Science.gov

Sample records for comparative diagnostic imaging

  1. Diagnostic agreement when comparing still and video imaging for the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Killough, Emily; Spector, Lisa; Moffatt, Mary; Wiebe, Jan; Nielsen-Parker, Monica; Anderst, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Still photo imaging is often used in medical evaluations of child sexual abuse (CSA) but video imaging may be superior. We aimed to compare still images to videos with respect to diagnostic agreement regarding hymenal deep notches and transections in post-pubertal females. Additionally, we evaluated the role of experience and expertise on agreement. We hypothesized that videos would result in improved diagnostic agreement of multiple evaluators as compared to still photos. This was a prospective quasi-experimental study using imaging modality as the quasi-independent variable. The dependent variable was diagnostic agreement of participants regarding presence/absence of findings indicating penetrative trauma on non-acute post-pubertal genital exams. Participants were medical personnel who regularly perform CSA exams. Diagnostic agreement was evaluated utilizing a retrospective selection of videos and still photos obtained directly from the videos. Videos and still photos were embedded into an on-line survey as sixteen cases. One-hundred sixteen participants completed the study. Participant diagnosis was more likely to agree with study center diagnosis when using video (p<0.01). Use of video resulted in statistically significant changes in diagnosis in four of eight cases. In two cases, the diagnosis of the majority of participants changed from no hymenal transection to transection present. No difference in agreement was found based on experience or expertise. Use of video vs. still images resulted in increased agreement with original examiner and changes in diagnostic impressions in review of CSA exams. Further study is warranted, as video imaging may have significant impacts on diagnosis.

  2. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay still for a long time inside a machine. This can be uncomfortable. Certain tests involve exposure to a small amount of radiation. For some imaging tests, doctors insert a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube into your body. This tool is called a scope. The doctor moves it ...

  3. The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

  4. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  5. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  6. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, L.L.; Gold, R.H.; Chandnani, V.P. )

    1991-09-01

    The diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up evaluation of osteosarcoma rely heavily on a variety of imaging techniques. Plain roentgenography, radionuclide bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play important roles in defining local tumor extent, detecting metastatic disease, and monitoring for recurrent tumor. Invasive studies such as angiography are now rarely necessary. In the future, newer imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography, can be expected to become important tools for evaluation of these tumors. 23 references.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  9. Diagnostic imaging of infertility

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.

  10. Introduction to diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sider, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book begins with a chapter that includes the history of the various imaging modalities currently available, including magnetic resonance imaging. The following six chapters review specific anatomic regions (chest, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, bones and joints, cardiovascular system, and central nervous system) and the abnormalities that can be detected by various radiologic studies of these areas. Each chapter focuses on a specific body system and gives a short description of what studies are typically used for each. The normal anatomy, as shown in these studies, is also discussed. A series of short sections on specific, common disease conditions of each area follows.

  11. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  12. Diagnostic imaging in obesity.

    PubMed

    Machann, Jürgen; Horstmann, Annette; Born, Mark; Hesse, Swen; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic resonance of the body offers different techniques for mapping fat deposits (MR Imaging) and analysis of organs with small amounts of lipids (MR Spectroscopy). Possible approaches for whole-body assessment of adipose tissue are presented and discussed and spectroscopic examinations in different organs are depicted. With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) it has been shown that obesity per se is not a marker for metabolic failure, but depends on regional variations of body composition and ectopic lipid accumulation. In addition MRI of the brain is a powerful research tool to understand the brain's role in the development and maintenance of obesity and the overconsumption of foods in obese individuals. Sonography has a low accuracy in estimating hepatic steatosis until now. New sonographic methods have been evaluated to detect hepatic steatosis by physical properties of fatty tissue as tissue stiffness, sound absorption or sound speed. Nuclear medicine and in particular Positron Emission Tomography (PET) methods are used to explore central pathophysiology, brown adipose tissue activity and alterations in homeostatic feedback and gut-brain communication.

  13. Diagnostic imaging in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Summaria, V; Salvatori, M; Rufini, V; Mirk, P; Garganese, M C; Romani, M

    1999-01-01

    In thyrotoxicosis, imaging mainly scintigraphy, color Doppler sonography and radioiodine uptake test are used in the differential diagnosis as well as in the morphofunctional evaluation of the thyroid before and after therapy (mainly pharmacological or with radioiodine). Radioiodine uptake test differentiates high uptake thyrotoxicosis (Graves'disease, toxic nodular goiter) and low uptake thyrotoxycosis (subacute or silent thyroiditis, ectopic thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism). In Graves'disease scintigraphy shows thyroid enlargement with intense homogeneous tracer uptake; rarely nodules with no uptake are present. On color Doppler sonography, a part from enlargement, typical findings are: diffuse structural hypoechogenicity (at times with echoic nodules), parenchymal hypervascularization ("thyroid inferno"), high systolic velocities (PSV > 70-100 cm/sec) in inferior thyroid arteries. Scintigraphy is the only method able to evidence an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule and stage it (in association to clinical findings and TSH, FT3, FT4 determination) as: toxic, non toxic (or pretoxic) and compensated, depending on whether there is inhibition of extranodular tissue. A scintigraphically "hot" nodule appears hypervascularized on color Doppler sonography (especially in the toxic or pre-toxic phase) with high PSV (> 50-70 cm/sec) in the ipsilateral inferior thyroid artery. The most reliable parameters in the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy are: decreases in thyroid (Graves'disease) or nodular (autonomously functioning nodule) volume; decreased radioiodine uptake (Graves'disease); functional recovery of suppressed parenchyma (autonomously functioning nodule); decreased PSV in the inferior thyroid arteries.

  14. Diagnostic imaging for aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Andrew J; Litt, Harold I

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging for aortic dissection has dramatically changed in recent years. Previously, imaging consisted of conventional X-ray radiography, followed by invasive catheter angiography. Now imaging of dissection is performed primarily with multidetector CT, and to a lesser extent, with ultrasound and MRI. Catheter angiography is used primarily as a means of treating complications. Which modality to choose depends on patient factors, physician preference, and differences in availability of state-of-the-art equipment. All three modalities are highly accurate in experienced hands and have revolutionized the detection and evaluation of this condition.

  15. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  16. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  17. In Vivo Diagnostic Imaging Using Micro-CT: Sequential and Comparative Evaluation of Rodent Models for Hepatic/Brain Ischemia and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Naoto; Nagai, Nobuo; Kawao, Naoyuki; Niwa, Atsuko; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Mori, Yuki; Shigeta, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Satou, Takao; Higashino, Hideaki; Matsuo, Osamu; Murakami, Takamichi

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need for animal disease models for pathophysiological research and efficient drug screening. However, one of the technical barriers to the effective use of the models is the difficulty of non-invasive and sequential monitoring of the same animals. Micro-CT is a powerful tool for serial diagnostic imaging of animal models. However, soft tissue contrast resolution, particularly in the brain, is insufficient for detailed analysis, unlike the current applications of CT in the clinical arena. We address the soft tissue contrast resolution issue in this report. Methodology We performed contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) on mouse models of experimental cerebral infarction and hepatic ischemia. Pathological changes in each lesion were quantified for two weeks by measuring the lesion volume or the ratio of high attenuation area (%HAA), indicative of increased vascular permeability. We also compared brain images of stroke rats and ischemic mice acquired with micro-CT to those acquired with 11.7-T micro-MRI. Histopathological analysis was performed to confirm the diagnosis by CECT. Principal Findings In the models of cerebral infarction, vascular permeability was increased from three days through one week after surgical initiation, which was also confirmed by Evans blue dye leakage. Measurement of volume and %HAA of the liver lesions demonstrated differences in the recovery process between mice with distinct genetic backgrounds. Comparison of CT and MR images acquired from the same stroke rats or ischemic mice indicated that accuracy of volumetric measurement, as well as spatial and contrast resolutions of CT images, was comparable to that obtained with MRI. The imaging results were also consistent with the histological data. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the CECT scanning method is useful in rodents for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of pathologic lesions in tissues/organs including the brain, and is also suitable for

  18. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  19. [Diagnostic imaging of thyroid tumor].

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-11-01

    Recently, thyroid nodules are found frequently when other imaging test was performed, and selection of diagnostic methods and its handling have become a problem clinically. Although it is possible to differentiate the malignant tumor from benign one using B-mode ultrasound, it can be obtained more detailed information in combination of other modalities such as color Doppler and tissue elasticity imaging (elastography). The malignant B-mode findings are irregular shape, indistinct border, hypoechoic and inhomogeneous internal echo, and fine calcification. CT/MRI is useful to evaluate the extention of thyroid cancer to adjacent organs beyond the thyroid capsule. It is also useful to evaluate distant metastases to lung or brain of thyroid cancer. In nuclear medicine, 125I scintigraphy is used to measure thyroid uptake rate, 131I scintigraphy is used to investigate the distant metastasis of thyroid cancer. It is necessary to be careful that some false-positive cases exist in 18FDG-PET.

  20. [Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Carpeggiani, Clara

    2014-03-01

    Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and γ-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy

  1. [Diagnostic imaging of splenic disease].

    PubMed

    Völk, M; Strotzer, M

    2006-03-01

    Primary diseases of the spleen are relatively rare. More frequently, the spleen is involved secondarily in hematological, oncological, infectious, immunological, vascular, and other systemic diseases. The spleen is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Anatomical and physiological basics are explained, in addition to embryological facts with resulting abnormalities, such as accessory and "wandering" spleen, and polysplenia. The most frequent primary and secondary diseases of the spleen, including rare diagnoses, are presented and illustrated. Hemangioma represents the most common primary benign tumor, and lymphoma the most common primary malignant tumor of the spleen. Diagnostic imaging does not a allow safe differentiation between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. One section deals with the clinical value and diagnostic workup of incidentally detected lesions. Simple cysts and calcifications need neither clarification nor a follow-up examination. Atypical cysts should be controlled within 3-6 months. Additional clarification using CT or MRT should be reserved for cases with a strong suspicion of clinically relevant primary or secondary splenic disease.

  2. The value of diagnostic medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Bradley, Kendall E

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging has clear clinical utility, but it also imposes significant costs on the health care system. This commentary reviews the factors that drive the cost of medical imaging, discusses current interventions, and suggests possible future courses of action.

  3. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  4. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Michael A.; Land, Cecil E.; Martin, Stephen J.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    1993-01-01

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of the acutely injured patient

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described.

  6. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  7. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard C G

    2016-02-21

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn's disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT.

  8. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard CG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  9. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (174)

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Chou, Hong; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2017-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with chronic low back pain and occasional radiation to the right lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine showed an osteolytic expansile lesion with a central sclerotic nidus in the right superior facet of the L5 vertebra and surrounding marrow oedema. The diagnosis of osteoblastoma was made based on imaging findings and confirmed after CT-guided biopsy. Radiofrequency ablation of the lesion was successfully performed. The patient tolerated the procedure well and showed symptomatic relief. The imaging features and management of osteoblastoma are discussed. PMID:28210742

  10. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    PubMed

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  11. The pacing stress test: thallium-201 myocardial imaging after atrial pacing. Diagnostic value in detecting coronary artery disease compared with exercise testing

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, G.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Parker, J.A.; McKay, R.G.; Silverman, K.J.; Als, A.V.; Come, P.C.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-05-01

    Many patients suspected of having coronary artery disease are unable to undergo adequate exercise testing. An alternate stress, pacing tachycardia, has been shown to produce electrocardiographic changes that are as sensitive and specific as those observed during exercise testing. To compare thallium-201 imaging after atrial pacing stress with thallium imaging after exercise stress, 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were studied with both standard exercise thallium imaging and pacing thallium imaging. Positive ischemic electrocardiographic changes (greater than 1 mm ST segment depression) were noted in 11 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease during exercise, and in 15 of the 16 patients during atrial pacing. One of six patients with normal or trivial coronary artery disease had a positive electrocardiogram with each test. Exercise thallium imaging was positive in 13 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease compared with 15 of 16 patients during atrial pacing. Three of six patients without coronary artery disease had a positive scan with exercise testing, and two of these same patients developed a positive scan with atrial pacing. Of those patients with coronary artery disease and an abnormal scan, 85% showed redistribution with exercise testing compared with 87% during atrial pacing. Segment by segment comparison of thallium imaging after either atrial pacing or exercise showed that there was a good correlation of the location and severity of the thallium defects (r . 0.83, p . 0.0001, Spearman rank correlation). It is concluded that the location and presence of both fixed and transient thallium defects after atrial pacing are closely correlated with the findings after exercise testing.

  12. Hierarchical Segmentation Enhances Diagnostic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Bartron Medical Imaging LLC (BMI), of New Haven, Connecticut, gained a nonexclusive license from Goddard Space Flight Center to use the RHSEG software in medical imaging. To manage image data, BMI then licensed two pattern-matching software programs from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that were used in image analysis and three data-mining and edge-detection programs from Kennedy Space Center. More recently, BMI made NASA history by being the first company to partner with the Space Agency through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to develop a 3-D version of RHSEG. With U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance, BMI will sell its Med-Seg imaging system with the 2-D version of the RHSEG software to analyze medical imagery from CAT and PET scans, MRI, ultrasound, digitized X-rays, digitized mammographies, dental X-rays, soft tissue analyses, moving object analyses, and soft-tissue slides such as Pap smears for the diagnoses and management of diseases. Extending the software's capabilities to three dimensions will eventually enable production of pixel-level views of a tumor or lesion, early identification of plaque build-up in arteries, and identification of density levels of microcalcification in mammographies.

  13. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (175)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijay; Lim, Tze Chwan; Ho, Francis Cho Hao; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with change in behaviour, nocturnal enuresis, abnormal limb movement and headache of one week’s duration. The diagnosis of butterfly glioma (glioblastoma multiforme) was made based on imaging characteristics and was further confirmed by biopsy findings. As the corpus callosum is usually resistant to infiltration by tumours, a mass that involves and crosses the corpus callosum is suggestive of an aggressive neoplasm. Other neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions that may involve the corpus callosum and mimic a butterfly glioma, as well as associated imaging features, are discussed. PMID:28361164

  14. Optical Diagnostic Imaging Of Surface Topography And Body Deformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windischbauer, Gerhard

    1989-04-01

    Modern diagnostic imaging techniques are providing three-dimensional images by the combination of analog sensing devices, powerful digital processors and graphic displays. Computer based optical imaging systems are used for detection and tracking of body deformities in Orthopaedics. To establish a morphometric data-base means for comparing and averaging similar shapes have to be prepared. Assuming fast technological advancements use at present and prospective applications are given.

  15. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (172)

    PubMed Central

    Low, Hsien Min; Chinchure, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old Chinese man presented with abdominal pain associated with bloody mucoid stools, loss of appetite and weight loss. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a colocolic intussusception secondary to a lipoma. The patient subsequently underwent a left hemicolectomy. Clinical and imaging findings of intussusception in adults are discussed in this article. PMID:27995264

  16. Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Come, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

  17. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  18. [Inflammatory bowel diseases--imaging diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gil, Jerzy; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2004-01-01

    The basic diagnostic procedure in ulcerative colitis is an endoscopy of gastrointestinal tract. It allows the macroscopic evaluation as well as the specimen taking for histological assessment what is the basis for ultimate diagnosis. In case of Crohn's disease the radiological diagnostics is of equal importance as endoscope evaluation. The imaging of inflammatory changes in Crohn's disease still poses some difficulties, especially, that located in the small intestine. Lately, the range of accessible examinations has been wider. We have in disposal the ultrasonography, the computed tomography, the magnetic resonance imaging and the capsular endoscopy. All of them are of great use in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. In case of microscopic colitis all the imaging diagnostics has no use. The only one mean to establish the diagnosis is a histological assessment. What is more, in the period of remission the colon tissue could be normal. In this paper we discussed the traditional and contemporary intestine imaging methods in inflammatory bowel diseases. The conclusion is that the further progress in science offers a better imaging and, what is even more important, the more efficient diagnostics and treatment of these diseases.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (171)

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Su Kai Gideon; Tan, Tien Jin; Ngu, James Chi Yong

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old Chinese woman with a history of cholecystectomy and appendicectomy presented to the emergency department with symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Physical examination revealed central abdominal tenderness but no clinical features of peritonism. Plain radiography of the abdomen revealed a grossly distended large bowel loop with the long axis extending from the right lower abdomen toward the epigastrium, and an intraluminal air-fluid level. These findings were suspicious for an acute caecal volvulus, which was confirmed on subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis. CT demonstrated an abnormal positional relationship between the superior mesenteric vein and artery, indicative of an underlying intestinal malrotation. This case highlights the utility of preoperative imaging in establishing the diagnosis of an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction. It also shows the importance of recognising the characteristic imaging features early, so as to ensure appropriate and expedient management, thus reducing patient morbidity arising from complications. PMID:27872936

  20. Neuroblastoma: diagnostic imaging and staging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Brasch, R.C.; deLorimier, A.A.; Albin, A.R.; London, D.A.; Gooding, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    Results of computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, excretory urography, and other imaging tests used to diagnose and stage 38 cases of neuroblastoma prior to treatment were reviewed. Findings of these examinations were correlated with clinical data, laboratory data, results of biopsy, and surgical findings. CT was the most sensitive single test (100%) for the detection and delineation of the primary tumor. Calcifications that suggested the histologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma were present in 79% of the cases. Rim calcifications, the most specific pattern for neuroblastoma, were identified in 29% of all cases. CT alone accurately staged 82% of cases; when complemented by bone marrow biopsy, staging accuracy was 97%. CT alone was more accurate than any combination of imaging tests that excluded CT. An algorithm using CT is presented for the diagnosis and staging of neuroblastoma at reduced cost and with increased efficiency.

  1. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (173)

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Vishal; Chawla, Ashish; Lim, Tze Chwan; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2017-01-01

    A 56-year-old Chinese man presented with giddiness and vertigo. Subsequent chest radiography showed the classic scimitar sign of an abnormal pulmonary venous return. Further evaluation with non-contrast computed tomography substantiated the finding of a partial anomalous venous drainage pattern and identified an associated rare lung anomaly, horseshoe lung. The imaging findings of scimitar syndrome and its association with horseshoe lung are reviewed. PMID:28111692

  2. [Invasive diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Gamou, Tadatsugu; Kawashiri, Masaaki; Tada, Hayato; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Invasive diagnostic imaging technique of coronary atherosclerosis has rapidly developed. For example, intravascular ultrasound(IVUS) is recognized as an essential device for percutaneous coronary intervention to evaluate the vessel wall, vascular lumen and coronary plaque morphologies because of its accuracy for quantitative analysis capability. Recently new imaging modalities such as radio-frequency signal analysis, elastography and contrast harmonic echography have been developed for the evaluation of histological characteristics. Also, optical coherence tomography(OCT), which provides approximately ten-times higher-resolutional cross-section images of the coronary arterial wall in comparison with IVUS, became available in clinical setting. In this article, we review the latest progress of the invasive diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerosis.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines.

  4. Marketing considerations for diagnostic imaging centers.

    PubMed

    McCue, P

    1987-10-01

    Diagnostic imaging centers seek every possible advantage to maintain a successful practice in the face of competition from hospitals and other freestanding operators. Several radiologists and business managers involved in existing or planned centers discuss their marketing strategies, modality choices, organizational structure, and other issues pertinent to the start-up and operation of a viable free-standing operation.

  5. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (170)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohammad Taufik Bin Mohamed; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of left posterior heel pain. Physical examination revealed a tender, inflamed and indurated posterior heel with a visible bony prominence of the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus. Lateral ankle radiography showed a prominent left posterosuperior calcaneal tuberosity and thickening of the distal Achilles tendon outline. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high-signal inflammatory fluid in the retrocalcaneal bursa, increased signal intensity and thickening of the Achilles tendon, and prominence of the posterior calcaneus tuberosity with reactive marrow oedema. The findings are consistent with Haglund’s deformity. The patient underwent hind foot surgery after failing a six-month course of conservative therapy. There was no further recurrence of symptoms after surgery. The clinical and radiological features of Haglund’s deformity are described, including a short discussion of other causes of hind foot pain. PMID:27663032

  6. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (168)

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yusheng Keefe; Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old Chinese male patient presented with constipation lasting five days, colicky abdominal pain, lethargy, weakness and body aches. He was able to pass flatus. Abdominal radiography showed a distended stomach causing inferior displacement of the transverse colon. Computed tomography revealed a dilated oesophagus, stomach and duodenum up to its third portion, with a short aortomesenteric distance and narrow angle. There was also consolidation in the lungs bilaterally. Based on the constellation of clinical and imaging findings, a diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome complicated by aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient was subsequently started on intravenous hydration, nasogastric tube aspiration and antibiotics. Following stabilisation of his acute condition, a nasojejunal feeding tube was inserted and a feeding plan was implemented to promote weight gain. The clinical presentation, differentials, diagnosis and treatment of superior mesenteric artery syndrome are discussed. PMID:27212130

  7. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  8. Exploiting EIS/Hinode Imaging Diagnostic Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, H. P.

    2009-05-01

    Using a wide slit, also called slot, the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, on-board Hinode, is capable of obtaining relatively fast (1-3 min) simultaneous monochromatic images of various spectral lines with different formation temperatures ranging 0.4-3 MK. This mode allows us to study morphology and dynamics of solar coronal and transition region structures across the temperature spectrum in a similar way to an EUV imager. This is achieved at the expense of spectral resolution. In this paper we investigate the plasma diagnostic capabilities of these spectrally pure images.Wide slit images can be interpreted as a superposition of simultaneous narrow slit spectra from adjacent solar positions. From the comparison of consecutive narrow slit rasters and wide slit images, we demonstrate that by making simple assumptions it is possible to extract the narrow slit spectra out of the slot images. This encouraging result opens up the door for plasma diagnostics, like electron density from spectral line ratios and differential emission measure analysis, for solar dynamic events. Various examples, as well as the limitations and validity of the assumptions, are discussed.

  9. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: 1 Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1998-01-01

    The motivation for the Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD) experiment lies in the broad practical importance of understanding combustion generated particulate. Depending upon the circumstances, particulate matter can affect the durability and performance of combustion equipment, can be a pollutant, can be used to detect fires and, in the form of soot, can be the dominant source of radiant energy from flames. Bright sooty fires are desirable for efficient energy extraction in furnaces and power equipment. In contrast, soot-enhanced radiation is undesirable in many propulsion systems (e.g. jet engines). The non-buoyant structure of most flames of practical interest (turbulent) makes understanding of soot processes in low gravity flames important to our ability to predict fire behavior on earth. These studies also have direct applications to fire safety in human-crew spacecraft, since smoke is the indicator used for automated detection in current spacecraft. In addition, recent tests conducted on MIR showed that a candle in a truly quiescent spacecraft environment can burn for tens of minutes. Consequently, this test and many earlier tests have demonstrated that fires in spacecraft can be considered a credible risk. In anticipation of this risk, NASA has included fire detectors on Skylab, smoke detectors on the Space Shuttle (STS), and smoke detectors in the design for the International Space Station (ISS). In the CSD experiment, these smoke detectors were tested using, quasi-steady, low-gravity, particulate generating materials. Samples of the particulate were also obtained from these low-gravity sources. This experiment provides the first such measurements aimed toward understanding of soot processes here on earth and for the testing and design of advanced spacecraft smoke detection systems. This paper describes the operation and preliminary results of the CSD experiment which was was conducted in the Middeck Glovebox Facility (MGBX) on USMP-3. The objectives of CSD

  10. Spectroscopic imaging diagnostics for burning plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Suliman, G.; Tritz, K.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Kaita, R.; Johnson, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; May, M. J.

    2005-02-01

    Spectroscopic imaging of plasma emission profiles from a few electron volts to tens of kilo-electron volts enables basic diagnostics in present day tokamaks. For the more difficult burning plasma conditions, light extraction and detection techniques, as well as instrument designs need to be investigated. As an alternative to light extraction with reflective optics, we discuss normal incidence, transmissive-diffractive optics (e.g., transmission gratings), which might withstand plasma exposure with less degradation of optical properties. Metallic multilayer reflectors are also of interest for light extraction. Although a shift of the diffraction peak might occur, instrument designs that accommodate such shifts are possible. As imaging detectors we consider "optical" arrays based on conversion of the short-wavelength light into visible light followed by transport of the visible signal with hollow lightguides. The proposed approaches to light extraction and detection could enable radiation resistant diagnostics.

  11. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Matthew E.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Panjehpour, Masoud; Phan, Mary N.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-02-01

    An advanced hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) system has been developed for use in medical diagnostics. One such diagnostic, esophageal cancer is diagnosed currently through biopsy and subsequent pathology. The end goal of this research is to develop an optical-based technique to assist or replace biopsy. In this paper, we demonstrate an instrument that has the capability to optically diagnose cancer in laboratory mice. We have developed a real-time HSI system based on state-of-the-art liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) technology coupled to an endoscope. This unique HSI technology is being developed to obtain spatially resolved images of the slight differences in luminescent properties of normal versus tumorous tissues. In this report, an in-vivo mouse study is shown. A predictive measure of cancer for the mice studied is developed and shown. It is hoped that the results of this study will lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of esophageal cancer in humans.

  12. Spectroscopic imaging diagnostics for burning plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Suliman, G.; Tritz, K.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Kaita, R.; Johnson, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; May, M.J.

    2005-02-01

    Spectroscopic imaging of plasma emission profiles from a few electron volts to tens of kilo-electron volts enables basic diagnostics in present day tokamaks. For the more difficult burning plasma conditions, light extraction and detection techniques, as well as instrument designs need to be investigated. As an alternative to light extraction with reflective optics, we discuss normal incidence, transmissive-diffractive optics (e.g., transmission gratings), which might withstand plasma exposure with less degradation of optical properties. Metallic multilayer reflectors are also of interest for light extraction. Although a shift of the diffraction peak might occur, instrument designs that accommodate such shifts are possible. As imaging detectors we consider 'optical' arrays based on conversion of the short-wavelength light into visible light followed by transport of the visible signal with hollow lightguides. The proposed approaches to light extraction and detection could enable radiation resistant diagnostics.

  13. [Diagnostic imaging of peripheral renal vascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Hélénon, O; Correas, J M; Eiss, D; Khairoune, A; Merran, S

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disorders of the kidney involve the intrarenal branches of the renal vascular tree. It include occlusive (infarction and cortical necrosis) and non-occlusive vascular lesions (acquired arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous malformation, false aneurysms and microaneurysms). Initial diagnosis relies on color Doppler US and CT angiography. Angiography plays a therapeutic role. MR imaging provides useful diagnostic information on perfusion disorders especially in patients with renal insufficiency.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam CT compared with panoramic images in predicting retromolar canal during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Sisman, Yıldıray; Payveren-Arıkan, Mehtap; Sahman, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical significance of the existence of a retromolar canal and of its neurovascular content is not yet clear.The aim of the present study was to assess the visibility, diameter and course of the mandibular retromolarcanal (MRC) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan -had been taken for pre-operative radiographic evaluation of impacted mandibular third molars- compared to panoramic radiographs. Study Design: Subjects eligible for study enrollment were those who underwent preoperative CBCT scan for the extraction of impactedmandibular third molars were determined to be extremely close to the mandibular canal on panoramic radiographs. Radiographs were screened for the presence and course of retromolar canals, and linear measurements. Results: 947hemimandibles in 632 patients were examined.A total of 253 MRCs (144 left, 109 right) were detected with CBCT images (26.7%). Only 29 of these canals were also seen on the corresponding panoramic radiographs. Most MRCs had a vertical course (type VI, 28.46%), followed by slightly curved (type I, 26.09%). The visibility of the MRC on the OPGs, according to the increase in the diameter, was not statistically significant for both sides (p>.05).Statistically difference were found for the width at the point of origin from the mandibular canal (p: .037), the mean distance from the MRC to the second molar (p: .042) and height of MRC when compared the gender. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the MRC isn’t a rare anatomical structure. This study therefore clearly establishes the incidence and importance of the MRC. The detection of the presence of the MRC using CBCT may be crucial for extraction of mandibular third molars. Key words:Accessory innervation, cone beam computed tomography, mandibular anatomy, panoramic radiographs, retromolar canal, retromolar foramen. PMID:25475767

  15. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  16. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  17. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joseph Mwamba; Nel, Susan; Pitcher, Richard Denys

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objective To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published international data, in preparation for the introduction of national health insurance (NHI) in SA. Methods The SA Radiation Control Board's database of registered diagnostic radiology equipment was analysed by modality, province and healthcare sector. Access to services was reflected as number of units/million population, and compared with published international data. Results General X-ray units are the most equitably distributed and accessible resource (34.8/million). For fluoroscopy (6.6/million), mammography (4.96/million), computed tomography (5.0/million) and magnetic resonance imaging (2.9/million), there are at least 10-fold discrepancies between the least and best resourced provinces. Although SA's overall imaging capacity is well above that of other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, it is lower than that of all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). While SA's radiological resources most closely approximate those of the United Kingdom, they are substantially lower than the UK. Conclusion SA access to radiological services is lower than that of any OECD country. For the NHI to achieve equitable access to diagnostic imaging for all citizens, SA will need a more homogeneous distribution of specialised radiological resources and customized imaging guidelines. PMID:26834910

  18. Diagnostic Performance of First-Pass Myocardial Perfusion Imaging without Stress with Computed Tomography (CT) Compared with Coronary CT Angiography Alone, with Fractional Flow Reserve as the Reference Standard.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Toru; Miki, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Sato, Shuhei; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in combination with first-pass CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has a better diagnostic performance than CCTA alone, compared with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard. The aim of this study was to investigate the additional diagnostic value of first-pass CT-MPI without stress for detecting hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis, compared with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). We recruited 53 patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing both CCTA and first-pass CT-MPI without stress and invasive FFR, and 75 vessels were analyzed. We used the same raw data for CCTA and CT-MPI. First-pass CT-MPI was reconstructed by examining the diastolic signal densities as a bull's eye map. Invasive FFR <0.8 was considered as positive. On per-vessel analysis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CCTA plus first-pass CT-MPI and CCTA alone was 0.81 (0.73-0.90) and 0.70 (0.61-0.81), respectively (P = 0.036). CCTA plus first-pass CT-MPI without stress showed 0.73 sensitivity, 0.74 specificity, 0.53 positive predictive value, and 0.87 negative predictive value for detecting hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. First-pass CT-MPI without stress correctly reclassified 38% of CCTA false-positive vessels as true negative. First-pass CT-MPI without stress combined with CCTA demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy, compared with invasive FFR as the reference standard. This technique could complement CCTA for diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  19. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  20. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  1. Diagnostic imaging in mediastinal thyroid tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Cho, S.R.; Purcell, M.; Tsung-Yao, H.; Domstad, P.A.; Liu, C.I.; DeLand, F.H.

    1984-12-01

    Various diagnostic imagings in nine patients with mediastinal goiters were presented. The clinical manifestations of these patients were various, from totally asymptomatic to severe dyspnea. Six of the nine patients underwent surgical intervention, three were follicular adenomas and three were nodular goiters. A chest radiograph (positive in seven out of nine patients) provided the most valuable initial localization of a goiter mass to the anterior, middle, or posterior compartment. Esophagograms (performed in four patients) showed compression of esophagus by the mediastinal mass. I-131 scintigraphy (performed in seven patients) was capable of detection of functional (in three patients) vs nonfunctional status of thyroid status (in four patients). Angiography (performed in five patients), characterized by anatomic continuity with cervical thyroid gland, calcifications, well-defined border of masses and/or contrast enhancement, offered important roles to direct a diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. The computed tomography becomes increasingly important because all mediastinal goiters are not radioiodine avid.

  2. Diagnostic imaging for temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Allison; Kalathingal, Sajitha

    2013-07-01

    The focus of this article is diagnostic imaging used for the evaluation of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain patients. Imaging modalities discussed include conventional panoramic radiography, panoramic temporomandibular joint imaging mode, cone beam computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The imaging findings associated with common diseases of the temporomandibular joint are presented and indications for brain imaging are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are presented as well as illustrations of the various imaging techniques.

