  14. Comparative Study of Student Support Services of AIOU and UKOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhry, Amtul Hafeez; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support…

  15. A Comparative Study of Learning Networks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, George Robert

    This comparative study examines learning networks from an historical perspective and, in addition to determining the state-of-the-art after seven years of independent development, provides operational definitions of the major critical elements needed to assure the development of a successful learning network model. Learning networks are discussed…

  16. A Comparative Study of 1985 and 1991 Teacher Education Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar; Wirtz, Paul

    This study compared 1985 and 1991 teacher education candidates on three different measures, to determine whether students entering the teaching profession today are qualitatively different from those in the past. One hundred essays written by preservice students at the College of Education at Eastern Kentucky University in 1985 and 1991 were…

  17. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  18. The apoptotic thanatotranscriptome associated with the liver of cadavers.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Finley, Sheree J; Soni, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Gene expression investigations are well-established components of ante mortem studies with broad applications ranging from elucidating basic mechanisms responsible for normal physiological processes to discovering therapeutic targets in pathophysiological conditions. However, gene expression studies and their application in the medico-legal field are still in their infancy. Therefore, the present study focuses on RNA using PCR array in the analysis of gene expression associated with tissues taken from actual criminal cases. RNA was extracted from the liver tissues of bodies with PMIs between 6 and 48 h. The results demonstrated that mRNA was stable up to 48 h postmortem. Further, as cell death is an indispensable and necessary part of the biological life cycle, apoptotic gene expression profiles were investigated. The gene expression related to the programmed cell death found in body tissues after death is defined as the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome (thanatos-, Greek for death). On comparison of control and decaying tissues, the results show that with time, pro-apoptotic genes such as caspases are up-regulated and the expression of genes responsible for anti-apoptosis such as BCL2 and BAG3 were down-regulated. Thus, this current work gives a unique perspective of the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome that is affected after death. Up to the present time, gene expression in bodies from criminal cases has not been reported in literature using PCR array techniques. Thus, this thanatotranscriptome study provides insight into postmortem gene activity with potential applications in medico-legal investigations.

  19. The apoptotic thanatotranscriptome associated with the liver of cadavers.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Finley, Sheree J; Soni, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Gene expression investigations are well-established components of ante mortem studies with broad applications ranging from elucidating basic mechanisms responsible for normal physiological processes to discovering therapeutic targets in pathophysiological conditions. However, gene expression studies and their application in the medico-legal field are still in their infancy. Therefore, the present study focuses on RNA using PCR array in the analysis of gene expression associated with tissues taken from actual criminal cases. RNA was extracted from the liver tissues of bodies with PMIs between 6 and 48 h. The results demonstrated that mRNA was stable up to 48 h postmortem. Further, as cell death is an indispensable and necessary part of the biological life cycle, apoptotic gene expression profiles were investigated. The gene expression related to the programmed cell death found in body tissues after death is defined as the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome (thanatos-, Greek for death). On comparison of control and decaying tissues, the results show that with time, pro-apoptotic genes such as caspases are up-regulated and the expression of genes responsible for anti-apoptosis such as BCL2 and BAG3 were down-regulated. Thus, this current work gives a unique perspective of the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome that is affected after death. Up to the present time, gene expression in bodies from criminal cases has not been reported in literature using PCR array techniques. Thus, this thanatotranscriptome study provides insight into postmortem gene activity with potential applications in medico-legal investigations. PMID:26318598

  20. Comparative study of lung functions in swimmers and runners.

    PubMed

    Sable, Meenakshi; Vaidya, S M; Sable, S S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study pulmonary function tests of two different groups of athletes, swimmers and runners were studied and compared. Thirty swimmers who used to swim a distance of two to three kilometers per day regularly were compared with age, sex, height, and weight matched thirty middle distance runners. Runners and swimmers selected for this study were undergoing training since last three years. Tidal Volume (TV), forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were higher in swimmers than runners. Swimming exercise affects lung volume measurements as respiratory muscles including diaphragm of swimmers are required to develop greater pressure as a consequence of immersion in water during respiratory cycle, thus may lead to functional improvement in these muscles and also alterations in elasticity of lung and chest wall or of ventilatory muscles, leading to an improvement in forced vital capacity and other lung functions of swimmers than runners.

  1. Comparative chemical study of MTA and Portland cements.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt de; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luis Barbosa; Costa, Aline Tempel; Pozza, Daniel Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Portland cement has been analyzed and compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) because of their chemical similarity. The possibility of using this material as a less expensive alternative to MTA in dental practice should be considered. In view of this, the present study compared the components of a Portland cement (Votoran) to two commercial brands of MTA (Pro-Root and MTA-Angelus). Twelve specimens of each material were fabricated and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to obtain their percentage of chemical elements. The means of the chemical elements found in each material was compared by descriptive statistics. Bismuth was present only in MTA cements to provide radiopacity. In conclusion, the tested cements have similar components, which supports, as far as composition is concerned, the possible clinical use of Portland as an option to MTA.

  2. It pays to compare: an experimental study on computational estimation.

    PubMed

    Star, Jon R; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-04-01

    Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N=157) learned about estimation either by comparing alternative solution strategies or by reflecting on the strategies one at a time. At posttest and retention test, students who compared were more flexible problem solvers on a variety of measures. Comparison also supported greater conceptual knowledge, but only for students who already knew some estimation strategies. These findings indicate that comparison is an effective learning and instructional practice in a domain with multiple acceptable answers.

  3. Recognition of Faces in Unconstrained Environments: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Verschae, Rodrigo; Correa, Mauricio

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of face recognition methods that are suitable to work in unconstrained environments. The analyzed methods are selected by considering their performance in former comparative studies, in addition to be real-time, to require just one image per person, and to be fully online. In the study two local-matching methods, histograms of LBP features and Gabor Jet descriptors, one holistic method, generalized PCA, and two image-matching methods, SIFT-based and ERCF-based, are analyzed. The methods are compared using the FERET, LFW, UCHFaceHRI, and FRGC databases, which allows evaluating them in real-world conditions that include variations in scale, pose, lighting, focus, resolution, facial expression, accessories, makeup, occlusions, background and photographic quality. Main conclusions of this study are: there is a large dependence of the methods on the amount of face and background information that is included in the face's images, and the performance of all methods decreases largely with outdoor-illumination. The analyzed methods are robust to inaccurate alignment, face occlusions, and variations in expressions, to a large degree. LBP-based methods are an excellent election if we need real-time operation as well as high recognition rates.

  4. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. PMID:24513401

  5. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Cobaugh, Kelly L; Schaeffer, Sean M; DeBruyn, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  6. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Cobaugh, Kelly L.; Schaeffer, Sean M.; DeBruyn, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  7. Self-guided clinical cases for medical students based on postmortem CT scans of cadavers.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael; Francois, Webster; Gest, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In the summer of 2009, we began full body computed tomography (CT) scanning of the pre-embalmed cadavers in the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) dissection lab. We theorized that implementing web-based, self-guided clinical cases based on postmortem CT (PMCT) scans would result in increased student appreciation for the clinical relevance of anatomy, increased knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy, and increased ability to identify common pathologies on CT scans. The PMCT scan of each cadaver was produced as a DICOM dataset, and then converted into a Quicktime movie file using Osirix software. Clinical cases were researched and written by the authors, and consist of at least one Quicktime movie of a PMCT scan surrounded by a novel navigation interface. To assess the value of these clinical cases we surveyed medical students at UMMS who are currently using the clinical cases in their coursework. Students felt the clinical cases increased the clinical relevance of anatomy (mean response 7.77/10), increased their confidence finding anatomical structures on CT (7.00/10), and increased their confidence recognizing common pathologies on CT (6.17/10). Students also felt these clinical cases helped them synthesize material from numerous courses into an overall picture of a given disease process (7.01/10). These results support the conclusion that our clinical cases help to show students why the anatomy they are learning is foundational to their other coursework. We would recommend the use of similar clinical cases to any medical school utilizing cadaver dissection as a primary teaching method in anatomy education.

  8. A comparative study of primary and secondary stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Rajan, Prashant V; Erenberg, Gerald

    2013-12-01

    This study compares primary stereotypies (repetitive, self-stimulating, and seemingly nonsensical movements that can occur within typically developing children) and secondary stereotypies (those occurring within autistic or mentally retarded children). Utilizing a retrospective chart review from 1995 to 2010, the current study compares primary and secondary stereotypies by the application of a classification system that organizes the movement by its type (motor only, phonic only, mixed) and complexity. In addition, it investigates other parameters associated with the movements such as duration, frequency, age, functional impairment, and progression. The sample group consisted of 28 primary and 28 secondary cases. Primary stereotypies were predominantly motor, simple, of shorter duration, and of less frequency, whereas secondary stereotypies had more vocalization, complexity, longer durations, and higher frequencies. Moreover, functional impairment due to stereotypies was noted in 3 primary and 7 secondary cases, and worsening of stereotypies was noted in 70% of primary versus 44% of secondary cases.

  9. Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared very well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.

  10. Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared wery well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.

  11. Positioning for Endovenous Laser Ablation: Comparative Study with Thigh Stripping

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yamasawa, Takahiko; Takiuchi, Hiroki; Honda, Takeshi; Kuwada, Noriaki; Kojima, Kenji; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of surgical outcomes and venous functions between endovenous laser ablation with a 980-nm diode laser (EV group) and thigh stripping (ST group). There were no severe complications and initial success rates were 100% in both groups. In the EV group, preoperative symptoms improved in 94.3% of cases, the venous occlusion rate was 98%, and endovenous heat induced thrombosis had occurred in 11.9% (Class 3: 0.7%) at 12 months after the operation. Although comparative study of postoperative venous function by air plethysmography showed significant improvement in both groups, there was less recovery of postoperative venous function in the EV than in the ST group. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 13–20.) PMID:27738455

  12. Sources for comparative studies of placentation I. embryological collections.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M

    2008-01-01

    A rich source of material for comparative studies of the placenta is the collections made by pioneers in the field such as H.W. Mossman, A.A.W. Hubrecht and J.P. Hill. This overview gives a brief description of collections known to be available and information on how each can be accessed. Included are some of the major series of human and animal embryos, such as the Boyd and Carnegie collections, as these also house placental material.

  13. What is AIDS in Guadeloupe? A descriptive and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elenga, Narcisse; Georger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Messiaen, Thierry; Lamaury, Isabelle; Favre, Isabelle; Nacher, Mathieu; Beaucaire, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Since the pathogen ecology differs between Caribbean regions, specific differences in the most frequent clinical presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be expected. We therefore conducted the present retrospective cohort study in order to describe the main AIDS-defining events in Guadeloupe and to compare them with those observed in Metropolitan France and in French Guiana. We discuss the local pathogen ecology, the diagnostic limitations of hospitals in overseas territories and the drivers of the epidemic.