  3. The Evidence Value Matrix for Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Seidel, David; Frank, Richard A; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Evidence and value are independent factors that together affect the adoption of diagnostic imaging. For example, noncoverage decisions by reimbursement authorities can be justified by a lack of evidence and/or value. To create transparency and a common understanding among various stakeholders, we have proposed a two-dimensional matrix that allows classification of imaging devices into three distinct categories based on the available evidence and value: "question marks" (low value demonstrated in studies of any evidence level), "candidates" (high value demonstrated in retrospective case-control studies and smaller case series), and "stars" (high value demonstrated in large prospective cohort studies or, preferably, randomized controlled trials). We use several examples to illustrate the application of our matrix. A major benefit of the matrix includes the development of specific strategies for evidence and value generation. High-evidence/low-value studies are expensive and unlikely to convince decision makers, given the uncertainty of the impact on patient management and outcomes. Developing question marks into candidates first and then into stars will often be quicker and less expensive ("success sequence"). Only this more sophisticated and objective approach can justify the additional funding necessary to generate the evidence base to inform reimbursement by payers and adoption by providers.

  4. Diagnostic imaging in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Katome, Takashi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Naito, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a progressive inherited retinal disease, and patients with RP have reduced visual function caused by a degeneration of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). At the end stage of RP, the degeneration of the photoreceptors in the fovea reduces central vision, and RP is one of the main causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. Therefore, morphological and functional assessments of the photoreceptors in the macula area can be useful in estimating the residual retinal function in RP patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established method of examining the retinal architecture in situ. The photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction is observed as a distinct, highly reflective line by OCT. The presence of the IS/OS junction in the OCT images is essential for normal visual function. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) results from the accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE cells and has been used to investigate RPE and retinal function. More than one-half of RP patients have an abnormally high density parafoveal FAF ring (AF ring). The AF ring represents the border between functional and dysfunctional retina. In this review, we shall summarize recent progress on diagnostic imaging in eyes with RP.

  5. Diagnostic Imaging and Problems of Schizencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Joanna; Kucharska-Miąsik, Iwona; Dziurzyńska-Białek, Ewa; Kostkiewicz, Agnieszka; Solińska, Anna; Zając-Mnich, Monika; Guz, Wiesław; Samojedny, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Schizencephaly is a rare developmental malformation of the central nervous system associated with cell migration disturbances. Schizencephaly can be uni- or bilateral and is divided into two morphological types. The cleft is defined as type I (“closed lips”) if there are fused clefts in cerebral mantle. In type II (“open lips”) the clefts are separated and filled with cerebrospinal fluid connecting lateral ventricle with the subarachnoid space. Material/Methods We retrospectively analysed data of patients hospitalized in the Clinical Pediatric Neurology Department of Provincial Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszow between 1998–2011. Clinical data and imaging exams were analysed in the group of children with confirmed schizencephaly. Results Schizencephaly was recognized in 32 children. Diagnosis was made in children at the ages between 2 weeks and 15 years – the majority of older children were born before the year 2000. Diagnostic imaging, most often magnetic resonance imaging, was performed in all of the children. In most cases coexistence of other CNS malformations was discovered. In only one patient there were no neurological symptoms, most of the children presented different developmental disorders and neurological symptoms – most often cerebral palsy and epilepsy. In the group of children with bilateral and type II schizencephaly certain symptoms occurred more often. Conclusions Schizencephaly is a rare central nervous system developmental disorder, which is very often associated with other severe brain malformations and in most of the cases subsequent multiple neurological symptoms. The method of choice in diagnosis of schizencephaly is magnetic resonance, which shows the degree and type of cleft, coexisting abnormalities and allows differential diagnosis. With the increased availability of this method it is possible to recognize schizencephaly more often and earlier. PMID:25473439

  6. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  7. Diagnostic performance of cardiac imaging methods to diagnose ischaemia-causing coronary artery disease when directly compared with fractional flow reserve as a reference standard: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Danad, Ibrahim; Szymonifka, Jackie; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Norgaard, Bjarne L.; Zarins, Christopher K.; Knaapen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress echocardiography (SE), invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CCTA (FFRCT), and cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging when directly compared with an FFR reference standard. Method and results PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for investigations published between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2015. Studies performing FFR in at least 75% of coronary vessels for the diagnosis of ischaemic coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. Twenty-three articles reporting on 3788 patients and 5323 vessels were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. In contrast to ICA, CCTA, and FFRCT reports, studies evaluating SPECT, SE, and MRI were largely retrospective, single-centre and with generally smaller study samples. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of CCTA (90%, 95% CI: 86–93), FFRCT (90%, 95% CI: 85–93), and MRI (90%, 95% CI: 75–97) were higher than for SPECT (70%, 95% CI: 59–80), SE (77%, 95% CI: 61–88), and ICA (69%, 95% CI: 65–75). The highest and lowest per-patient specificity was observed for MRI (94%, 95% CI: 79–99) and for CCTA (39%, 95% CI: 34–44), respectively. Similar specificities were noted for SPECT (78%, 95% CI: 68–87), SE (75%, 95% CI: 63–85), FFRCT (71%, 95% CI: 65–75%), and ICA (67%, 95% CI: 63–71). On a per-vessel basis, the highest sensitivity was for CCTA (pooled sensitivity, 91%: 88–93), MRI (91%: 84–95), and FFRCT (83%, 78–87), with lower sensitivities for ICA (71%, 69–74), and SPECT (57%: 49–64). Per-vessel specificity was highest for MRI (85%, 79–89), FFRCT (78%: 78–81), and SPECT (75%: 69–80), whereas ICA (66%: 64–68) and CCTA (58%: 55

  8. Perfluorocarbon Compounds: Applications In Diagnostic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattrey, Robert F.

    1986-06-01

    Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC's), well known in industry and of late as synthetic oxygen carriers, have a wide range of significant applications in diagnostic imaging. Their enhancement effect is detectable by ultrasound and magnetic resonance and if radiopaque, such as perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB), by standard radiography and computed tomography (CT). We have utilized PFOB as a CT contrast agent to enhance the blood pool, and as both a CT and an ultrasound contrast agent to enhance the liver, spleen, abscesses, infarctions, and tumors or any tissue where inflammatory cells can be found. PFC's, except for the echogenic enhancement of the vascular space on their first pass to the lung, do not enhance the blood pool on ultrasound. Otherwise, ultrasound applications are similar to those observed for CT. Fluosol, which was available for human trials, is not radiopaque and therefore served as an ultrasound contrast agent. In a preliminary clinical trial, Fluosol produced tumor enhancement in man at 1.6g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed lesions and liver and spleen enhancement at 2.4g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed non-enhancing lesions. Perfluorocarbon toxicity seems to be related to the constituents of the emulsion rather than the perfluorocarbon itself. Improvements in the emulsifier and emulsification technology has yielded stable emulsions at high concentrations and low toxicity.

  9. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric polytrauma management.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Ianniello, Stefania; Pinto, Fabio; Trinci, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is the cause of over 45% of deaths in children aged 1 to 14 years. Since multiple injuries are common among children, the emergency physician has to assess all the organs of a high-energy injured child, independent of mechanism of the trauma. Even if the principles of polytrauma management are identical both in children and in adults, the optimal pediatric patient care requires a specific understanding of some important anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences that play a significant role in the assessment and management of a pediatric patient. Emergency Radiology already plays a crucial role in the diagnostic process of a polytraumatized child according to the primary survey, through the use of multiple imaging modalities. Radiological and Ultrasound examinations play a basic role in the hemodynamically unstable patients. In the hemodynamically stable patients whole-body CT scanning is the most immediate radiological procedure that allows the examination of all the body parts of a polytraumatized child, reducing the number of minor injuries that might otherwise be neglected.

  10. Diagnosis of bone metastasis: recent comparative studies of imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J N; Paycha, F; Balogova, S

    2011-08-01

    Various imaging modalities are currently available to diagnose bone metastasis. The two main anatomical modalities are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with many variants proposed for the MRI procedure, including diffusion-weighted imaging. The two main functional modalities are scintigraphy and PET, also with many variants in the radiopharmaceutical, from the "all purpose" 99mTc labelled bisphosphonates to very selective radiopharmaceuticals for rare neoplasia. The diagnostic strategy will become more and more individually tailored according to the patient's clinical and biological data (primary cancer type, phase of the evolution, markers of aggressiveness, serum levels of biological tracers of bone metabolism, circulating or disseminating tumour cells …). If imaging is indicated, the diagnostic strategy will also depend on the availability and the diagnostic performance of the imaging modalities. Assessment of diagnostic performance requires comparative studies, performed with an adequate methodology. The main methodological weaknesses encountered in studies intending to compare imaging modalities for diagnosing bone metastasis are summarised. Comparative studies have been reviewed, which address the initial diagnosis of skeletal metastases in solid tumours except primary bone cancers. The results of more than 140 such comparative studies are then summarised and briefly commented, according to the type of the primary cancer, and according to the compared imaging modalities.

  11. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  12. Modifications to the synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, K. J.; Chorley, J. C.; Dipper, N. A.; Naylor, G.; Sharples, R. M.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-11-01

    The synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic has been operating on the MAST experiment since 2011. It has provided the first 2D images of B-X-O mode conversion windows and showed the feasibility of conducting 2D Doppler back-scattering experiments. The diagnostic heavily relies on field programmable gate arrays to conduct its work. Recent successes and newly gained experience with the diagnostic have led us to modify it. The enhancements will enable pitch angle profile measurements, O and X mode separation, and the continuous acquisition of 2D DBS data. The diagnostic has also been installed on the NSTX-U and is acquiring data since May 2016.

  13. Modifications to the synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, K. J.; Chorley, J. C.; Dipper, N. A.; Naylor, G.; Sharples, R. M.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-09-02

    The synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic has been operating on the MAST experiment since 2011. It has provided the first 2D images of B-X-O mode conversion windows and showed the feasibility of conducting 2D Doppler back-scattering experiments. The diagnostic heavily relies on field programmable gate arrays to conduct its work. Recent successes and newly gained experience with the diagnostic have led us to modify it. The enhancements will enable pitch angle profile measurements, O and X mode separation, and the continuous acquisition of 2D DBS data. Finally, the diagnostic has also been installed on the NSTX-U and is acquiring data since May 2016.

  14. Technology Advances in Support of Fusion Plasma Imaging Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qi; Lai, Jiali; Hu, Fengqi; Li, Maijou; Chang, Yu-Ting; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville, Jr.

    2012-10-01

    Innovative technologies are under investigation in key areas to enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave fusion plasma imaging diagnostics. Novel antenna and mixer configurations are being developed at increasingly higher frequencies, to facilitate the use of electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on high field (> 2.6 T) plasma devices. Low noise preamplifier-based imaging antenna arrays are being developed to increase the sensitivity and dynamic range of microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) diagnostics for the localized measurement of turbulent density fluctuations. High power multi-frequency sources, fabricated using advanced CMOS technology, offer the promise of allowing MIR-based diagnostic instruments to image these density fluctuations in 2-D over an extended plasma volume in high performance tokamak plasmas. Details regarding each of these diagnostic development areas will be presented.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA for Detection Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Comparative Study with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Imbriaco, Massimo; De Luca, Serena; Coppola, Milena; Fusari, Mario; Klain, Michele; Puglia, Marta; Mainenti, Pierpaolo; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Maurea, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To compare the diagnostic accuracy of hepato-biliary (HB) phase with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCEMRI) and contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection. Material/Methods 73 patients underwent DCECT and Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR. Lesions were classified using a five-point confidence scale. Reference standard was a combination of pathological evidence and tumor growth at follow-up CT/MR at 12 months. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Results A total of 125 lesions were confirmed in 73 patients. As many as 74 were HCCs and 51 were benign. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.934 for DCEMRI (p<0.68) and 0.852 for DCECT (p<0.001). For lesions >20 mm (n.40), AUC was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase, 0.999 for DCEMRI, and 0.913 for DCECT, (p=n.s.). For lesions <20 mm (n.85) AUC was 0.982 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.910 for DCEMRI (p<0.01) and 0.828 for DCECT (p<0.001). Conclusions The addition of HB phase to DCEMRI provides an incremental accuracy of 4.5% compared to DCEMRI and DCECT for HCC detection. The accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR significantly improves for lesions <20 mm. No significant improvement is observed for lesions >20 mm and patients with Child-Pugh class B or C. PMID:28217239

  16. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  17. Overuse of Diagnostic Imaging for Work-Related Injuries.

    PubMed

    Clendenin, Brianna Rebecca; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2017-02-01

    Overuse of health care in the United States is a growing concern. This article addresses the use of diagnostic imaging for work-related injuries. Diagnostic imaging drives substantial cost for increases in workers' compensation. Despite guidelines published by the American College of Radiology and the American College of Occupational Medicine and the Official Disability Guidelines, practitioners are prematurely ordering imaging sooner than recommended. Workers are exposed to unnecessary radiation and are incurring increasing costs without evidence of better outcomes. Practitioners caring for workers and submitting workers' compensation claims should adhere to official guidelines, using their professional judgment to consider financial impact and health outcomes of diagnostic imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, radiography, and ultrasound.

  18. [Radionuclide imaging of neurendocrine tumors: biological basis and diagnostic results].

    PubMed

    Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Mallardo, Vania; Rossi, Michele; Vaccaro, Andrea; Raucci, Antonio; Della Vecchi, Nicoletta; Romano, Giovanna; Califano, Teresa; Schillirò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to detect neuroendocrine tumors, and many of them are based on a specific mechanism of uptake, while others are non-specific probes. This "review" focuses on the clinical applications of metaiodobenzylguanidine, (111)In-pentreotide and positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. New avances in diagnostic imaging will be discussed. Molecular imaging serves these diagnostic functions and provides powerful means for non-invasively detecting disease.

  19. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.

  20. TH-A-BRF-11: Image Intensity Non-Uniformities Between MRI Simulation and Diagnostic MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: MRI simulation for MRI-based radiotherapy demands that patients be setup in treatment position, which frequently involves use of alternative radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations to accommodate immobilized patients. However, alternative RF coil geometries may exacerbate image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) beyond those observed in diagnostic MRI, which may challenge image segmentation and registration accuracy as well as confound studies assessing radiotherapy response when MR simulation images are used as baselines for evaluation. The goal of this work was to determine whether differences in IINU exist between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Methods: ACR-MRI phantom images were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo sequence (TE/TR:20/500ms, rBW:62.5kHz, TH/skip:5/5mm). MR simulation images were obtained by wrapping two flexible phased-array RF coils around the phantom. Diagnostic MR images were obtained by placing the phantom into a commercial phased-array head coil. Pre-scan normalization was enabled in both cases. Images were transferred offline and corrected for IINU using the MNI N3 algorithm. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/μ) were calculated for each slice. Wilcoxon matched-pairs and Mann-Whitney tests compared CV values between original and N3 images and between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Results: Significant differences in CV were detected between original and N3 images in both MRI simulation and diagnostic MRI groups (p=0.010, p=0.010). In addition, significant differences in CV were detected between original MR simulation and original and N3 diagnostic MR images (p=0.0256, p=0.0016). However, no significant differences in CV were detected between N3 MR simulation images and original or N3 diagnostic MR images, demonstrating the importance of correcting MR simulation images beyond pre-scan normalization prior to use in radiotherapy. Conclusions: Alternative RF coil configurations used in MRI simulation can Result in

  1. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses.

  2. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  3. Cancer risks associated with external radiation from diagnostic imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Slovis, Thomas L; Miller, Donald L; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but increased potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate the widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures; oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives; development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians; and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures.

  4. Diagnostic time in digital pathology: A comparative study on 400 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vodovnik, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous validation studies in digital pathology confirmed its value as a diagnostic tool. However, a longer time to diagnosis than traditional microscopy has been seen as a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. As a part of our validation study, we compared a digital and microscopic diagnostic time in the routine diagnostic setting. Materials and Methods: One senior staff pathologist reported 400 consecutive cases in histology, nongynecological, and fine needle aspiration cytology (20 sessions, 20 cases/session), over 4 weeks. Complex, difficult, and rare cases were excluded from the study to reduce the bias. A primary diagnosis was digital, followed by traditional microscopy, 6 months later, with only request forms available for both. Microscopic slides were scanned at ×20, digital images accessed through the fully integrated laboratory information management system (LIMS) and viewed in the image viewer on double 23” displays. A median broadband speed was 299 Mbps. A diagnostic time was measured from the point slides were made available to the point diagnosis was made or additional investigations were deemed necessary, recorded independently in minutes/session and compared. Results: A digital diagnostic time was 1841 and microscopic 1956 min; digital being shorter than microscopic in 13 sessions. Four sessions with shorter microscopic diagnostic time included more cases requiring extensive use of magnifications over ×20. Diagnostic time was similar in three sessions. Conclusions: A diagnostic time in digital pathology can be shorter than traditional microscopy in the routine diagnostic setting, with adequate and stable network speeds, fully integrated LIMS and double displays as default parameters. This also related to better ergonomics, larger viewing field, and absence of physical slide handling, with effects on both diagnostic and nondiagnostic time. Differences with previous studies included a design, image size, number

  5. The clinician's guide to diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Z.D.; Ellis, D.A.; Brigham, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    ''Contains accurate and essential information on the imaging work-up of many clinical problems. It is best suited for medical students, house staff, and general practitioners who need a quick and easy basic reference when choosing among the various imaging modalities.'' -Radiology ''A practical manual designed for clinicians at any level....Provides a clear working framework.'' -Lancet ''The clarity of the text...is refreshing...It should be read by both referring physicians and imaging specialists.'' This pocket manual provides clinicians, house officers, and medical students with the first practical guide to the most appropriate, cost-effective use of computed tomography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and radiography. For each of 42 medical, surgical, and pediatric problems whose workup depends upon imaging, the text presents a logical, step-by-step imaging sequence, outlining the most direct, least invasive route to a diagnosis.

  6. Modifications to the synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic

    DOE PAGES

    Brunner, K. J.; Chorley, J. C.; Dipper, N. A.; ...

    2016-09-02

    The synthetic aperture microwave imaging diagnostic has been operating on the MAST experiment since 2011. It has provided the first 2D images of B-X-O mode conversion windows and showed the feasibility of conducting 2D Doppler back-scattering experiments. The diagnostic heavily relies on field programmable gate arrays to conduct its work. Recent successes and newly gained experience with the diagnostic have led us to modify it. The enhancements will enable pitch angle profile measurements, O and X mode separation, and the continuous acquisition of 2D DBS data. Finally, the diagnostic has also been installed on the NSTX-U and is acquiring datamore » since May 2016.« less

  7. Semiconductor Circuit Diagnostics By Magnetic Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    2011-03-01

    At the forefront of IC technology development are 3D circuit technologies such as system-in-package (SiP), wafer-level-packaging (WLP), through-silicon-vias (TSV), stacked die approaches, flex packages, etc. They integrate multiple devices, many times stacking them in layers with complex, intricate and very long interconnections in significantly reduced area, in addition to an ever-increasing number of opaque layers.~ We could very well say that the near future looks like the perfect nightmare for the Failure Analysis (FA) engineer with localization of defects becoming a major challenge. Magnetic field imaging (MFI) allows the fields generated by the circuit currents to go through various packaging layers and be imaged. I will describe in this talk Magma, a scanning magnetic field imaging system based on a high temperature superconducting SQUID device based on YBa2Cu3O7- δ . The HTS SQUIDs used have a noise level of ~ 20 pT/ √ (Hz) and for typical scanning conditions, a field sensitivity of about 0.7 nT. While current shorts are imaged with spatial resolution, up to 3 micron (with peak localization) resistive opens can also be imaged and currently different strategies are being adapted for imaging opens with large working distances of 50-100s of microns. Higher spatial resolution (~ 250 nm) is obtained by the use of magneto-resistive devices as sensors though the working distance requirement is sever

  8. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  9. Diagnostic imaging for dental implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Aishwarya; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2014-01-01

    Dental implant is a device made of alloplastic (foreign) material implanted into the jaw bone beneath the mucosal layer to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required and imaging plays a pivotal role to ensure a satisfactory outcome. The development of pre-surgical imaging techniques and surgical templates helps the dentist place the implants with relative ease. This article focuses on various types of imaging modalities that have a pivotal role in implant therapy.

  10. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds.

  11. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  12. A review of diagnostic imaging of snakes and lizards.

    PubMed

    Banzato, T; Hellebuyck, T; Van Caelenberg, A; Saunders, J H; Zotti, A

    2013-07-13

    Snakes and lizards are considered 'stoic' animals and often show only non-specific signs of illness. Consequently, diagnostic imaging--along with clinical examination and laboratory tests--is gaining importance in making a final diagnosis and establishing a correct therapy. The large number of captive snake and lizard species commonly kept as pets, together with the high inter- and intraspecific morphological variability that is innate in these animals, make the analysis of diagnostic images challenging for the veterinary practitioner. Moreover, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species that are the object of clinical investigation is mandatory for the correct interpretation of diagnostic images. Despite the large amount of clinical and scientific work carried out in the past two decades, the radiographic features of snakes and lizards have not undergone systematic description, and therefore veterinarians often have to rely mostly on anatomical studies rather than radiological literature. The aim of this paper is to review the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modalities, as well as to provide an overview of the available international original studies and scientific reviews describing the normal and pathological imaging features in snakes and lizards.

  13. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  14. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-07-28

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  15. [Auto-Immune Pancreatitis: The Diagnostic Role of Imaging Studies].

    PubMed

    Ressurreição, João; Bali, Maria; Matos, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Auto-immune pancreatitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed pathology. Its clinical picture is not specific and the diagnosis is therefore difficult. Imaging studies have a crucial role in the diagnostic process and also in the follow-up of treatment. With the objective of emphasizing the importance of imaging in the correct diagnosis of this pathology, the authors report the case of a patient with longterm unspecific abdominal complaints that was diagnosed as auto-immune pancreatitis after laboratorial and imaging investigation. Assuming this diagnosis it was instituted treatment with oral methylprednisolone, which succeeded, with progressive resolution of the clinical, laboratorial and imaging findings.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING OF THE THROWING ATHLETE’S SHOULDER

    PubMed Central

    Hazle, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of advanced imaging have increasingly enabled clinicians to delineate between structural alterations and injuries more efficiently than ever before. These impressive gains have unfortunately begun to provide a reliance on imaging at the loss of quality in the clinical examination. Ideally, imaging of the shoulder complex is performed to confirm the provisional diagnosis developed from the history and clinical exam rather than to create such. This clinical commentary will provide the framework for both basic and advanced uses of imaging as well as discussion of evolving modalities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175143

  17. Disposable blast shields for use on NIF imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cal A.; Wang, Karen M.; Masters, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    The NIFs 192 lasers can deliver 2 MJ of energy to Target Chamber Center (TCC) to produce environments not available in any other experimental laboratory. The NIFs ability to deliver such intense energy to a small volume causes harsh consequences to experimental equipment and supporting diagnostics such as holhraums, support packages, target positioners, diagnostic equipment, and laser optics. Of these, the hohlraum and support packages are typically quickly vaporized and transformed into an expanding shell of high-hypersonic gases referred to as debris wind. During an experimental event such as fusion implosion, the target diagnostic components used to measure key observables in the experiment are subjected to extreme pressures and impact shocks due to incident debris wind loading. As diagnostics are positioned closer to TCC, the diagnostic pinhole stacks and other components along the diagnostic structure become more likely to be at or above the yield strength of the materials commonly used. In particular, the pinhole stack components and data recording instruments behind the pinholes are the most costly to replace. Thus, a conceptual configuration for a pinhole shield is proposed, analyzed, and tested with the intent of mitigating damage to the pinhole stack and imaging equipment and allowing immediate re-use of this diagnostic equipment. This pinhole shield would be a replaceable window that can be replaced quickly by inserting and removing it before and after each experimental laser shot, which will allow NIF to benefit from significant material and labor costs.

  18. Present Practice And Perceived Needs-Managing Diagnostic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1982-01-01

    With the advent of digital radiography and the installed base of CT, Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Scanners numbering in the thousands and the potential of NMR, the market potential for the electronic management of digital images is perhaps one of the most exciting, fastest growing (and most ill defined) fields in medicine today. New technology in optical data storage, electronic transmission, image reproduction, microprocessing, automation and software development provide the promise of a whole new generation of products which will simplify and enhance the diagnostic process (thereby hopefully improving diagnostic accuracy), enable implementation of archival review in a practical sense, expand the availability of diagnostic data and lower the cost/case by at least an order of magnitude.

  19. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD.

  20. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  1. Autofluorescence-based diagnostic UV imaging of tissues and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and its early diagnosis is critical to improving treatment options and patient outcomes. In autofluorescence (AF) imaging, light of controlled wavelengths is projected onto tissue, absorbed by specific molecules, and re-emitted at longer wavelengths. Images of re-emitted light are used together with spectral information to infer tissue functional information and diagnosis. This dissertation describes AF imaging studies of three different organs using data collected from fresh human surgical specimens. In the ovary study, illumination was at 365 nm, and images were captured at 8 emission wavelengths. Measurements from a multispectral imaging system and fiber optic probe were used to map tissue diagnosis at every image pixel. For the colon and pancreas studies, instrumentation was developed extending AF imaging capability to sub-300 nm excitation. Images excited in the deep UV revealed tryptophan and protein content which are believed to change with disease state. Several excitation wavelength bands from 280 nm to 440 nm were investigated. Microscopic AF images collected in the pancreas study included both cultured and primary cells. Several findings are reported. A method of transforming fiber optic probe spectra for direct comparison with imager spectra was devised. Normalization of AF data by green reflectance data was found useful in correcting hemoglobin absorption. Ratio images, both AF and reflectance, were formulated to highlight growths in the colon. Novel tryptophan AF images were found less useful for colon diagnostics than the new ratio techniques. Microscopic tryptophan AF images produce useful visualization of cellular protein content, but their diagnostic value requires further study.

  2. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  3. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients.

  4. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-07

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time.

  5. Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Dual-Source Computerized Tomography Combined with Perfusion Imaging for Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xijin; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Xingyue; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism has become the third most common cardiovascular disease, which can seriously harm human health. Objectives To investigate the diagnostic value of dual-source computerized tomography (CT) and perfusion imaging for peripheral pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent dual-source CT exams. To compare the ability of pulmonary embolism detection software (PED) with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in determining the presence, numbers, and locations of pulmonary emboli, the subsequent images were reviewed by two radiologists using both imaging modalities. Also, the diagnostic consistency between PED and CTPA images and dual-energy pulmonary perfusion imaging (DEPI) for segmental pulmonary embolism was compared. Results CTPA images revealed 50 (7.81%) segmental and 56 (4.38%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms, while the PED images showed 68 (10.63%) segmental and 94 (7.34%) sub-segmental pulmonary embolisms. Thus, the detection rate on PED images for peripheral pulmonary embolism was significantly higher than that of the CTPA images (P < 0.05). There was good consistency for diagnosing segmental pulmonary embolism between PED and CTPA and DEPI (kappa = 0.85). The sensitivity and specificity of DEPI images for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism were 91.7% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion PED software of dual-source CT combined with perfusion imaging can significantly improve the detection rate of peripheral pulmonary embolism. PMID:27703656

  7. Reliability of whole slide images as a diagnostic modality for renal allograft biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jen, Kuang-Yu; Olson, Jean L; Brodsky, Sergey; Zhou, Xin J; Nadasdy, Tibor; Laszik, Zoltan G

    2013-05-01

    The use of digital whole slide images (WSI) in the field of pathology has become feasible for routine diagnostic purposes and has become more prevalent in recent years. This type of technology offers many advantages but must show the same degree of diagnostic reliability as conventional glass slides. Several studies have examined this issue in various settings and indicate that WSI are a reliable method for diagnostic pathology. Since transplant pathology is a highly specialized field that requires not only accurate but rapid diagnostic evaluation of biopsy materials, this field may greatly benefit from the use of WSI. In this study, we assessed the reliability of using WSI compared to conventional glass slides in renal allograft biopsies. We examined morphologic features and diagnostic categories defined by the Banff 07 Classification of Renal Allograft Pathology as well as additional morphologic features not included in this classification scheme. We found that intraobserver scores, when comparing the use of glass slides versus WSI, showed substantial agreement for both morphologic features (κ = 0.68) and acute rejection diagnostic categories (κ = 0.74). Furthermore, interobserver reliability was comparable for morphologic features (κ = 0.44 [glass] vs 0.42 [WSI]) and acute rejection diagnostic categories (κ = 0.49 [glass] vs 0.51 [WSI]). These data indicate that WSI are as reliable as glass slides for the evaluation of renal allograft biopsies.

  8. Evolving imaging techniques in diagnostic strategies of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Le Gal, Grégoire; Righini, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Modern non invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE) rely on the sequential use of clinical probability assessment, D-dimer measurement and thoracic imaging tests. Planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy was the cornerstone for more than two decades and has now been replaced by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strategies using CTPA are very safe to rule out PE and have been well validated in large prospective management outcome studies. With the widespread use of CTPA, concerns regarding radiation and overdiagnosis of PE have paved the way for investigating new diagnostic modalities. V/Q single photon emission tomography has arisen as a highly accurate test and a potential alternative to CTPA. However, prospective management outcome studies are still lacking and are warranted before implementation in everyday clinical practice.

  9. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included. PMID:26245604

  10. [The Will Rogers phenomenon and its impact on imaging diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Golder, W A

    2009-04-01

    The Will Rogers phenomenon is a possible cause of systematic distortions in the results of clinical studies, which can be produced if stage migration occurs during a disease. The term refers to the apparent paradox which is observed when an element is changed from one set to another and the average values of both sets are altered in the same way. The effect is due to the prerequisite that the numerical value of the element being moved is placed between the mean values of both groups. In medicine, this phenomenon is a consequence of the evolution of staging procedures and may be source of misleading statistics for survival in cancer. Both advanced pathological assessment and modern imaging techniques may be involved. The wrong conclusions are induced by comparing the effects of treatment in contemporary patient groups, which profit from extensive diagnostic procedures, to those of historical controls. Treatise informs about the history of the term and illustrates its effects by numerical examples and clinical data. Finally, a model computation based on current PET/CT figures is offered.

  11. Current profile reconstruction using electron temperature imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.; Sabbagh, S.

    2004-10-01

    Flux surface shape information can be used to constrain the current profile for reconstruction of the plasma equilibrium. One method of inferring flux surface shape relies on plasma x-ray emission; however, deviations from the flux surfaces due to impurity and density asymmetries complicate the interpretation. Electron isotherm surfaces should correspond well to the plasma flux surfaces, and equilibrium constraint modeling using this isotherm information constrains the current profile. The KFIT code is used to assess the profile uncertainty and to optimize the number, location and SNR required for the Te detectors. As Te imaging detectors we consider tangentially viewing, vertically spaced, linear gas electron multiplier arrays operated in pulse height analysis (PHA) mode and multifoil soft x-ray arrays. Isoflux coordinate sets provided by T{sub e} measurements offer a strong constraint on the equilibrium reconstruction in both a stacked horizontal array configuration and a crossed horizontal and vertical beam system, with q{sub 0} determined to within {+-}4%. The required SNR can be provided with either PHA or multicolor diagnostic techniques, though the multicolor system requires {approx}x4 better statistics for comparable final errors.

  12. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Malone; John R. Celesteb; Peter M. Celliers; Brent C. Froggeta; Robert L. Guyton; Morris I. Kaufman; Tony L. Lee; Brian J. MacGowan; Edmund W. Ng; Imants P. Reinbachs; Ronald B. Robinson; Lynn G. Seppala; Tom W. Tunnell; Phillip W. Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1–5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  13. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R; Celeste, J; Celliers, P; Frogget, B; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M; Lee, T; MacGowan, B; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Seppala, L; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P

    2005-07-07

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  14. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2005-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  15. Imaging VISAR diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Bower, J R; Bradley, D K; Capelle, G A; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eckart, M J; Eggert, J H; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Hicks, D G; Kaufman, M I; MacGowan, B J; Montelongo, S; Ng, E W; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W; Zapata, P G

    2004-08-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. A VISAR (Velocity Interferometry System for Any Reflector) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two interferometers. A 60-kW VISAR probe laser operates at 659.5 nm with variable pulse width. Special coatings on the mirrors and cutoff filters are used to reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and to pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, passive shock breakout light, or thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing other experimenters to use that port. A unique resolution pattern has been designed to validate the VISAR diagnostic before each use. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. Seven CCD cameras monitor the diagnostic alignment.

  16. Imaging VISAR diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Bower, John R.; Bradley, David K.; Capelle, Gene A.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eckart, Mark J.; Eggert, Jon H.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Hicks, Damien G.; Kaufman, Morris I.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Montelongo, Samuel; Ng, Edmund W.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.; Zapata, Paul G.

    2005-03-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. A VISAR (Velocity Interferometry System for Any Reflector) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two interferometers. A 60-kW VISAR probe laser operates at 659.5 nm with variable pulse width. Special coatings on the mirrors and cutoff filters are used to reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and to pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, passive shock breakout light, or thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing other experimenters to use that port. A unique resolution pattern has been designed to validate the VISAR diagnostic before each use. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. Seven CCD cameras monitor the diagnostic alignment.

  17. Assessing the Risks for Modern Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Jr.

    1998-05-01

    Some 35 years after Paul-Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity, ultrasonic imaging was developed by Paul Langevin. During this work, ultrasonic energy was observed to have a detrimental biological effect. These observations were confirmed a decade later by R. W. Wood and A. L. Loomis. It was not until the early 1950s that ultrasonic exposure conditions were controlled and specified so that studies could focus on the mechanisms by which ultrasound influenced biological materials. In the late 1940s, pioneering work was initiated to image the human body by ultrasonic techniques. These engineers and physicians were aware of the deleterious ultrasound effects at sufficiently high levels; this endeavored them to keep the exposure levels reasonably low. Over the past three decades, diagnostic ultrasound has become a sophisticated technology. Yet, our understanding of the potential risks has not changed appreciably. It is very encouraging that human injury has never been attributed to clinical practice of diagnostic ultrasound.

  18. Optical Imaging Techniques for Point-of-care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Isikman, Serhan O.; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Improving the access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enable rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays a crucial role in healthcare delivery in both the developed and developing countries by bringing medical testing to patients, or to sites near patients. As the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers and many endemics relies on optical techniques, numerous compact and cost-effective optical imaging platforms have been developed in recent years for use at the POC. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical imaging techniques that can have significant impact on global health by facilitating effective and affordable POC diagnostics. PMID:23044793

  19. Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A. C.; Tyagi, S. P.; Kanwar, M. S.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic disease is often treatable and has a predictable prognosis when a definitive diagnosis is made. The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of icterus, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. This paper describes the different diagnostic methods and imaging techniques employed in diagnosis of hepatobiliary affections in dogs. Besides reviewing the significant clinical manifestations and imaging structural abnormalities in diagnostic approach to different hepatic affections, it also depicts radiographic, ultrasonographic, and wherever applicable, the laparoscopic characterization of different hepatic affections and target lesions encountered in clinical cases presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, COVAS, Palampur in the year 2007-2008. PMID:22577609

  20. Functional infrared imaging in medicine: a quantitative diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Merla, A; Romani, G L

    2006-01-01

    The role and the potentialities of high-resolution infrared thermography, combined to bio-heat modelling, have been largely described in the last years in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Quantitative assessment over time of the cutaneous temperature and/or of other biomedical parameters related to the temperature (e.g., cutaneous blood flow, thermal inertia, sympathetic skin response) allows for a better and more complete understanding and description of functional processes involved and/or altered in presence of ailment and interfering with the regular cutaneous thermoregulation. Such an approach to thermal medical imaging requires both new methodologies and tools, like diagnostic paradigms, appropriate software for data analysis and, even, a completely new way to look at data processing. In this paper, some of the studies recently made in our laboratory are presented and described, with the general intent of introducing the reader to these innovative methods to obtain quantitative diagnostic tools based on thermal imaging.

  1. Imaging Live Bee Brains using Minimally-Invasive Diagnostic Radioentomology

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mark K; Tong, Jenna; Soleimani, Manucher; Bell, Duncan; Schäfer, Marc O

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymeonoptera: Apidae), brain volume and density to behavior (plasticity) makes it a great model for exploring the interactions between experience, behavior, and brain structure. Plasticity in the adult bee brain has been demonstrated in previous experiments. This experiment was conducted to identify the potentials and limitations of MicroCT (micro computed tomograpy) scanning “live” bees as a more comprehensive, non-invasive method for brain morphology and physiology. Bench-top and synchrotron MicroCT were used to scan live bees. For improved tissue differentiation, bees were fed and injected with radiographic contrast. Images of optic lobes, ocelli, antennal lobes, and mushroom bodies were visualized in 2D and 3D rendering modes. Scanning of live bees (for the first time) enabled minimally-invasive imaging of physiological processes such as passage of contrast from gut to haemolymph, and preliminary brain perfusion studies. The use of microCT scanning for studying insects (collectively termed ‘diagnostic radioentomology’, or DR) is increasing. Our results indicate that it is feasible to observe plasticity of the honey bee brain in vivo using diagnostic radioentomology, and that progressive, real-time observations of these changes can be followed in individual live bees. Limitations of live bee scanning, such as movement errors and poor tissue differentiation, were identified; however, there is great potential for in-vivo, non-invasive diagnostic radioentomology imaging of the honey bee for brain morphology and physiology. PMID:23421752

  2. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.

  3. [Role of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnostic otorhinolaryngological imaging].

    PubMed

    Perényi, Ádám; Bella, Zsolt; Baráth, Zoltán; Magyar, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Rovó, László

    2016-01-10

    Accurate diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern otorhinolaryngology is strongly supported by imaging with enhanced visualization. Computed tomography is often used to examine structures within bone frameworks. Given the hazards of ionizing radiation, repetitive imaging studies exponentially increase the risk of damages to radiosensitive tissues. The authors compare multislice and cone-beam computed tomography and determine the role, advantages and disadvantages of cone-beam computed tomography in otorhinolaryngological imaging. They summarize the knowledge from the international literature and their individual imaging studies. They conclude that cone-beam computed tomography enables high-resolution imaging and reconstruction in any optional plane and in space with considerably lower effective radiation dose. Cone-beam computed tomography with appropriate indications proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in otorhinolaryngological imaging. It makes an alternative to multislice computed tomography and it is an effective tool in perioperative and postoperative follow-up, especially in those cases which necessitate repetitive imaging with computed tomography.

  4. Strategic planning for radiology: opening an outpatient diagnostic imaging center.

    PubMed

    Leepson, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project.

  5. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX IMAGING FOR CANCER DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    LI, LIN Z.; XU, HE N.; RANJI, MAHSA; NIOKA, SHOKO; CHANCE, BRITTON

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial redox states provide important information about energy-linked biological processes and signaling events in tissues for various disease phenotypes including cancer. The redox scanning method developed at the Chance laboratory about 30 years ago has allowed 3D high-resolution (~ 50 × 50 × 10 μm3) imaging of mitochondrial redox state in tissue on the basis of the fluorescence of NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and Fp (oxidized flavoproteins including flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD). In this review, we illustrate its basic principles, recent technical developments, and biomedical applications to cancer diagnostic and therapeutic studies in small animal models. Recently developed calibration procedures for the redox imaging using reference standards allow quantification of nominal NADH and Fp concentrations, and the concentration-based redox ratios, e.g., Fp/(Fp+NADH) and NADH/(Fp+NADH) in tissues. This calibration facilitates the comparison of redox imaging results acquired for different metabolic states at different times and/or with different instrumental settings. A redox imager using a CCD detector has been developed to acquire 3D images faster and with a higher in-plane resolution down to 10 μm. Ex vivo imaging and in vivo imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox status have been demonstrated with the CCD imager. Applications of tissue redox imaging in small animal cancer models include metabolic imaging of glioma and myc-induced mouse mammary tumors, predicting the metastatic potentials of human melanoma and breast cancer mouse xenografts, differentiating precancerous and normal tissues, and monitoring the tumor treatment response to photodynamic therapy. Possible future directions for the development of redox imaging are also discussed. PMID:26015810

  7. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: promising optical diagnostic tools in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Beleites, C; Bonifacio, A; Codrich, D; Krafft, C; Sergo, V

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the use of Raman spectroscopy, an analytical technique based on the inelastic scattering of harmless laser light with biological tissues, as an innovative diagnostic tool in pediatrics. After a brief introduction to explain the fundamental concepts behind Raman spectroscopy and imaging, a short summary is given of the most important and common issues arising when handling spectral data with multivariate statistics. Then, the most relevant papers in which Raman spectroscopy or imaging has been applied with diagnostic purposes to pediatric patients are reviewed, and grouped according to the type of pathology: neoplastic, inflammatory, allergic, malformative as well as other kinds. Raman spectroscopy has been used both in vivo, mostly using optical fibers for tissue illumination, as well as on ex vivo tissue sections in a microscopic imaging approach defined as "spectral histopathology". According to the results reported so far, this technique showed a huge potential for mini- or non-invasive real-time, bedside and intra-operatory diagnosis, as well as for an ex vivo imaging tool in support to pathologists. Despite many studies are limited by the small sample size, this technique is extremely promising in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Sarah L; Knudson, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation in the outpatient setting and can represent conditions ranging from benign to life-threatening. If the patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing do not identify an underlying cause of pain and if serious pathology remains a clinical concern, diagnostic imaging is indicated. The American College of Radiology has developed clinical guidelines, the Appropriateness Criteria, based on the location of abdominal pain to help physicians choose the most appropriate imaging study. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging test of choice for patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended for evaluating right or left lower quadrant pain. Conventional radiography has limited diagnostic value in the assessment of most patients with abdominal pain. The widespread use of CT raises concerns about patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Strategies to reduce exposure are currently being studied, such as using ultrasonography as an initial study for suspected appendicitis before obtaining CT and using low-dose CT rather than standard-dose CT. Magnetic resonance imaging is another emerging technique for the evaluation of abdominal pain that avoids ionizing radiation.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Examination and Imaging Findings for Identifying Subacromial Pain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of subacromial pathology is limited by the poor accuracy of clinical tests for specific pathologies. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination and imaging features for identifying subacromial pain (SAP) defined by a positive response to diagnostic injection, and to evaluate the influence of imaging findings on the clinical diagnosis of SAP. Methods and Findings In a prospective, diagnostic accuracy design, 208 consecutive patients presenting to their primary healthcare practitioner for the first time with a new episode of shoulder pain were recruited. All participants underwent a standardized clinical examination, shoulder x-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Results were compared with the response to a diagnostic block of xylocaineTM injected into the SAB under ultrasound guidance using ≥80% post-injection reduction in pain intensity as the positive anaesthetic response (PAR) criterion. Diagnostic accuracy statistics were calculated for combinations of clinical and imaging variables demonstrating the highest likelihood of a PAR. A PAR was reported by 34% of participants. In participants with no loss of passive external rotation, combinations of three clinical variables (anterior shoulder pain, strain injury, absence of symptoms at end-range external rotation (in abduction)) demonstrated 100% specificity for a PAR when all three were positive (LR+ infinity; 95%CI 2.9, infinity). A full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound increased the likelihood of a PAR irrespective of age (specificity 98% (95%CI 94, 100); LR+ 6.2; 95% CI 1.5, 25.7)). Imaging did not improve the ability to rule-out a PAR. Conclusion Combinations of clinical examination findings and a full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound scan can help confirm, but not exclude, the presence of subacromial pain. Other imaging findings were of limited value for diagnosing SAP. PMID:27936246

  10. [Image diagnostic of the retina with fundus cameras].

    PubMed

    Koschmieder, Ingo; Müller, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    Imaging of the retina of the human eye is an essential aid for medical diagnosis. The technical realization of photos of the ocular fundus is not trivial because of the optical properties of the eye. Established devices to obtain images are so called fundus cameras with digital documentation capabilities. New procedures do not need the use of pupils enlarging measures at the patient and work with infrared illumination. The quality of the diagnostic findings depends on the one hand fundamentally on the lay-out of the optical design of the fundus camera. On the other hand there are limitations caused by the eye itself which is always a part of the beam path. Both impacts define the attainable results. Special applications deal with the stereoscopic imaging of the retina or with spectral reflection characteristics.

  11. Choice of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in periodontics and implantology.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Swarna; Sirisha, K; Srilalitha, Anumadi; Srinivas, Moogala

    2013-11-01

    Imaging forms an integral component for diagnosis of dental and in specific periodontal diseases. To date, intra-oral radiographic techniques are the main non-invasive diagnostic aids for the detection and assessment of internal changes in mineralized periodontal tissues like alveolar bone. These analog radiographic techniques suffer from inherent limitations like: Two dimensional projection, magnification, distortion, superimposition and misrepresentation of anatomic structures. The evolution of novel imaging modalities, namely cone beam computed tomography, tuned aperture CT empowered dental researchers to visualize the periodontium three dimensionally. This improves interpretation of structural and biophysical changes, ensures densitometric assessments of dentoalveolar structures including variations in alveolar bone density, and peri-implant bone healing more precisely. This detailed review, highlights current leading edge concepts, envisions a wide range of imaging modalities which pave the way for better understanding and early intervention of periodontal diseases.

  12. Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

    2013-10-01

    The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation.

  13. [Positron emission tomography: diagnostic imaging on a molecular level].

    PubMed

    Allemann, K; Wyss, M; Wergin, M; Bley, C Rohrer; Ametamay, S; Bruehlmeier, M; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2004-08-01

    In human medicine positron emission tomography (PET) is a modern diagnostic imaging method. In the present paper we outline the physical principles of PET and give an overview over the main clinic fields where PET is being used, such as neurology, cardiology and oncology. Moreover, we present a current project in veterinary medicine (in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute and the University Hospital Zurich), where a hypoxia tracer is applied to dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous tumors. Finally new developments in the field of PET were discussed.

  14. [Sonography of the teat of cattle, sheep and goats in comparison with other methods of diagnostic imaging--a review].

    PubMed

    Franz, S; Hofmann-Parisot, M; Gumpenberger, M

    2001-01-01

    Beside the clinical examination of udder/teat imaging methods e.g. sonography, radiography and endoscopy allow diagnosis. This publication will give a summary of currently used and potentially usable methods of diagnostic imaging applied to the teat. Advantages and disadvantages of the several methods were compared--as quoted in literature and completed by own experiences.

  15. A comparative study of electrical probe techniques for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques for using electrical probes for plasma diagnostics are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to the simple Langmuir probe, the symmetric double probe of Johnson and Malter, the variable-area probe of Fetz and Oeschsner, and a floating probe technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  16. Imaging system for hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, L. A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C. M.; Wang Zhehui

    2006-10-15

    The novel hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic will facilitate our understanding of basic aspects of dust-plasma interaction and magnetic field topology in fusion plasma devices, by observing 'comet tails' associated with the injected micron-size dust particles. A single projection of the tail onto an image plane will not provide sufficient information; therefore, we plan to use two views, with intensified DiCam-Pro cameras on two NSTX ports. Each camera can furnish up to five overlaying sequential images with gate times greater than 3 ns and 1280x1024 pixel resolution. A coherent fiber bundle with 1500x1200 fibers will relay the image from an imaging lens installed directly on the port to the camera optics. The lens receives light from the outer portion of the NSTX cross section and focuses a 1 cm tail onto at least 60 fibers for adequate resolution. The estimated number of photons received by the camera indicates signal-to-noise ratios of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}, with the use of a 10 nm bandwidth filter. The imaging system with one camera was successfully tested on NSTX in 2005. Photographing lithium pellets yielded bright and distinctive pictures of the tails nearly aligned with B lines. We also observed that the bright 'filaments' - plasma cords with high density and temperature - are present in both top and bottom portions of the machine.

  17. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  18. Whole slide imaging diagnostic concordance with light microscopy for breast needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W Scott; Hinrichs, Steven H; Lele, Subodh M; Baker, John J; Lazenby, Audrey J; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Smith, Lynette M; West, William W

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of whole slide imaging (WSI) in breast needle biopsy diagnosis in comparison with standard light microscopy (LM). The study examined the effects of image capture magnification and computer monitor quality on diagnostic concordance of WSI and LM. Four pathologists rendered diagnoses using WSI to examine 85 breast biopsies (92 parts; 786 slides) consisting of benign and malignant cases. Each WSI case was evaluated using images captured at either ×20 or ×40 magnifications and viewed using a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) grade, color-calibrated monitor or a standard, desktop liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitor. For each combination, the WSI result was compared with the original, LM diagnosis. The overall concordance rate observed between WSI and LM was 97.1% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 94.3%-98.5%). After a washout period, all cases were reviewed a second time by each pathologist after using LM, and the second LM diagnosis was compared with the WSI diagnosis rendered by the same pathologist. Intraobserver concordance between WSI and LM was 95.4% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.4%). The second LM diagnoses were also compared with the original LM diagnoses, and the observed interobserver LM concordance rate was 97.3% (95% CI: 93.1%-99.0%). The study data demonstrated that breast needle biopsy diagnoses rendered by WSI were equivalent to diagnoses rendered by LM. No diagnostic differences were detected between the underlying viewing system parameters of monitor quality and image capture resolution. The results of this study demonstrated that WSI can be effectively used in subspecialty diagnostic cases where a minimum amount of tissue is available.

  19. Optical systems for point-of-care diagnostic instrumentation: analysis of imaging performance and cost

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mark C.; Weigum, Shannon E.; Jaslove, Jacob M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key elements in point-of-care (POC) diagnostic test instrumentation is the optical system required for signal detection and / or imaging. Many tests which use fluorescence, absorbance, or colorimetric optical signals are under development for management of infectious diseases in resource limited settings, where the overall size and cost of the device is of critical importance. At present, high-performance lenses are expensive to fabricate and difficult to obtain commercially, presenting barriers for developers of in vitro POC tests or microscopic image-based diagnostics. We recently described a compact “hybrid” objective lens incorporating both glass and plastic optical elements, with a numerical aperture of 1.0 and field-of-view of 250 m. This design concept may potentially enable mass-production of high-performance, low-cost optical systems which can be easily incorporated in the readout path of existing and emerging POC diagnostic assays. In this paper, we evaluate the biological imaging performance of these lens systems in three broad POC diagnostic application areas; (1) bright field microscopy of histopathology slides, (2) cytologic examination of blood smears, and (3) immunofluorescence imaging. We also break down the fabrication costs and draw comparisons with other miniature optical systems. The hybrid lenses provided images with quality comparable to conventional microscopy, enabling examination of neoplastic pathology and infectious parasites including malaria and cryptosporidium. We describe how these components can be produced at below $10 per unit in full-scale production quantities, making these systems well suited for use within POC diagnostic instrumentation. PMID:24097204

  20. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  1. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis. PMID:28133611

  2. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xu, Jiatuo; Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  3. Meeting the Needs for Radiation Protection: Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Frush, Donald P

    2017-02-01

    Radiation and potential risk during medical imaging is one of the foremost issues for the imaging community. Because of this, there are growing demands for accountability, including appropriate use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Factors contributing to this include increasing use of medical imaging; increased scrutiny (from awareness to alarm) by patients/caregivers and the public over radiation risk; and mounting calls for accountability from regulatory, accrediting, healthcare coverage (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and advisory agencies and organizations as well as industry (e.g., NEMA XR-29, Standard Attributes on CT Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and Management). Current challenges include debates over uncertainty with risks with low-level radiation; lack of fully developed and targeted products for diagnostic imaging and radiation dose monitoring; lack of resources for and clarity surrounding dose monitoring programs; inconsistencies across and between practices for design, implementation and audit of dose monitoring programs; lack of interdisciplinary programs for radiation protection of patients; potential shortages in personnel for these and other consensus efforts; and training concerns as well as inconsistencies for competencies throughout medical providers' careers for radiation protection of patients. Medical care providers are currently in a purgatory between quality- and value-based imaging paradigms, a state that has yet to mature to reward this move to quality-based performance. There are also deficits in radiation expertise personnel in medicine. For example, health physics academic programs and graduates have recently declined, and medical physics residency openings are currently at a third of the number of graduates. However, leveraging solutions to the medical needs will require money and resources, beyond personnel alone. Energy and capital will need to be directed to

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  5. Gas puff imaging diagnostic on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, S. J.; Scotti, F.; Stotler, D. L.; Diallo, A.; Mandell, N.; Terry, J. L.; Han, W.

    2016-10-01

    The first results and plans for the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX-U will be described. The GPI optical efficiency has been improved by about × 10 using a new fiber bundle and interference filter, and the new optics has a zoom lens which can potentially resolve turbulence below the ion gyroradius scale. Experiments are planned to study high-k edge turbulence, correlations of edge turbulence with the SOL heat flux width, and the trigger mechanism of the L-H transition. A second fast camera is planned to view the GPI gas cloud from across the machine, which can potentially measure the field line pitch by simultaneously viewing individual field-aligned blob filaments in the radial vs. poloidal (GPI) and toroidal vs. poloidal (second camera) directions. An incoming collaboration from MIT will bring a 9 × 10 pixel APD-based detector array from Alcator C-Mod to NSTX-U, initially for faster and more sensitive imaging of the existing GPI gas puff. New results and further diagnostic plans will be described. This work was supported by USDOE Contracts #DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-SC0014264, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sungkyu; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek K; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2009-03-21

    We experimentally illustrate a lensfree holographic imaging platform to perform on-chip cytometry. By controlling the spatial coherence of the illumination source, we record a 2D holographic diffraction pattern of each cell or micro-particle on a chip using a high resolution sensor array that has approximately 2 microm pixel size. The recorded holographic image is then processed by using a custom developed decision algorithm for matching the detected hologram texture to existing library images for on-chip characterization and counting of a heterogeneous solution of interest. The holographic diffraction signature of any microscopic object is significantly different from the classical diffraction pattern of the same object. It improves the signal to noise ratio and the signature uniformity of the cell patterns; and also exhibits much better sensitivity for on-chip imaging of weakly scattering phase objects such as small bacteria or cells. We verify significantly improved performance of this holographic on-chip cytometry approach by automatically characterizing heterogeneous solutions of red blood cells, yeast cells, E. coli and various sized micro-particles without the use of any lenses or microscope objectives. This lensless on-chip holography platform will especially be useful for point-of-care cytometry and diagnostics applications involving e.g., infectious diseases such as HIV or malaria.

  7. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  8. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Pol, M. J. van de; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2009-09-15

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  9. Thermoacoustic imaging and spectroscopy for enhanced cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniel Ryan

    Early detection of cancer is paramount for improved patient survival. This dissertation presents work developing imaging techniques to improve cancer diagnostics and detection utilizing light and microwave induced thermoacoustic imaging. In the second chapter, the well-established pre-clinical mouse window chamber model is interfaced with simultaneously acquired high-resolution pulse echo (PE) ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Co-registered PE and PA imaging, coupled with developed image segmentation algorithms, are used to quantitatively track and monitor the size, shape, heterogeneity, and neovasculature of the tumor microenvironment during a month long study. Average volumetric growth was 5.35 mm3/day, which correlated well with two dimensional results from fluorescent imaging (R = 0.97, p < 0.01). Spectroscopic PA imaging is also employed to probe the assumed oxygenation status of the tumor vasculature. The window chamber model combined with high-resolution PE and PA imaging could form a powerful testbed for characterizing cancers and evaluating new contrast and therapeutic agents. The third chapter utilizes a clinical ultrasound array to facilitate fast volumetric spectroscopic PA imaging to detect and discriminate endogenous absorbers (i.e. oxy/deoxygenated hemoglobin) as well as exogenous PA contrast agents (i.e. gold nanorods, fluorophores). In vivo spatiotemporal tracking of administered gold nanorods is presented, with the contrast agent augmenting the PA signal 18 dB. Furthermore, through the use of spectral unmixing algorithms, the relative concentrations of multiple endogenous and exogenous co-localized absorbers were reconstructed in tumor bearing mice. The concentration of Alexaflour647 was calculated to increase nearly 20 dB in the center of a prostate tumor after a tail-vein injection of the contrast agent. Additionally, after direct subcutaneous injections of two different gold nanorods into a breast tumor, the concentration of each

  10. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  11. Magnetic Levitation Coupled with Portable Imaging and Analysis for Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Stephanie M; Yenilmez, Bekir; Amin, Reza; Tasoglu, Savas

    2017-02-19

    Currently, many clinical diagnostic procedures are complex, costly, inefficient, and inaccessible to a large population in the world. The requirements for specialized equipment and trained personnel require that many diagnostic tests be performed at remote, centralized clinical laboratories. Magnetic levitation is a simple yet powerful technique and can be applied to levitate cells, which are suspended in a paramagnetic solution and placed in a magnetic field, at a position determined by equilibrium between a magnetic force and a buoyancy force. Here, we present a versatile platform technology designed for point-of-care diagnostics which uses magnetic levitation coupled to microscopic imaging and automated analysis to determine the density distribution of a patient's cells as a useful diagnostic indicator. We present two platforms operating on this principle: (i) a smartphone-compatible version of the technology, where the built-in smartphone camera is used to image cells in the magnetic field and a smartphone application processes the images and to measures the density distribution of the cells and (ii) a self-contained version where a camera board is used to capture images and an embedded processing unit with attached thin-film-transistor (TFT) screen measures and displays the results. Demonstrated applications include: (i) measuring the altered distribution of a cell population with a disease phenotype compared to a healthy phenotype, which is applied to sickle cell disease diagnosis, and (ii) separation of different cell types based on their characteristic densities, which is applied to separate white blood cells from red blood cells for white blood cell cytometry. These applications, as well as future extensions of the essential density-based measurements enabled by this portable, user-friendly platform technology, will significantly enhance disease diagnostic capabilities at the point of care.

  12. Investigation of diagnostic and image quality attributes: comparison of screen-film to CR mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher-Heath, Lynn; Richards, Anne; Ryan-Kron, Susan

    2006-03-01

    Digital mammography is advancing into an arena where analog has long been the gold standard. Direct digital systems may not be the favored solution for a particular site while computed radiography (CR) mammography, remains unproven worldwide. This pilot study responds to the growing desire to acquire and display digital mammographic images by exploring the acceptability of CR mammography. Images representing a range of breast tissue types were collected from 49 subjects (17 screening; 32 diagnostic) at four clinical sites. Comparison views were collected on the same breast, under the same compression, using automatic exposure control on state-of-the-art film systems followed by CR. CR images were processed and printed to a mammography printer for hard copy feature comparison. Each image pair in the study was evaluated according to 13 image quality attributes covering noise, contrast, sharpness, and image quality in the overall captured images as well as in each of several particular breast regions (periphery and skin-line, parenchyma and fatty tissue). A rating scale from 1 to 5 was used (strong preference for film=1, strong preference for CR=5). Twelve experienced mammographers at four clinical sites scored a subset of the 49 cases for a total of 64 image pair readings. There were 64 ratings for each of 13 image quality attributes for all cases and, an additional series of scores (four or five attribute ratings) for each abnormality in the category of mass, architectural distortion and microcalcification, for a total of 1069 scores. Based on the pilot study results, it was suggested that CR was equivalent or preferred to conventional screen-film for overall image quality (38% scored 3; 46% scored >3), image contrast (27% scored 3; 59% scored >3) and sharpness (28% scored 3; 50% scored >3). No preference was found when assessing noise. This pilot study also suggested that diagnostic quality was maintained in assessing abnormalities for attributes necessary to

  13. Targeted diagnostic magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, I; Strauss, A; Dobiasch, S; Weis, C; Szanyi, S; Gil-Iceta, L; Alonso, E; González Esparza, M; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Szczupak, B; Plaza-García, S; Mirzaei, S; Israel, L L; Bianchessi, S; Scanziani, E; Lellouche, J-P; Knoll, P; Werner, J; Felix, K; Grenacher, L; Reese, T; Kreuter, J; Jiménez-González, M

    2015-09-28

    Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  14. Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children—a pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Harave, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise. Nuclear medicine scintigraphy has a role in specific circumstances and can aid in staging in the presence of malignancy. If required, additional acquisition by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) can be considered. This pictorial review describe the diagnostic imaging of (I) congenital and Developmental Pathologies, including thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma, dermoid cyst, thymic cyst and ectopic thymus; (II) neoplastic lesions, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations, pilomatrixoma, neurofibroma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, lymphoma & leukemia; (III) neck masses of Infective causes, including lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal and peritonsilar abscess, salivary gland inflammation; and (IV) other miscellaneous lesions, including ranula, sternocleidomastoid fibromatosis coli, and goiter. Neck masses are common in the pediatric population with a broad and varied differential; malignant etiologies are less frequently encountered when compared with adults but an awareness of its potential is important when reviewing imaging. PMID:27942480

  15. Target material collection for High-Energy Imaging Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Maryum F.; Mcnaney, James M.; Vignes, Ryan M.; Smith, Cal A.; Masters, Nathan; Bailey, Chris; Petre, Robert B.

    2014-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses the world's largest and most energetic laser system to explore Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy-Density (HED) physics, with the potential of creating pressure and density conditions normally found in the cores of stars or large planets. During NIF experiments, the laser energy is directed to the target, driving the desired physics conditions, and the breakup of the target. During this breakup there is the potential to generate debris fields with both vaporized and solid target material, traveling at extremely high velocities (~10 km/s). For future shots, it is desirable to minimize distribution of the certain target materials within NIF. The High Energy Imaging Diagnostic (HEIDI), which comes within 8 cm of the target, will be modified to minimize the distribution of the ejected material. An external cone will be added to HEIDI which will block a larger angle than the existing hardware. Internal shielding will be added to isolate target material within the front portion of the diagnostic. A thin aluminum bumper will slow low-density vaporized material and contribute to the breakup of high velocity particles, while a thicker wall will block solid chunks. After the shot, an external cover will be installed, to contain any stray material that might be disturbed by regular operations. The target material will be retrieved from the various shielding mechanisms and assayed.

  16. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha

    2015-08-15

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  17. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Qu, Miao; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm(2) and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  18. [Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Knüsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate.

  19. The prototype imaging motional Stark effect diagnostic for ASDEX upgrade.

    PubMed

    Ford, O P; Howard, J; Wolf, R C

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of the prototype Imaging Motional Stark-Effect (IMSE) diagnostic, designed for ASDEX upgrade. A detailed description of the core hardware, theory of operation, and application to complex MSE spectra are presented and analytical evaluation methods suitable for the required accuracy are developed. The diagnostic is tested with a MSE-like polarised spectrum to assess the accuracy of different modulation modes suggested in previous works. Each is found to have small systematic errors due to non-ideal effects of the components, which must be carefully examined. In particular, the effect of intrinsic contrast that results from imperfect parallelism of the birefringent plates is found to have a strong effect. Methods to mitigate and correct for this are discussed. With the necessary corrections and calibrations, the accuracy of polarisation orientation is shown to be within ±0.2°. The effect of finite ellipticity is examined and the possibility to measure this to an accuracy of ±2.0° is demonstrated. The system is shown to be insensitive to broadband polarised background light, temperature variations, and critically to variations in the details of the MSE spectrum.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of an ultrasonic multiple transducer cardiac imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.; Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic multiple-transducer imaging system for intracardiac structure visualization is developed in order to simplify visualization of the human heart in vivo without radiation hazard or invasion of the body. Results of the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the devised system in a clinical setting for adult patients are presented and discussed. Criteria are presented for recognition of mitral valva prolapse, mitral stenosis, pericardial effusion, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular dyssynergy. The probable cause for false-positive and false-negative diagnoses is discussed. However, hypertrophic myopathy and congestive myopathy were unable to be detected. Since only qualitative criteria were used, it was not possible to differentiate patients with left ventricular volume overload from patients without cardiac pathology.

  1. Surgery and diagnostic imaging in abdominal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Botti, Fiorenzo; Caprioli, Flavio; Pettinari, Diego; Carrara, Alberto; Magarotto, Andrea; Contessini Avesani, Ettore

    2015-03-01

    Surgery is well-established option for the treatment of Crohn's disease that is refractory to medical therapy and for complications of the disease, including strictures, fistulas, abscesses, bleeding that cannot be controlled endoscopically, and neoplastic degeneration. For a condition like Crohn's disease, where medical management is the rule, other indications for surgery are considered controversial, because the therapeutic effects of surgery are limited to the resolution of complications and the rate of recurrence is high, especially at sites of the surgical anastomosis. In the authors' opinion, however, surgery should not be considered a last-resort treatment: in a variety of situations, it should be regarded as an appropriate solution for managing this disease. Based on a review of the literature and their own experience, the authors examine some of the possibilities for surgical interventions in Crohn's disease and the roles played in these cases by diagnostic imaging modalities.