  14. [Comparative study of two dried intradermal BCG vaccines (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fillastre, C; Guerin, N; Danusantoso, H; Sardadi, S

    1979-01-01

    Two BCG vaccines prepared from the same strain were studied clinically in Indonesia and in France. The concentration in culturable particles was comparable. Observed differences in the Mantoux results are discussed. The French results, based on use in a temperate climate by a specialized team, on well nourished children, appear better than the Indonesian findings. Further steps should be undertaken to improve results in Indonesia. PMID:539694

  15. Thiel embalming method for cadaver preservation: a review of new training model for urologic skills training.

    PubMed

    Healy, Samuel E; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    The use of endourology training models is on the rise. Surgical practice is moving toward a more minimally invasive approach and deficits in surgical exposure by enforcement of the European Working Time Directive call for simulation models to be anatomically sound. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been found to demonstrate efficacy in tissue quality, elasticity, and handling in addition to playing a role in teaching and training. This review summarizes the current status of the Thiel method and its role in urologic skills training.

  16. Rare anatomic variation of left gastric artery and right hepatic artery in a female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Troupis, Theodore; Chatzikokolis, Stamatis; Zachariadis, Michael; Troupis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2008-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case in which the left gastric artery arises directly from the abdominal aorta and the right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, as observed during the dissection of a female cadaver. The left gastric artery usually rises as one of the three branches of the celiac trunk, which was originally described by Haller in 1756, whereas the right hepatic artery usually originates from the proper hepatic artery. The knowledge of the typical anatomy of the abdominal arteries, and their variations, is especially important due to the numerous interventions performed in the abdominal area.

  17. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-08-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries. PMID:27606118

  18. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries. PMID:27606118

  19. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries.

  20. Comparative Study of Permeatal Sandwich Tympanoplasty and Postaural Underlay Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Prakash Shankarrao; Yadav, Manish; Chavan, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tympanoplasty is the most common operation performed by an Otolaryngologist right from the period of residency. During the last hundred years various modifications in this surgical technique have come up because of continued efforts made by otologists all over the world to achieve the best surgical outcome. Aim To compare the graft take up and complications associated with the Permeatal Sandwich Tympanoplasty performed with the use of Otoendoscope and traditional Postaural Underlay technique of Tympanoplasty from 1st September 2014 to 30th August 2015. Materials and Methods Patients attending the ENT OPD, suffering from Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) were selected on the basis of type of perforation and their workup was done to assess the candidature for tympanoplasty. Results A total of 100 patients were included in the study and the overall graft take was 92.3% in cases of Permeatal Sandwich technique as compared to 64.58% in the case of postaural underlay technique, with a majority of the failures in the large central perforation group rendering a p = 0.021 for patients operated for Large perforations, p = 0.036 for moderate perforations and p = 0.476 for small perforations. The overall p = 0.000649 which is highly significant. On comparing the complications there were only 2 cases in Permeatal Sandwich Technique compared to 25 cases in Postaural Underlay technique rendering a highly significant p-value 0f 0.000000348. There was a difference in hearing improvement with majority of the cases improving to the range of 16-25 dB in Permeatal Sandwich technique compared to 26-45 dB in Postaural Underlay technique. Conclusion Permeatal Sandwich technique produce much better results when compared with Postaural approach in terms of graft take up, complications and hearing improvement. PMID:27190842

  1. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  2. A comparative study of fluoride release from two different sealants

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Shimoga-Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of fluoride releasing sealants and glass ionomer cements as fissure sealants adds another dimension to prevention of pit and fissure caries. The ability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride on a long term basis to the sealed enamel and the adjacent unsealed pit and fissure and cuspal incline enamel may allow for further reduction in pit and fissure caries experience for children. Hence, the study was conducted to compare the amount of fluoride release in the plaque after placing fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants and glass ionomer fissure sealants used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. To compare the fluoride release of both the materials at the different time intervals. Material and Methods: A total of 60 school going children were included in this study. Before application of the sealants, baseline plaque fluoride levels were estimated from all the study subjects. After application of sealants again the same was estimated at an interval of 24 hour, 9 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Results: The peak plaque fluoride levels were achieved at 24 hours after application of fissure sealants in all the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, the present study indicated that fluoride releasing fissure sealants may act as a source of fluoride in plaque which will help in preventing pit and fissure and smooth surface caries in the tooth sealed with fissure sealants. Key words:Plaque fluoride, pit and fissures sealants, dental caries. PMID:25674315

  3. Evaluation of the Variant Anatomical Disposition of the Renal Hilar Structures in South Indian Adult Human Cadavers and Its Cinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Guru, Anitha; Aithal P., Ashwini; Shetty, Surekha D.; Nayak B., Satheesha; Pamidi, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the anatomical disposition of the renal hilar structures in human cadavers of south Indian origin, considering their antero–posterior distribution. Material and Methods: Ninty–six renal hila of the isolated kidneys from adult south Indian cadavers were observed for the branching patterns and the distributions of the renal hilar structures. The number of branches of the renal artery and the divisions of the renal vein in the pre hilar region were noted, along with their pattern of arrangement with respect to the renal pelvis. Results: In the present study on the pre hilar region, we observed that the highest division of the renal artery was 8 and that the highest incidence was of 4 divisions of the renal artery in 30.2% cases. The highest number of venous divisions which was observed was 7. The highest incidence of 40.6 % cases showed 2 divisions of the veins. Regarding the patterns of arrangement of these structures, we observed 12 patterns of arrangement, with a higher incidence (45.8%) of the classical arrangement (V-A-P), as has been described in the standard text books of anatomy, which was followed by the A-V-P pattern (28.1%). Conclusion: An anatomical knowledge on the possible variant topography of the renal hilar structures is of great importance when urological surgical procedures are performed. PMID:24086834

  4. Liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers: localization of collagen types I, III, and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastic fibers.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ki M; Chu, Edward; Lau, K H Vincent; Kwong, Allison J

    2012-07-01

    We have shown a high prevalence of liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers with diverse causes of death by Sirius red stain; however, the various collagen types in these samples have yet to be evaluated. To further characterize the histopathology of the fibrotic lesions in the livers of these elderly cadavers, this study used immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to identify the principal collagens produced in liver fibrosis, fibrogenic cells and elastic fibers. Collagen I and III immunoreactions were found to colocalize in collagen fibers of fibrotic central veins, perisinusoidal fibrotic foci, portal tract stroma, and fibrous septa. α-Smooth muscle actin-expressing perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as perivenular, portal, and septal myofibroblasts, were closely associated with collagen fibers, reflecting their fibrogenic functions. HSCs and myofibroblasts were also noted to express collagen IV, which may contribute to production of basal lamina-like structures. In fibrotic livers, the sinusoidal lining showed variable immunostaining for collagen IV. Collagen IV immunostaining revealed vascular proliferation and atypical ductular reaction at the portal-septal parenchymal borders, as well as capillary-like vessels in the lobular parenchyma. While elastic fibers were absent in the space of Disse, they were found to codistribute with collagens in portal tracts, fibrous septa and central veins. Our combined assessment of collagen types, HSCs, myofibroblasts, and elastic fibers is significant in understanding the histopathology of fibrosis in the aging liver.

  5. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  6. Comparative inter-institutional study of stress among dentists.

    PubMed

    Pozos-Radillo, Blanca E; Galván-Ramírez, Ma Luz; Pando, Manuel; Carrión, Ma De los Angeles; González, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry is considered to be a stressful profession due to different factors caused by work, representing a threat to dentists'health. The objectives of this work were to identify and compare chronic stress in dentists among the different health institutions and the association of stress with risk factors. The study in question is observational, transversal and comparative; 256 dentists were included, distributed among five public health institutions in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, namely: the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), the Ministry of Health (SS), the Integral Development of the Family (DIF), the Social Security Services Institute for the Workers (ISSSTE) and the University of Guadalajara (U. de G) Data were obtained by means of the census technique. Stress was identified using the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the statistical analysis was performed using the Odds Ratio (O.R.) and the chi-square statistic. From the total population studied, 219 subjects presented high levels of chronic stress and 37, low levels. In the results of comparative analysis, significant differences were found between IMSS and U. de G and likewise between IMSS and SS. However, in the analysis of association, only U. de G was found to be associated with the high level of chronic stress. PMID:21638963

  7. Comparative study of gabapentin and isoflavone in menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Savita Rani; Shullai, Wansalan Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was planned to compare the effects of gabapentin and isoflavones in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Materials and Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted on 100 patients with complaints of hot flashes, divided into two groups of 50 each. Group I received 900 mg of gabapentin and Group II received 60 mg of isoflavones daily for 3 months. The patients were interviewed to calculate hot flash, global and depression scores and were rescored after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the hot flash score from baseline. The secondary outcome was an improvement in sleep, depression, and lipid profile. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in hot flash score at the end of 12 weeks (82% Group I, 74% Group II; P = 0.076). Statistically significant difference was seen at 12 weeks in sleep quality in favor of gabapentin (P = 0.011) and in depression in favor of isoflavones (0.026). Isoflavone had significant improvement in cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides profiles after 12 weeks (P < 0.001, 0.009, 0.024 and <0.001, respectively) as compared to gabapentin. Conclusion: Isoflavone and gabapentin are equally effective in the treatment of hot flashes; however, isoflavones have better response in patients who have associated with complaints of depression and gabapentin is better who have associated sleep disturbance. PMID:27721641

  8. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Meijler, F L; van der Tweel, I

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It also occurs quite frequently in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative analysis of atrial fibrillation in humans, dogs, horses, and in a kangaroo, making use of histograms and serial autocorrelograms of the ventricular rhythm with and without digitalis medication. Increase in the size of the animal and thus in the size of the heart is accompanied by a decrease in ventricular rate. The ventricular rhythm was random in the dog, kangaroo, and man, but periodicity was present in the horse. Digitalis decreased the ventricular rate in all species studied and enforced the periodicity in the horse. The differences in the atrial excitation process, atrioventricular (AV) conduction, and ventricular behavior between the four species studied are small when compared with the differences in their heart size. We conclude that in evolution, as far as the heart is concerned, cell size and morphology probably prevail over cell-function.