  2. Targeting SR-BI for Cancer Diagnostics, Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajora, Maneesha A.; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumors and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents. PMID:27729859

  3. Geometry-driven diffusion: an alternative approach to image filtering/segmentation in diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajla, Ivan

    1998-02-01

    The major goal of this survey is to provide the reader with the motivation of image filtering and segmentation in diagnostic imaging, with the brief overview of the state-of- the-art of nonlinear filters based on the geometry-driven diffusion (GDD), and with a possible generalization of the GDD-filtering towards the complex problem of image segmentation, stated as minimization of particular energy functionals. An example of the application of the GDD- filtering to the task of 3D visualization of MRI data of the brain is illustrated and discussed in the paper.

  4. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented digital pathology images

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Joseph P; Smoller, Bruce R; Leonard, Niamh; Stevenson, Michael R; Dornan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying new and more robust assessments of proficiency/expertise (finding new “biomarkers of expertise”) in histopathology is desirable for many reasons. Advances in digital pathology permit new and innovative tests such as flash viewing tests and eye tracking and slide navigation analyses that would not be possible with a traditional microscope. The main purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of time-restricted testing of expertise in histopathology using digital images. Methods: 19 novices (undergraduate medical students), 18 intermediates (trainees), and 19 experts (consultants) were invited to give their opinion on 20 general histopathology cases after 1 s and 10 s viewing times. Differences in performance between groups were measured and the internal reliability of the test was calculated. Results: There were highly significant differences in performance between the groups using the Fisher's least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Differences between groups were consistently greater in the 10-s than the 1-s test. The Kuder–Richardson 20 internal reliability coefficients were very high for both tests: 0.905 for the 1-s test and 0.926 for the 10-s test. Consultants had levels of diagnostic accuracy of 72% at 1 s and 83% at 10 s. Conclusions: Time-restricted tests using digital images have the potential to be extremely reliable tests of diagnostic proficiency in histopathology. A 10-s viewing test may be more reliable than a 1-s test. Over-reliance on “at a glance” diagnoses in histopathology is a potential source of medical error due to over-confidence bias and premature closure. PMID:26605121

  5. Histological Image Feature Mining Reveals Emergent Diagnostic Properties for Renal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided histological image classification systems are important for making objective and timely cancer diagnostic decisions. These systems use combinations of image features that quantify a variety of image properties. Because researchers tend to validate their diagnostic systems on specific cancer endpoints, it is difficult to predict which image features will perform well given a new cancer endpoint. In this paper, we define a comprehensive set of common image features (consisting of 12 distinct feature subsets) that quantify a variety of image properties. We use a data-mining approach to determine which feature subsets and image properties emerge as part of an "optimal" diagnostic model when applied to specific cancer endpoints. Our goal is to assess the performance of such comprehensive image feature sets for application to a wide variety of diagnostic problems. We perform this study on 12 endpoints including 6 renal tumor subtype endpoints and 6 renal cancer grade endpoints. Keywords-histology, image mining, computer-aided diagnosis.

  6. High-Accuracy Ultrasound Contrast Agent Detection Method for Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koichi; Noro, Kazumasa; Yanagisawa, Yukari; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Shiga, Kiyoto; Kodama, Tetsuya; Aoki, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    An accurate method for detecting contrast agents using diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems is proposed. Contrast agents, such as microbubbles, passing through a blood vessel during ultrasound imaging are detected as blinking signals in the temporal axis, because their intensity value is constantly in motion. Ultrasound contrast agents are detected by evaluating the intensity variation of a pixel in the temporal axis. Conventional methods are based on simple subtraction of ultrasound images to detect ultrasound contrast agents. Even if the subject moves only slightly, a conventional detection method will introduce significant error. In contrast, the proposed technique employs spatiotemporal analysis of the pixel intensity variation over several frames. Experiments visualizing blood vessels in the mouse tail illustrated that the proposed method performs efficiently compared with conventional approaches. We also report that the new technique is useful for observing temporal changes in microvessel density in subiliac lymph nodes containing tumors. The results are compared with those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

  7. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  8. Dermoscopy analysis of RGB-images based on comparative features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Neretin, Evgeny Y.; Kozlov, Sergey V.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for color and texture analysis for dermoscopic images of human skin based on Haar wavelets, Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram Analysis. This approach is a modification of «7-point checklist» clinical method. Thus, that is an "absolute" diagnostic method because one is using only features extracted from tumor's ROI (Region of Interest), which can be selected manually and/or using a special algorithm. We propose additional features extracted from the same image for comparative analysis of tumor and healthy skin. We used Euclidean distance, Cosine similarity, and Tanimoto coefficient as comparison metrics between color and texture features extracted from tumor's and healthy skin's ROI separately. A classifier for separating melanoma images from other tumors has been built by SVM (Support Vector Machine) algorithm. Classification's errors with and without comparative features between skin and tumor have been analyzed. Significant increase of recognition quality with comparative features has been demonstrated. Moreover, we analyzed two modes (manual and automatic) for ROI selecting on tumor and healthy skin areas. We have reached 91% of sensitivity using comparative features in contrast with 77% of sensitivity using the only "absolute" method. The specificity was the invariable (94%) in both cases.

  9. Acoustic imaging for diagnostics of chemically reacting systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Seshan, P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of local diagnostics, in chemically reacting systems, with acoustic imaging is developed. The elements of acoustic imaging through ellipsoidal mirrors are theoretically discussed. In a general plan of the experimental program, the first system is chosen in these studies to be a simple open jet, non premixed turbulent flame. Methane is the fuel and enriched air is the oxidizer. This simple chemically reacting flow system is established at a Reynolds number (based on cold viscosity) of 50,000. A 1.5 m diameter high resolution acoustic mirror with an f-number of 0.75 is used to map the acoustic source zone along the axis of the flame. The results are presented as acoustic power spectra at various distances from the nozzle exit. It is seen that most of the reaction intensity is localized in a zone within 8 diameters from the exit. The bulk reactions (possibly around the periphery of the larger eddies) are evenly distributed along the length of the flame. Possibilities are seen for locally diagnosing single zones in a multiple cluster of reaction zones that occur frequently in practice. A brief outline is given of the future of this work which will be to apply this technique to chemically reacting flows not limited to combustion.

  10. Prediction of liver cirrhosis, using diagnostic imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Chang Hee; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed. PMID:26301049

  11. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  12. Diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palma, L D

    1998-08-01

    Diagnostic imaging has many important roles in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In diagnosis, lipiodol CT (LCT) has been shown to be the most sensitive imaging modality (90-97%) for all sizes of lesions; all other modalities have high sensitivities for lesions 1-3 cm but low sensitivities for lesions < 1 cm (ultrasound 33-37%, conventional CT 20-42% and digital subtraction angiography 40-55%). All imaging modalities understage HCC. Once again LCT is the most accurate method of evaluating the extent of tumour, but even this method does not identify all satellite nodules. Ultrasound has been proposed as a screening method, but this cannot be justified on the basis of its results or cost benefit analysis. Both CT and dynamic MRI play useful roles in evaluating the efficacy and follow-up of patients undergoing chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). Although surgery remains the best treatment of HCC, it is unsuitable in most of the cases which would be better treated with interventional therapy. This article presents a review of the literature regarding the use of TACE, PEI or a combination of both procedures in the treatment of HCC. A multicentric study has shown that patients with monofocal lesions less than 5 cm in diameter are better treated with PEI, which is therefore a good alternative to the surgical treatment; patients with multifocal lesions (maximum of three lesions) show a better survival with TACE. Combined treatment with TACE and PEI proves to be effective in patients with large HCC.

  13. Utilization and likelihood of radiologic diagnostic imaging in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Ryan, Michael P.; Wolff, Steven D.; Mollenkopf, Sarah A.; Turakhia, Mintu P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine imaging utilization in a matched cohort of patients with and without implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and to project magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilization over a 10‐year period. Materials and Methods The Truven Health MarketScan Commercial claims and Medicare Supplemental health insurance claims data were used to identify patients with continuous health plan enrollment in 2009–2012. Patients with ICDs were identified using ICD‐9 and CPT codes, and matched to patients with the same demographic and comorbidity profile, but no record of device implantation. Diagnostic imaging utilization was compared across the matched cohorts, in total, by imaging categories, and in subpopulations of stroke, back pain, and joint pain. MRI use in the nonimplant group over the 4‐year period was extrapolated out to 10 years for ICD‐indicated patients. Results A cohort of 18,770 matched patients were identified; average age 65.5 ± 13.38 and 21.9% female. ICD patients had significantly less MRI imaging (0.23 0.70 SD vs. 0.00 0.08 SD, P < 0.0001) than nonimplant patients. Among patients with records of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) (ICD 5%, nonimplant 4%) and accompanying diagnostic imaging, 44% of nonimplant patients underwent MRI vs. 1% of ICD patients (P < 0.0001). Forecast models estimated that 53% to 64% of ICD‐eligible patients may require an MRI within 10 years. Conclusion MRI utilization is lower in ICD patients compared to nonimplant patients, yet the burden of incident stroke/TIA, back, and joint pain suggests an unmet need for MR‐conditional devices. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:115–127. PMID:26118943

  14. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  15. Readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging in the assessment of orbital tumors: comparison with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging in image quality and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Yanjun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guoyi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Haibin; Wu, Feiyun

    2017-01-01

    Background Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI) could improve the imaging quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in various organs. However, whether it could improve the imaging quality and diagnostic performance for the patients with orbital tumors is still unknown. Purpose To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of RS-EPI DWI with that of conventional single-shot EPI (SS-EPI) DWI in patients with orbital tumors. Material and Methods SS-EPI and RS-EPI DW images of 32 patients with pathologically diagnosed orbital tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Qualitative imaging parameters (imaging sharpness, geometric distortion, ghosting artifacts, and overall imaging quality) and quantitative imaging parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) were assessed by two independent radiologists, and compared between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the diagnostic value of ADC in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors. Results RS-EPI DW imaging produced less geometric distortion and ghosting artifacts, and better imaging sharpness and overall imaging quality than SS-EPI DWI (for all, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, RS-EPI DWI produced significantly lower SNR ( P < 0.001) and ADC ( P < 0.001), and higher contrast ( P < 0.001) than SS-EPI DWI, while producing no difference in CNR ( P = 0.137). There was no significant difference on the diagnostic performance between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI, when using ADC as the differentiating index ( P = 0.529). Conclusion Compared with SS-EPI, RS-EPI DWI provided significantly better imaging quality and comparable diagnostic performance in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors.

  16. Differential diagnostic features of the radionuclide scrotal image.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, F S

    1977-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of scrotal lesions is aided by correlating radionuclide images with clinical findings. Subacute torsion is associated with peripheral hyperemia and can be mistaken for an inflammatory process; however, in a review of 128 studies, torsion and orchiectomy were the only processes encountered which had a center truly devoid of activity on the tissue phase compared to the normal side. Other lesions such as acute inflammation, abscess, hematoma, and hemorrhagic tumor may superficially appear to lack central activity but invariably contain at least as much activity when compared to the normal side.

  17. High-sensitivity hyperspectral imager for biomedical video diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Raimund; Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin

    2010-04-01

    Video endoscopy allows physicians to visually inspect inner regions of the human body using a camera and only minimal invasive optical instruments. It has become an every-day routine in clinics all over the world. Recently a technological shift was done to increase the resolution from PAL/NTSC to HDTV. But, despite a vast literature on invivo and in-vitro experiments with multi-spectral point and imaging instruments that suggest that a wealth of information for diagnostic overlays is available in the visible spectrum, the technological evolution from colour to hyper-spectral video endoscopy is overdue. There were two approaches (NBI, OBI) that tried to increase the contrast for a better visualisation by using more than three wavelengths. But controversial discussions about the real benefit of a contrast enhancement alone, motivated a more comprehensive approach using the entire spectrum and pattern recognition algorithms. Up to now the hyper-spectral equipment was too slow to acquire a multi-spectral image stack at reasonable video rates rendering video endoscopy applications impossible. Recently, the availability of fast and versatile tunable filters with switching times below 50 microseconds made an instrumentation for hyper-spectral video endoscopes feasible. This paper describes a demonstrator for hyper-spectral video endoscopy and the results of clinical measurements using this demonstrator for measurements after otolaryngoscopic investigations and thorax surgeries. The application investigated here is the detection of dysplastic tissue, although hyper-spectral video endoscopy is of course not limited to cancer detection. Other applications are the detection of dysplastic tissue or polyps in the colon or the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  19. Diagnostic Imaging in Flames with Instantaneous Planar Coherent Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, A; Kliewer, C J

    2014-04-03

    Spatial mapping of temperature and molecular species concentrations is vitally important in studies of gaseous chemically reacting flows. Temperature marks the evolution of heat release and energy transfer, while species concentration gradients provide critical information on mixing and chemical reaction. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was pioneered in measurements of such processes almost 40 years ago and is authoritative in terms of the accuracy and precision it may provide. While a reacting flow is fully characterized in three-dimensional space, a limitation of CARS has been its applicability as a point-wise measurement technique, motivating advancement toward CARS imaging, and attempts have been made considering one-dimensional probing. Here, we report development of two-dimensional CARS, with the first diagnostics of a planar field in a combusting flow within a single laser pulse, resulting in measured isotherms ranging from 450 K up to typical hydrocarbon flame temperatures of about 2000 K with chemical mapping of O2 and N2.

  20. Optical diagnostics for turbulent and multiphase flows: Particle image velocimetry and photorefractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shagam, R.N.; Blanchat, T.K.; Chu, T.Y.; Tassin-Leger, A.L.; Henderson, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ``Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent and Multiphase Flows.`` Advanced optical diagnostics have been investigated and developed for flow field measurements, including capabilities for measurement in turbulent, multiphase, and heated flows. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) includes several techniques for measurement of instantaneous flow field velocities and associated turbulence quantities. Nonlinear photorefractive optical materials have been investigated for the possibility of measuring turbulence quantities (turbulent spectrum) more directly. The two-dimensional PIV techniques developed under this LDRD were shown to work well, and were compared with more traditional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Three-dimensional PIV techniques were developed and tested, but due to several experimental difficulties were not as successful. The photorefractive techniques were tested, and both potential capabilities and possible problem areas were elucidated.

  1. Optical coherence tomography: influence of contrast concentration on image quality and diagnostic confidence.

    PubMed

    Blachutzik, Florian; Achenbach, Stephan; Nef, Holger; Hamm, Christian; Dörr, Oliver; Boeder, Niklas; Marwan, Mohamed; Tröbs, Monique; Schneider, Reinhard; Röther, Jens; Schlundt, Christian

    2016-11-09

    OCT requires intracoronary injection of contrast agent to remove blood from the coronary lumen during data acquisition, which is a possible limitation of this method. Aim of this study was to analyze the influence of iodine concentration on image quality and diagnostic certainty of optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT sequences acquired using contrast agent with a reduced concentration of 150 mg iodine/ml and a standard concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml were analyzed. Cross-sectional images with a spacing of 10 mm were evaluated regarding image quality and diagnostic confidence. A total of 67 OCT sequences acquired in 24 patients were analyzed. 31 sequences were acquired using contrast agent with a concentration of 150 mg iodine/ml and 36 sequences with a concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml. The percentage of remaining blood streaks in the cross sections was significantly lower for 350 mg iodine/ml compared to 150 mg iodine/ml (19 ± 21 vs. 34 ± 26%, p = 0.013). Contrast with 350 mg iodine/ml showed a significantly higher percentage of completely flushed pullback length as compared to 150 mg iodine/ml (78 ± 24 vs. 58 ± 27%, p = 0.004). Diagnostic certainty was significantly higher for 350 mg iodine/ml than for 150 mg iodine/ml (Likert scale average 1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Likert scale: 1 = absolutely confident, 2 = confident with slight doubts, 3 = doubtful/not confident, 4 = non-diagnostic). Regarding image quality and diagnostic certainty, contrast agent with a concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml is superior to 150 mg iodine/ml.

  2. Comparing the diagnostic utility of sacroiliac spectral CT and MRI in axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Yu, Kai Hu; Guo, Rui Min; Ran, Jun; Liu, Yao; Morelli, John; Runge, Val A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical value of sacroiliac spectral CT and MRI in diagnosing axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods: 137 patients with low back pain and suspected axial SpA were recruited. 76 patients were diagnosed with axial SpA, and 49 patients were diagnosed with non-specific low back pain (nLBP). Each patient underwent spectral CT and MRI examinations of the sacroiliac joints. Water- and calcium-based material decomposition images were reconstructed for quantitative analysis. The marrow-to-muscle ratios of water and calcium concentrations and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal intensity, as well as Hounsfield units in the ilium and sacrum were compared between nLBP and patients with axial SpA. Results: Spectral CT is comparable with MRI for the detection of bone marrow oedema, and it is superior to MRI for detection of osseous sclerosis and erosions. MRI is superior to spectral CT in detecting enthesitis and synovitis. There were statistically significant differences in STIR signal intensity, water concentration and calcium concentration ratios as well as CT values between nLBP and patients with axial SpA (p < 0.05) in the ilium. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between ratios of water concentration and STIR signal intensity in both the ilium and sacrum (p < 0.05). Overall, the iliac water concentration was most sensitive for detection of patients with SpA. The positive likelihood ratio of the STIR signal intensity ratio was the highest. The diagnostic odds ratio of the calcium concentration ratio was the highest, and its negative likelihood ratio was the lowest. Conclusion: Spectral CT not only depicts findings of chronic sacroiliitis (i.e. bone erosion and sclerosis), but also can detect and quantify the extent of marrow oedema in patients with SpA with activity sacroiliitis. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of early synovitis and enthesitis remains superior. The combination of spectral CT and MRI may

  3. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN A DIRECT-ACCESS SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CLINIC: A 2-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE PRACTICE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Dedekam, Erik A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Dembowski, Scott C.; Westrick, Richard B.; Goss, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Background While advanced diagnostic imaging is a large contributor to the growth in health care costs, direct-access to physical therapy is associated with decreased rates of diagnostic imaging. No study has systematically evaluated with evidence-based criteria the appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when ordered by physical therapists. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the appropriateness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) exams ordered by physical therapists in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic. Study Design Retrospective observational study of practice. Hypothesis Greater than 80% of advanced diagnostic imaging orders would have an American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria rating of greater than 6, indicating an imaging order that is usually appropriate. Methods A 2-year retrospective analysis identified 108 MRI/MRA examination orders from four physical therapists. A board-certified radiologist determined the appropriateness of each order based on ACR appropriateness criteria. The principal investigator and co-investigator radiologist assessed agreement between the clinical diagnosis and MRI/surgical findings. Results Knee (31%) and shoulder (25%) injuries were the most common. Overall, 55% of injuries were acute. The mean ACR rating was 7.7; scores from six to nine have been considered appropriate orders and higher ratings are better. The percentage of orders complying with ACR appropriateness criteria was 83.2%. Physical therapist's clinical diagnosis was confirmed by MRI/MRA findings in 64.8% of cases and was confirmed by surgical findings in 90% of cases. Conclusions Physical therapists providing musculoskeletal primary care in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic appropriately ordered advanced diagnostic imaging in over 80% of cases. Future research should prospectively compare physical therapist

  4. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  5. Opto-acoustic image fusion technology for diagnostic breast imaging in a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Ulissey, Michael; Stavros, A. T.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Lavin, Philip; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Functional opto-acoustic (OA) imaging was fused with gray-scale ultrasound acquired using a specialized duplex handheld probe. Feasibility Study findings indicated the potential to more accurately characterize breast masses for cancer than conventional diagnostic ultrasound (CDU). The Feasibility Study included OA imagery of 74 breast masses that were collected using the investigational Imagio® breast imaging system. Superior specificity and equal sensitivity to CDU was demonstrated, suggesting that OA fusion imaging may potentially obviate the need for negative biopsies without missing cancers in a certain percentage of breast masses. Preliminary results from a 100 subject Pilot Study are also discussed. A larger Pivotal Study (n=2,097 subjects) is underway to confirm the Feasibility Study and Pilot Study findings.

  6. Making sure. A comparative micro-analysis of diagnostic instruments in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Cornelius

    2011-09-01

    This article conceptualises diagnosis as ongoing practical judgement in medical care. Based on pragmatist and phenomenological considerations of tools in use, it uses a comparative approach to analyse similarities and differences in the use of diagnostic technologies. In the first part of the paper, a historical perspective on the innovation of the stethoscope is used to highlight the transformations in diagnostic practices occasioned by novel diagnostic instruments. In the second part of the paper, ethnographic accounts of contemporary anaesthesia are presented in order to sketch out the manifold variations of using diagnostic instruments in daily practice. Both cases are analysed on a micro-analytical level, emphasising the interrelations of bodies, tools and knowledge in concrete situations. The analysis shows how diagnostic instruments become embodied in the perceptual habits of physicians and how diagnosing becomes an ongoing activity in the course of managing an illness trajectory.

  7. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  8. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Deirdre M. Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Kwast, Theo van der; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  9. Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): a potential tool for atherosclerosis diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, J.-F.; Ko, A.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Kohlenberg, E.; Hewko, M.; Fréchette, J.; Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Bouchard, J. P.; Gay, David; Desroches, P.; Roy-Moisan, Francois; Bourgault, Marie-Eve; Sowa, M. G.; Vernon, M. L.

    2007-02-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging technologies offer some intriguing medical diagnostic applications. Examples include fast imaging of elastin and collagen distributions in diseased tissues using two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), respectively. The 3D sectioning capabilities and biochemical specificity that enable fast imaging in highly scattering biological media lie at the heart of the appeal of these nonlinear approaches for medical applications. One of these promising nonlinear techniques relies on the resonance enhancement of the third order nonlinear susceptibility by a vibrational mode of a molecule. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) can provide similar vibrational information as a spontaneous Raman spectrum. The technique has been shown to be orders of magnitude more sensitive than spontaneous Raman, with video rate imaging demonstrated recently. In this work, we investigate the potential use of broadband CARS spectroscopy and CARS imaging for biochemical analysis of arterial tissue. Biochemical imaging data from broadband CARS is compared with spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. The broadband CARS system comprised of a single femtosecond-laser is presented in detail. Issues related to data analysis, the advantages and current limitations of the CARS technique in biodiagnostics are discussed.

  10. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bor, Dogan; Unal, Elif; Uslu, Anil

    2015-09-01

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  11. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O’Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes. PMID:26392755

  12. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  13. Bi-photon imaging and diagnostics using ultra-small diagnostic probes engineered from semiconductor nanocrystals and single-domain antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafian, Hilal; Sukhanova, Alyona; Chames, Patrick; Baty, Daniel; Pluot, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Nabiev, Igor R.; Millot, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have just demonstrated their numerous advantages over organic dyes in bioimaging and diagnostics. One of characteristics of QDs is a very large cross section of their twophoton absorption. A common approach to biodetection by means of QDs is to use monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting. Recently, we have engineered ultrasmall diagnostic nanoprobes (sdAb-QD) based on highly oriented conjugates of QDs with the single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against cancer biomarkers. With a molecular weight of only 13 kDa (12-fold smaller than full-size mAbs) and extreme stability and capacity to refolding, sdAbs are the smallest functional Ab fragments capable of binding antigens with affinities comparable to those of conventional Abs. Ultrasmall diagnostic sdAb-QD nanoprobes were engineered through oriented conjugation of QDs with sdAbs. This study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of immunohistochemical imaging of colon carcinoma biomarkers with sdAb-QD conjugates by means of two-photon excitation. The optimal excitation conditions for imaging of the markers in clinical samples with sdAb-QD nanoprobes have been determined. The absence of sample autofluorescence significantly improves the sensitivity of biomarker detection with the use of the two-photon excitation diagnostic setup.

  14. Impact of iterative metal artifact reduction on diagnostic image quality in patients with dental hardware.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Jakob; Schabel, Christoph; Bongers, Malte; Raupach, Rainer; Clasen, Stephan; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2017-03-01

    Background Metal artifacts often impair diagnostic accuracy in computed tomography (CT) imaging. Therefore, effective and workflow implemented metal artifact reduction algorithms are crucial to gain higher diagnostic image quality in patients with metallic hardware. Purpose To assess the clinical performance of a novel iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR) algorithm for CT in patients with dental fillings. Material and Methods Thirty consecutive patients scheduled for CT imaging and dental fillings were included in the analysis. All patients underwent CT imaging using a second generation dual-source CT scanner (120 kV single-energy; 100/Sn140 kV in dual-energy, 219 mAs, gantry rotation time 0.28-1/s, collimation 0.6 mm) as part of their clinical work-up. Post-processing included standard kernel (B49) and an iterative MAR algorithm. Image quality and diagnostic value were assessed qualitatively (Likert scale) and quantitatively (HU ± SD) by two reviewers independently. Results All 30 patients were included in the analysis, with equal reconstruction times for iMAR and standard reconstruction (17 s ± 0.5 vs. 19 s ± 0.5; P > 0.05). Visual image quality was significantly higher for iMAR as compared with standard reconstruction (3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 2.6 ± 0.5; P < 0.0001, respectively) and showed improved evaluation of adjacent anatomical structures. Similarly, HU-based measurements of degree of artifacts were significantly lower in the iMAR reconstructions as compared with the standard reconstruction (0.9 ± 1.6 vs. -20 ± 47; P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion The tested iterative, raw-data based reconstruction MAR algorithm allows for a significant reduction of metal artifacts and improved evaluation of adjacent anatomical structures in the head and neck area in patients with dental hardware.

  15. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P < 0.001) and that CPHP participants were more likely to have plantar fascia thickness values greater than 4.0 mm (OR = 105.11, 95% CI = 3.09 to 3577.28, P = 0.01). CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P < 0.001). Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP

  16. Microwave and digital imaging technology reduce turnaround times for diagnostic electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Giberson, Richard T; Austin, Ronald L; Charlesworth, Jon; Adamson, Grete; Herrera, Guillermo A

    2003-01-01

    The contributions of microwave methods and digital imaging techniques, when taken together, can reduce routine specimen processing and evaluation for diagnostic electron microscopy to a time frame never thought possible. Significant improvements in both technologies over the last 5 years led the authors to evaluate their combined attributes as the most likely candidate to provide a realistic solution in the reduction of turnaround times for diagnostic electron microscopy. For diagnostic electron microscopy to compete favorably with immunohistochemistry and other ancillary diagnostic techniques, it must improve its turnaround time. To evaluate this hypothesis the microwave-assisted processing results of over 2,000 diagnostic cases were evaluated as was a digital image administration system used for the acquisition and dissemination of diagnostic results. The incorporation of both technologies resulted in turnaround times being reduced to 4 h or less.

  17. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  18. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors. PMID:21134258

  19. Diagnostic Imaging Integrated Network: A Teleradiology Pilot in Public Hospitals in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lilian; Ruibal Faral, Karime

    2015-01-01

    A network of health care centers allows radiologists to share diagnostic images in different areas of Uruguay. This solution is based on an informatics multicenter application for center management, enabling the creation, storage and distribution of images and reports from different imaging modalities according to outsourcing agreements. The solution improves health care territorial equity and reduces asymmetry in resources distribution.

  20. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Filonenko, E V; Telegina, L V; Boulgakova, N N; Smirnov, V V

    2002-11-30

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  1. Improved image quality and diagnostic potential using ultra-high-resolution computed tomography of the lung with small scan FOV: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yali; Hamal, Preeti; You, Xiaofang; Mao, Haixia; Li, Fei; Sun, Xiwen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether CT imaging using an ultra-high-resolution CT (UHRCT) scan with a small scan field of view (FOV) provides higher image quality and helps to reduce the follow-up period compared with a conventional high-resolution CT (CHRCT) scan. We identified patients with at least one pulmonary nodule at our hospital from July 2015 to November 2015. CHRCT and UHRCT scans were conducted in all enrolled patients. Three experienced radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point score and made diagnoses. The paired images were displayed side by side in a random manner and annotations of scan information were removed. The following parameters including image quality, diagnostic confidence of radiologists, follow-up recommendations and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. A total of 52 patients (62 nodules) were included in this study. UHRCT scan provides a better image quality regarding the margin of nodules and solid internal component compared to that of CHRCT (P < 0.05). Readers have higher diagnostic confidence based on the UHRCT images than of CHRCT images (P<0.05). The follow-up recommendations were significantly different between UHRCT and CHRCT images (P<0.05). Compared with the surgical pathological findings, UHRCT had a relative higher diagnostic accuracy than CHRCT (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the UHRCT prototype scanner provides a better image quality of subsolid nodules compared to CHRCT and contributes significantly to reduce the patients' follow-up period. PMID:28231320

  2. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography: design and implementation of the CORE320 multicenter, multinational diagnostic study.

    PubMed

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T; Rochitte, Carlos E; Arai, Andrew E; Miller, Julie M; Di Carli, Marcello; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Zadeh, Armin A; Dewey, Marc; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Laham, Roger; Rybicki, Frank J; Schuijf, Joanne D; Paul, Narinder; Hoe, John; Kuribyashi, Sachio; Sakuma, Hajime; Nomura, Cesar; Yaw, Tan Swee; Kofoed, Klaus F; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Clouse, Melvin E; Brinker, Jeffrey; Cox, Christopher; Lima, Joao A C

    2011-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8 countries worldwide. CT has the potential to assess both anatomy and physiology in a single imaging session. The co-primary aim of the CORE320 study is to define the per-patient diagnostic accuracy of the combination of coronary CTA and myocardial CTP to detect physiologically significant coronary artery disease compared with (1) the combination of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT-MPI and (2) conventional coronary angiography alone. If successful, the technology could revolutionize the management of patients with symptomatic CAD.

  3. Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content

    SciTech Connect

    Tourassi, Georgia; Voisin, Sophie; Paquit, Vincent C; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

  4. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  5. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear–cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  6. Global Auroral Imaging as a Remote Diagnostic of Geospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Images of the Earth's aurora, taken from space, can be used to examine plasma behavior throughout the magnetospheric regions surrounding the earth. The coupling of the magnetospheric plasmas through the ionosphere are discussed. A summary of past and current imaging technology is given and then specific examples of remote sensing are given using images from the Ultraviolet Imager aboard the POLAR satellite.

  7. Advances in diagnostic imaging for pathologic conditions of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Benson, Byron W; Flint, Diane J; Liang, Hui; Opatowsky, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in dental and maxillofacial imaging are delineated along with the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality. The imaging modalities that are included are intraoral radiography, panoramic radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, and ultrasound.

  8. Comparative Capabilities of Clinical Assessment, Diagnostic Criteria, and Polysomnography in Detecting Sleep Bruxism

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Marcelo; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Rodrigues, Laíse Angélica Mendes; Bataglion, César; Siéssere, Selma; Semprini, Marisa; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism (SB) as per the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and a diagnostic grading system proposed by international experts for assessing SB. Methods: The study was conducted in three phases (interview, physical examination, and sleep studies). Subjects were asked about self-reported tooth grinding sounds occurring during sleep, muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, jaw muscle pain, and jaw locking. A visual examination was conducted to check for presence of abnormal tooth wear. A full-night polysomnography (PSG) was performed. After three phases, the subjects were divided into two groups matched by age and gender: Case Group, 45 SB subjects, and Control Group, 45 non-SB subjects. Diagnostic accuracy measurements were calculated for each sign or symptom individually and for the two diagnostic criteria analyzed. Results: Muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, and AASM criteria were associated with highest sensitivity (78%, 67%, 58%, respectively) and also with highest diagnostic odds ratio (OR = 9.63, 9.25, 6.33, respectively). Jaw locking, muscle pain, and the criterion of “probable SB” were associated with the worst sensitivity (16%, 18%, 22%, respectively). Conclusions: Presence of muscle fatigue and temporal headaches can be considered good tools to screen SB patients. None of the diagnostic criteria evaluated was able to accurately identify patients with SB. AASM criteria had the strongest diagnostic capabilities and—although they do not attain diagnostic values high enough to replace the current gold standard (PSG)—should be used as a screening tool to identify SB. Citation: Palinkas M, De Luca Canto G, Rodrigues LA, Bataglion C, Siéssere S, Semprini M, Regalo SC. Comparative capabilities of clinical assessment, diagnostic criteria, and polysomnography in detecting sleep bruxism. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1319–1325. PMID:26235152

  9. Gold-manganese nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi

    2015-11-10

    Imagine the possibility of non-invasive, non-radiation based Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combating cardiac disease. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are developing a process that would use nanotechnology in a novel, targeted approach that would allow MRIs to be more descriptive and brighter, and to target specific organs. Researchers at SRNL have discovered a way to use multifunctional metallic gold-manganese nanoparticles to create a unique, targeted positive contrast agent. SRNL Senior Scientist Dr. Simona Hunyadi Murph says she first thought of using the nanoparticles for cardiac disease applications after learning that people who survive an infarct exhibit up to 15 times higher rate of developing chronic heart failure, arrhythmias and/or sudden death compared to the general population. Without question, nanotechnology will revolutionize the future of technology. The development of functional nanomaterials with multi-detection modalities opens up new avenues for creating multi-purpose technologies for biomedical applications.