  9. Study comparing the applicability of dorsal lumbotomy in older children

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Jonathan; Haidar, Nadim; Rompre-Deschenes, Marie-Pier; Grimard, Maryse; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dismembered pyeloplasty through dorsal lumbotomy to correct ureteropelvic junction obstruction is mainly successfully performed in children under 5 years old for technical reasons. We compared children who underwent dorsal lumbotomy by age group (<5 vs. ≥5 years old) to determine if the surgical success and long-term results were comparable. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 134 children undergoing a pyeloplasty. Group 1 consisted of children <5 years old (n = 90) and Group 2 consisted of children ≥5 years old. Patients’ characteristics, as well as hospital stay, narcotic use, radiologic follow-up and success rate, were compared. Success was defined by absence of symptoms and ≥50% reduction in renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter and/or scintigraphic normalization of the drainage T1/2 when obtained. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the groups. Results: Mean age (years) and weight (kg) at surgery for Groups 1 and 2 were 1/8 kg and 11/35 kg, respectively. Mean operative time was 98 minutes versus 120 minutes, respectively; mean hospital stay was 2.5 days for both groups and analgesia requirement was 50% higher in Group 2. A Pippi-Salle stent was used in 90% (n = 120) of cases. Mean follow-up was 26 months and the success rate was 89% and 90% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed comparable success rates. We can infer that, as a technique, dismembered pyeloplasty is effective and safe in the younger and older children. PMID:21539770

  10. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  11. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  12. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  13. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  14. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    PubMed

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. PMID:22030481

  15. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E; Neal, Charles R; Zuo, Yi Y

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinical surfactants currently used throughout the world, i.e., Survanta, Curosurf, Infasurf and BLES. These modified-natural surfactants are further compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a synthetic model surfactant of DPPC:palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (7:3), and endogenous bovine natural surfactant. Atomic force microscopy reveals significant differences in the lateral structure and molecular organization of these surfactant preparations. These differences are discussed in terms of DPPC and cholesterol contents. We conclude that all animal-derived clinical surfactants assume a similar structure of multilayers of fluid phospholipids closely attached to an interfacial monolayer enriched in DPPC, at physiologically relevant surface pressures. This study provides the first comprehensive survey of the lateral structure of clinical surfactants at various surface pressures. It may have clinical implications on future application and development of surfactant preparations.

  16. Discourse Formation in Comparative Education. 4th, Revised Edition. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    New theories and theory-based methodological approaches have found their way into Comparative Education--just as into Comparative Social Science more generally--in increasing number in the recent past. The essays of this volume express and critically discuss quite a range of these positions such as, inter alia, the theory of self-organizing social…

  17. A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations. Several versatile features of using a microscale buret such as cost effectiveness, time savings, and accessibility for the physically challenged has been emphasized.

  18. Comparative study of minutiae selection algorithms for ISO fingerprint templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibert, B.; Charrier, C.; Le Bars, J.-M.; Rosenberger, C.

    2015-03-01

    We address the selection of fingerprint minutiae given a fingerprint ISO template. Minutiae selection plays a very important role when a secure element (i.e. a smart-card) is used. Because of the limited capability of computation and memory, the number of minutiae of a stored reference in the secure element is limited. We propose in this paper a comparative study of 6 minutiae selection methods including 2 methods from the literature and 1 like reference (No Selection). Experimental results on 3 fingerprint databases from the Fingerprint Verification Competition show their relative efficiency in terms of performance and computation time.

  19. Imaging cadavers: cold FLAIR and noninvasive brain thermometry using CSF diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tofts, Paul S; Jackson, Jonathan S; Tozer, Daniel J; Cercignani, Mara; Keir, Geoffrey; MacManus, David G; Ridgway, Gerard R; Ridha, Basil H; Schmierer, Klaus; Siddique, Durre; Thornton, John S; Wroe, Stephen J; Fox, Nick C

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in imaging cadavers for noninvasive autopsies for research purposes. However, the temperature is well below that of in vivo imaging, and a variety of interesting 'cold brain' effects are observed. At lower temperatures conventional FLAIR sequences no longer produce dark cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); T(1) is reduced from about 4.0 sec in vivo to 1.7 sec at 1 degrees C. The diffusion coefficient (DC) of CSF is much reduced (from 3.1 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) in vivo to 1.1 at 1 degrees C). DC values therefore provide a noninvasive thermometer to measure brain core temperature to within 1.0 degrees C. In three cadavers DC values were 1.1-1.5 10(-9) m(2)s(-1), indicating brain core temperatures of 1-10 degrees C, consistent with external thermocouple measurements. An improved inversion time (TI(0)) can then be found for FLAIR. At 10 degrees C this Cold FLAIR sequence (TI(0) = 1.5 sec) gave black CSF. Expressions for CSF DC and T(1) as a function of temperature were produced. A measurement of CSF DC could be converted directly to temperature and the required TI(0) found. In vitro values of CSF DC were about 1% lower than that of water. Thus, FLAIR imaging can be optimized for cadaveric brains at low and unknown temperatures, thereby improving value for autopsy purposes and facilitating comparisons with in vivo imaging. PMID:18058937

  20. Imaging cadavers: cold FLAIR and noninvasive brain thermometry using CSF diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tofts, Paul S; Jackson, Jonathan S; Tozer, Daniel J; Cercignani, Mara; Keir, Geoffrey; MacManus, David G; Ridgway, Gerard R; Ridha, Basil H; Schmierer, Klaus; Siddique, Durre; Thornton, John S; Wroe, Stephen J; Fox, Nick C

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in imaging cadavers for noninvasive autopsies for research purposes. However, the temperature is well below that of in vivo imaging, and a variety of interesting 'cold brain' effects are observed. At lower temperatures conventional FLAIR sequences no longer produce dark cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); T(1) is reduced from about 4.0 sec in vivo to 1.7 sec at 1 degrees C. The diffusion coefficient (DC) of CSF is much reduced (from 3.1 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) in vivo to 1.1 at 1 degrees C). DC values therefore provide a noninvasive thermometer to measure brain core temperature to within 1.0 degrees C. In three cadavers DC values were 1.1-1.5 10(-9) m(2)s(-1), indicating brain core temperatures of 1-10 degrees C, consistent with external thermocouple measurements. An improved inversion time (TI(0)) can then be found for FLAIR. At 10 degrees C this Cold FLAIR sequence (TI(0) = 1.5 sec) gave black CSF. Expressions for CSF DC and T(1) as a function of temperature were produced. A measurement of CSF DC could be converted directly to temperature and the required TI(0) found. In vitro values of CSF DC were about 1% lower than that of water. Thus, FLAIR imaging can be optimized for cadaveric brains at low and unknown temperatures, thereby improving value for autopsy purposes and facilitating comparisons with in vivo imaging.

  1. Postgraduate cadaver surgery: An educational course which aims at improving surgical skills

    PubMed Central

    Tjalma, W.A.A.; Degueldre, M.; Van Herendael, B.; D’Herde, K.; Weyers, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the postgraduate surgical skills training programme of the Flemish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (VVOG*). Laparoscopic surgical techniques and indications have increased substantially during the past two decades. From surgeons it is expected that they keep up with all techniques and should be able to perform all relevant procedures. Learning new procedures in daily practice is hazardous and difficult to achieve. A training experience with cadaver surgery could improve the course and outcome of surgery on patients. We present the objective, structure, and outcome of the endoscopic postgraduate training course. Structure: The overall objective of the endoscopic postgraduate training course is to refresh anatomical knowledge and improve general gynaecological laparoscopic surgical skills. The VVOG endoscopic training programme is based on black box training, followed by pig surgery. New is the possibility to perform surgical procedures on specifically prepared human cadavers. The course consists of an anatomical teaching session followed by lectures with videotaped procedures on the anatomical exploration of the pelvis, laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. During the hands-on session the participant performs the surgical procedures in a controlled, nonthreatening and interactive way under the guidance of an experienced trainer. Conclusions: All participants provided feedback on their experiences. The evaluation of the workshop revealed that this course is an opportunity to practise and improve clinical laparoscopic skills of gynaecological procedures and anatomy. Attending the course was regarded as of genuine additional value for surgical practice. PMID:24753929

  2. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  3. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    PubMed

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  4. Visual Encodings of Temporal Uncertainty: A Comparative User Study.

    PubMed

    Gschwandtnei, Theresia; Bögl, Markus; Federico, Paolo; Miksch, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated different ways of visualizing uncertainty. However, in the temporal dimension, it is still an open question how to best represent uncertainty, since the special characteristics of time require special visual encodings and may provoke different interpretations. Thus, we have conducted a comprehensive study comparing alternative visual encodings of intervals with uncertain start and end times: gradient plots, violin plots, accumulated probability plots, error bars, centered error bars, and ambiguation. Our results reveal significant differences in error rates and completion time for these different visualization types and different tasks. We recommend using ambiguation - using a lighter color value to represent uncertain regions - or error bars for judging durations and temporal bounds, and gradient plots - using fading color or transparency - for judging probability values. PMID:26529717

  5. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  6. Teenage pregnancy: a comparative study of the outcome and complications.

    PubMed

    Thekkekkara, Tina; Veenu, J

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the outcome and complications of pregnancy among teenagers with those above 19 years of age. This retrospective study conducted in a maternity hospital in rural Karnataka, under the guidance of the department of community medicine, St Johns National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, included 221 women who delivered between February 2003 and April 2003. The data was tabulated in excel spreadsheet and analysed using epi 6 programme. Anaemia among teenage multigravidae was found to be a significant health problem. There were no statistically significant differences between the gestational age at delivery and the mode of delivery in the different age groups. Teenage pregnancy was not found to be associated with an increased risk for antenatal complications or postnatal complications. There was no increased incidence of low birth weight or congenital anomalies among the babies of teenage mothers. Mortality was not found to be increased both among the teenage mothers as well as their babies. PMID:19588686

  7. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  8. "The blood fights on in other veins": Norman Bethune and the transfusion of cadaver blood in the Spanish Civil War.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, David

    2012-01-01

    During the Spanish Civil War, Dr. Norman Bethune instituted a research laboratory to determine whether the blood from cadavers could be transfused into wounded soldiers and civilians at the front. Dr. Herman J. Muller joined him in this effort carrying out extensive experimentation into the technique and practice of such transfusions. At the same time, Bethune was in frequent contact with Dr. Reginald Saxton who later publicly advocated that the Spanish government should organize a large-scale supply of cadaver blood to the front-line hospitals. Recent evidence suggests that Saxton carried out cadaveric transfusions to an extent not previously recognized.

  9. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures. PMID:27311148

  10. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures.

  11. A comparative study of Raman enhancement in capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Hulbert, Laila; Helmy, Amr S.