  10. Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Capello, V; Lennox, A

    2015-02-01

    A two-year-old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.

  11. Computational Diagnostic Techniques for Electromagnetic Scattering: Analytical Imaging, Near Fields, and Surface Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.; Talcott, Noel A., Jr.; Shaeffer, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fields, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic k space approach which has potential for much greater information than standard experimental approaches. The near field and current analysis are implementations of standard theory while the diagnostic graphics displays are implementations exploiting recent computer engineering work station graphics libraries.

  12. Image-matching as a medical diagnostic support tool (DST) for brain diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Nielsen, J F; Nelson, Marvin D; Liu, Lifeng

    2005-01-01

    Imaging-matching is an important research area in imaging informatics. We have developed and evaluated a novel diagnostic support tool (DST) based on medical image matching using MR brain images. The approach consists of two steps, database generation and image matching. The database contains pre-diagnosed MR brain images. As the images are added to the database, they are registered to the 3D Talairach coordinate system. In addition, regions of interests (ROI) are generated, and image-processing techniques are used to extract relevant image parameters related to the brain and diseases from the ROIs and from the entire MR image. The second step is to retrieve relevant information from the database by performing image matching. In this step, the physician first submits a query image. The DST computes the similarity between the query image and each of the images in the database, and then presents the most similar images to the user. Since the database contains pre-diagnosed images, the retrieved cases tend to contain relevant diagnostic information. To evaluate the usefulness of the DST in a clinical setting, pediatric brain diseases were used. The database contains 2500 pediatric patients between ages 0 and 18 with brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of known brain lesions. A testbed was established at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) for acquiring MR images from the PACS server of patients with known lesions. These images were matched against those in the DST pediatric brain MR database. An expert pediatric neuroradiologist evaluated the matched results. We found that in most cases, the image-matching method was able to quickly retrieve images with relevant diagnostic content. The evaluation method and results are given.

  13. #7 Comparing STEREO, Simulated Helioseismic Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    Farside direct observations from STEREO (left) and simultaneous helioseismic reconstructions (right). Medium to large size active regions clearly appear on the helioseismic images, however the smal...

  14. Dual Gated Imaging system for Enhanced Fluorescent Diagnostics Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-13

    Imaging: An Approach for Fuel Equivalence Ratio Imaging", Applied Spectroscopy , 45, 938 (1991). 2. R.M. Ballew and J.N. Demas, "An Error Analysis of...and S.C. Yang, Applied Spectroscopy , 39, 266 (1985). of Figures Block diagram of dual gated imaging system VII. List Figure 1 Figure 2

  15. WE-AB-206-01: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Zagzebski, J

    2016-06-01

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging.

  16. Definitions and outlook targeting x-ray exposure of patients in diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regulla, Dieter F.

    2011-03-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is vital and currently irreplaceable in diagnostic radiology. But CT operates with ionizing radiation which may cause cancer or non-cancer diseases in humans. The degree of radiation impact depends on the dose administered by an investigation. And this is the core issue: Even CT exams executed lege artis, administer doses to patients which by magnitude are far beyond the level of hitherto known doses of conventional film-screen techniques. Patients undergoing one or multiple CT examinations, digital angiographies or interventions will be exposed to effective doses between roughly several mSv and several 100 mSv depending on type and frequency of the diagnostic investigations. From the radiation protection point of view, there is therefore the worldwide problem of formulating firm rules for the control of these high-dose investigations, as dose limits can not be established for reasons of the medical benefit. This makes the difference compared with radiation protection for occupationally exposed persons. What remains is "software", namely "justification" and "optimization". Justification requires balancing the interests between the health benefit and the potential harm of an exam which has to be responsibly executed by the physician himself; therefore the radiologists' associations are in the duty to prepare practicable rules for justification. Optimization again needs a cooperative solution, and that is the establishment of reference doses for diagnostic examinations, to be checked by the technical service of the producers' companies. Experts and authorities have been aware of the high-dose dilemma in diagnostic imaging since long. It is time for the reflection of active solutions and their implementation into practice.

  17. Power calculation for comparing diagnostic accuracies in a multi-reader, multi-test design.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Youdan; Zeng, Donglin

    2014-12-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is widely used to evaluate the performance of diagnostic tests with continuous or ordinal responses. A popular study design for assessing the accuracy of diagnostic tests involves multiple readers interpreting multiple diagnostic test results, called the multi-reader, multi-test design. Although several different approaches to analyzing data from this design exist, few methods have discussed the sample size and power issues. In this article, we develop a power formula to compare the correlated areas under the ROC curves (AUC) in a multi-reader, multi-test design. We present a nonparametric approach to estimate and compare the correlated AUCs by extending DeLong et al.'s (1988, Biometrics 44, 837-845) approach. A power formula is derived based on the asymptotic distribution of the nonparametric AUCs. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed power formula and an example is provided to illustrate the proposed procedure.

  18. Diagnostic and quality-assurance tools for low-contrast images obtained from array detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, D. B.; Sandel, Bill R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate methods of estimating a background image frame for subtraction from a data frame for use when a more suitable measured background frame is not available. We define background as any signal component that is not attributable to the phenomenon currently under investigation. We describe a technique that is based on pixel-by-pixel least-squares regression of images for computing a background frame from available data. We argue that the same technique can be a useful quality-assurance tool for evaluating instrument performance. For example, it can help to separate image structure resulting from the reading process from structure resulting from the characteristics of the detector itself. We demonstrate that background estimation can be nontrivial by comparing the results of different background estimation procedures by using data obtained from a CCD array detector. We investigate the temperature-dependent contributions of the detector and readout electronics to the total signal as a demonstration of the diagnostic capabilities of least-squares image regression.

  19. Acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging in diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Joshua R; Trahey, Gregg E; Nightingale, Kathryn R; Palmeri, Mark L

    2013-04-01

    The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo; elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed noninvasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods.

  20. Contemporary Diagnostic Imaging Modalities for the Staging and Surveillance of Melanoma Patients: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Bronstein, Yulia; Ross, Merrick I.; Askew, Robert L.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Royal, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses were performed to examine the utility of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and a combination of both (PET-CT) for the staging and surveillance of melanoma patients. Method Patient-level data from 74 studies containing 10 528 patients (between January 1, 1990, and June, 30, 2009) were used to derive characteristics of the diagnostic tests used. Meta-analyses were conducted by use of Bayesian bivariate binomial models to estimate sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic odds ratios [ie, true-positive results/false-negative results)/(false-positive results/true-negative results)] and their 95% credible intervals (CrIs) and positive predictive values were used as indicators of test performance. Results Among the four imaging methods examined for the staging of regional lymph nodes, ultrasonography had the highest sensitivity (60%, 95% CrI = 33% to 83%), specificity (97%, 95% CrI = 88% to 99%), and diagnostic odds ratio (42, 95% CrI = 8.08 to 249.8). For staging of distant metastases, PET-CT had the highest sensitivity (80%, 95% CrI = 53% to 93%), specificity (87%, 95% CrI = 54% to 97%), and diagnostic odds ratio (25, 95% CrI = 3.58 to 198.7). Similar trends were observed for melanoma surveillance of lymph node involvement, with ultrasonography having the highest sensitivity (96%, 95% CrI = 85% to 99%), specificity (99%, 95% CrI = 95% to 100%), and diagnostic odds ratio (1675, 95% CrI = 226.6 to 15,920). For distant metastases, PET-CT had the highest sensitivity (86%, 95% CrI = 76% to 93%), specificity (91%, 95% CrI = 79% to 97%), and diagnostic odds ratio (67, 95% CrI = 20.42 to 229.7). Positive predictive values were likewise highest for ultrasonography in lymph node staging and for PET-CT in detecting distant metastases. Conclusion Among the compared modalities, ultrasonography was superior for detecting lymph node metastases, and PET-CT was superior for the detection of distant metastases in both

  1. Histological Image Feature Mining Reveals Emergent Diagnostic Properties for Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H.; Young, Andrew N.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided histological image classification systems are important for making objective and timely cancer diagnostic decisions. These systems use combinations of image features that quantify a variety of image properties. Because researchers tend to validate their diagnostic systems on specific cancer endpoints, it is difficult to predict which image features will perform well given a new cancer endpoint. In this paper, we define a comprehensive set of common image features (consisting of 12 distinct feature subsets) that quantify a variety of image properties. We use a data-mining approach to determine which feature subsets and image properties emerge as part of an “optimal” diagnostic model when applied to specific cancer endpoints. Our goal is to assess the performance of such comprehensive image feature sets for application to a wide variety of diagnostic problems. We perform this study on 12 endpoints including 6 renal tumor subtype endpoints and 6 renal cancer grade endpoints. Keywords-histology, image mining, computer-aided diagnosis PMID:28163980

  2. A comparative study of the diagnostic capabilities of 2D plain radiograph and 3D cone beam CT sialography

    PubMed Central

    Jadu, FM; Lam, EWN

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic capabilities of two-dimensional sialography with a novel three-dimensional technique using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods 47 subjects underwent parotid or submandibular gland sialography over a 2 year period using both plain imaging and CBCT. Both image sets were anonymized and independently reviewed by three certified oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the clinical data. McNemar's χ2 test was used to determine differences between the two modalities for feature visualization and interpretation. Results CBCT outperformed plain imaging with respect to visualization of the gland parenchyma (p < 0.001) and identification of sialoliths (p = 0.02). Plain imaging outperformed CBCT for the identification of strictures (p = 0.04); however, the negative per cent agreement (“specificity”) between the two imaging modalities was 100%. Although both imaging modalities performed equally in identifying normal and abnormal sialographic examinations, CBCT demonstrated a high negative per cent agreement for normal glands and a high positive per cent agreement (“sensitivity”) for abnormal glands with inflammatory changes. Conclusion CBCT sialography allowed better visualization of gland parenchyma and identification of sialoliths. The high negative per cent agreement for strictures suggests that, if strictures are identified on CBCT images, then obstruction can be ruled in. Relative to plain images, the high negative per cent agreement for normal glands suggests that, if an abnormal finding is detected on CBCT images, then disease can be ruled in, and the high positive per cent agreement for glands with inflammatory changes suggests that inflammation can be ruled out if these changes are not seen on CBCT images. PMID:23253564

  3. A Fast Visible Camera Divertor-Imaging Diagnostic on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Roquemore, A; Maingi, R; Lasnier, C; Nishino, N; Evans, T; Fenstermacher, M; Nagy, A

    2007-06-19

    In recent campaigns, the Photron Ultima SE fast framing camera has proven to be a powerful diagnostic when applied to imaging divertor phenomena on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Active areas of NSTX divertor research addressed with the fast camera include identification of types of EDGE Localized Modes (ELMs)[1], dust migration, impurity behavior and a number of phenomena related to turbulence. To compare such edge and divertor phenomena in low and high aspect ratio plasmas, a multi-institutional collaboration was developed for fast visible imaging on NSTX and DIII-D. More specifically, the collaboration was proposed to compare the NSTX small type V ELM regime [2] and the residual ELMs observed during Type I ELM suppression with external magnetic perturbations on DIII-D[3]. As part of the collaboration effort, the Photron camera was installed recently on DIII-D with a tangential view similar to the view implemented on NSTX, enabling a direct comparison between the two machines. The rapid implementation was facilitated by utilization of the existing optics that coupled the visible spectral output from the divertor vacuum ultraviolet UVTV system, which has a view similar to the view developed for the divertor tangential TV camera [4]. A remote controlled filter wheel was implemented, as was the radiation shield required for the DIII-D installation. The installation and initial operation of the camera are described in this paper, and the first images from the DIII-D divertor are presented.

  4. A report on the Academic Emergency Medicine 2015 consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization".

    PubMed

    Gunn, Martin L; Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M; Chong, Suzanne T; Froemming, Adam T; Johnson, Jamlik O; Kumaravel, Manickam; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-08-01

    In May 2015, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization" was held. The goal of the conference was to develop a high-priority research agenda regarding emergency diagnostic imaging on which to base future research. In addition to representatives from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, the multidisciplinary conference included members of several radiology organizations: American Society for Emergency Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Through a multistep consensus process, participants developed targeted research questions for future research in six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use.

  5. Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Keren Tuvia; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Robinson, Christopher; Sanelli, Pina C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the utilization of MRI compared with CT in pregnant patients presenting with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain at our institution and to compare the diagnostic performance of the two modalities. A retrospective review identified all pregnant patients at our institution who had MRI or CT exams of the abdomen and/or pelvis for acute nontraumatic abdominal pain over a 3-year period from January 2008 through December 2010. The imaging diagnoses were compared with pathologic data or operative findings as the primary reference standard or with clinical follow-up and laboratory data as the secondary reference standard. Patients without surgically proven diagnoses were followed clinically until delivery, when possible. Ninety-four pregnant patients were included in this study: 61 MRI exams were performed in 57 patients, 44 CT exams were performed in 43 patients (including six patients who had both), and 72 patients (77 %) had ultrasound prior to cross-sectional imaging, with the appendix specifically assessed in 25 patients but visualized in only two of them. Of 61 MRI exams, 24 were considered positive for imaging diagnoses, 33 were negative, and 4 were equivocal. Of 44 CT exams, 24 were positive and 20 were negative. The test characteristics for MRI and CT in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain were as follows: sensitivity 91 and 88 %, specificity 85 and 90 %, positive predictive value 81 and 91 %, negative predictive value 94 and 8 5 %, and diagnostic accuracy 88 and 88 %, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant (p value = 1). The majority of MRIs (34/61 = 56 %) were read by emergency radiologists. MRI and CT performed equally well in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Given its lack of ionizing radiation, MRI may be preferable. Given that the majority of MRIs were read by radiologists specializing in emergency imaging, this is a technique that emergency

  6. Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Neill, Siobhan O; Fanning, Noel; Mc Garrigle, Anne Marie; Connor, Owen J O; Wyse, Gerry; Maher, Michael M

    2012-04-01

    Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.

  7. Signal and noise transfer properties of photoelectric interactions in diagnostic x-ray imaging detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Yao, J.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2006-10-15

    Image quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging is ultimately limited by the statistical properties governing how, and where, x-ray energy is deposited in a detector. This in turn depends on the physics of the underlying x-ray interactions. In the diagnostic energy range (10-100 keV), most of the energy deposited in a detector is through photoelectric interactions. We present a theoretical model of the photoelectric effect that specifically addresses the statistical nature of energy absorption by photoelectrons, K and L characteristic x rays, and Auger electrons. A cascaded-systems approach is used that employs a complex structure of parallel cascades to describe signal and noise transfer through the photoelectric effect in terms of the modulation transfer function, Wiener noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The model was evaluated by comparing results with Monte Carlo calculations for x-ray converters based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) and lead (Pb), representing both low and high-Z materials. When electron transport considerations can be neglected, excellent agreement (within 3%) is obtained for each metric over the entire diagnostic energy range in both a-Se and Pb detectors up to 30 cycles/mm, the highest frequency tested. The cascaded model overstates the DQE when the electron range cannot be ignored. This occurs at approximately two cycles/mm in a-Se at an incident photon energy of 80 keV, whereas in Pb, excellent agreement is obtained for the DQE over the entire diagnostic energy range. However, within the context of mammography (20 keV) and micro-computed tomography (40 keV), the effects of electron transport on the DQE are negligible compared to fluorescence reabsorption, which can lead to decreases of up to 30% and 20% in a-Se and Pb, respectively, at 20 keV; and 10% and 5%, respectively, at 40 keV. It is shown that when Swank noise is identified in a Fourier model, the Swank factor must be frequency dependent. This factor decreases

  8. Signal and noise transfer properties of photoelectric interactions in diagnostic x-ray imaging detectors.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Yao, J; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2006-10-01

    Image quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging is ultimately limited by the statistical properties governing how, and where, x-ray energy is deposited in a detector. This in turn depends on the physics of the underlying x-ray interactions. In the diagnostic energy range (10-100 keV), most of the energy deposited in a detector is through photoelectric interactions. We present a theoretical model of the photoelectric effect that specifically addresses the statistical nature of energy absorption by photoelectrons, K and L characteristic x rays, and Auger electrons. A cascaded-systems approach is used that employs a complex structure of parallel cascades to describe signal and noise transfer through the photoelectric effect in terms of the modulation transfer function, Wiener noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The model was evaluated by comparing results with Monte Carlo calculations for x-ray converters based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) and lead (Pb), representing both low and high-Z materials. When electron transport considerations can be neglected, excellent agreement (within 3%) is obtained for each metric over the entire diagnostic energy range in both a-Se and Pb detectors up to 30 cycles/mm, the highest frequency tested. The cascaded model overstates the DQE when the electron range cannot be ignored. This occurs at approximately two cycles/mm in a-Se at an incident photon energy of 80 keV, whereas in Pb, excellent agreement is obtained for the DQE over the entire diagnostic energy range. However, within the context of mammography (20 keV) and micro-computed tomography (40 keV), the effects of electron transport on the DQE are negligible compared to fluorescence reabsorption, which can lead to decreases of up to 30% and 20% in a-Se and Pb, respectively, at 20 keV; and 10% and 5%, respectively, at 40 keV. It is shown that when Swank noise is identified in a Fourier model, the Swank factor must be frequency dependent. This factor decreases

  9. Vertical root fracture: Biological effects and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Baageel, Turki M.; Allah, Emad Habib; Bakalka, Ghaida T.; Jadu, Fatima; Yamany, Ibrahim; Jan, Ahmed M.; Bogari, Dania F.; Alhazzazi, Turki Y.

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the most up-to-date literature on the accuracy of detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs] using the currently available diagnostic imaging methods. In addition, an overview of the biological and clinical aspects of VRFs will also be discussed. A systematic review of the literature was initiated in December of 2015 and then updated in May of 2016. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Emabse, Ovid, and Google Scholar. An assessment of the methodological quality was performed using a modified version of the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Twenty-two studies were included in this systematic review after applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 12 favored using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detecting VRF as compared to periapical radiographs, whereas 5 reported no differences between the two methods. The remaining 5 studies confirmed the advantages associated with using CBCT when diagnosing VRF and described the parameters and limitations associated with this method, but they were not comparative studies. In conclusion, overwhelming evidence suggests that the use of CBCT is a preferred method for detecting VRFs. Nevertheless, additional well controlled and high quality studies are needed to produce solid evidence and guidelines to support the routine use of CBCT in the diagnosis of VRFs as a standard of care. PMID:27652254

  10. Computed Tomography is Diagnostic in the Cervical Imaging of Helmeted Football Players With Shoulder Pads

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Michael; Foley, Jack; Heller, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prospective, observational case series evaluating the value of cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scans in the initial evaluation of a helmeted football player with suspected cervical spine injury. Subjects: Five asymptomatic male football players, fully equipped and immobilized on a backboard. Design: Multiple 3.0-mm, helically acquired, axially displayed CT images of the cervical spine were obtained from the skull base inferiorly through T1, with images filmed at soft tissue and bone windows. Sagittal and coronal reformatted images were performed. Software was used to minimize metallic artifact. Measurements: All series were reviewed by a Board-certified neuroradiologist for image clarity and diagnostic capability. Results: Lateral scout films demonstrated mild segmental degradation, depending on the location of the metallic snaps overlying the spine. Anteroposterior scout films and bone window images were of diagnostic quality. The soft tissue windows showed minimal localized artifact occurring at the same levels as in the lateral scout views. This minimal beam-hardening streak artifact did not affect the diagnostic quality of the soft tissue windows. Reconstructed images were uniformly of clinical diagnostic quality. Discussion: When CT scans were reviewed as a unit, sufficient information was available to allow reliable clinical decisions about the helmeted football player. In light of recent publications demonstrating the difficulty of obtaining adequate radiographs to evaluate cervical spine injury in equipped football players, helmeted athletes may undergo CT scanning without any significant diagnostic limitations. PMID:15496989

  11. Children's Deviant Behavior in Primary Education: Comparing Physical Educator's Implicit Theory With Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria A; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-06-11

    Objective: Physical educators' implicit theory of children's deviant behavior in primary education was investigated and compared with diagnostic criteria. Method: A total of 60 physical education (PE) teachers reported deviant behaviors during lessons. Experts sorted these behaviors together with the official diagnostic criteria into categories based on perceived similarity in content. Results: Hierarchical cluster analysis on the derived similarity matrix among the behaviors suggested that PE teachers focus more on attention problems, disobedience, and aggressiveness when internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and low energy, were less reported. Conclusion: PE teachers may be important and useful informants on children's behavior in school settings. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).

  12. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  13. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  14. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1994-05-03

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form. No Drawings

  15. Diagnostic Performance of Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Bone Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Peng; Cui, Long-Biao; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Cao, Jing; Chang, Ning; Tang, Xing; Qi, Shun; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current state-of-the-art nuclear medicine imaging methods (such as PET/CT or bone scintigraphy) may have insufficient sensitivity for predicting bone tumor, and substantial exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with the risk of secondary cancer development. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is radiation free and requires no intravenous contrast media, and hence is more suitable for population groups that are vulnerable to ionizing radiation and/or impaired renal functions. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether whole-body DW-MRI is a viable means in differentiating bone malignancy. Medline and Embase databases were searched from their inception to May 2015 without language restriction for studies evaluating DW-MRI for detection of bone lesions. Methodological quality was assessed by the quality assessment of diagnostic studies (QUADAS-2) instrument. Sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the curve (AUC) were used as measures of the diagnostic accuracy. We combined the effects by using the random-effects mode. Potential threshold effects and publication bias were investigated. We included data from 32 studies with 1507 patients. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90–0.97), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88–0.95), and 0.98 on a per-patient basis, and they were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87–0.94), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.96), and 0.97 on a per-lesion basis. In subgroup analysis, there is no statistical significance found in the sensitivity and specificity of using DWI only and DWI combined with other morphological or functional imaging sequence in both basis (P > 0.05). A b value of 750 to 1000 s/mm2 enables higher AUC and DOR for whole-body imaging purpose when compared with other values in both basis either (P < 0.01). The ROC space did not show a curvilinear trend of points and a threshold effect was not observed. According to the Deek's plots, there was no publication bias on

  16. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of pineal gland calcification

    PubMed Central

    Böker, Sarah M.; Bender, Yvonne Y.; Diederichs, Gerd; Fallenberg, Eva M.; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. Methods 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. 346 patients were included in the analysis, of which 214 showed PGC on CT scans. To assess correlation between imaging modalities, the maximum calcification diameter was used. Sensitivity and specificity and intra- and interobserver reliability were calculated for SWMR and conventional MRI sequences. Results SWMR reached a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 91%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%) for the detection of PGC, whereas conventional MRI achieved a sensitivity of 43% (95% CI: 36%-50%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%). Detection rates for calcifications in SWMR and conventional MRI differed significantly (95% versus 43%, p<0.001). Diameter measurements between SWMR and CT showed a close correlation (R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with a slight but not significant overestimation of size (SWMR: 6.5 mm ± 2.5; CT: 5.9 mm ± 2.4, p = 0.02). Interobserver-agreement for diameter measurements was excellent on SWMR (ICC = 0.984, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Combining SWMR magnitude and phase information enables the accurate detection of PGC and offers a better diagnostic performance than conventional MRI with CT as a reference standard. PMID:28278291

  18. Use of a sandwich technique to control image geometry in clinical studies comparing intraoral xeroradiographs and E-speed films

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.B.; Hill, R.A.; Hayes, C.J.

    1988-05-01

    A method of superimposing a film on a xeroradiographic (XR) cassette for simultaneous intraoral exposure is evaluated for use as an imaging technique in clinical studies comparing Ektaspeed film and XR images. Sandwich images were indistinguishable from those produced by conventional technique. Pilot studies were conducted with 104 patients who had symptomatic dental problems. No significant differences were found in diagnostic usefulness or image quality between XR and film radiographs when sign test analysis was used. The sandwich technique yielded film and XR images with duplicate image geometry while reducing patient exposures to one half of that used in conventional image comparison protocols.

  19. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Adam; Carlson, Carl; Young, Jason; Curtis, Alden; Jensen, Brian; Ramos, Kyle; Yeager, John; Montgomery, David; Fezza, Kamel

    2013-07-08

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  1. A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiwen; Sy, Ming Yiu; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Ahuja, Anil T; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The terahertz band lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. It is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Unique absorption spectra due to intermolecular vibrations in this region have been found in different biological materials. These unique features make terahertz imaging very attractive for medical applications in order to provide complimentary information to existing imaging techniques. There has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of biologically related applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques, and a number of applications such as molecular spectroscopy, tissue characterization and skin imaging are discussed. PMID:21512652

  2. [EOS imaging acquisition system : 2D/3D diagnostics of the skeleton].

    PubMed

    Tarhan, T; Froemel, D; Meurer, A

    2015-12-01

    The application spectrum of the EOS imaging acquisition system is versatile. It is especially useful in the diagnostics and planning of corrective surgical procedures in complex orthopedic cases. The application is indicated when assessing deformities and malpositions of the spine, pelvis and lower extremities. It can also be used in the assessment and planning of hip and knee arthroplasty. For the first time physicians have the opportunity to conduct examinations of the whole body under weight-bearing conditions in order to anticipate the effects of a planned surgical procedure on the skeletal system as a whole and therefore on the posture of the patient. Compared to conventional radiographic examination techniques, such as x-ray or computed tomography, the patient is exposed to much less radiation. Therefore, the pediatric application of this technique can be described as reasonable.

  3. Necrotizing fasciitis: contribution and limitations of diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Omoumi, Patrick; Maldague, Baudouin E; Vande Berg, Bruno C

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, rapidly spreading, deep-seated infection causing thrombosis of the blood vessels located in the fascia. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency. The diagnosis typically relies on clinical findings of severe sepsis and intense pain, although subacute forms may be difficult to recognize. Imaging studies can help to differentiate necrotizing fasciitis from infections located more superficially (dermohypodermitis). The presence of gas within the necrotized fasciae is characteristic but may be lacking. The main finding is thickening of the deep fasciae due to fluid accumulation and reactive hyperemia, which can be visualized using computed tomography and, above all, magnetic resonance imaging (high signal on contrast-enhanced T1 images and T2 images, best seen with fat saturation). These findings lack specificity, as they can be seen in non-necrotizing fasciitis and even in non-inflammatory conditions. Signs that support a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis include extensive involvement of the deep intermuscular fascias (high sensitivity but low specificity), thickening to more than 3mm, and partial or complete absence on post-gadolinium images of signal enhancement of the thickened fasciae (fairly high sensitivity and specificity). Ultrasonography is not recommended in adults, as the infiltration of the hypodermis blocks ultrasound transmission. Thus, imaging studies in patients with necrotizing fasciitis may be challenging to interpret. Although imaging may help to confirm deep tissue involvement and to evaluate lesion spread, it should never delay emergency surgical treatment in patients with established necrotizing fasciitis.

  4. New concepts in standing advanced diagnostic equine imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Erin G; Werpy, Natasha M

    2014-04-01

    This article addresses the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) as applied to the standing equine patient. This discussion includes the logistics, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of imaging a standing horse. In addition, a brief review is given of the physics of these modalities as applied in clinical practice, and the currently available hardware and software required by these techniques for image acquisition and artifact reduction. The appropriate selection of clinical cases for standing MRI and CT is reviewed, focusing on cases that are capable of undergoing standing surgeries following lesion diagnosis.

  5. Quantitative validation of anti-PTBP1 antibody for diagnostic neuropathology use: Image analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Goksel, Behiye; Elder, James B; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Otero, Jose J; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-12-26

    Traditional diagnostic neuropathology relies on subjective interpretation of visual data obtained from a brightfield microscopy. This approach causes high variability, unsatisfactory reproducibility, and inability for multiplexing even among experts. These problems may affect patient outcomes and confound clinical decision-making. Also, standard histological processing of pathological specimens leads to auto-fluorescence and other artifacts, a reason why fluorescent microscopy is not routinely implemented in diagnostic pathology. To overcome these problems, objective and quantitative methods are required to help neuropathologists in their clinical decision-making. Therefore, we propose a computerized image analysis method to validate anti-PTBP1 antibody for its potential use in diagnostic neuropathology. Images were obtained from standard neuropathological specimens stained with anti-PTBP1 antibody. First, the noise characteristics of the images were modeled and images are de-noised according to the noise model. Next, images are filtered with sigma-adaptive Gaussian filtering for normalization, and cell nuclei are detected and segmented with a k-means-based deterministic approach. Experiments on 29 data sets from 3 cases of brain tumor and reactive gliosis show statistically significant differences between the number of positively stained nuclei in images stained with and without anti-PTBP1 antibody. The experimental analysis of specimens from 3 different brain tumor groups and 1 reactive gliosis group indicates the feasibility of using anti-PTBP1 antibody in diagnostic neuropathology, and computerized image analysis provides a systematic and quantitative approach to explore feasibility.

  6. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration Facilities Toward Diagnostic Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    1-0004 TITLE: A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration Facilities toward Diagnostic Mammography PRINCIPAL...Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Jan 2010 – 31 Dec 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Novel Hand-held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration ...translation of a hand-held optical imager with automated coregistration facilities toward 3D tomography. Studies were performed in vivo with healthy female

  7. Application of a three-dimensional display in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Baxter, B; Hitchner, L E; Anderson, R E

    1982-10-01

    An autostereoscopic viewing device for tomographic scans that allows a physician to examine multiple computed tomography sections with each section properly positioned in three dimensions has been constructed and tested. Images produced on the device allow the observer to utilize both motion parallax and stereoscopic depth cues as if viewing a real three-dimensional (3D) object. These 3D images can be very striking because of the ease with which one can form a true impression of depth relationships. We describe operating principles of the viewing device and the appearance of images produced on it. Stereo photographs made from 3D images displayed on the device are included to illustrate potential applications and problems.

  8. 1895-1995: diagnostic imaging in its first century.

    PubMed

    Yochum, T R

    1995-01-01

    A brief historical review of the discovery of X-ray by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen on November 9, 1895, is presented. This synopsis discusses the evolution of X-ray imaging from the primitive Crookes x-ray tube to the state-of-the-art high-frequency generators. Technological advancements from fluoroscopy to plain films, nuclear medicine, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, along with changes in X-ray film and intensifying screens, are also provided. A concise overview of chiropractic radiology and the introduction of X-ray into the chiropractic curriculum, first at Palmer College and then at other colleges is presented. Historical recognition of the development of the American Chiropractic Board of Radiology (ACBR), its founding fathers and its certification program for training chiropractic radiologists is reviewed. General comments pointing to computerized digital imaging as the filmless imaging of the future are offered.

  9. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications.

  10. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, J. C.; Rodriguez, N. M.; Liu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904

  11. Ordering Diagnostic Imaging: A Survey of Ontario Physiotherapists' Opinions on an Expanded Scope of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jodie Ng Fuk; De Luca, Krista; Goldan, Sana; Imam, Abdullah; Li, Boris; Zabjek, Karl; Chu, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore Ontario physiotherapists' opinions on their ability to order diagnostic imaging (DI). Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to all registered members of the College of Physiotherapists of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were calculated using response frequencies. Practice characteristics were compared using χ2 tests and Wilcoxon rank–sum tests. Results: Of 1,574 respondents (21% response rate), 42% practised in orthopaedics and 53% in the public sector. Most physiotherapists were interested in ordering DI (72% MRI/diagnostic ultrasound, 78% X-rays/computed tomography scans). Respondents with an orthopaedic caseload of 50% or more (p<0.001) and those in the private sector (p<0.001) were more interested in ordering DI. Respondents preferred a DI course that combined face-to-face and Web-based components and one that was specific to their area of practice. Most respondents perceived minimal barriers to the uptake of ordering DI, and most agreed that support from other health care professionals would facilitate uptake. Conclusion: The majority of Ontario physiotherapists are interested in ordering DI. For successful implementation of a health care change, such as physiotherapists' ability to order DI, educational needs and barriers to and facilitators of the uptake of the authorized activity should be considered. PMID:25931666

  12. Use of diagnostic imaging procedures and fetal monitoring devices in the care of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R M; Jeng, L L; Kaczmarek, R G; Placek, P J

    1990-01-01

    Medical devices and diagnostic imaging procedures such as ultrasound, X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices are used in the medical care of many pregnant women today. The responsibility for the safety and effectiveness of these diagnostic technologies is shared by a number of Public Health Service agencies, one of which is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), a unit within the Food and Drug Administration. The CDRH collaborated with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in conducting a study of recent trends in the uses of diagnostic ultrasound, medical X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices in the medical care of pregnant women. This study used data from the 1980 National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys and the 1987 pretest to the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Hospitals and prenatal care providers of the pregnant women contributed information regarding the use of these medical devices. Between 1980 and 1987, ultrasound use more than doubled, increasing from 33.5 percent of pregnancies in 1980 to 78.8 percent in 1987 (P less than 0.001). More ultrasound examinations were performed earlier in gestation in 1987 than in 1980, with 10.1 percent being performed during the first trimester in 1987, compared with 6.9 percent in 1980 (P less than 0.001). Use of external electronic fetal monitoring devices during delivery also increased significantly between 1980 and 1987, from 33.5 percent to 74.6 percent (P less than 0.001). Use of medical X-rays among women with live births remained relatively unchanged, 15.0 percent in 1980 and 15.3 percent in 1987 (P = .282). The implications of these trends are discussed. PMID:2120723

  13. A Practical Illustration of Multidimensional Diagnostic Skills Profiling: Comparing Results from Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, Andre A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing international interest in fine-grained diagnostic inferences on multiple skills for formative purposes. A successful provision of such inferences that support meaningful instructional decision-making requires (a) careful diagnostic assessment design coupled with (b) empirical support for the structure…

  14. WE-A-BRF-01: Dual-Energy CT Imaging in Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, S; Li, B; Yin, F; Chen, H

    2014-06-15

    The quantification accuracy of dual-energy imaging is influenced by the fundamentals of x-ray physics, system geometry, data acquisition hardware/protocol, system calibration, and image processing technique. This symposium will provide updates on the following advanced application areas: Mammography. Volumetric breast density techniques based on standard mammograms require estimation of breast thickness, which is difficult to accurately measure. By comparison, calculation of breast density using dual energy mammography does not require measurement of breast thickness. Dual energy mammography has been implemented using both energy integrating flat panel detectors in conjunction with beam energy switching and energy resolved photon counting detectors. These techniques have been optimized using simulation studies and validated using physical phantoms and postmortem breasts. Chemical decomposition was used as the gold standard for volumetric breast density measurement in postmortem breasts. Breast density measurements have also been compared with results from four-category BI-RADS density rankings, standard image thresholding and Fuzzy k-mean clustering techniques. These studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure volumetric breast density. Cardiovascular CT. The predicative accuracy of risk models for recurrent stroke and cardiac arrest depends heavily on accurate differentiation of thrombus or calcium from iodine in left atrial appendage or coronary arteries. The amount of energy separation is constrained by image noise; therefore, optimal kVp, beam filtration, and balanced flux are essential for the quantification accuracy of iodine and calcium. The basis materials are combined linearly to generate monochromatic energy images, where CT# accuracy and CNR are energy dependent. With optimal monochromatic energy, the mean iodine concentration for the thrombus, circulatory stasis, and control groups are significantly different. Risk

  15. Applications of imaging flow cytometry in the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Grimwade, Lizz F; Fuller, Kathryn A; Erber, Wendy N

    2017-01-01

    Automated imaging flow cytometry integrates flow cytometry with digital microscopy to produce high-resolution digital imaging with quantitative analysis. This enables cell identification based on morphology (cell size, shape), antigen expression, quantification of fluorescence signal intensity and localisation of detected signals (i.e. surface, cytoplasm, nuclear). We describe applications of imaging flow cytometry for the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia. These bone marrow malignancies are traditionally diagnosed and classified by cell morphology, phenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities. Traditionally morphology is assessed by light microscopy, phenotyping by conventional flow cytometry and genetics by karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on interphase nuclei/metaphase spreads of cells on slides. Imaging flow cytometry adds a new dimension to the diagnostic assessment of these neoplasms. We describe three specific applications: From this we conclude that imaging flow cytometry offers benefits over conventional diagnostic methods. Specifically the ability to visualise the cells of interest, the pattern and localisation of expressed antigens and assess cytogenetic abnormalities in one integrated automated high-throughput test. Imaging flow cytometry presents a new paradigm for the diagnostic assessment of leukaemia.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of abdominal fluid collections and abscesses.

    PubMed

    Baker, M E; Blinder, R A; Rice, R P

    1986-01-01

    With today's advanced technology, the clinician and radiologist have a number of techniques with which to evaluate the abdomen for fluid collections and/or abscesses. Three points are clear from the plethora of literature concerning this subject: the need to individualize the clinical and imaging approach to each patient suspected of an abnormal fluid collection or abscess, the need to individualize the imaging procedure based upon what is done best at the institution, and the need for percutaneous aspiration of all fluid collections for diagnosis. No single imaging test is totally sensitive or specific for the detection of an infected fluid collection. Overall, CT probably does provide the most accurate means to detect an intra-abdominal abscess. Because of this, and because it is less operator dependent than ultrasound, CT is used most often as the procedure of choice at our institution.

  17. Imaging in axial spondyloarthritis: diagnostic problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Baraliakos, Xenofon; Hermann, Kay-Geert A; Braun, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic Structural changes in axial Spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are best identified by conventional radiographs, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard for assessment of inflammatory changes. Imaging of the axial skeleton is crucial for the diagnosis but also for classification to non-radiographic axSpA according to the 2009 ASAS classification criteria. Despite the existing definitions for a positive MRI for the sacroiliac joints and the spine, these predefined lesions can also be seen in other conditions, representing pitfalls and false-positive conclusions in patients with similar clinical symptoms who do not have SpA. Diagnosis of SpA should result from the combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging findings.

  18. The Diagnostic Radiological Utilization Of 3-D Display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Dwyer, Samuel J.; Preston, David F.; Batnitzky, Solomon; Lee, Kyo R.

    1984-10-01

    In the practice of radiology, computer graphics systems have become an integral part of the use of computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ultrasound. Gray scale computerized display systems are used to display, manipulate, and record scans in all of these modalities. As the use of these imaging systems has spread, various applications involving digital image manipulation have also been widely accepted in the radiological community. We discuss one of the more esoteric of such applications, namely, the reconstruction of 3-D structures from plane section data, such as CT scans. Our technique is based on the acquisition of contour data from successive sections, the definition of the implicit surface defined by such contours, and the application of the appropriate computer graphics hardware and software to present reasonably pleasing pictures.

  19. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Domier, C W; Liang, T; Kong, X; Tobias, B; Shen, Z; Luhmann, N C; Park, H; Classen, I G J; van de Pol, M J; Donné, A J H; Jaspers, R

    2008-10-01

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T(e) profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities far beyond what has been achieved to date. These include the development of a minilens array configuration with increased sensitivity antennas, a new local oscillator pumping scheme, enhanced electron cyclotron resonance heating shielding, and a highly flexible optical design with vertical zoom capability. Horizontal zoom and spot size (rf bandwidth) capabilities are also being developed with new ECEI electronics. An interface module is under development to remotely control all key features of the new ECEI instrument, many of which can be changed during a plasma discharge for maximum flexibility.

  20. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Domier, C. W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Tobias, B.; Shen, Z.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Park, H.; Classen, I. G. J.; Pol, M. J. van de; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R.

    2008-10-15

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T{sub e} profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities far beyond what has been achieved to date. These include the development of a minilens array configuration with increased sensitivity antennas, a new local oscillator pumping scheme, enhanced electron cyclotron resonance heating shielding, and a highly flexible optical design with vertical zoom capability. Horizontal zoom and spot size (rf bandwidth) capabilities are also being developed with new ECEI electronics. An interface module is under development to remotely control all key features of the new ECEI instrument, many of which can be changed during a plasma discharge for maximum flexibility.

  1. New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, A; Lorenz, A; Siebers, S; Ermert, H

    2000-06-01

    Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted 'vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed.

  2. New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesavento, A.; Lorenz, A.; Siebers, S.; Ermert, H.

    2000-06-01

    Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted `vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed.

  3. [Diagnostic approach to cardiopathies by means of magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Zamora, Agustín

    2005-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies encompass a broad spectrum of heart pathologies having a basic principle, the intrinsic injury of the myocardial fiber. By definition, cardiomyopathies could be primary (dilated cardiomyopathy), or can be a consequence of another cardiovascular illness (high blood pressure), or of genetic anomalies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or due to alterations in myocytes due to fibrolipidic material as occurs in right ventricle arrhythmogenic dysplasia. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging is the best method to approach the diagnosis of these pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed us to study histological sections through adequate sequences and using gadolinium as contrast agent. We present herein a simple way to approach the diagnosis of cardiomyopathies by means of magnetic resonance imaging methods.

  4. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): Development of Image Analysis Criteria and Examiner Reliability for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansur; Hollender, Lars; Odont; Anderson, Quentin; Kartha, Krishnan; Ohrbach, Richard K.; Truelove, Edmond L.; John, Mike T.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction As a part of a multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project, comprehensive TMJ diagnostic criteria were developed for image analysis using panoramic radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). Methods Inter-examiner reliability was estimated using the kappa (k) statistic, and agreement between rater pairs was characterized by overall, positive, and negative percent agreement. CT was the reference standard for assessing validity of other imaging modalities for detecting osteoarthritis (OA). Results For the radiological diagnosis of OA, reliability of the three examiners was poor for panoramic radiography (k = 0.16), fair for MRI (k = 0.46), and close to the threshold for excellent for CT (k = 0.71). Using MRI, reliability was excellent for diagnosing disc displacements (DD) with reduction (k = 0.78) and for DD without reduction (k = 0.94), and was good for effusion (k = 0.64). Overall percent agreement for pair-wise ratings was ≥ 82% for all conditions. Positive percent agreement for diagnosing OA was 19% for panoramic radiography, 59% for MRI, and 84% for CT. Using MRI, positive percent agreement for diagnoses of any DD was 95% and for effusion was 81%. Negative percent agreement was ≥ 88% for all conditions. Compared to CT, panoramic radiography and MRI had poor to marginal sensitivity, respectively, but excellent specificity, in detecting OA. Conclusion Comprehensive image analysis criteria for RDC/TMD Validation Project were developed, which can reliably be employed for assessing OA using CT, and for disc position and effusion using MRI. PMID:19464658

  5. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (162). Meckel’s diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinesh R; Pulickal, Geoiphy G; Lo, Zhiwen J; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    A 28-year-old Chinese man presented with acute bleeding per rectum. Computed tomography showed a posterior outpouching arising from the distal ileum. The outpouching had hyperaemic walls, but no active contrast extravasation was detected. Technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy showed focal areas of abnormal uptake in the right side of the pelvis, superior and posterior to the urinary bladder. These areas of uptake appeared simultaneously with the gastric uptake and demonstrated gradual increase in intensity on subsequent images. The diagnosis of Meckel’s diverticulum was confirmed on surgery and the lesion was resected. The clinical and imaging features of Meckel’s diverticulum are discussed. PMID:26451056

  6. Dropped gallstones: spectrum of imaging findings, complications and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nayak, L; Menias, C O; Gayer, G

    2013-08-01

    Spillage of gallstones into the abdominal cavity, referred to as "dropped gallstones" (DGs), occurs commonly during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The majority of these spilled stones remain clinically silent; however, if uncomplicated DGs are not correctly identified on subsequent imaging, they may mimic peritoneal implants and cause unduly concern. A small percentage of DGs cause complications, including abscess and fistula formation. Recognising the DG within the abscess is critical for definitive treatment. This pictorial review illustrates the imaging appearances and complications of DGs on CT, MRI and ultrasound and emphasises pitfalls in diagnosis.

  7. A method for comparing beam-hardening filter materials for diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R J

    1988-01-01

    The necessity for using adequate beam filtration in diagnostic radiology is well known. Although aluminum is the most widely used filter material for diagnostic x-ray applications, the possibility that other materials might have superior properties has prompted a number of studies that have attempted to determine both the type and the amount of filtration most appropriate for a given situation. This paper describes a method based on precise matching of spectral shape that permits the absolute ranking of beam-hardening materials. Matching of spectral shape ensures equality of such parameters as image contrast and patient dose. Spectrally equivalent filters can then be ranked on the basis of the transmission of one relative to another. Following the development of the theory behind the method and an algorithm for implementing it, the method is applied to the evaluation of a variety of materials for use as filters in diagnostic radiology. Experimental verification of a few of the calculated results is also described. Both calculated and experimental results show that normal aluminum filters are about 10% less efficient than filters of materials such as copper, brass, or iron. Since the approach followed here was the basis for several early investigations of filtration for orthovoltage therapy, a brief comparison of results from these early reports with results calculated using the method developed here is also presented.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of Dual-Energy CT Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Direct Comparison With Cardiovascular MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung Min; Song, Meong Gun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of stress perfusion dual-energy CT (DECT) and its incremental value when used with coronary CT angiography (CTA) for identifying hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One hundred patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease without chronic myocardial infarction detected with coronary CTA underwent stress perfusion DECT, stress cardiovascular perfusion MRI, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stress perfusion DECT and cardiovascular stress perfusion MR images were used for detecting perfusion defects. Coronary CTA and ICA were evaluated in the detection of ≥ 50% coronary stenosis. The diagnostic performance of coronary CTA for detecting hemodynamically significant stenosis was assessed before and after stress perfusion DECT on a pervessel basis with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI as the reference standard. RESULTS The performance of stress perfusion DECT compared with cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI on a per-vessel basis in the detection of perfusion defects was sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 74%; positive predictive value, 73%; negative predictive value, 90%. Per segment, these values were sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 63%; and negative predictive value, 88%. Compared with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI per vessel territory the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary CTA were 95%, 61%, 61%, and 95%. The values for stress perfusion DECT were 92%, 72%, 68%, and 94%. The values for coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT were 88%, 79%, 73%, and 91%. The ROC AUC increased from 0.78 to 0.84 (p = 0.02) with the use of coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT compared with coronary CTA alone. CONCLUSION Stress perfusion DECT plays a complementary role in enhancing the accuracy of coronary CTA for identifying hemodynamically

  9. Diagnostic accuracy and added value of dual-energy subtraction radiography compared to standard conventional radiography using computed tomography as standard of reference

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Katharina; Baessler, Marco; Baumueller, Stephan; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate diagnostic performance of dual-energy subtraction radiography (DESR) for interpretation of chest radiographs compared to conventional radiography (CR) using computed tomography (CT) as standard of reference. Material and methods A total of 199 patients (75 female, median age 67) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial. All patients were scanned in posteroanterior and lateral direction with dual-shot DE-technique. Chest CT was performed within ±72 hours. The system provides three types of images: bone weighted-image, soft tissue weighted-image, herein termed as DESR-images, and a standard image, termed CR-image (marked as CR-image). Images were evaluated by two radiologists for presence of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, infectious consolidation, interstitial lung changes, tumor, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations, aortic or tracheal calcification and pleural thickening. Inter-observer agreement between readers and diagnostic performance were calculated. McNemar’s test was used to test for significant differences. Results Mean inter-observer agreement throughout the investigated parameters was higher in DESR images compared to CR-images (kDESR = 0.935 vs. kCR = 0.858). DESR images provided significantly increased sensitivity compared to CR-images for the detection of infectious consolidations (42% vs. 62%), tumor (46% vs. 57%), interstitial lung changes (69% vs. 87%) and aortic or tracheal calcification (25 vs. 73%) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in sensitivity for the detection of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations or pleural thickening (p>0.05). Conclusion DESR increases significantly the sensibility without affecting the specificity evaluating chest radiographs, with emphasis on the detection of interstitial lung diseases. PMID:28301584

  10. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A

    2007-01-10

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  11. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a 3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  12. Lensless Imaging for Battlefield On-Chip Blood Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-06

    Sencan, G. Biener, T. Su, A.F. Coskun, D. Tseng, A. Ozcan, “Nano-structured surfaces for lensless incoherent microscopy on a chip” 11th Annual UC...11301–11305 (2001). 3. Pedrini, G., and Tiziani, H.J., Short-coherence digital microscopy by use of a lensless holographic imaging system. Appl. Opt...Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Optics Express, Vol. 18 Issue 5, 4717-4726 doi

  13. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (82). Lesser trochanter metastasis.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Muttarak, M

    2003-02-01

    A 73-year-old woman who had previous mastectomy for breast carcinoma presented with persistent pain over the left hip area for two to three months. Pelvic radiograph showed an expanded osteolytic lesion involving the lesser trochanter of the left femur, with adjacent ill-defined destructive changes. She subsequently developed a displaced pathological fracture through the lesser trochanteric metastasis. The clinical features and pathophysiology of bone metastases are discussed. The role of imaging, with additional illustrative examples, is emphasised.

  14. Diagnostic ultrasound at MACH 20: retroperitoneal and pelvic imaging in space.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Sargsyan, A E; Barr, Y R; Melton, S; Hamilton, D R; Dulchavsky, S A; Whitson, P A

    2009-07-01

    An operationally available diagnostic imaging capability augments spaceflight medical support by facilitating the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of medical or surgical conditions, by improving medical outcomes and, thereby, by lowering medical mission impacts and the probability of crew evacuation due to medical causes. Microgravity-related physiological changes occurring during spaceflight can affect the genitourinary system and potentially cause conditions such as urinary retention or nephrolithiasis for which ultrasonography (U/S) would be a useful diagnostic tool. This study describes the first genitourinary ultrasound examination conducted in space, and evaluates image quality, frame rate, resolution requirements, real-time remote guidance of nonphysician crew medical officers and evaluation of on-orbit tools that can augment image acquisition. A nonphysician crew medical officer (CMO) astronaut, with minimal training in U/S, performed a self-examination of the genitourinary system onboard the International Space Station, using a Philips/ATL Model HDI-5000 ultrasound imaging unit located in the International Space Station Human Research Facility. The CMO was remotely guided by voice commands from experienced, earth-based sonographers stationed in Mission Control Center in Houston. The crewmember, with guidance, was able to acquire all of the target images. Real-time and still U/S images received at Mission Control Center in Houston were of sufficient quality for the images to be diagnostic for multiple potential genitourinary applications. Microgravity-based ultrasound imaging can provide diagnostic quality images of the retroperitoneum and pelvis, offering improved diagnosis and treatment for onboard medical contingencies. Successful completion of complex sonographic examinations can be obtained even with minimally trained nonphysician ultrasound operators, with the assistance of ground-based real-time guidance.

  15. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  16. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  17. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  18. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  19. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  20. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers. PMID:26626047

  1. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  2. Near Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Enamel Demineralization: An in vivo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Seth Adam

    Background and Objectives: For decades there has been an effort to develop alternative optical methods of imaging dental decay utilizing non-ionizing radiation methods. The purpose of this in-vivo study was to demonstrate whether NIR can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dental caries and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method with that of conventional methods, including bitewing x-rays and visual inspection. Materials and Methods: 31 test subjects (n=31) from the UCSF orthodontic clinic undergoing orthodontic treatment with planned premolar extractions were recruited. Calibrated examiners performed caries detection examinations using conventional methods: bitewing radiographs and visual inspection. These findings were compared with the results from NIR examinations: transillumination and reflectance. To confirm the results found in the two different detection methods, a gold standard was used. After teeth were extracted, polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography were performed. Results: A total of 87 premolars were used in the study. NIR identified the occlusal lesions with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 77%, whereas, the visual examination had a sensitivity of only 40% and a specifity of 39%. For interproximal lesions halfway to DEJ, specificity remained constant, but sensitivity improved to 100% for NIR and 75% for x-rays. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that NIR is just as effective at detecting enamel interproximal lesions as standard dental x-rays. NIR was more effective at detecting occlusal lesions than visual examination alone. NIR shows promise as an alternative diagnostic tool to the conventional methods of x-rays and visual examination and provides a non-ionizing radiation technique.

  3. Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging, therapy, and quantitative diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.

    Nanoparticles and nanomaterials are known to exhibit extraordinary characteristics and have a wide range of application which utilizes their unique properties. In particular, nanoparticles have shown great promise towards advancing the state of biological and biomedical techniques such as in vivo and in vitro imaging modalities, biosensing, and disease detection and therapy. Nanocrystalline hosts: NaYF4, KYF4, KGdF4, NaMF3, and KMF3 (M=Mg, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cr) doped with rare earth ions have been synthesized by thermolysis, solvothermal, and hydrothermal methods. The morphology and spectroscopic properties have been thoroughly characterized. These nanoparticles (NP) are particularly useful for biomedical purposes since both the exciting and emitting wavelengths are in the near-infrared, where most tissues do not strongly absorb or scatter light. In vivo and in vitro imaging was performed with a 980 nm excitation source. Finally, NPs were conjugated with zinc phthalocyanine, a photosensitizer with a large absorption coefficient in the red and NIR regions, to illustrate the efficacy of these NPs as a platform for dual-mode infrared-activated imaging and photodynamic platforms. In addition, nonlinear optical nanomaterials, such as BaTiO3 and Ag@BaTiO3, were also synthesized and characterized. The nonlinear optical properties were investigated, and it is demonstrated that these nanoparticles can produce phase conjugate waves when used in a counterpropagating four wave mixing setup. The third order susceptibility is quantified using the z-scan technique, and the toxicity of these nanoparticles is also explored.

  4. Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Cecilia S.; Payne, John F.; Bergstrom, Chris S.; Cribbs, Blaine E.; Yan, Jiong; Hubbard, G. Baker; Olsen, Timothy W.; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM). Methods This is a retrospective review of four patients diagnosed with UAIM. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity (VA), and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography were analyzed. Results The median age at presentation was 31 years (range 27–52 years). The median interval between symptom onset and presentation was four weeks (range 1–20 weeks). Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive Coxsackie virus titers (50%). The median presenting VA was 20/400 (range 20/70–1/400), which improved to 20/30 (range 20/20–20/60) at final follow-up. The median follow-up time was 6 weeks (range 0–8 weeks). Early in the disease course, the central macula developed irregular, circular areas of white-grey discoloration. Following recovery, the macula had a stippled retinal pigment epithelium characterized by rarefaction and hyperplasia. FA demonstrated irregular early hyperfluorescence and late subretinal hyperfluorescence. SD-OCT showed a partially reversible disruption of the outer photoreceptor layer. FAF initially revealed stippled autofluorescence that eventually became more hypoautofluorescent. ICG showed “moth-eaten” appearing choroidal vasculature, suggestive of choroidal inflammation. Conclusions The imaging characteristics highlight the structural changes during the active and resolution phases of UAIM. The visual recovery correlates with structural changes and suggests that the pathogenesis involves inflammation of the inner choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer photoreceptor complex that is partially reversible. PMID:22232475

  5. High-dynamic-range pixel architectures for diagnostic medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Karim S.; Yin, Sherman; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2004-05-01

    One approach to increase pixel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low noise digital fluoroscopy is to employ in-situ pixel amplification via current-mediated active pixel sensors (C-APS). Experiments reveal a reduction in readout noise and indicate that an a-Si C-APS, coupled together with an established X-ray detection technology such as amorphous selenium (a-Se), can meet the stringent requirements (of < 1000 noise electrons) for digital X-ray fluoroscopy. A challenge with the C-APS circuit is the presence of a small-signal input linearity constraint. While using such a pixel amplifier for real-time fluoroscopy (where the exposure level is small) is feasible, the voltage change at the amplifier input is much higher in chest radiography or mammography due to the larger X-ray exposure levels. The larger input voltage causes the C-APS output to be non-linear thus reducing the pixel dynamic range. In addition, the resulting larger pixel output current causes the external column amplifier to saturate further reducing the pixel dynamic range. In this research, we investigate two alternate amplified pixel architectures that exhibit higher dynamic range. The test pixels are designed and simulated using an a-Si TFT model implemented in Verilog-A and results indicate a linear performance, high dynamic range, and a programmable circuit gain via choice of supply voltage and sampling time. These high dynamic range pixel architectures have the potential to enable a large area, active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) to switch instantly between low exposure, fluoroscopic imaging and higher exposure radiographic imaging modes. Lastly, the high dynamic range pixel circuits are suitable for integration with on-panel multiplexers for both gate and data lines, which can further reduce circuit complexity.

  6. Comparing implementations of magnetic-resonance-guided fluorescence molecular tomography for diagnostic classification of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) systems coupled to conventional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography provide unique opportunities to combine data sets and improve image quality and content. Yet, the ideal approach to combine these complementary data is still not obvious. This preclinical study compares several methods for incorporating MRI spatial prior information into FMT imaging algorithms in the context of in vivo tissue diagnosis. Populations of mice inoculated with brain tumors that expressed either high or low levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were imaged using an EGF-bound near-infrared dye and a spectrometer-based MRI-FMT scanner. All data were spectrally unmixed to extract the dye fluorescence from the tissue autofluorescence. Methods to combine the two data sets were compared using student's t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Bulk fluorescence measurements that made up the optical imaging data set were also considered in the comparison. While most techniques were able to distinguish EGFR(+) tumors from EGFR(-) tumors and control animals, with area-under-the-curve values=1, only a handful were able to distinguish EGFR(-) tumors from controls. Bulk fluorescence spectroscopy techniques performed as well as most imaging techniques, suggesting that complex imaging algorithms may be unnecessary to diagnose EGFR status in these tissue volumes.

  7. Review of Quantitative Ultrasound: Envelope Statistics and Backscatter Coefficient Imaging and Contributions to Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Michael L; Mamou, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Conventional medical imaging technologies, including ultrasound, have continued to improve over the years. For example, in oncology, medical imaging is characterized by high sensitivity, i.e., the ability to detect anomalous tissue features, but the ability to classify these tissue features from images often lacks specificity. As a result, a large number of biopsies of tissues with suspicious image findings are performed each year with a vast majority of these biopsies resulting in a negative finding. To improve specificity of cancer imaging, quantitative imaging techniques can play an important role. Conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging is mainly qualitative in nature. However, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging can provide specific numbers related to tissue features that can increase the specificity of image findings leading to improvements in diagnostic ultrasound. QUS imaging can encompass a wide variety of techniques including spectral-based parameterization, elastography, shear wave imaging, flow estimation, and envelope statistics. Currently, spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics are not available on most conventional clinical ultrasound machines. However, in recent years, QUS techniques involving spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics have demonstrated success in many applications, providing additional diagnostic capabilities. Spectral-based techniques include the estimation of the backscatter coefficient (BSC), estimation of attenuation, and estimation of scatterer properties such as the correlation length associated with an effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC) of scatterers. Envelope statistics include the estimation of the number density of scatterers and quantification of coherent to incoherent signals produced from the tissue. Challenges for clinical application include correctly accounting for attenuation effects and transmission losses and implementation of QUS on

  8. Diagnostic imaging in a patient with an acute knee injury.

    PubMed

    Sago, Carrie E; Labuda, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old man, currently serving in a military airborne operations unit. During a jump training exercise, the patient's right lower extremity became entangled in his parachute equipment upon exiting the aircraft, which caused hyperextension and valgus forces upon his right knee. Due to concern for a fracture, the patient was transported to an emergency department, where conventional radiographs were completed and interpreted by a radiologist as negative for a fracture. Following further physical examination by a physical therapist, magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was ordered, revealing ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament.

  9. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences.

  10. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  11. Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Pinto, Frank M; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathy; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

  12. [Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: diagnostic contribution of magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Varnet, O; de Seze, J; Soto-Ares, G; Tiberghien, F; Caparros-Lefebvre, D; Daems, C; Pasquier, F; Pruvo, J P; Destée, A; Vermesch, P

    2002-12-01

    Data regarding the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) are scarce. WKS usually combines a cerebellar syndrome, oculomotor disorder and confusion. The aim of this study was to determine more precisely the clinical presentation of WKS and the frequency and topography of MRI abnormalities. Furthermore, we try to assess the prognostic value of both clinical signs and MRI abnormalities. We retrospectively studied 25 patients with WKS in which an MRI was available. We assessed the initial clinical presentation and the outcome. We also analyzed the frequency and the location of MRI lesions. We then correlated clinical and MRI data with the clinical outcome. Eleven patients (44 p. 100) had the full WKS. Fourteen of the 25 patients (56 p. 100) had a poor evolution. The occurrence of full WKS was correlated with a poor outcome (p < 0.02). Signal abnormalities on T2-weighted images were found in the periacqueducal region, in the thalami or in the mamillar bodies in 16 cases (64 p. 100). There was a correlation between an hypersignal in at least one region and a poor clinical outcome (p < 0.02). Our study demonstrates the high frequency of brain MRI lesions in WKS and the correlation of both initial clinical signs and MRI abnormalities with a poor clinical outcome.

  13. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  14. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in detecting intracranial hemorrhage at different stages: a comparative study with susceptibility weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Hong, Xiaohua; Liu, Taiyuan; Ma, Lun; Haacke, E Mark; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of APT MRI in detecting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages by comparing with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). APT MRI and SWI were performed on 33 included patients with ICH by using a 3-T MRI unit. A two-sided Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences in APT-weighted (APTw) and SWI signal intensities of ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic utilities of APT MRI and SWI. Our results showed that APT MRI could detect ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Therefore, APTw signal intensity may serve as a reliable, noninvasive imaging biomarker for detecting ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Moreover, APT MRI could provide additional information for the ICH compared with SWI. PMID:28374764

  15. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of blue laser imaging magnification versus pit pattern analysis for colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Arihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Yamamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakamura, Masanao; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Goto, Hidemi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims There have been few evaluations of the diagnostic ability of new narrow band light observation blue laser imaging (BLI). The present prospective study compared the diagnostic ability of BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis for colorectal polyps. Patients and methods We collected lesions prospectively, and the analysis of images was made by two endoscopists, retrospectively. A total of 799 colorectal polyps were examined by BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis at Nagoya University Hospital. The Hiroshima narrow-band imaging classification was used for BLI. Differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions and diagnosis of deeply invasive submucosal cancer (dSM) were compared between BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis. Type C2 in the Hiroshima classification was evaluated separately, because application of this category as an index of the depth of cancer invasion was considered difficult. Results We analyzed 748 colorectal polyps, excluding 51 polyps that were inflammatory polyps, sessile serrated adenoma/polyps, serrated adenomas, advanced colorectal cancers, or other lesions. The accuracy of differential diagnosis between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was 98.4 % using BLI magnification and 98.7 % with pit pattern analysis. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI magnification and pit pattern analysis for dSM for cancer was 89.5 % and 92.1 %, respectively. When type C2 lesions were excluded, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI for dSM was 95.9 %. The 18 type C2 lesions comprised 1 adenoma, 9 intramucosal or slightly invasive submucosal cancers, and 8 dSM. Pit pattern analysis allowed accurate diagnosis of the depth of invasion in 13 lesions (72.2 %). Conclusions Most colorectal polyps could be diagnosed accurately by BLI magnification without pit pattern analysis, but we should add pit pattern analysis for type C2 lesions in the Hiroshima classification. PMID:28367494

  16. DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION CORES WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Miralles, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the application of the intensity ratio from pairs of narrow-band images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imager (EUVI) on board the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation, and the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, to density diagnostics of optically thin plasmas. By inspecting the filtered spectra allowed by each instrument's effective area, we find that ratios between AIA images in the 171 Å and 193 Å channels can be used to determine the plasma electron density at transition region temperatures. This diagnostic potential is due to a pair of O V transitions which dominate the effective spectra of these two channels at temperatures around ≈2.5-3.0 × 10{sup 5} K. The temperature and electron density ranges where the 171/193 ratio is density sensitive are relevant for the cores of accelerating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner solar corona. We discuss how AIA series of images can be used for simultaneous temperature and density diagnostics of CME cores.