    2011-06-01

    This work reports on the comparative studies of Raman enhancement in liquid core waveguides (LCWs). The theoretical considerations that describe Raman enhancement in LCWs is adapted to analyze and compare the performance of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) to conventional Teflon capillary tubes. The optical losses in both platforms are measured and used to predict their performance for different lengths. The results show that for an optimal waveguide length, two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal can be achieved for aqueous solutions using HCPCFs. This length, however, cannot be achieved using normal capillary effects. By integrating the interface of the fluidic pump and the HCPCF into a microfluidic chip, we are able to control fluid transport and fill longer lengths of HCPCFs regardless of the viscosity of the sample. The long-term stability and reproducibility of Raman spectra attained through this platform are demonstrated for naphthalenethiol, which is a well-studied organic compound. Using the HCPCF platform, the detection limit of normal Raman scattering in the range of micro-molars has been achieved. In addition to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal from the HCPCF-platform, more Raman modes of naphthalenethiol are revealed using this platform.

  12. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    PubMed

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  13. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.001). Children also had a lower rate of appropriate first aid treatment. Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues.

  14. Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time.

  15. Spot diameters for scanning photorefractive keratectomy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare with computer simulations the duration, smoothness and accuracy of scanning photo-refractive keratectomy with spot diameters ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Methods: We calculated the number of pulses per diopter of flattening for spot sizes varying from 0.2 to 1 mm. We also computed the corneal shape after the correction of 4 diopters of myopia and 4 diopters of astigmatism with a 6 mm ablation zone and a spot size of 0.4 mm with 600 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure and 0.8 mm with 300 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure. The accuracy and smoothness of the ablations were compared. Results: The repetition rate required to produce corrections of myopia with a 6 mm ablation zone in a duration of 5 s per diopter is on the order of 1 kHz for spot sizes smaller than 0.5 mm, and of 100 Hz for spot sizes larger than 0.5 mm. The accuracy and smoothness after the correction of myopia and astigmatism with small and large spot sizes were not significantly different. Conclusions: This study seems to indicate that there is no theoretical advantage for using either smaller spots with higher radiant exposures or larger spots with lower radiant exposures. However, at fixed radiant exposure, treatments with smaller spots require a larger duration of surgery but provide a better accuracy for the correction of astigmatism.

  16. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (<0.05) with a probability of 82%. It was observed that there is a significant correlation between population genetics and folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  17. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  18. Comparative study on the biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ławniczak, Łukasz; Materna, Katarzyna; Framski, Grzegorz; Szulc, Alicja; Syguda, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on evaluating the toxicity as well as primary and ultimate biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which incorporated MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-D or Dicamba anions. The studied HILs were also subjected to determination of surface active properties in order to assess their influence on toxicity and biodegradability. The study was carried out with microbiota isolated from different environmental niches: sediments from river channel, garden soil, drainage trench collecting agricultural runoff stream, agricultural soil and municipal waste repository. The obtained results revealed that resistance to toxicity and biodegradation efficiency of the microbiota increased in the following order: microbiota from the waste repository > microbiota from agricultural soil ≈ microbiota from an agricultural runoff stream > microbiota from garden soil > microbiota from the river sludge. It was observed that the toxicity of HILs increased with the hydrophobicity of the cation, however the influence of the anion was more notable. The highest toxicity was observed when MCPA was used as the anion (EC50 values ranging from 60 to 190 mg L(-1)). The results of ultimate biodegradation tests indicated that only HILs with 2,4-D as the anion were mineralized to some extent, with slightly higher values for HILs with the 4-decyl-4-ethylmorpholinium cation (10-31 %) compared to HILs with the 4,4-didecylmorpholinium cation (9-20 %). Overall, the cations were more susceptible (41-94 %) to primary biodegradation compared to anions (0-61 %). The obtained results suggested that the surface active properties of the studied HILs may influence their toxicity and biodegradability by bacteria in different environmental niches.

  19. Comparative study of visual pathways in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Although they are usually regarded as nocturnal, owls exhibit a wide range of activity patterns, from strictly nocturnal, to crepuscular or cathemeral, to diurnal. Several studies have shown that these differences in the activity pattern are reflected in differences in eye morphology and retinal organization. Despite the evidence that differences in activity pattern among owl species are reflected in the peripheral visual system, there has been no attempt to correlate these differences with changes in the visual regions in the brain. In this study, we compare the relative size of nuclei in the main visual pathways in nine species of owl that exhibit a wide range of activity patterns. We found marked differences in the relative size of all visual structures among the species studied, both in the tectofugal and the thalamofugal pathway, as well in other retinorecipient nuclei, including the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the nucleus of the basal optic root and the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. We show that the barn owl (Tyto alba), a species widely used in the study of the integration of visual and auditory processing, has reduced visual pathways compared to strigid owls. Our results also suggest there could be a trade-off between the relative size of visual pathways and auditory pathways, similar to that reported in mammals. Finally, our results show that although there is no relationship between activity pattern and the relative size of either the tectofugal or the thalamofugal pathway, there is a positive correlation between the relative size of both visual pathways and the relative number of cells in the retinal ganglion layer. PMID:23296024

  20. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  1. Use of RAPD analysis for in situ identification of Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera larvis in larval cadavers of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Lu, R; Goerzen, D W; Rank, G H

    1996-07-01

    Chalkbrood of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for the in situ identification of A. aggregata and a related species, Ascosphaera larvis, in larval cadavers of M. rotundata. A simple DNA extraction method was developed to preferentially isolate DNA from fungal spores on the cadaver surface, or from ascocysts beneath the cuticle. Similar banding patterns were obtained in A. aggregata-infected larval cadavers from different sources and geographic areas. The RAPD banding pattern of cadavers infected with A. aggregata differed from that of healthy leafcutting bee prepupae. RAPD analyses of cadavers infected with A. aggregata and A. larvis resulted in similar banding profiles as those obtained from corresponding pure fungal cultures of the two species. This suggests that the RAPD bands of infected cadavers were amplified from fungal DNA, rather than from other DNA associated with the leafcutting bee cadaver. The banding patterns of "sporulating" and "non-sporulating" chalkbrood cadavers exhibited no differences; this provides the first definitive evidence that both forms of the disease result from infection with A. aggregata. PMID:8683161

  2. Comparative Study of Degradation Behavior of Bioresorbable Cardiovascular Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiyi; Huang, Chubo; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Juan; Li, Zhonghua; Chang, Zhaohua; Zhu, Yufang; Hua, Zezhao

    2015-03-01

    This comparative study investigated the biodegradation behavior and mechanism of bioresorbable cardiovascular scaffolds using bench testing under physiological conditions and in vivo experiment. The results show that the molecular weight of the scaffold decreased with respect to time after implantation in both in vivo and in vitro tests. It was found that the molecular weights of the implanted scaffolds in the in vivo and in vitro models decreased to 61.8 and 68.5% respectively 6 months after implantation, but the thermodynamic properties of the scaffold material were not significantly affected by the 6-month degradation. Moreover, the study indicated that in spite of the 6-month degradation, the scaffold maintained sufficient radial strength and mechanical integrity. Furthermore, it was noted that the changes in the trends of the mechanical properties and degradation behavior of the scaffolds in the in vitro model were coherent with the results of the in vivo study, which means the in vitro study of the degradation behavior of polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold could offer clinical relevant data and physical insights to predict the in vivo performance.

  3. Evaluation systems for clinical governance development: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Lack of scientific and confirmed researches and expert knowledge about evaluation systems for clinical governance development in Iran have made studies on different evaluation systems for clinical governance development a necessity. These studies must provide applied strategies to design criteria of implementing clinical governance for hospital's accreditation. This is a descriptive and comparative study on development of clinical governance models all over the world. Data have been gathered by reviewing related articles. Models have been studied in comprehensive review method. The evaluated models of clinical governance development were Australian, NHS, SPOCK and OPTIGOV. The final aspects extracted from these models were Responsiveness, Policies and Strategies, Organizational Structure, Allocating Resources, Education and Occupational Development, Performance Evaluation, External Evaluation, Patient Oriented Approach, Risk Management, Personnel's Participation, Information Technology, Human Resources, Research and Development, Evidence Based Medicine, Clinical Audit, Health Technology Assessment and Quality. These results are applicable for completing the present criteria which evaluating clinical governance application and provide practical framework to evaluate country's hospital on the basis of clinical governance elements.

  4. Comparative study of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin and glycerol injury.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Lei, Hsiao Yin; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined muscle regeneration following two types of chemical injuries, cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol, in order to compare their effect on the morphological characteristics during muscle regeneration, in addition we studied the structural changes of the intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) during the regeneration process, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after digestion of the cellular elements of the muscle with sodium hydroxide. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of adult male mice were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Muscle degeneration was greater in the CTX-injured model than in the glycerol-injured model at day 4 post injection. Muscle regeneration started at day 7 in both the CTX and glycerol models. However, the CTX-injured model showed a higher myotube density and larger myotube diameter than the glycerol-injured model at days 10 and 14 post injection. On other hand, adipocyte infiltration was detected in the glycerol-injured model. In contrast, no adipocytes could be detected in the CTX-injured model. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis showed a significant difference in myofiber damage and regeneration between the two models. SEM of the IMCT showed a transient increase in endomysial collagen deposition at early stages of regeneration in the CTX-injured model. In contrast, glycerol-injured model showed slight endomysial collagen deposition. Our results suggest that changes in IMCT affect the efficiency of muscle regeneration. Studying the three dimensional structure of IMCT may help clinical therapies to reduce skeletal muscle fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first time the changes in IMCT following CTX and glycerol injury using SEM-cell maceration technique have been compared.

  5. Comparative study of PCA in classification of multichannel EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Geethanjali, P

    2015-06-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) signals are abundantly used in the field of rehabilitation engineering in controlling the prosthetic device and significantly essential to find fast and accurate EMG pattern recognition system, to avoid intrusive delay. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of Principal component analysis (PCA), a transformation technique, in pattern recognition of six hand movements using four channel surface EMG signals from ten healthy subjects. For this reason, time domain (TD) statistical as well as auto regression (AR) coefficients are extracted from the four channel EMG signals. The extracted statistical features as well as AR coefficients are transformed using PCA to 25, 50 and 75 % of corresponding original feature vector space. The classification accuracy of PCA transformed and non-PCA transformed TD statistical features as well as AR coefficients are studied with simple logistic regression (SLR), decision tree (DT) with J48 algorithm, logistic model tree (LMT), k nearest neighbor (kNN) and neural network (NN) classifiers in the identification of six different movements. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) statistical test shows that there is a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in classification accuracy with PCA transformed features compared to non-PCA transformed features. SLR with non-PCA transformed time domain (TD) statistical features performs better in accuracy and computational power compared to other features considered in this study. In addition, the motion control of three drives for six movements of the hand is implemented with SLR using TD statistical features in off-line with TMSLF2407 digital signal controller (DSC). PMID:25860845

  6. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  7. Antiamoebic chemoprophylaxis using quinfamide in children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Nicolas; Diaz, Rosalinda; Alarcon, Alfonso; Barreda, Roberto

    2002-04-20

    This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC) in three samples over consecutive days using Faust"s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating c2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2%) had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study, Group 1 presented

  8. A comparative contrast-detail study of five medical displays

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Delong, David M.

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the contrast-detail performance of five different commercial liquid crystal displays (LCDs) to other LCD and cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays for medical applications. A contrast-detail phantom, supplemented with 5 in. of acrylic, was imaged on a commercial digital radiographic system using techniques comparable to chest radiography. The phantom design enabled observer evaluation by a four-alternative forced choice paradigm. The acquired images were independently scored by five observers on five medical display devices: a 5 megapixel monochrome LCD, a 3 megapixel monochrome LCD, a 9 megapixel color LCD, a 5 megapixel monochrome CRT, and a mammographic-grade monochrome CRT. The data were analyzed using the method suggested by the manufacturer based on a nearest neighbor correction technique. They were further analyzed using a logistic regression response model with a natural threshold using an overall chi-square test for display type followed by pairwise comparisons for individual display performance. The differences between the display devices were small. The standard analysis of the results based on the manufacturer-recommended method did not yield any statistically discernible trend among displays. The logistic regression analysis, however, indicated that the 5 megapixel monochrome LCD was statistically significantly (p<0.0001) superior to the others, followed by the 3 megapixel monochrome LCD (p<0.0001). The three other displays exhibited lower but generally similar performance characteristics. The findings suggest that 5 and 3 megapixel monochrome LCDs provide comparable but subtly superior contrast detectability than other tested displays, with the former performing slightly better in the detection of subtle and fine details.

  9. Contrasting tropical estuarine ecosystem functioning and stability: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Maria Ching

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of the Sine-saloum (Senegal) and Gambia (The Gambia) estuaries was performed based on trophic model outputs that describe the system structure and functioning. These trophic models were constructed such as to differentiate main energetic flows in the systems and express how climate change may have impacted ecosystem resilience to change. Estuarine fish assemblages are highly resilient despite exposure to vast hydrodynamic variations and stress. Coupled with strong anthropogenic-driven stresses such as fisheries and climate change, ecosystems may undergo severe regime shifts that may weaken their resilience and stability. Taxonomically related and morphologically similar species do not necessarily play similar ecological roles in these two ecosystems. Biomass and production in the Sine-saloum are concentrated at trophic levels (TLs) 2 and 3, while for the Gambia, both are concentrated at TL3. Higher TL biomasses in Gambia compared to Sine-Saloum may be explained by the latter ecosystem being characterized by inverse hypersalinity. Higher TL of production in Sine-Saloum is due to higher exploitations compared to Gambia where fishing activities are still less developed. High production and consumption rates of some groups in both ecosystems indicate high system productivity. Elevated productivity may be due to higher abundance of juvenile fishes in most groups that utilize the latter as refuge and/or nursery zones. Both ecosystems are phytoplankton-driven. Differences in group trophic and ecological roles are mainly due to adaptive responses of these species to seasonal and long-term climate and anthropogenic stressors. System indicators suggest different levels of ecosystem resilience and stability as a function of biodiversity. Relevance of other observations on ecosystem functioning and indicators in relation to perturbation is discussed.

  10. A comparative study of cardiovascular stress during different swimming strokes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Goswami, A

    2001-04-01

    The study was aimed: (i) to compare maximum heart rate during exhaustive running (HRmasr) and swimming (HRmaxs), (ii) to compare heart rate (HR) in various modes of swimming-front crawl (FC), butterfly (BF), breast stroke (BRS) and back stroke (BS). HRmaxr (192.3 +/- 4.9 beats/min) of the swimmers (N = 7) was higher, although not significantly (P < 0.05), than their HRmaxs (183.7 +/- 3.8). Peak HR of the swimmers in FC, BF, BRS and BS (each of 100 m distance) were 179.9 +/- 7.2, 180.3 +/- 7, 178.6 +/- 6.2 and 177.3 +/- 5.4 beats/min respectively. Average HR in the respective events were 167.3 +/- 15.8, 166.6 +/- 14.1, 163.3 +/- 13.5 and 165.8 +/- 14.6 beats/min. Differences were not significant between any two modes, either in peak HR or mean HR. The results conclude that: (i) maximum HR in swimming is approximately 8 beats/min lower than maximal running and (ii) when the effort is maximum, cardiovascular stress remains unaltered in different swimming modes. PMID:11480233

  11. Comparative studies between pathogenesis of street and fixed rabies infection.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Matsumoto, S

    1967-03-01

    Comparative neuropathology of Ammon's horn caused by both the street and fixed rabies infection was studied by combined light and electron microscopy. Neurons containing Negri bodies appeared comparatively little damaged. In striking contrast, in the case of fixed virus infection, neurons showed the following variety of degeneration. Lightly damaged neurons showed an increase in the number of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. A considerable number of lysosomes were also encountered within these nerve cells. Severe necrotic alteration involving the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm was found in the nerve cell band. The characteristic homogeneous foci (matrices) were discernible within these neurons. It appears that the matrix is morphologically identical with the ground substance of the Negri body, though its size is smaller than that of the Negri body. This evidence suggests a possibility that fixed virus injures neurons so extensively that they cannot bring about the full development of the characteristic matrix of the Negri body recognizable by the light microscope. Selective vulnerability was demonstrated among different groups of neurons in respect of cytopathogenesis of both street and fixed virus infection.

  12. A comparative study of Interaural Time Delay estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian F G; Noisternig, Markus

    2014-06-01

    The Interaural Time Delay (ITD) is an important binaural cue for sound source localization. Calculations of ITD values are obtained either from measured time domain Head-Related Impulse Responses (HRIRs) or from their frequency transform Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs). Numerous methods exist in current literature, based on a variety of definitions and assumptions of the nature of the ITD as an acoustic cue. This work presents a thorough comparative study of the degree of variability between some of the most common methods for calculating the ITD from measured data. Thirty-two different calculations or variations are compared for positions on the horizontal plane for the HRTF measured on both a KEMAR mannequin and a rigid sphere. Specifically, the spatial variations of the methods are investigated. Included is a discussion of the primary potential causes of these differences, such as the existence of multiple peaks in the HRIR of the contra-lateral ear for azimuths near the inter-aural axis due to multipath propagation and head/pinnae shadowing. PMID:24907816

  13. Colloidal Dispersions for the Delivery of Acyclovir: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M.; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  14. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  15. Applications of comparative genomic hybridisation in constitutional chromosome studies.

    PubMed

    Breen, C J; Barton, L; Carey, A; Dunlop, A; Glancy, M; Hall, K; Hegarty, A M; Khokhar, M T; Power, M; Ryan, K; Green, A J; Stallings, R L

    1999-07-01

    G band cytogenetic analysis often leads to the discovery of unbalanced karyotypes that require further characterisation by molecular cytogenetic studies. In particular, G band analysis usually does not show the chromosomal origin of small marker chromosomes or of a small amount of extra material detected on otherwise normal chromosomes. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is one of several molecular approaches that can be applied to ascertain the origin of extra chromosomal material. CGH is also capable of detecting loss of material and thus is also applicable to confirming or further characterising subtle deletions. We have used comparative genomic hybridisation to analyse 19 constitutional chromosome abnormalities detected by G band analysis, including seven deletions, five supernumerary marker chromosomes, two interstitial duplications, and five chromosomes presenting with abnormal terminal banding patterns. CGH was successful in elucidating the origin of extra chromosomal material in 10 out of 11 non-mosaic cases, and permitted further characterisation of all of the deletions that could be detected by GTG banding. CGH appears to be a useful adjunct tool for either confirming deletions or defining their breakpoints and for determining the origin of extra chromosomal material, even in cases where abnormalities are judged to be subtle. We discuss internal quality control measures, such as the mismatching of test and reference DNA in order to assess the quality of the competitive hybridisation effect on the X chromosome.

  16. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  17. A comparative study of oxygen diffusion in tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, T; Belova, I V; Murch, G E; Poologasundarampillai, G; Jones, J R; Roether, J A; Boccaccini, A R

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed to support tissue self-healing within physiological environments by promoting the attachment, growth and differentiation of relevant cells. Newly formed tissue must be supplied with sufficient levels of oxygen to prevent necrosis. Oxygen diffusion is the major transport mechanism before vascularization is completed and oxygen is predominantly supplied via blood vessels. The present study compares different designs for scaffolds in the context of their oxygen diffusion ability. In all cases, oxygen diffusion is confined to the scaffold pores that are assumed to be completely occupied by newly formed tissue. The solid phase of the scaffolds acts as diffusion barrier that locally inhibits oxygen diffusion, i.e. no oxygen passes through the scaffold material. As a result, the oxygen diffusivity is determined by the scaffold porosity and pore architecture. Lattice Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the normalized oxygen diffusivities in scaffolds obtained by the foam replication (FR) method, robocasting and sol-gel foaming. Scaffolds made by the FR method were found to have the highest oxygen diffusivity due to their high porosity and interconnected pores. These structures enable the best oxygen supply for newly formed tissue among the scaffold types considered according to the present numerical predictions.

  18. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Durán-Díaz, Ángel; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  19. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  20. Thymic proliferative response during different physiological states: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Habbal, O A; McLean, I M; Abu-Hijleh, M F

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the thymic proliferative response during different physiological states to distinguish those changes due to alterations in steroid hormone secretion from those resulting from the presence of spermatozoa and/or early conceptual products in the female reproductive tract. Method Using mature female rats of an inbred AO(RT1u) strain, observations on the thymus were made at 24 hour intervals during the oestrous cycle, early pseudopregnancy and early syngeneic pregnancy. Each daily group contained a minimum of 6 animals. Results During the oestrous cycle, a significant mid-cycle increase of thymocyte proliferation occurred during dioestrus which peaked on day 2, and as a repetitive response may be a preparation for a coital challenge. This response may be oestrogen-dependent since oestrogen levels begin to increase during early dioestrus. The induction of pseudopregnancy generates a comparable but delayed increase in thymic proliferative activity. Since thymocyte proliferation and oestrogen secretion both peak on day 3 of pseudopregnancy, such a response may indeed also be oestrogen-dependent. After syngeneic mating, there was a significant depression in thymic proliferative activity on day 3 followed by a significant increase on day 5 compared with the same days of pseudopregnancy. Conclusion This initial depression of proliferative activity may be induced by the immunosuppressive action of seminal plasma, to safeguard the preimplantation conceptus while the day 5 increase in cellular proliferation suggests a response to implantation. PMID:24019701

  1. Attachment styles in maltreated children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Finzi, R; Cohen, O; Sapir, Y; Weizman, A

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the emotional impact of maltreatment on the attachment styles in three groups of children aged 6-12 years: children of drug-user fathers (n = 76), physically abused children (n = 41), neglected children (n = 38); non-abused/non-neglected children (n = 35)--control group. The secure style characterized 52% of the children of drug-user fathers and the insecure style characterized the other 48% (anxious/ambivalent or avoidant); physically abused children were characterized mainly by the avoidant attachment style, and neglected children by the anxious/ambivalent style. The conclusion is that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and sustained suspicion towards others; neglected children are at risk of social withdrawal, social rejection and feelings of incompetence, and children of drug-user fathers may be at risk of behavioral problems and drug use in adolescence.