  17. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  18. Reformatted images improve the detection rate of acute traumatic subdural hematomas on brain CT compared with axial images alone.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Timothy J; Mostertz, William; Matheus, Maria Gisele; Maass-Bolles, Genevieve; Sharma, Komal; Collins, Heather R; Kranz, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    Subdural hematomas (SDHs) comprise a significant percentage of missed intracranial hemorrhage on axial brain CT. SDH detection rates could be improved with the addition of reformatted images. Though performed at some centers, the potential additional diagnostic sensitivity of reformatted images has not yet been investigated. The purpose of our study is to determine if the addition of coronal and sagittal reformatted images to an axial brain CT increases the sensitivity and specificity for detection of acute traumatic SDH. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive brain CTs acquired for acute trauma that contained new SDHs. An equivalent number of normal brain CTs served as control. Paired sets of images were created for each case: (1) axial images only ("axial only") and (2) axial, coronal, sagittal images ("reformat added"). Three readers interpreted both the axial only and companion reformat added for each case, separated by 1 month. Reading times and SDH detection rates were compared. One hundred SDH and 100 negative examinations were collected. Sensitivity and specificity for the axial-only scans were 75.7 and 94.3 %, respectively, compared with 88.3 and 98.3 % for reformat added. There was a 24.3 % false negative (missed SDH) rate with axial-only scans versus 11.7 % with reformat added (p = <0.001). Median reader interpretation times were longer with the addition of reformatted images (125 versus 89 s), but this difference was not significant (p = 0.23). The addition of coronal and sagittal images in trauma brain CT resulted in improved sensitivity and specificity as well as a reduction in SDH false negatives by greater than 50 %. Reformatted images substantially reduce the number of missed SDHs compared with axial images alone.

  19. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  20. Diagnostic Capabilities of 64 Slice CT Coronography Compared to Classic in Coronary Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sehovic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease, among which the most common is coronary disease of the hearth are the main cause of death at middle aged persons in the majority of European countries. Percent of cardiovascular disease in overall mortality among our population is even more than 50%. Up to 55 years of live myocardial infarction is by 5-6 times more common among men, and up to age of 75 years that difference decreases to 2.5 times. Goal: The goal of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of 64 slices computerized tomography in detection of coronary disease compared to classic, invasive coronography. Material and methods: Study included 50 patients, of both genders, at average age of 60 years. Patients underwent CT coronography as well as classic coronography. Results: Our research prove that the sensitivity of MSCT coronography 92% with positive predictive value of 86%. Mayor difference was in the analysis of CX artery in the evaluation of significant and non-significant stenosis in application of these two methods. During the analysis of LAD and RCA artery there was no statistically significant difference in findings of these two methods. Conclusion: CT coronography is non-invasive, comfortable and reliable method in coronary disease diagnostics. Thanks to its high sensitivity and PPV it enables reliable exclusion of coronary disease and takes significant place in a cardiovascular diseases diagnostic algorithm. PMID:24167394

  1. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic testing for retinoblastoma compared to other hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dommering, Charlotte J; Henneman, Lidewij; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Jonker, Marianne A; Tops, Carli M J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Redeker, Egbert J W; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Moll, Annette C; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands. Uptake for retinoblastoma (Rb) was compared with uptake for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and hereditary breast ovarian cancer (HBOC). A questionnaire was completed by all nine DNA-diagnostic laboratories assessing the number of independent mutation-positive families identified from the start of diagnostic testing until May 2013, and the number of PNDs performed for these syndromes within these families. Of 187 families with a known Rb-gene mutation, 22 had performed PND (11.8%), this was significantly higher than uptake for FAP (1.6%) and HBOC (<0.2%). For VHL (6.5%) and LFS (4.9%) the difference was not statistically significant. PND for Rb started 3 years after introduction of diagnostic DNA testing and remained stable over the years. For the other cancer syndromes PND started 10-15 years after the introduction and uptake for PND showed an increase after 2009. We conclude that uptake of PND for Rb was significantly higher than for FAP and HBOC, but not different from VHL and LFS. Early onset, high penetrance, lack of preventive surgery and perceived burden of disease may explain these differences.

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of non-invasive imaging in diabetes management

    PubMed Central

    Barsanti, Cristina; Lenzarini, Francesca; Kusmic, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies are acquiring an increasing relevance to assist clinicians in diagnosis and to guide management and therapeutic treatment of patients, thanks to their non invasive and high resolution properties. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography are the most used imaging modalities to provide detailed morphological reconstructions of tissues and organs. In addition, the use of contrast dyes or radionuclide-labeled tracers permits to get functional and quantitative information about tissue physiology and metabolism in normal and disease state. In recent years, the development of multimodal and hydrid imaging techniques is coming to be the new frontier of medical imaging for the possibility to overcome limitations of single modalities and to obtain physiological and pathophysiological measurements within an accurate anatomical framework. Moreover, the employment of molecular probes, such as ligands or antibodies, allows a selective in vivo targeting of biomolecules involved in specific cellular processes, so expanding the potentialities of imaging techniques for clinical and research applications. This review is aimed to give a survey of characteristics of main diagnostic non-invasive imaging techniques. Current clinical appliances and future perspectives of imaging in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of diabetic complications affecting different organ systems will be particularly addressed. PMID:26131322

  3. Comparative Autonomic Responses to Diagnostic Interviewing between Individuals with GAD, MDD, SAD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Allison E.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been well documented in individuals diagnosed with a range of psychological disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, these disorders both confer an increased risk of cardiovascular disease—which may relate to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone. Extant research has indicated a reduction in autonomic flexibility in GAD, and while reduced flexibility has also been seen in MDD, the specific physiological alterations have been more difficult to categorize due to methodological limitations, including high co-morbidity rates with anxiety disorders. Prior studies have largely assessed autonomic functioning in stress paradigms or at the trait level, yet to date, no research has investigated the ANS during a diagnostic interview, a ubiquitous task employed in both research and clinical settings. In this study we sought to identify physiological differences in both branches of the ANS across diagnostic categories in the context of a diagnostic interview. Participants (n = 82) were administered a structured clinical interview, during which heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were recorded in participants carrying a diagnosis of GAD (n = 34), MDD (n = 22), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD; n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 27). Person-specific linear regression models were employed to assess the level and slope for HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model was conducted to baseline differences in HR, RSA and PEP between diagnostic groups. Multiple regression models were then conducted to differences in slope of HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview amongst diagnostic groups, including both suppression and worry as moderators. Results indicated significant increases in RSA throughout the interview in MDD (p = 0

  4. McNemar chi2 test revisited: comparing sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic examinations.

    PubMed

    Trajman, A; Luiz, R R

    2008-01-01

    When evaluating a novel diagnostic examination for clinical use, it should be compared with a reference standard, defined as the best available examination, which may include clinical and laboratory criteria. The novel examination and reference standard's results are usually presented in the form of a 2 x 2 table, which allows calculation of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It has been recommended that the measures of statistical uncertainty should be reported, such as the 95% confidence interval, when evaluating the accuracy of diagnostic examinations. Comparing the difference in sensitivity or specificity of a novel examination with the reference standard is important when evaluating its usefulness. The McNemar chi(2) test, used to compare discordance of two dichotomous responses, can be applied for this purpose. However, applying the McNemar test to a 2 x 2 table for comparing the accuracy of examinations is not recommended, since this test is sensitive to the proportion of positive versus negative subjects. Moreover, if the novel examination has higher sensitivity than the one considered as the reference standard, constructing a classic 2 x 2 table would result in low specificity of the novel examination. Thus, in order to compare sensitivities and specificities between examinations, this table is inappropriate and an independent reference standard is necessary. In this article, we propose the use of the McNemar chi(2) test to compare sensitivities between examinations using a 2 x 2 table exclusively among diseased patients, defined by a set of criteria and follow-up of patients. Likewise, specificities can be compared applying the McNemar test among healthy individuals.

  5. A collinear self-emission and laser-backlighting imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, S. C.; Collins, G. IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Beg, F. N.; Haas, D. M.; Veloso, F.; Blesener, I. C.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.

    2012-08-15

    In this work we demonstrate a design for obtaining laser backlighting (e.g., interferometry) and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet self-emission images along the same line-of-sight. This is achieved by modifying a single optical component in the laser collection optics with apertures and pinhole arrangements suitable for single or multiple frame imaging onto a gated detector, such as a microchannel plate. Test results for exploding wire experiments show that machining of the optic does not affect the overall quality of the recovered laser images, and that, even with a multiple frame system, the area sacrificed to achieve collinear imaging is relatively small. The diagnostics can therefore allow direct correlation of laser and self-emission images and their derived quantities, such as electron density in the case of interferometry. Simple methods of image correlation are also demonstrated.

  6. Diagnostic imaging and endoscopic finding in dogs and cats with gastric tumors: a review.

    PubMed

    Terragni, R; Vignoli, M; van Bree, H J; Gaschen, L; Saunders, J H

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging is an essential part of the diagnostic workup of many gastrointestinal disorders. This paper reviews imaging and endoscopy of gastric tumors in dogs and cats and the techniques used. The appearance of the normal as well as the various aspects of gastric tumors are described for these different modalities. Plain radiography is widely available but has limited diagnostic value. Contrast radiography has higher sensitivity but is laborious and time-consuming. Ultrasonography (if an adequate acoustic window is available), endosonography and endoscopy are the most appropriate modalities for diagnosing gastric tumors. They are especially useful when obtaining samples for cytologic or histopathologic examination, because the imaging modalities do not always differentiate between inflammatory or infectious conditions and neoplastic disorders. Hydro-helical CT was found helpful for evaluating the location and local invasiveness of the lesion. Ultrasonography and endoscopy are useful modalities for taking adequate biopsies.

  7. Diagnostic value of MR imaging in the Lewis-Sumner syndrome: a case series.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Knopp, Michael J; Martin-Lamb, Darren; Morlese, John

    2014-07-15

    Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) is considered a variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), which is more frequently described with exclusive upper limb involvement. The diagnosis of LSS is clinical and electrophysiological. However, these are not always obvious and in view of its rarity, the diagnosis may be missed and patients denied effective immunomodulatory therapy. We herein describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a series of five consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of LSS, using T2 STIR (Short Tau Inversion recovery) images without contrast. We demonstrated hyperintensity with or without hypertrophy of cervical roots and/or brachial plexus on the affected side and/or controlaterally which aided diagnostic confirmation. This helped therapeutic decision making regarding immunotherapy in all cases. MR imaging of the cervical spine/brachial plexus with T2 STIR may be helpful in suspected cases of LSS as it represents a very useful additional diagnostic tool.

  8. Innovations in optical coupling of the KSTAR electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, T.; Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Lee, W.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2010-10-15

    The installation of a new electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is underway, making use of a unique optical port cassette design, which allows placement of refractive elements inside the cryostat region without adverse effects. The result is unprecedented window access for the implementation of a state of the art imaging diagnostic. A dual-array optical design has been developed, capable of simultaneously imaging the high and low field sides of the plasma with independent features of focal plane translation, vertical zoom, and radial channel spacing. The number of translating optics has been minimized by making use of a zoom lens triplet and parabolic plasma facing lens for maximum channel uniformity over a continuous vertical zoom range of 3:1. The simulated performance of this design is presented along with preliminary laboratory characterization data.

  9. Comparative analysis of preoperative diagnostic values of HRCT and CBCT in patients with histologically diagnosed otosclerotic stapes footplates.

    PubMed

    Révész, Péter; Liktor, Balázs; Liktor, Bálint; Sziklai, István; Gerlinger, Imre; Karosi, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    This prospective case review was performed with the aim to compare and asses the diagnostic values of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the preoperative evaluation of otosclerosis. A total of 43 patients with histologically confirmed stapedial otosclerosis, who underwent unilateral stapedectomies were analyzed. Preoperative temporal bone CBCT and HRCT scans were performed in all cases. Both CBCT and HRCT imaging were characterized by a slice thickness of 0.4-0.625 mm and multiplanar image reconstruction. Histopathologic examination of the removed stapes footplates was performed in all cases. Findings of CBCT and HRCT were categorized according to the modified Marshall's grading system (fenestral or retrofenestral lesions). Histopathologic results were correlated with multiplanar reconstructed CBCT and HRCT scans, respectively. Negative control groups for CBCT (n = 36) and HRCT (n = 27) examinations consisted of patients, who underwent CBCT imaging due to various dental disorders or HRCT analysis due to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Histologically active foci of otosclerosis (n = 31, 72 %) were identified by both CBCT and HRCT in all cases with a sensitivity of 100 %. However, CBCT could not detect histologically inactive otosclerosis (n = 12, 23 %; sensitivity 0 %). In contrast, HRCT showed inactive otosclerosis with a sensitivity of 59.3 %. According to CBCT results, no retrofenestral lesions were found and the overall sensitivity for hypodense lesions was 61.37 %. In conclusion, CBCT is a robust imaging method in the detection of histologically active fenestral hypodense foci of otosclerosis with high sensitivity and radiologic specificity. In the light of these results, HRCT still remains the basic imaging method in the preoperative diagnosis of otosclerosis, since it has much greater sensitivity and specificity in the detection of retrofenestral hypodense lesions and histologically inactive

  10. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 3000–5000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 900–1700 nm, and at 1700–3000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  11. Does McNemar's test compare the sensitivities and specificities of two diagnostic tests?

    PubMed

    Kim, Soeun; Lee, Woojoo

    2017-02-01

    McNemar's test is often used in practice to compare the sensitivities and specificities for the evaluation of two diagnostic tests. For correct evaluation of accuracy, an intuitive recommendation is to test the diseased and the non-diseased groups separately so that the sensitivities can be compared among the diseased, and specificities can be compared among the healthy group of people. This paper provides a rigorous theoretical framework for this argument and study the validity of McNemar's test regardless of the conditional independence assumption. We derive McNemar's test statistic under the null hypothesis considering both assumptions of conditional independence and conditional dependence. We then perform power analyses to show how the result is affected by the amount of the conditional dependence under alternative hypothesis.

  12. The formation of IRIS diagnostics. III. Near-ultraviolet spectra and images

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, T. M. D.; Leenaarts, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Uitenbroek, H. E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.no E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2013-12-01

    The Mg II h and k lines are the prime chromospheric diagnostics of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). In the previous papers of this series, we used a realistic three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamics model to calculate the h and k lines in detail and investigated how their spectral features relate to the underlying atmosphere. In this work, we employ the same approach to investigate how the h and k diagnostics fare when taking into account the finite resolution of IRIS and different noise levels. In addition, we investigate the diagnostic potential of several other photospheric lines and near-continuum regions present in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) window of IRIS and study the formation of the NUV slit-jaw images. We find that the instrumental resolution of IRIS has a small effect on the quality of the h and k diagnostics; the relations between the spectral features and atmospheric properties are mostly unchanged. The peak separation is the most affected diagnostic, but mainly due to limitations of the simulation. The effects of noise start to be noticeable at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 20, but we show that with noise filtering one can obtain reliable diagnostics at least down to a S/N of 5. The many photospheric lines present in the NUV window provide velocity information for at least eight distinct photospheric heights. Using line-free regions in the h and k far wings, we derive good estimates of photospheric temperature for at least three heights. Both of these diagnostics, in particular the latter, can be obtained even at S/Ns as low as 5.

  13. The comparative effectiveness of conventional and digital image libraries.

    PubMed

    McColl, R I; Johnson, A

    2001-03-01

    Before introducing a hospital-wide image database to improve access, navigation and retrieval speed, a comparative study between a conventional slide library and a matching image database was undertaken to assess its relative benefits. Paired time trials and personal questionnaires revealed faster retrieval rates, higher image quality, and easier viewing for the pilot digital image database. Analysis of confidentiality, copyright and data protection exposed similar issues for both systems, thus concluding that the digital image database is a more effective library system. The authors suggest that in the future, medical images will be stored on large, professionally administered, centrally located file servers, allowing specialist image libraries to be tailored locally for individual users. The further integration of the database with web technology will enable cheap and efficient remote access for a wide range of users.

  14. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility.

    PubMed

    Rosch, R; Trosseille, C; Caillaud, T; Allouche, V; Bourgade, J L; Briat, M; Brunel, P; Burillo, M; Casner, A; Depierreux, S; Gontier, D; Jadaud, J P; Le Breton, J P; Llavador, P; Loupias, B; Miquel, J L; Oudot, G; Perez, S; Raimbourg, J; Rousseau, A; Rousseaux, C; Rubbelynck, C; Stemmler, P; Troussel, P; Ulmer, J L; Wrobel, R; Beauvais, P; Pallet, M; Prevot, V

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  15. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Rousseaux, C.; Rubbelynck, C.; Stemmler, P.; Troussel, P.; Ulmer, J. L.; Wrobel, R.; Beauvais, P.; Pallet, M.; Prevot, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  16. Quality Assessment of Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: Our Experience Using a Modified Version of the QUADAS-2 Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Ros; Corbett, Mark; Eastwood, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the quality of included studies is a vital step in undertaking a systematic review. The recently revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool (QUADAS-2), which is the only validated quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, does not include specific criteria for assessing comparative studies. As…

  17. Comparative study between the reflective optics and lens based system for microwave imaging system on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Hong, I.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Liang, T.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, two-dimensional microwave imaging diagnostics such as the electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) have been developed to study magnetohydrodynamics instabilities and turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. These imaging systems utilize large optics to collect passive emission or reflected radiation. The design of this optics can be classified into two different types: reflective or refractive optical systems. For instance, an ECEI/MIR system on the TEXTOR tokamak [Park et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3787 (2004)] employed the reflective optics which consisted of two large mirrors, while the TEXTOR ECEI upgrade [B. Tobias et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 093502 (2009)] and systems on DIII-D, ASDEX-U, and KSTAR adopted refractive systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages in the standing wave problem and optical aberrations. In this paper, a comparative study between the two optical systems has been performed in order to design a MIR system for KSTAR.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of the Prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Grobbelaar, Antoinette; Storm, Nadia; Conteh, Ousman; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Abdul; Sanne, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted an urgent need for point-of-care (POC) assays for the diagnosis of this devastating disease in resource-limited African countries. The diagnostic performance characteristics of a prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola POC used to detect Ebola virus (EBOV) in stored serum and plasma samples collected from suspected EVD cases in Sierra Leone in 2014 and 2015 was evaluated. The GeneXpert Ebola POC is a self-contained single-cartridge automated system that targets the glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes of EBOV and yields results within 90 min. Results from 281 patient samples were compared to the results of a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the polymerase gene and performed on two real-time PCR machines. Agreement between the three platforms was 100% at cycle threshold (CT) values of ≤34.99, but discordant results were noted between CT values of 35 and 45.The diagnostic sensitivity of the three platforms was 100% in 91 patient samples that were confirmed to be infectious by virus isolation. All three molecular platforms detected viral EBOV RNA in additional samples that did not contain viable EBOV. The analytical sensitivity of the GeneXpert Ebola POC for the detection of NP was higher, and comparable to that of polymerase gene detection, than that for the detection of GP when using a titrated laboratory stock of EBOV. There was no detectable cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses or arboviruses. The GeneXpert Ebola POC offers an easy to operate and sensitive diagnostic tool that can be used for the rapid screening of suspected EVD cases in treatment or in holding centers during EVD outbreaks. PMID:26637383

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of the Prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola Assay.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Grobbelaar, Antoinette; Storm, Nadia; Conteh, Ousman; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Abdul; Sanne, Ian; Paweska, Janusz T

    2016-02-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted an urgent need for point-of-care (POC) assays for the diagnosis of this devastating disease in resource-limited African countries. The diagnostic performance characteristics of a prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola POC used to detect Ebola virus (EBOV) in stored serum and plasma samples collected from suspected EVD cases in Sierra Leone in 2014 and 2015 was evaluated. The GeneXpert Ebola POC is a self-contained single-cartridge automated system that targets the glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes of EBOV and yields results within 90 min. Results from 281 patient samples were compared to the results of a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the polymerase gene and performed on two real-time PCR machines. Agreement between the three platforms was 100% at cycle threshold (CT) values of ≤34.99, but discordant results were noted between CT values of 35 and 45.The diagnostic sensitivity of the three platforms was 100% in 91 patient samples that were confirmed to be infectious by virus isolation. All three molecular platforms detected viral EBOV RNA in additional samples that did not contain viable EBOV. The analytical sensitivity of the GeneXpert Ebola POC for the detection of NP was higher, and comparable to that of polymerase gene detection, than that for the detection of GP when using a titrated laboratory stock of EBOV. There was no detectable cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses or arboviruses. The GeneXpert Ebola POC offers an easy to operate and sensitive diagnostic tool that can be used for the rapid screening of suspected EVD cases in treatment or in holding centers during EVD outbreaks.

  20. Diagnostic imaging and spending review: extreme problems call for extreme measures.

    PubMed

    Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Ugenti, Rossana; Di Minco, Lidia; Santori, Elisabetta; Altobelli, Simone; Coco, Irene; D'Onofrio, Silvia; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The number of diagnostic imaging tests has increased dramatically over the past decade and about 5 billion diagnostic examinations are performed worldwide each year. According to Health Ministry, Italy, is in second place for the number of CT and MR tests per thousand inhabitants in 2014 with a score of 83.3 (only Germany has a higher score, 95.2) that is a long way off from the European average of 46.5. It has also the highest ratio of magnetic resonances per person with 24,6 machines per million inhabitants, followed only by Greece and Finland. The development of the New Health Information System (NSIS) in 2010 made uniformly readable the non-homogeneous clinical data from all the different Italian regions and permitted a detailed analysis of all diagnostic imaging within the public outpatient care setting in Italy in 2012. Despite that MRI examinations represented only the 10% of the total number of imaging tests performed, their cost reached 30% of the health-care expenditure for outpatient diagnostic imaging with an overwhelming contribution coming from musculoskeletal MR which accounted for the 73% of the performed MR tests. It is reasonable to assume that these phenomena are likely due to a lack of appropriateness in MR requests that is difficult to analyze due to an absence or invalid query on the prescriptions which together accounted for the 98.7% of cases. Taking into account the above-mentioned situation, this is possibly why the Ministry of Health decided to perform "linear cuts" in expenditure for some diagnostic examinations.

  1. Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics systems on the EAST tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Xie, J. L.; Yu, C. X.; Zhao, Z. L.; Gao, B. X.; Chen, D. X.; Liu, W. D.; Liao, W.; Qu, C. M.; Luo, C.; Hu, X.; Spear, A. G.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Chen, M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.

    2016-11-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, with large poloidal span and wide radial range, have been developed on the EAST tokamak for visualization of 2D electron temperature and density fluctuations. A 384 channel (24 poloidal × 16 radial) Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in F-band (90-140 GHz) was installed on the EAST tokamak in 2012 to provide 2D electron temperature fluctuation images with high spatial and temporal resolution. A co-located Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) will be installed for imaging of density fluctuations by December 2016. This "4th generation" MIR system has eight independent frequency illumination beams in W-band (75-110 GHz) driven by fast tuning synthesizers and active multipliers. Both of these advanced millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic systems have applied the latest techniques. A novel design philosophy "general optics structure" has been employed for the design of the ECEI and MIR receiver optics with large aperture. The extended radial and poloidal coverage of ECEI on EAST is made possible by innovations in the design of front-end optics. The front-end optical structures of the two imaging diagnostics, ECEI and MIR, have been integrated into a compact system, including the ECEI receiver and MIR transmitter and receiver. Two imaging systems share the same mid-plane port for simultaneous, co-located 2D fluctuation measurements of electron density and temperature. An intelligent remote-control is utilized in the MIR electronics systems to maintain focusing at the desired radial region even with density variations by remotely tuning the probe frequencies in about 200 μs. A similar intelligent technique has also been applied on the ECEI IF system, with remote configuration of the attenuations for each channel.

  2. Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics systems on the EAST tokamak (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y L; Xie, J L; Yu, C X; Zhao, Z L; Gao, B X; Chen, D X; Liu, W D; Liao, W; Qu, C M; Luo, C; Hu, X; Spear, A G; Luhmann, N C; Domier, C W; Chen, M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J

    2016-11-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, with large poloidal span and wide radial range, have been developed on the EAST tokamak for visualization of 2D electron temperature and density fluctuations. A 384 channel (24 poloidal × 16 radial) Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in F-band (90-140 GHz) was installed on the EAST tokamak in 2012 to provide 2D electron temperature fluctuation images with high spatial and temporal resolution. A co-located Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) will be installed for imaging of density fluctuations by December 2016. This "4th generation" MIR system has eight independent frequency illumination beams in W-band (75-110 GHz) driven by fast tuning synthesizers and active multipliers. Both of these advanced millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic systems have applied the latest techniques. A novel design philosophy "general optics structure" has been employed for the design of the ECEI and MIR receiver optics with large aperture. The extended radial and poloidal coverage of ECEI on EAST is made possible by innovations in the design of front-end optics. The front-end optical structures of the two imaging diagnostics, ECEI and MIR, have been integrated into a compact system, including the ECEI receiver and MIR transmitter and receiver. Two imaging systems share the same mid-plane port for simultaneous, co-located 2D fluctuation measurements of electron density and temperature. An intelligent remote-control is utilized in the MIR electronics systems to maintain focusing at the desired radial region even with density variations by remotely tuning the probe frequencies in about 200 μs. A similar intelligent technique has also been applied on the ECEI IF system, with remote configuration of the attenuations for each channel.

  3. Gearbox tooth cut fault diagnostics using acoustic emission and vibration sensors--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-14

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance.

  4. Gearbox Tooth Cut Fault Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Sensors — A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance. PMID:24424467

  5. Monochromatic X-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics including Kα Resonance Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Aimed at monochromatic X-ray imaging and therapy, broadband, monochromatic, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources and propagation through low and high-Z (HZ) media were studied with numerically and experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the software package Geant4, and a new code Photx, to simulate X-ray image contrast, depth of penetration, and total attenuation. The data show that monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-rays achieve improved contrast at lower absorbed radiation doses compared to conventional broadband 120 kV or CT scans. Experimental quasi-monochromatic high-intensity laser-produced plasma sources and monochromatic synchrotron beam data are compared. Physical processes responsible for X-ray photoexcitation and absorption are numerically modelled, including a novel mechanism for accelerating Kα resonance fluorescence via twin monochromatic X-ray beam. Potential applications are medical diagnostics and high-Z material detection. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  6. Thyroid Remnant Estimation by Diagnostic Dose (131)I Scintigraphy or (99m)TcO4(-) Scintigraphy after Thyroidectomy: A Comparison with Therapeutic Dose (131)I Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanghui; Li, Na; Li, Xuena; Chen, Song; Du, Bulin; Li, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    In this clinical study, we have compared routine diagnostic dose (131)I scan and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scintigraphy with therapeutic dose (131)I imaging for accurate thyroid remnant estimation after total thyroidectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subsequently receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment to ablate remnant thyroid tissue. All patients had therapeutic dose RAI whole body scan, which was compared with that of diagnostic dose RAI, (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan, and ultrasound examination. We concluded that therapeutic dose RAI scan reveals some extent thyroid remnant in all DTC patients following total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic RAI scan is much superior to ultrasound and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan for the postoperative estimation of thyroid remnant. Ultrasound and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan provide little information for thyroid remnant estimation and, therefore, would not replace diagnostic RAI scan.

  7. Comparative Study of Edge Detectors in case of Echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we compare different edge detectors based on peak signal to noise ratio on Echocardiographic images. Edge detection is a critical element in image processing, since edges contain a major function of image information. The function of edge detection is to identify the boundaries of homogeneous regions in an image based on properties such as intensity and texture.We have taken Perwitt edge detector, Robarts edge detector, LoG edge detector, Canny edge detector, and Sobel edge detector for this comparison and study.

  8. Comparison of Inter-Observer Variability and Diagnostic Performance of the Fifth Edition of BI-RADS for Breast Ultrasound of Static versus Video Images.

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Jung, Inkyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the inter-observer variability and diagnostic performance of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast ultrasound of static and video images. Ninety-nine breast masses visible on ultrasound examination from 95 women 19-81 y of age at five institutions were enrolled in this study. They were scheduled to undergo biopsy or surgery or had been stable for at least 2 y of ultrasound follow-up after benign biopsy results or typically benign findings. For each mass, representative long- and short-axis static ultrasound images were acquired; real-time long- and short-axis B-mode video images through the mass area were separately saved as cine clips. Each image was reviewed independently by five radiologists who were asked to classify ultrasound features according to the fifth edition of the BI-RADS lexicon. Inter-observer variability was assessed using kappa (κ) statistics. Diagnostic performance on static and video images was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. No significant difference was found in κ values between static and video images for all descriptors, although κ values of video images were higher than those of static images for shape, orientation, margin and calcifications. After receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the video images (0.83, range: 0.77-0.87) had higher areas under the curve than the static images (0.80, range: 0.75-0.83; p = 0.08). Inter-observer variability and diagnostic performance of video images was similar to that of static images on breast ultrasonography according to the new edition of BI-RADS.

  9. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization," was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to: 1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; 2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and 3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified prior to the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were 164 individuals involved in the conference spanning various specialties, including emergency medicine (EM), radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences. This issue of AEM is dedicated to the proceedings of the 16th annual AEM consensus conference as well as original research related to emergency diagnostic imaging.

  10. Development of phosphor imaging diagnostics for particle energization and field line mapping studies in MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.

    2014-10-01

    The energization of particles by magnetic reconnection is one of its most important roles in space and astrophysical plasmas. We present results from phosphor-screen imaging diagnostics for the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment, developed to measure the location and timing of particle energization by magnetic reconnection and to map field lines. Phosphor-based imaging diagnostics have previously been to study plasma dynamics in in non-neutral plasmas and low-temperature linear machines. In MRX, movable, phosphor-coated probes are scanned across the current sheet, and phosphor emission is imaged on a fast camera acquiring at typically 500 k frames/sec. Optical filters isolate the phosphor emission from line emission in the plasma. The energy sensitivity of the probe is determined by the characteristics of the phosphor and bias of the probe with respect to the plasma. We also present the development of an e-beam diagnostic to directly map the magnetic field line structure and possibly to measure the parallel electric field and/or cross-field electron transport. A modulated electron beam from a hot tungsten filament will be detected downstream by Langmuir probes and the phosphor imager.

  11. OpenID connect as a security service in Cloud-based diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weina; Sartipi, Kamran; Sharghi, Hassan; Koff, David; Bak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of cloud computing is driving the next generation of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Cloud-based DI systems are able to deliver better services to patients without constraining to their own physical facilities. However, privacy and security concerns have been consistently regarded as the major obstacle for adoption of cloud computing by healthcare domains. Furthermore, traditional computing models and interfaces employed by DI systems are not ready for accessing diagnostic images through mobile devices. RESTful is an ideal technology for provisioning both mobile services and cloud computing. OpenID Connect, combining OpenID and OAuth together, is an emerging REST-based federated identity solution. It is one of the most perspective open standards to potentially become the de-facto standard for securing cloud computing and mobile applications, which has ever been regarded as "Kerberos of Cloud". We introduce OpenID Connect as an identity and authentication service in cloud-based DI systems and propose enhancements that allow for incorporating this technology within distributed enterprise environment. The objective of this study is to offer solutions for secure radiology image sharing among DI-r (Diagnostic Imaging Repository) and heterogeneous PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) as well as mobile clients in the cloud ecosystem. Through using OpenID Connect as an open-source identity and authentication service, deploying DI-r and PACS to private or community clouds should obtain equivalent security level to traditional computing model.

  12. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Harstad, Elizabeth B; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and DSM-IV-TR sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70). DSM-5 was psychometrically superior to the DSM-IV-TR model (Comparative Fit Index of 0.970 vs 0.879, respectively). Measurement invariance revealed good model fit across gender and IQ. Younger children tended to meet fewer diagnostic criteria. Those with autistic disorder were more likely to meet social communication and repetitive behaviors criteria (p < .001) than those with PDD-NOS. DSM-5 is a robust model but will identify a different, albeit overlapping population of individuals compared to DSM-IV-TR.

  13. Comparative analysis of NDE techniques with image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Vijay R.; Anand, R. S.; Ashok, Alaknanda

    2012-12-01

    The paper reports comparative results of nondestructive testing (NDT) based experimentation done on created flaws in the casting at the Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP) of Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. India (BHEL). The present experimental study is aimed at comparing the evaluation of image processing methods applied on the radiographic images of welding defects such as slag inclusion, porosity, lack-of-root penetration and cracks with other NDT methods. Different image segmentation techniques have been proposed here for identifying the above created welding defects. Currently, there is a large amount of research work going on in the field of automated system for inspection, analysis and detection of flaws in the weldments. Comparison of other NDT methods and application of image processing on the radiographic images of weld defects are aimed to detect defects reliably and to make accept/reject decisions as per the international standard.