  2. ICD-10 mortality coding and the NCIS: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Daking, Leanne; Dodds, Leonie

    2007-01-01

    The collection and utilisation of mortality data are often hindered by limited access to contextual details of the circumstances surrounding fatal incidents. The National Coroners Information System (NCIS) can provide researchers with access to such information. The NCIS search capabilities have been enhanced by the inclusion of data supplied by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), specifically the ICD-10 Cause of Death code set. A comparative study was conducted to identify consistencies and differences between ABS ICD-10 codes and those that could be generated by utilising the full NCIS record. Discrepancies between the two sets of codes were detected in over 50% of cases, which highlighted the importance of access to complete and timely documentation in the assignment of accurate and detailed cause of death codes. PMID:18195402

  3. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  4. Advanced general aviation comparative engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, G. L.; Ellis, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Aviation Comparative Engine/Airframe Integration Study was initiated to help determine which of four promising concepts for new general aviation engines for the 1990's should be considered for further research funding. The engine concepts included rotary, diesel, spark ignition, and turboprop powerplants; a conventional state-of-the-art piston engine was used as a baseline for the comparison. Computer simulations of the performance of single and twin engine pressurized aircraft designs were used to determine how the various characteristics of each engine interacted in the design process. Comparisons were made of how each engine performed relative to the others when integrated into an airframe and required to fly a transportation mission.

  5. Interpreting odours in hermit crabs: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricarico, Elena; Breithaupt, Thomas; Gherardi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Odours of different sources can indicate to hermit crabs the availability of empty shells, crucial resources for the life cycle of almost all of them. Here, we compared Clibanarius erythropus and Pagurus bernhardus for the intensity of investigative behaviour exhibited towards an empty, well-fitting shell in the presence of (1) plain seawater as control and seawater conditioned by (2) dead and live snails, (3) dead and live conspecifics, (4) live predators, and (5) food. During 10 min of observation, we recorded latency (the time until the first contact with the shell), and the number and duration of shell investigation bouts. The two species behaved similarly when exposed to the odours of food, live snails, and predators, while a more intense shell investigation was induced by dead snail odour in C. erythropus and by dead or live conspecific odour in P. bernhardus. Further studies should investigate the influence of phylogeny and ecology on this interspecific difference.

  6. [Comparative neurophysiological study of the nootropic drugs piracetam and centrophenoxine].

    PubMed

    Krapivin, S V; Voronina, T A

    1987-01-01

    Effects of nootropic drugs on transcallosal evoked potential (TEP) and EEG spectra of the animal brain cortex and hippocamp were studied. It was found that piracetam and centrophenoxine exert similar effects on the amplitude of the primary TEP components, produce its increase and also a rise and stabilization of the predominant peak in distribution of EEG power spectrum that corresponds to the improvement of theta rhythm organization. The drugs exert different effects on the secondary positive TEP component; centrophenoxine induces a change in non-basic rhythm of EEG in rats. Based on the results obtained, the authors consider possible neurophysiological mechanisms of the nootropic effect and make a comparative analysis of the actions of the drugs.

  7. Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-haddad, Nada; Möstl, Christian; Roussev, Ilia; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Poedts, Stefaan; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Savani, Neel

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to provide a reference to different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods. In order to understand the dissimilarities of those models and codes, we analyze 59 events from the CDAW list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force- free reconstruction (Lepping et al.(1990); Lynch et al.(2003)), magnetostatic reconstruction, referred as Grad-Shafranov (Hu & Sonnerup(2001); Mostl et al.(2009)), cylinder reconstruction (Marubashi & Lepping(2007)), elliptical, non-force free (Hidalgo et al.(2002)). The resulted parameters of the reconstructions, for the 59 events are compared, statistically, as well as in more details for some cases. The differences between the reconstruction codes are discussed, and suggestions are provided as how to enhance them. Finally we look at 2 unique cases under the microscope, to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting codes work.

  8. A comparative study of two stochastic mode reduction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2005-09-01

    We present a comparative study of two methods for thereduction of the dimensionality of a system of ordinary differentialequations that exhibits time-scale separation. Both methods lead to areduced system of stochastic differential equations. The novel feature ofthese methods is that they allow the use, in the reduced system, ofhigher order terms in the resolved variables. The first method, proposedby Majda, Timofeyev and Vanden-Eijnden, is based on an asymptoticstrategy developed by Kurtz. The second method is a short-memoryapproximation of the Mori-Zwanzig projection formalism of irreversiblestatistical mechanics, as proposed by Chorin, Hald and Kupferman. Wepresent conditions under which the reduced models arising from the twomethods should have similar predictive ability. We apply the two methodsto test cases that satisfy these conditions. The form of the reducedmodels and the numerical simulations show that the two methods havesimilar predictive ability as expected.

  9. Comparative study of processing methods for starch/gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Fakhouri, Farayde M; Costa, Daryne; Yamashita, Fábio; Martelli, Silvia M; Jesus, Rodolfo C; Alganer, Katlen; Collares-Queiroz, Fernanda P; Innocentini-Mei, Lucia H

    2013-06-20

    In this work, the influence of processing methods on the properties of starch/gelatin films plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol is reported. Four different processing techniques: casting; pressing; pressing followed by blowing and extrusion followed by blowing were evaluated. Bioplastics prepared by casting were homogeneous and transparent with lower opacity and water vapor permeability (WVP) values when compared to films prepared by other techniques. Among the cast films studied, those with 3% lipophilic starch, in 1:1 proportions and plasticized with sorbitol, showed lower WVP values and higher tensile strength (TS). Films obtained by pressing and blowing showed little expansion during blow, had cracks in the surface, low TS and higher WVP. These films were the only samples to show crystallinity as determined by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. In conclusion, different processing techniques have significantly affected the properties of these films. PMID:23648030

  10. Comparative studies on cervical and colonic malignancies using FTIR microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordechai, Shaul; Mark, Shlomo; Podshyvalov, A.; Kantarovich, Keren; Bernshtain, Y.; Salman, Ahmad; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Guterman, Hugo; Goldstein, Jed; Argov, Shmuel; Jagannathan, R.

    2003-07-01

    IR spectroscopy provides a new diagnostic tool due to its sensitivity to molecular composition and structure in cells, which accompany transformation from healthy to diseased state. The IR spectrum of a sample is, therefore, a biochemical fingerprint. It has been found that the most significant changes occur in the mid-IR spectral range 3-25 mm. Encouraging results have been reported in the literature on various types of cancers, such as human breast, lung, colon, cervical, and leukemia using FT-IR microspectroscopy. Much progress has also been made by several groups on IR spectral maps and IR imaging with good agreement between the data and the histopathological information. In an attempt to characterize healthy and diseased tissues, infrared microspectroscopy of cervical and colon human tissues was studied using an infrared microscopy. The comparative qualitative and quantitative changes detected using FTIR microspectroscopy are discussed.

  11. A comparative study of two different clear aligner systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to compare the ‘Nuvola®’ system with ‘Fantasmino®’ system, examine their material properties, and define the indications for use of the aligners. Methods Two groups of patients were selected and were respectively treated with Nuvola® aligner and Fantasmino® system. Results The goal of treatment has been achieved with the two systems. Conclusions The two types of aligners have shown differences during the treatment. Fantasmino® system has elastic properties of high performance, but its size does not encourage compliance throughout the day. Nuvola® system determines good tooth movement and its size facilitates the patient’s collaboration. In both aligner systems, difficulties were found in the correction of torque information and rotations. PMID:24934094

  12. Psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis and vitiligo: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Koranne, R V; Singh, R K

    2001-08-01

    The psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis patients was compared with that in vitiligo patients using the standardised Hindi (vernacular language) version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-H). Thirty new and untreated patients each with psoriasis or vitiligo and between the ages of 18-60 yrs, constituted the study group. The prevalences of psychiatric morbidity as assessed by the GHQ-H were found to be 53.3% and 16.22% in the psoriasis and vitiligo patients respectively; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.0028). The prevalences of depression were 23.3% and 10% in psoriasis and vitiligo respectively and anxiety was observed in 3.3% of each group. Sleep disturbance was the most common complaint and was present in 56.6% of psoriasis patients and 20% of the vitiligo patients. However, the parameter of sleep disturbance showed a statistically significant difference between the two dermatoses (p=0.0034).

  13. Anatomopathological findings in scars: comparative study between different specimens.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Andrada Despina; Bedereag, Ştefan Iulian; NiŢescu, Cristian; Florescu, Ioan Petre

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable progress science and medicine have experienced, many facts concerning healing processes and pathological scars are still unknown or incompletely explained. This paper is part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis) concerning new approaches in the prevention and treatment of pathological post-burn scars. We present and analyze the cases of some patients who developed abnormal scars in order to understand and point out the characteristics, that different types of pathological scars have in common and how we can differentiate them. Knowing what issue to address is the key to any successful therapy. Thus, the information we obtained will help us in applying more appropriate and efficient methods of treatment and in our further research: comparing the efficiency of newer therapies to that of older ones. PMID:25826518

  14. Modelling effects of internalized antibody: a simple comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The modelling framework is proposed to study protection properties of antibodies to neutralize the effects of the plant toxin (ricin). The present study extends our previous work by including (i) the model of intracellular transport of toxin to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and (ii) the model of the internalised antibodies (when antibody is delivered directly into the cytosol). Method Simulation of the receptor-toxin-antibody interaction is implemented by solving the systems of PDEs (advection-diffusion models) or ODEs (rate models) for the underlying transport coupled with mass-action kinetics. Results As the main application of the enhanced framework we present a comparative study of two kinds (external and internalised) of antibodies. This comparison is based on calculation of the non-dimensional protection factor using the same set of parameters (geometry, binding constants, initial concentrations of species, and total initial amount of the antibody). Conclusion This research will provide a framework for consistent evaluation and comparison of different types of antibodies for toxicological applications. PMID:24521456

  15. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  16. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  17. Acute arthropathy in patients with rash diseases: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Solange Artimos; Bastos Camacho, Luiz Antonio; Fernandes Bruno, Letícia; de Gusmão, Rodrigo Coimbra; de Medeiros Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Coca Velarde, Luis Guillermo; Mendonça Siqueira, Marilda

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association of acute arthropathy and selected clinical features in patients with acute rash diseases. Serum samples from 1,554 patients were tested for anti-measles, dengue, human parvovirus B19, and rubella virus IgM using enzyme immunoassay. Sera from children, in whom these infections were excluded, were studied for anti-human herpesvirus type 6 IgG antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence test. Joint complaints occurred in 31.2% of the 862 patients with an etiologic diagnosis and were more frequently seen in adults than in children (OR 8.5). Among the adults, arthropathy prevailed in women compared to men (OR 1.8). Arthropathy was most frequently reported in rubella (41.2%) and in dengue fever cases (41.1%) than in the other rash diseases studied (p < 0.0001). Joint complaints were more frequently seen in patients with fever (OR 1.6) and with five or more days of onset of the disease (OR 1.6), regardless of serological diagnosis. Arthropathy appeared as a frequent condition in rash diseases, typically with low severity and no specific pattern of joint involvement.

  18. Comparing the Leadership Styles of Two Heads of Department at Carnelian School: Comparative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parascandalo, Marthese

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare and contrast the Leadership Styles of two Heads of Department who work at Carnelian Secondary School (anonymized). It augments a previous paper (Parascandalo 2011) which examined the role of the middle leader in secondary schools in educational literature. The investigation by means of two…

  19. Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  20. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  1. Boilysin and thermolysin in dipeptide synthesis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Diana; Dürrschmidt, Peter; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2002-08-01

    Boilysin (BLN) is an engineered, highly thermostable neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Its high resistance is based on the stabilization of a surface loop (amino acid residues 55-69) by eight amino acid exchanges, including the introduction of a disulphide bond. In the present study, BLN was compared with the well-known and structurally related thermolysin (from B. thermoproteolyticus) with respect to their dipeptide- synthetic properties. The synthesis of the aspartame precursor N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (Z-Asp-Phe-OMe) was used as the model reaction to study its enantioselectivity as well as the influence of neutral salt, temperature and calcium- ion concentration on peptide synthesis. The reactions were performed in homogeneous reaction systems containing DMSO or aliphatic alcohols. Furthermore, the substrate specificity in the synthesis of Z-Asp-X-OMe (X=Phe, d-Phe, Ala, Ile, Leu, Met, Tyr or Val) was examined. The two enzymes showed no difference in time course of reaction by the use of salts as activators or different alcohols as co-solvents. Both enzymes showed a high enantioselectivity towards the amino component in the reaction. They were strongly activated by NaCl, whereas the final product yields were strongly decreased at high NaCl concentrations. Aliphatic alcohols act as an inhibitor, but allow higher product yields compared with purely aqueous medium. Differences between the two enzymes are found at higher temperatures (>/=60 degrees C) in the absence or at low concentrations of Ca(2+) ions; BLN proved superior under these conditions, because its stability is less dependent on Ca(2+) ions. The substrate specificities of BLN and thermolysin at the P(')(1) position follow the same tendencies, with differences in the initial rates for the conversion of Z-Asp with Ile-OMe, Leu-OMe and Val-OMe.

  2. International Comparative Studies in Education: Descriptions of Selected Large-Scale Assessments and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

    Since its inception in 1988, the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education (BICSE) has monitored U.S. participation in those cross national comparative studies in education that are funded by its sponsors, the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Statistics. This set of international study descriptions…

  3. An open multicenter comparative randomized clinical study on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaohui; Cen, John; Gibson, Elaine; Wang, Robin; Percival, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derivate from chitin, offers a promising alternative biomaterial for use in wound dressings. In this work, the safety and efficacy of a next-generation KA01 chitosan wound dressing in facilitating the healing of nonhealing chronic wounds was studied. This open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study was conducted at three medical centers in China. A total of 90 patients (45 in test group and 45 in control group) with unhealed chronic wounds including pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and wounds with minor infections, or at risk of infection, were treated with the next generation chitosan wound dressing as the test article or traditional vaseline gauze as a control. Baseline assessments were undertaken with the primary end point being wound area reduction. The secondary end points included pain reduction (using the NRS11 pain scale) at dressing change, wound exudate levels, wound depth and duration of the treatment. After 4 weeks treatment, the wound area reduction was significantly greater in the test group (65.97 ± 4.48%) than the control group (39.95 ± 4.48%). The average pain level in the test group was 1.12 ± 0.23 and 2.30 ± 0.23 in the control group. The wound depth was also lower in the test group 0.30 ± 0.48 cm than the control group 0.54 ± 0.86 cm. The level of exudate fell and the dressing could be removed integrally in both the test and control groups. The mean duration of the test group was 27.31 ± 5.37 days and control group 27.09 ± 6.44 days. No adverse events were reported in either group. In conclusion this open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study has provided compelling evidence that the next generation chitosan wound dressing can enhance wound progression towards healing by facilitating wound reepithelialization and reducing the patients pain level. Furthermore the dressing was shown to be clinically safe and effective in the management

  4. An open multicenter comparative randomized clinical study on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaohui; Cen, John; Gibson, Elaine; Wang, Robin; Percival, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derivate from chitin, offers a promising alternative biomaterial for use in wound dressings. In this work, the safety and efficacy of a next-generation KA01 chitosan wound dressing in facilitating the healing of nonhealing chronic wounds was studied. This open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study was conducted at three medical centers in China. A total of 90 patients (45 in test group and 45 in control group) with unhealed chronic wounds including pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and wounds with minor infections, or at risk of infection, were treated with the next generation chitosan wound dressing as the test article or traditional vaseline gauze as a control. Baseline assessments were undertaken with the primary end point being wound area reduction. The secondary end points included pain reduction (using the NRS11 pain scale) at dressing change, wound exudate levels, wound depth and duration of the treatment. After 4 weeks treatment, the wound area reduction was significantly greater in the test group (65.97 ± 4.48%) than the control group (39.95 ± 4.48%). The average pain level in the test group was 1.12 ± 0.23 and 2.30 ± 0.23 in the control group. The wound depth was also lower in the test group 0.30 ± 0.48 cm than the control group 0.54 ± 0.86 cm. The level of exudate fell and the dressing could be removed integrally in both the test and control groups. The mean duration of the test group was 27.31 ± 5.37 days and control group 27.09 ± 6.44 days. No adverse events were reported in either group. In conclusion this open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study has provided compelling evidence that the next generation chitosan wound dressing can enhance wound progression towards healing by facilitating wound reepithelialization and reducing the patients pain level. Furthermore the dressing was shown to be clinically safe and effective in the management

  5. Comparative studies on nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhen-Xiong; Li, De-Shang; Zhang, Man-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2001-09-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% 83.9% of the total input nitrogen 3.2% 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9% respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% 60.8% of the total, input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% 6. 2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% 8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging rates for all the studied polyculture systems ranged from 3.0% to 6. 0% of total input nitrogen.

  6. Comparative study of analysis methods in biospeckle phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    In this work we present a review of main statistical properties of speckle patterns and accomplish a comparative study of the more used methods for analysis and extraction of information from optical grainy. The first and second order space-time statistics are dicussed in an overview perspective. The biospeckle phenomenon has detailed attention, specially in its application on monitoring of activity in tissues. The main techniques used to obtain information from speckle patterns are presented, with special prominence to autocorrelation function, co-occurrence matrices, Fujii's method, Briers' contrast and spatial and temporal contrast analisys (LASCA and LASTCA). An incipient method for analysis, based on the study of sucessive correlations contrast, is introduced. Numerical simulations, using diferent probability density functions for velocities of scatterers, were made with two objectives: to test the analysis methods and to give subsidies for interpretation of in vivo results. Vegetable and animal tissues are investigated, achieving the monitoring of senescence process and vascularization maps on leaves, the accompaniment of fungi contamined fruits, the mapping of activity in flowers and the analisys of healing in rats subjected to abdominal surgery. Experiments using the biospeckle phenomenon in microscopy are carried out. At last, it is evaluated the potentiality of biospeckle as diagnosis tool in chronic vein ulcer cared with low intensity laser therapy and the better analysis methods for each kind of tissue are pointed.

  7. Predicting Fault-Prone Modules: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hao; Shu, Fengdi; Yang, Ye; Wang, Qing

    Offshore and outsourced software development is a rapidly increasing trend in global software business environment. Predicting fault-prone modules in outsourced software product may allow both parties to establish mutually satisfactory, cost-effective testing strategies and product acceptance criteria, especially in iterative transitions. In this paper, based on industrial software releases data, we conduct an empirical study to compare ten classifiers over eight sets of code attributes, and provide recommendations to aid both the client and vendor to assess the products’ quality through defect prediction. Overall, a generally high accuracy is observed, which confirms the usefulness of the metric-based classification. Furthermore, two classification techniques, Random Forest and Bayesian Belief Network, outperform the others in terms of predictive accuracy; in more detail, the former is the most cost-effective and the latter is of the lowest fault-prone module escaping rate. Our study also concludes that code metrics including size, traditional complexity, and object-oriented complexity perform fairly well.

  8. Rigorous comparative study of energy-integrated distillation schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Annakou, O.; Mizsey, P.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents results of a rigorous study and comparison of conventional and energy-integrated distillation schemes for the separation of ternary mixtures. The major part of this work is devoted to the design and simulation of the fully thermally coupled distillation column (Petlyuk or Kaibel column) with particular emphasis on the question of the fractional recovery of the middle component in the prefractionator and as a consequence the internal recycle streams. A comparative economic parametric study is carried out for three different distillation schemes: conventional sequences, heat-integrated columns, and the fully thermally coupled distillation column. The heat-integrated columns show the best economic features over the other two schemes except the few cases when the concentration of the middle component in the feed is high and the A/B split is more difficult than the B/C split. In such rare cases the fully thermally coupled distillation column proves to be the cheapest solution. In the cases of sharp separations the heat-integrated scheme is always the most economical solution.

  9. Breast imaging with ultrasound tomography: a comparative study with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, Bryan; Littrup, Peter; Duric, Neb; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica; Myc, Lukasz; Szczepanski, Amy; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype relative to magnetic resonance (MR) for imaging overall breast anatomy and accentuating tumors relative to background tissue. The study was HIPAA compliant, approved by the Institutional Review Board, and performed after obtaining the requisite informed consent. Twenty-three patients were imaged with MR and the UST prototype. T1 weighted images with fat saturation, with and without gadolinium enhancement, were used to examine anatomical structures and tumors, while T2 weighted images were used to identify cysts. The UST scans generated sound speed, attenuation, and reflection images. A qualitative visual comparison of the MRI and UST images was then used to identify anatomical similarities. A more focused approach that involved a comparison of reported masses, lesion volumes, and breast density was used to quantify the findings from the visual assessment. Our acoustic tomography prototype imaged distributions of fibrous stroma, parenchyma, fatty tissues, and lesions in patterns similar to those seen in the MR images. The range of thresholds required to establish tumor volume equivalency between MRI and UST suggested that a universal threshold for isolating masses relative to background tissue is feasible with UST. UST has demonstrated the ability to visualize and characterize breast tissues in a manner comparable to MRI. Thresholding techniques accentuate masses relative to background anatomy, which may prove clinically useful for early cancer detection.

  10. Comparative Study of Clinically Used NiTi Orthodontic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Hao, Fengyu; Yang, Ke; Tan, Lili

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate two NiTi orthodontic wires. It is valuable to determine the phase transformation temperature and corrosion characteristics of the orthodontic wires to further study the shape memory effect and corrosion resistance properties. Optical microscope and EDX analysis were used for microstructure characteristics and composition analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out to identify the phase transformation behavior of the two wires. Electrochemical tests in artificial saliva at 37 ±1°C including polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to assess the corrosion resistance and corrosion mechanism of the wires. It was found that the transformation temperature range of A-wire (imported) is narrower while the As and Af are close to the body temperature, which is more suitable in the orthodontic operation at early stage. The corrosion current density of A-wire is lower than that of B-wire (domestically made) while the corrosion potential is higher. EIS test results indicated that the corrosion mechanism was the same. However, the oxide layer formed on the surface of A-wire is more protective.

  11. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  12. Comparative Study of Silk-Silk Alloy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ye; Jao, Dave; Hu, Wenbing; Wolf, Nathan; Rocks, Eva-Marie; Hu, Xiao

    Silk fibroin materials can be used for various kinds of biomedical applications. We report a comparative study of silk-silk blend materials using thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Four groups of silk-silk blend films: Mori-Tussah, Mori-Muga, Mori-Eri and Mori-Thai, were fabricated from aqueous solutions and blended at different weight ratios, respectively. These silk-silk blend systems exploit the beneficial material properties of both silks. DSC and temperature-modulated DSC were used to measure the transition temperatures and heat capacity of these water-based silk-silk blend films. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to characterize secondary structures of silk-silk blends. This study demonstrates that Mori silk are fully miscible with Tussah, Muga, Eri and Thai silk at different weight ratios without phase separation. Glass transition temperatures, degradation temperatures and the contents of alpha-helix and random coils of those silk-silk blend films can be controlled by changing the contents of different silks in the blend system. The features of Mori silk combined with the attributes of Tussah, Muga, Eri and Thai silk offer a useful suite of materials for a variety of applications in the future.

  13. Spatial Navigation Strategies in Peromyscus: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jašarević, Eldin; Williams, Scott A.; Roberts, R. Michael; Geary, David C.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    A male advantage in spatial abilities is predicted to evolve in species where males rely on expansion of home territory to locate dispersed mates during the breeding season. We sought to examine mechanistic underpinnings of this evolved trait by comparing spatial navigational abilities in two species of Peromyscus that employ widely different reproductive strategies. Males and females from outbred stocks of deer mice (P. maniculatus bairdii) in which males engage in territorial expansion and mate search and California mice (P. californicus insignis), in which males do not, were administered tasks that assessed spatial learning and memory, and activity and exploratory behaviours. The maze employed for these studies included four spatial cues that could be used to aid in locating 1 of 12 potential escape holes. As predicted, male deer mice outperformed conspecific females and California mice males in maze performance and memory, and this difference appeared to be due to extent to which animals used spatial cues to guide maze navigation. Consistent with territorial expansion as a component of competition for mates, male deer mice were more active and engaged in more exploratory and less anxiety-related behaviours than conspecific females and California mice males. The results have implications for understanding and studying the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms that have evolved through male-male competition that involves territorial expansion and mate search. PMID:23355748

  14. Comparative study of forensic psychiatric system between China and America.

    PubMed

    Li, Gangqin; Gutheil, Thomas G; Hu, Zeqing

    2016-01-01

    Laws and regulations about the forensic psychiatric systems in China and America were compared, and suggestions for improving the forensic psychiatric system of China were provided. There are many differences regarding the role of the forensic psychiatrist, the initiation of the assessment and the admission of expert opinion because of elements in the legal systems in China and America. The Chinese system has the advantages of objectivity, cost saving and high efficiency; but it has deficiencies in procedural justice and the admission of expert opinion. China can persist with the current system while taking measures to give more rights to the litigants to participate in their assessment, and while improving the quality and utility of the expert opinion; however, this review article will compare broadly the two systems without addressing human rights issues or procedural justice issues, nor will it presume to address the entirety of Chinese systems. In addition, China is developing its legal system for dealing with the mentally ill defendant in situations involving the criminal justice system and civil commitment. Although China enacted new laws regarding the mandatory treatment for the mentally ill, both in criminal and civil systems, there remain many aspects to be improved, including but not limited to a system of review of the decision to detain a patient on psychiatric grounds, and the need for provisions in the laws preventing indefinite detention. From this viewpoint, America's laws and regulations are instructive for us, in matters such as the method of dealing with the mentally ill defendant who is "incompetent to stand trial", "not guilty only by reason of insanity" or "guilty but mentally ill". The conditional release of the committed mentally ill person and the special programs in the forensic security hospital are all worthy of study by China in order to manage the mentally ill offender and to reduce the recidivism rate.

  15. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  16. Comparative study of forensic psychiatric system between China and America.

    PubMed

    Li, Gangqin; Gutheil, Thomas G; Hu, Zeqing

    2016-01-01

    Laws and regulations about the forensic psychiatric systems in China and America were compared, and suggestions for improving the forensic psychiatric system of China were provided. There are many differences regarding the role of the forensic psychiatrist, the initiation of the assessment and the admission of expert opinion because of elements in the legal systems in China and America. The Chinese system has the advantages of objectivity, cost saving and high efficiency; but it has deficiencies in procedural justice and the admission of expert opinion. China can persist with the current system while taking measures to give more rights to the litigants to participate in their assessment, and while improving the quality and utility of the expert opinion; however, this review article will compare broadly the two systems without addressing human rights issues or procedural justice issues, nor will it presume to address the entirety of Chinese systems. In addition, China is developing its legal system for dealing with the mentally ill defendant in situations involving the criminal justice system and civil commitment. Although China enacted new laws regarding the mandatory treatment for the mentally ill, both in criminal and civil systems, there remain many aspects to be improved, including but not limited to a system of review of the decision to detain a patient on psychiatric grounds, and the need for provisions in the laws preventing indefinite detention. From this viewpoint, America's laws and regulations are instructive for us, in matters such as the method of dealing with the mentally ill defendant who is "incompetent to stand trial", "not guilty only by reason of insanity" or "guilty but mentally ill". The conditional release of the committed mentally ill person and the special programs in the forensic security hospital are all worthy of study by China in order to manage the mentally ill offender and to reduce the recidivism rate. PMID:27292971

  17. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Paul J M; Oostenbrink, Jan B; Zuurbier, Joost J; Schaepkens, Frans J M

    2007-05-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the total number of improper Medicare payments for the Prospective Payment system for acute inpatient care (both short term and long term) amounted to US$ 4.8 billion (5.2%). By comparing the casemix systems in the US, Australian and Dutch healthcare systems, this article illustrates why certain casemix systems are more open to the risk of upcoding than other systems. This study identifies various market, control and casemix characteristics determining the weaknesses of a casemix reimbursement system to upcoding. It can be concluded that fewer opportunities for upcoding occur in casemix systems that do not allow for-profit ownership and in which the coder's salary does not depend on the outcome of the classification process. In addition, casemix systems in which the first point in time of registration is at the beginning of the care process and in which there are a limited number of occasions to alter the registration are less vulnerable to the risk of upcoding. Finally, the risk of upcoding is smaller in casemix systems that use classification criteria that are medically meaningful and aligned with clinical practice. Comparing the US, Australian and Dutch systems the following conclusions can be drawn. Given the combined occurrences of for-profit hospitals and the use of the secondary diagnosis criterion to classify DRGs, the US casemix system tends to be more open to upcoding than the Australian system. The strength of the Dutch system is related to the detailed classification scheme, using medically meaningful classification criteria. Nevertheless, the detailed classification scheme also causes a weakness, because of its increased complexity compared with the US and

  18. Detection of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty with a Non-Flat-Panel Angio Unit Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography - An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Clemens Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of cement leakages after vertebroplasty using angiographic computed tomography (ACT) in a non-flat-panel angio unit compared to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Vertebroplasty was performed in 19 of 33 cadaver vertebrae (23 thoracic and 10 lumbar segments). In the angio suite, ACT (190{sup o}; 1.5{sup o} per image) was performed to obtain volumetric data. Another volumetric data set of the specimen was obtained by MDCT using a standard algorithm. Nine multiplanar reconstructions in standardized axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of every vertebra were generated from both data sets. Images were evaluated on the basis of a nominal scale with 18 criteria, comprising osseous properties (e.g., integrity of the end plate) and cement distribution (e.g., presence of intraspinal cement). MDCT images were regarded as gold standard and analyzed by two readers in a consensus mode. Rotational acquisitions were analyzed by six blinded readers. Results were correlated with the gold standard using Cohen's {kappa}-coefficient analysis. Furthermore, interobserver variability was calculated. Correlation with the gold standard ranged from no correlation (osseous margins of the neuroforamen, {kappa} = 0.008) to intermediate (trace of vertebroplasty canula; {kappa} = 0.615) for criteria referring to osseous morphology. However, there was an excellent correlation for those criteria referring to cement distribution, with {kappa} values ranging from 0.948 (paravertebral cement distribution) to 0.972 (intraspinal cement distribution). With a minimum of {kappa} = 0.768 ('good correlation') and a maximum of {kappa} = 0.91 ('excellent'), interobserver variability was low. In conclusion, ACT in an angio suite without a flat-panel detector depicts a cement leakage after vertebroplasty as well as MDCT. However, the method does not provide sufficient depiction of osseous morphology.

  19. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  20. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.; Gomez-Aviles, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-15

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT{sub 2}(OH)(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, where A=NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Na{sup +} or K{sup +}. The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products. - Graphical abstract: Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) derived from layered double hydroxide precursors differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. We investigate the influence of the molybdate source, the rehydration pH and the ratio of T/Mo on the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates of general formula AT{sub 2}(OH)(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (where A{sup +}=NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +} or Na{sup +}).