  14. Metadata requirements for results of diagnostic imaging procedures: a BIIF profile to support user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas J.; Lloyd, David S.; Reynolds, Melvin I.; Plummer, David L.

    2002-05-01

    A visible digital image is rendered from a set of digital image data. Medical digital image data can be stored as either: (a) pre-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic print, or (b) un-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic negative. The appropriate image data storage format and associated header data (metadata) required by a user of the results of a diagnostic procedure recorded electronically depends on the task(s) to be performed. The DICOM standard provides a rich set of metadata that supports the needs of complex applications. Many end user applications, such as simple report text viewing and display of a selected image, are not so demanding and generic image formats such as JPEG are sometimes used. However, these are lacking some basic identification requirements. In this paper we make specific proposals for minimal extensions to generic image metadata of value in various domains, which enable safe use in the case of two simple healthcare end user scenarios: (a) viewing of text and a selected JPEG image activated by a hyperlink and (b) viewing of one or more JPEG images together with superimposed text and graphics annotation using a file specified by a profile of the ISO/IEC Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF).

  15. Burn injury diagnostic imaging device's accuracy improved by outlier detection and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weizhi; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Squiers, John J.; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffery E.

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) was implemented to develop a burn diagnostic device that will assist burn surgeons in planning and performing burn debridement surgery by classifying burn tissue. In order to build a burn classification model, training data that accurately represents the burn tissue is needed. Acquiring accurate training data is difficult, in part because the labeling of raw MSI data to the appropriate tissue classes is prone to errors. We hypothesized that these difficulties could be surmounted by removing outliers from the training dataset, leading to an improvement in the classification accuracy. A swine burn model was developed to build an initial MSI training database and study an algorithm's ability to classify clinically important tissues present in a burn injury. Once the ground-truth database was generated from the swine images, we then developed a multi-stage method based on Z-test and univariate analysis to detect and remove outliers from the training dataset. Using 10-fold cross validation, we compared the algorithm's accuracy when trained with and without the presence of outliers. The outlier detection and removal method reduced the variance of the training data from wavelength space, and test accuracy was improved from 63% to 76%. Establishing this simple method of conditioning for the training data improved the accuracy of the algorithm to match the current standard of care in burn injury assessment. Given that there are few burn surgeons and burn care facilities in the United States, this technology is expected to improve the standard of burn care for burn patients with less access to specialized facilities.

  16. Potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor imaging in early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongwei; Xu, Feng; Gu, Rui; Han, Xinzuo; Wang, Anqing; Liu, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the early stage of modified corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 20 beagles were randomly classified (1:1) into either an experimental group (LM), which were intramuscularly injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS) on three consecutive days, or control (CON) group, which were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI were performed at pre-induction and 8 and 12 weeks post-induction. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the range of interest in the femoral head were quantified using DTI. Proximal femora were examined for ONFH at 8 and 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that ONFH developed in four beagles at 8 weeks and in six beagles at 12 weeks, whereas no ONFH was detected in the CON group. No abnormalities were detected by MRI and DTI, and no mortality occurred. In beagles with ONFH in the LM group, the ADC values were 4.7±0.2×10−4 and 4.8±0.3×10−4 mm2/sec at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, which were significantly increased compared with the CON group (2.5±0.3×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) and the LM group without ONFH (2.6±0.4×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that intramuscular injection of LPS and MPS may lead to early-stage ONFH in beagles. As such, the detection of locally elevated ADC values in the femoral head may aid in the early diagnosis of ONFH. PMID:27882161

  17. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki Matsumura, Akihiko; Fukahori, Mai; Minohara, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Shigeo; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and

  18. Comparing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Current "DSM-IV-TR" Diagnostic Criteria and the Proposed "DSM-V" Diagnostic Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has proposed major revisions for the diagnostic category encompassing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which will reportedly increase the specificity and maintain the sensitivity of diagnoses. As a result, the aim of the current study was to compare symptoms of ASD in children and adolescents (N = 208) who met…

  19. Comparing Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Dynamic Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Plantar Plate Pathology: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Ryan J; Stauffer, Anthony; Heaslet, Michael; Poliskie, Michael

    Plantar plate pathology has gained noticeable attention in recent years as an etiology of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint pain. The heightened clinical awareness has led to the need for more effective diagnostic imaging accuracy. Numerous reports have established the accuracy of both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of plantar plate pathology. However, no conclusions have been made regarding which is the superior imaging modality. The present study reports a case series directly comparing high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A multicenter retrospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging versus high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography to evaluate plantar plate pathology with surgical confirmation was conducted. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for magnetic resonance imaging were 60%, 100%, 100%, and 33%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 66%. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for high-resolution dynamic ultrasound imaging were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 100%. The p value using Fisher's exact test for magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography was p = .45, a difference that was not statistically significant. High-resolution dynamic ultrasonography had greater accuracy than magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate pathology, although the difference was not statistically significant. The present case series suggests that high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography can be considered an equally accurate imaging modality for plantar plate pathology at a potential cost savings compared with magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography warrants further investigation in

  20. Selected issues in diagnostic imaging of spondyloarthritides: psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritides (also known as spondyloarthropathies) are a group of rheumatic diseases that consists of diversified entities, i.e. ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis in the course of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and juvenile spondyloarthropathies. In the diagnostics of spondyloarthritides, plain radiography has played a crucial role for years due to its undisputed ability to show distinctive bony changes. Yet as those diseases often manifest themselves by soft tissue pathology and bone marrow inflammation, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are currently a subject of numerous studies in the quest for setting up diagnostic criteria, especially at early stages of inflammatory processes. In our review, we present an up-to-date insight into classifications, etiopathogenesis and imaging of psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis.

  1. Selected issues in diagnostic imaging of spondyloarthritides: psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritides (also known as spondyloarthropathies) are a group of rheumatic diseases that consists of diversified entities, i.e. ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis in the course of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and juvenile spondyloarthropathies. In the diagnostics of spondyloarthritides, plain radiography has played a crucial role for years due to its undisputed ability to show distinctive bony changes. Yet as those diseases often manifest themselves by soft tissue pathology and bone marrow inflammation, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are currently a subject of numerous studies in the quest for setting up diagnostic criteria, especially at early stages of inflammatory processes. In our review, we present an up-to-date insight into classifications, etiopathogenesis and imaging of psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthritis. PMID:28115782

  2. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10 years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3 %), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24 h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48 months (25 patients); group II, 49-84 months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120 months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3 %) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3 %). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7 %). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8 %, p < 0.001). Among patients with surgical conditions, the difference between ultrasonography (US) and CT diagnoses was significant in groups 2 (p = 0.046) and 3 (p =  .001). The impact of the change in diagnosis in surgical patients imaged with two modalities was significant in the group as a whole and in each age group separately. Non-diagnostic or equivocal US in a small percentage of patients is probably sufficient to justify the additional radiation burden.

  3. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  4. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  5. Comparing nonrigid registration techniques for motion corrected MR prostate diffusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, C. Sénégas, J.; Kabus, S.; Carolus, H.; Schulz, H.; Renisch, S.; Agarwal, H.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P. L.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for anatomical visualization in the pelvis area, such as the prostate, with high soft-tissue contrast. MRI can also provide functional information such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) which depicts the molecular diffusion processes in biological tissues. The combination of anatomical and functional imaging techniques is widely used in oncology, e.g., for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. However, acquisition-specific distortions as well as physiological motion lead to misalignments between T{sub 2} and DWI and consequently to a reduced diagnostic value. Image registration algorithms are commonly employed to correct for such misalignment. Methods: The authors compare the performance of five state-of-the-art nonrigid image registration techniques for accurate image fusion of DWI with T{sub 2}. Results: Image data of 20 prostate patients with cancerous lesions or cysts were acquired. All registration algorithms were validated using intensity-based as well as landmark-based techniques. Conclusions: The authors’ results show that the “fast elastic image registration” provides most accurate results with a target registration error of 1.07 ± 0.41 mm at minimum execution times of 11 ± 1 s.

  6. Lung imaging during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: computed tomography patterns and diagnostic accuracy of bedside chest radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Deux, Jean-François; Habibi, Anoosha; Abidi, Nour; Godeau, Bertrand; Adnot, Serge; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Rahmouni, Alain; Galacteros, Frederic; Maitre, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lung computed tomography (CT) features of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease patients is not well described and the diagnostic performance of bedside chest radiograph (CR) has not been tested. Our objectives were to describe CT features of ACS and evaluate the reproducibility and diagnostic performance of bedside CR. Methods We screened 127 consecutive patients during 166 ACS episodes and 145 CT scans (in 118 consecutive patients) were included in the study. Results Among the 145 CT scans, 139 (96%) exhibited a new pulmonary opacity and 84 (58%) exhibited at least one complete lung segment consolidation. Consolidations were predominant as compared to ground-glass opacities and atelectasis. Lung parenchyma was increasingly consolidated from apex to base; the right and left inferior lobes were almost always involved in patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan (98% and 95% of cases respectively). Patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan had a more severe presentation and course as compared to others. The sensitivity of bedside CR for the diagnosis of ACS using CT as a reference was good (>85%) whereas the specificity was weak (<60%). Conclusion ACS more frequently presented on CT as a consolidation pattern, predominating in lung bases. The reproducibility and diagnostic capacity of bedside CR were far from perfect. These findings may help improve the bedside imaging diagnosis of ACS. PMID:23925645

  7. Image-based brachytherapy: a forum for collaboration between radiation oncologists and diagnostic radiologists.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Beth

    2005-09-01

    There has been increased interest in implementing image-guided brachytherapy to better define the structures of interest and assess the radiation dose distribution in tumors and surrounding normal tissues. This is particularly helpful in the treatment of pelvic malignancies such as cervix cancer and prostate cancer, in which the tumor lies in close relationship to the bladder and rectosigmoid. This provides a forum for the collaboration of diagnostic radiologists and radiation oncologists.

  8. How Doctors Generate Diagnostic Hypotheses: A Study of Radiological Diagnosis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Marcio; Scarpin, Daniel J.; Amaro, Edson; Passos, Rodrigo B. D.; Sato, João R.; Friston, Karl J.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life. Methodology and Principal Findings To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals) embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs) and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14) seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13) seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds). The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals. Conclusions Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Other Imaging Modalities in Diagnostic and Tumor Response Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2016-07-01

    Functional imaging is emerging as a valuable contributor to the clinical management of patients with rectal cancer. Techniques such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion imaging, and positron emission tomography can offer meaningful insights into tissue architecture, vascularity, and metabolism. Moreover, new techniques targeting other aspects of tumor biology are now being developed and studied. This study reviews the potential role of functional imaging for the diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and assessment of prognosis in patients with rectal cancer.

  10. An imaging diode array soft x-ray diagnostic for Z (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, W. W.; Porter, J. L.; Ruggles, L. E.; Wenger, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the hohlraum wall temperature in Z-pinch driven hohlraum experiments require looking through small (2-4 mm diameter) diagnostic holes that undergo some degree of hole closure. The existing soft x-ray diagnostics on Z measure the total flux exiting this diagnostic hole and are therefore affected by this hole closure. To avoid having to measure the effective diagnostic hole area we have designed and constructed an imaging diode array (IDA) that incorporates pinhole imaging and an array of filtered silicon diodes to measure the absolute x-ray intensity from a spatially resolved region of a target. The instrument uses silicon diodes with subnanosecond time response that are sensitive to soft x rays in the range 100-3000 eV. An image of the target area is projected onto the silicon diodes using pinholes. Between each pinhole and it's respective diode is a soft x-ray filter. The material and thickness of the filter are selected to allow unfolding of spectral information in the 100-3000 eV spectral region. We plan to insert a set of grazing-incidence mirrors between each of the filter/diode pairs in a future version of this instrument to better define the spectral bandpass of each diode channel. Radiation from the target region is monitored by a gated microchannel-plate-intensified image recording device that is located immediately behind the diode array. A small shadow in the recorded image corresponds to the specific area of the target that is imaged onto each silicon diode. We are presently fielding this instrument in experiments on the Z facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The instrument is located on the same line-of-sight and measures the same spatial region as a filtered fast-framing x-ray pinhole camera and a transmission grating spectrometer. This article describes the design of the IDA diagnostic and presents the results of measurements obtained in hohlraum experiments conducted on Z.

  11. Statistical analysis of polarizing maps of blood plasma laser images for the diagnostics of malignant formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  12. Top-Down Particle Fabrication: Control of Size and Shape for Diagnostic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Canelas, Dorian A.; Herlihy, Kevin P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses rational design of particles for use as therapeutic vectors and diagnostic imaging agent carriers. The emerging importance of both particle size and shape is considered, and the adaptation and modification of soft lithography methods to produce nanoparticles is highlighted. To this end, studies utilizing particles made via a process called Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates (PRINT™) are discussed. In addition, insights gained into therapeutic cargo and imaging agent delivery from related types of polymer-based carriers are considered. PMID:20049805

  13. Strategy and optimization of diagnostic imaging in painful hip in adults.

    PubMed

    Blum, A; Raymond, A; Teixeira, P

    2015-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging strategy in painful hip depends on many factors, but in all cases, plain X-ray is the first investigation. It may be sufficient to reach diagnosis and determine treatment options. More effective but more expensive exploration is indicated in two circumstances: when plain X-ray is non-contributive, and when diagnosis has been established but more accurate imaging assessment is needed to guide treatment. Following radiography, the choice of imaging techniques depends not only on the suspected pathology but also on the availability of equipment and its performance. MRI is probably the technique that provides the most comprehensive results; recent improved accessibility has significantly simplified the diagnostic algorithm. CT remains invaluable, and current techniques have reduced patient irradiation to a level similar to that of standard X-ray. Finally, cost is an important consideration in choosing the means of exploration, but the overall financial impact of the various strategies for diagnosis of painful hip is not well established. This article aims to provide a simple and effective diagnostic strategy for the assessment of painful hip, taking account of the clinical situation, and to detail the most typical semiologic patterns of each disease affecting this joint.

  14. Microwave Imaging and Holographic Diagnostic to Antennas in Cylindrical Near-Field Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the issues pertaining to microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic to antennas in cylindrical near-field measurements are addressed. The theoretical approach is based on expanding the work in [1] and [2] where a cylindrical wave expansion of the field on a cylindrical near-field surface is given. The sampling probe is modeled by its equivalent aperture current (idealized circular aperture) and incorporated into the near-field to far-field transformation. The method of steepest decent is applied to obtain the far-field. In its implementation, however, one could specify directly the angular spectrum at which the far-field is desired to be calculated without resorting to interpolation. The microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic is based on back projection where a plane wave expansion of the far-field is obtained. This approach necessitates the knowledge of the far-field at exact angular spectrum resulting from application of 2-D FFT. Hence, we were able to construct simply the near-field on a plane not necessarily on the aperture plane of the test antenna but also on planes perpendicular to the aperture plane [3]. And a 3-D high resolution and high precision antenna imaging of the test antenna is obtained from cylindrical near-field simulated measurements. In addition microwave holographic diagnostic of large NASA scatterometer radar antenna obtained from measured near-field on a cylindrical surface will be given if time permits.

  15. Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.

  16. Overview of the line-imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets sized from 1 to 5 millimeters. A 20-cm-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 from the targets inside the 10-meter-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter at the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is split into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A pair of corrector lenses on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Streak cameras perform all VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. Alignment techniques are discussed.

  17. 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K. Sanpei, A. Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N.

    2014-03-15

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

  18. Using Copula Distributions to Support More Accurate Imaging-Based Diagnostic Classifiers for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Many investigators have tried to apply machine learning techniques to magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain in order to diagnose neuropsychiatric disorders. Usually the number of brain imaging measures (such as measures of cortical thickness and measures of local surface morphology) derived from the MRIs (i.e., their dimensionality) has been large (e.g. >10) relative to the number of participants who provide the MRI data (<100). Sparse data in a high dimensional space increases the variability of the classification rules that machine learning algorithms generate, thereby limiting the validity, reproducibility, and generalizability of those classifiers. The accuracy and stability of the classifiers can improve significantly if the multivariate distributions of the imaging measures can be estimated accurately. To accurately estimate the multivariate distributions using sparse data, we propose to estimate first the univariate distributions of imaging data and then combine them using a Copula to generate more accurate estimates of their multivariate distributions. We then sample the estimated Copula distributions to generate dense sets of imaging measures and use those measures to train classifiers. We hypothesize that the dense sets of brain imaging measures will generate classifiers that are stable to variations in brain imaging measures, thereby improving the reproducibility, validity, and generalizability of diagnostic classification algorithms in imaging datasets from clinical populations. In our experiments, we used both computer-generated and real-world brain imaging datasets to assess the accuracy of multivariate Copula distributions in estimating the corresponding multivariate distributions of real-world imaging data. Our experiments showed that diagnostic classifiers generated using imaging measures sampled from the Copula were significantly more accurate and more reproducible than were the classifiers generated using either the real-world imaging

  19. [The comparative evaluation of differential diagnostic characteristics of Endo growth medium of different manufacturers].

    PubMed

    Shepelin, A P; Martchikhina, I I; Polosenko, O V; Skladan, G Ye

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with the results of comparative study of differential diagnostic characteristics of Endo growth medium of different foreign manufacturers permitted to be applied in the Russian Federation and the national Endo agar. The enhanced kit of museum test-strains and clinical material from patients were used. It is established that morphology, size and number of clumps of most enterobacteria growing in Tndo medium manufactured by Merck, Pronadisa, HiMedia and the state research center of applied microbiology and biotechnology have minor morphological differences and match the characteristics declared by manufacturers. The indicator of degree of detection (degree of inoculation) of pathogenic enterobacteria from clinical material onto Endo medium manufactured by the state research center of applied microbiology and biotechnology matched the indicators of media from foreign manufacturers. It is demonstrated that Endo growth medium manufactured by the state research center of applied microbiology and biotechnology not only is equal to import analogues but in particular cases even excels them.

  20. Bandelet-based image fusion: a comparative study for multi-focus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giansiracusa, Michael; Lutz, Adam; Messer, Neal; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong initiative to maximize visual information in a single image for viewing by fusing the salient data from multiple images. Many multi-focus imaging systems exist that would be able to provide better image data if these images are fused together. A fused image would allow an analyst to make decisions based on a single image rather than crossreferencing multiple images. The bandelet transform has proven to be an effective multi-resolution transform for both denoising and image fusion through its ability to calculate geometric flow in localized regions and decompose the image based on an orthogonal basis in the direction of the flow. Many studies have been done to develop and validate algorithms for wavelet image fusion but the bandelet has not been well investigated. This study seeks to investigate the use of the bandelet coefficients versus wavelet coefficients in modified versions of image fusion algorithms. There are many different methods for fusing these coefficients together for multi-focus and multi-modal images such as the simple average, absolute min and max, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a weighted average. This paper compares the image fusion methods with a variety of no reference image fusion metrics including information theory based, image feature based and structural similarity based assessments.

  1. Comparison of Image Quality, Diagnostic Accuracy and Radiation Dose Between Flash Model and Retrospective ECG-Triggered Protocols in Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in Congenital Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Xiang-Jiu; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Xing; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Ma, Ya-Qiong; Zuo, Xiao-na

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Dual source computed tomography (DSCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, the issue of radiation-related side effects constitutes a wide public concern. The aim of the study was to explore the differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose and image quality between a prospectively ECG – triggered high – pitch spiral acquisition (flash model) and a retrospective ECG-gated protocol of DSCT used for the detection of CHD. Material/Methods The study included 58 patients with CHD who underwent a DSCT examination, including two groups of 29 patients in each protocol. Then, both subjective and objective image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose were compared between the two protocols. Results The image quality and the total as well as partial diagnostic accuracy did not differ significantly between the protocols. The radiation dose in the flash model was obviously lower than that in the retrospective model (P<0.05). Conclusions Compared to the retrospective protocol, the flash model can significantly reduce the dose of radiation, while maintaining both diagnostic accuracy and image quality. PMID:28344686

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging vs autopsy-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anders; Gustafsson, Torfinn; Höistad, Malin; Hultcrantz, Monica; Jacobson, Stella; Mejare, Ingegerd; Persson, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Background Postmortem imaging has been used for more than a century as a complement to medico-legal autopsies. The technique has also emerged as a possible alternative to compensate for the continuous decline in the number of clinical autopsies. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging for various types of findings, we performed this systematic literature review. Data sources The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library through January 7, 2015. Relevant publications were assessed for risk of bias using the QUADAS tool and were classified as low, moderate or high risk of bias according to pre-defined criteria. Autopsy and/or histopathology were used as reference standard. Findings The search generated 2600 abstracts, of which 340 were assessed as possibly relevant and read in full-text. After further evaluation 71 studies were finally included, of which 49 were assessed as having high risk of bias and 22 as moderate risk of bias. Due to considerable heterogeneity - in populations, techniques, analyses and reporting - of included studies it was impossible to combine data to get a summary estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the various findings. Individual studies indicate, however, that imaging techniques might be useful for determining organ weights, and that the techniques seem superior to autopsy for detecting gas Conclusions and Implications In general, based on the current scientific literature, it was not possible to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging and its usefulness in conjunction with, or as an alternative to autopsy. To correctly determine the usefulness of postmortem imaging, future studies need improved planning, improved methodological quality and larger materials, preferentially obtained from multi-center studies.

  3. Diagnostic efficacy of computer extracted image features in optical coherence tomography of the precancerous cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Qi, Xin; Tresser, Nancy J.; Kareta, Margarita; Belinson, Jerome L.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher by computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: OCT has been investigated as a screening∕diagnostic tool in the management of preinvasive and early invasive cancers of the uterine cervix. In this study, an automated algorithm was developed to extract OCT image features and identify CIN 2 or higher. First, the cervical epithelium was detected by a combined watershed and active contour method. Second, four features were calculated: The thickness of the epithelium and its standard deviation and the contrast between the epithelium and the stroma and its standard deviation. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to classify images into two categories: Normal∕inflammation∕CIN 1 and CIN 2∕CIN 3. The algorithm was applied to 152 images (74 patients) obtained from an international study. Results: The numbers of normal∕inflammatory∕CIN 1∕CIN 2∕CIN 3 images are 74, 29, 14, 24, and 11, respectively. Tenfold cross-validation predicted the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 51% (95% CI: 36%–67%) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI: 86%–96%) with an empirical two-category prior probability estimated from the data set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.86. Conclusions: The diagnostic efficacy of CADx in OCT imaging to differentiate high-grade CIN from normal∕low grade CIN is demonstrated. The high specificity of OCT with CADx suggests further investigation as an effective secondary screening tool when combined with a highly sensitive primary screening tool. PMID:21361180

  4. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  5. Breast imaging with ultrasound tomography: a comparative study with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, Bryan; Littrup, Peter; Duric, Neb; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica; Myc, Lukasz; Szczepanski, Amy; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype relative to magnetic resonance (MR) for imaging overall breast anatomy and accentuating tumors relative to background tissue. The study was HIPAA compliant, approved by the Institutional Review Board, and performed after obtaining the requisite informed consent. Twenty-three patients were imaged with MR and the UST prototype. T1 weighted images with fat saturation, with and without gadolinium enhancement, were used to examine anatomical structures and tumors, while T2 weighted images were used to identify cysts. The UST scans generated sound speed, attenuation, and reflection images. A qualitative visual comparison of the MRI and UST images was then used to identify anatomical similarities. A more focused approach that involved a comparison of reported masses, lesion volumes, and breast density was used to quantify the findings from the visual assessment. Our acoustic tomography prototype imaged distributions of fibrous stroma, parenchyma, fatty tissues, and lesions in patterns similar to those seen in the MR images. The range of thresholds required to establish tumor volume equivalency between MRI and UST suggested that a universal threshold for isolating masses relative to background tissue is feasible with UST. UST has demonstrated the ability to visualize and characterize breast tissues in a manner comparable to MRI. Thresholding techniques accentuate masses relative to background anatomy, which may prove clinically useful for early cancer detection.

  6. Diagnostic support for glaucoma using retinal images: a hybrid image analysis and data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Artes, Paul; McIntyre, Andy; Heywood, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The availability of modern imaging techniques such as Confocal Scanning Laser Tomography (CSLT) for capturing high-quality optic nerve images offer the potential for developing automatic and objective methods for diagnosing glaucoma. We present a hybrid approach that features the analysis of CSLT images using moment methods to derive abstract image defining features. The features are then used to train classifers for automatically distinguishing CSLT images of normal and glaucoma patient. As a first, in this paper, we present investigations in feature subset selction methods for reducing the relatively large input space produced by the moment methods. We use neural networks and support vector machines to determine a sub-set of moments that offer high classification accuracy. We demonstratee the efficacy of our methods to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous optic disks based on shape information automatically derived from optic disk topography and reflectance images.

  7. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  8. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach.

    PubMed

    Cope, Frederick O; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin; Parcel, Kaeli; Raghuraman, Kapil; Ricks, Kevin; Rose, Lucas; Sivakumar, Akhilesh; Streck, Nicholas; Wang, Bryan; Wasco, Christopher; Williams, Amifred; McGrath, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In considering the challenges of approaches to clinical imaging, we are faced with choices that sometimes are impacted by rather dogmatic notions about what is a better or worse technology to achieve the most useful diagnostic image for the patient. For example, is PET or SPECT most useful in imaging any particular disease dissemination? The dictatorial approach would be to choose PET, all other matters being equal. But is such a totalitarian attitude toward imaging selection still valid? In the face of new receptor targeted SPECT agents one must consider the remarkable specificity and sensitivity of these agents. (99m)Tc-Tilmanocept is one of the newest of these agents, now approved for guiding sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) in several solid tumors. Tilmanocept has a Kd of 3×10(-11)M, and it specificity for the CD206 receptor is unlike any other agent to date. This coupled with a number of facts, that specific disease-associated macrophages express this receptor (100 to 150 thousand receptors), that the receptor has multiple binding sites for tilmanocept (>2 sites per receptor) and that these receptors are recycled every 15 min to bind more tilmanocept (acting as intracellular "drug compilers" of tilmanocept into non-degraded vesicles), gives serious pause as to how we select our approaches to diagnostic imaging. Clinically, the size of SLNs varies greatly, some, anatomically, below the machine resolution of SPECT. Yet, with tilmanocept targeting, the SLNs are highly visible with macrophages stably accruing adequate (99m)Tc-tilmanocept counting statistics, as high target-to-background ratios can compensate for spatial resolution blurring. Importantly, it may be targeted imaging agents per se, again such as tilmanocept, which may significantly shrink any perceived chasm between the imaging technologies and anchor the diagnostic considerations in the targeting and specificity of the agent rather than any lingering dogma about the hardware as the basis for imaging

  9. The Inextricable Axis Of Targeted Diagnostic Imaging And Therapy: An Immunological Natural History Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cope, FO; Abbruzzese, B; Sanders, J; Metz, W; Sturms, K; Ralph, D; Blue, M; Zhang, J; Bracci, P; Bshara, W; Behr, S; Maurer, T; Beverly, A; Blay, B; Damughatla, A; Larsen, M; Mountain, C; Neylon, E; Parcel, K; Raghuraman, K; Ricks, K; Rose, L; Sivakumar, A; Streck, N; Wang, B; Wasco, C; Williams, A; McGrath, M

    2016-01-01

    Summary In considering the challenges of approaches to clinical imaging, we are faced with choices that sometimes are impacted by rather dogmatic notions about what is a better or worse technology to achieve the most useful diagnostic image for the patient. For example, is PET or SPECT most useful in imaging any particular disease dissemination? The dictatorial approach would be to choose PET, all other matters being equal. But is such a totalitarian attitude toward imaging selection still valid? In the face of new receptor targeted SPECT agents one must consider the remarkable specificity and sensitivity of these agents. 99mTc-Tilmanocept is one of the newest of these agents, now approved for guiding sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) in several solid tumors. Tilmanocept has a Kd of 3×10−11 M, and it specificity for the CD206 receptor is unlike any other agent to date. This coupled with a number of facts, that specific disease-associated macrophages express this receptor (100 to 150 thousand receptors), the receptor has multiple binding sites for tilmanocept (>2 sites per receptor) and that these receptors are recycled every 15 minutes to bind more tilmanocept (acting as intracellular “drug compilers” of tilmanocept into non-degraded vesicles), give serious pause as to how we select our approaches to diagnostic imaging. Clinically, the size of SLNs varies greatly, some, anatomically, below the machine resolution of SPECT. Yet, with tilmanocept targeting, the SLNs are highly visible with macrophages stably accruing adequate 99mTc-tilmanocept counting statistics, as high target-to-background ratios can compensate for spatial resolution blurring. Importantly, it may be targeted imaging agents per se, again such as tilmanocept, which may significantly shrink any perceived chasm between the imaging technologies and anchor the diagnostic considerations in the targeting and specificity of the agent rather than any lingering dogma about the hardware as the basis for

  10. The cost-effectiveness of diagnostic cardiac imaging for stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Kroes, M A; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Trieste, Leopoldo; Chapman, Ann-Marie; Sweet, Alison C; Wilson, Geoff I; Neglia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is crucial to reduce morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. This critical appraisal of health-economic literature concerning non-invasive diagnostic cardiac imaging aims to summarize current approaches to economic evaluation of diagnostic cardiac imaging and associated procedural risks, inform cardiologists how to use economic analyses for decision-making, highlight areas where new information could strengthen the economic evaluation and shed light on cost-effective approaches to diagnose stable CAD. Economic analysis can support cardiologists' decision-making. Current economic evidence in the field does not provide sufficient information to guide the choice among different imaging modalities or strategies for each patient. Available economic analyses suggest that computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is a cost-effective approach to rule out CAD prior to invasive coronary angiography in patients with low to intermediate pre-test probability of disease and that stress imaging modalities may be cost-effective at variable pre-test probabilities.

  11. Use of hyperspectral imaging technology to develop a diagnostic support system for gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kiyotoki, Shu; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a new technology that obtains spectroscopic information and renders it in image form. This study examined the difference in the spectral reflectance (SR) of gastric tumors and normal mucosa recorded with a hyperspectral camera equipped with HSI technology and attempted to determine the specific wavelength that is useful for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. A total of 104 gastric tumors removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection from 96 patients at Yamaguchi University Hospital were recorded using a hyperspectral camera. We determined the optimal wavelength and the cut-off value for differentiating tumors from normal mucosa to establish a diagnostic algorithm. We also attempted to highlight tumors by image processing using the hyperspectral camera's analysis software. A wavelength of 770 nm and a cut-off value of 1/4 the corrected SR were selected as the respective optimal wavelength and cut-off values. The rates of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the algorithm's diagnostic capability were 71%, 98%, and 85%, respectively. It was possible to enhance tumors by image processing at the 770-nm wavelength. HSI can be used to measure the SR in gastric tumors and to differentiate between tumorous and normal mucosa.

  12. Diagnostic image quality in gynaecological ultrasound: Who should measure it, what should we measure and how?

    PubMed

    Cantin, Peter; Knapp, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of diagnostic image quality in gynaecological ultrasound is an important aspect of imaging department quality assurance. This may be addressed through audit, but who should undertake the audit, what should be measured and how, remains contentious. The aim of this study was to identify whether peer audit is a suitable method of assessing the diagnostic quality of gynaecological ultrasound images. Nineteen gynaecological ultrasound studies were independently assessed by six sonographers utilising a pilot version of an audit tool. Outcome measures were levels of inter-rater agreement using different data collection methods (binary scores, Likert scale, continuous scale), effect of ultrasound study difficulty on study score and whether systematic differences were present between reviewers of different clinical grades and length of experience. Inter-rater agreement ranged from moderate to good depending on the data collection method. A continuous scale gave the highest level of inter-rater agreement with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.73. A strong correlation (r = 0.89) between study difficulty and study score was yielded. Length of clinical experience between reviewers had no effect on the audit scores, but individuals of a higher clinical grade gave significantly lower scores than those of a lower grade (p = 0.04). Peer audit is a promising tool in the assessment of ultrasound image quality. Continuous scales seem to be the best method of data collection implying a strong element of heuristically driven decision making by reviewing ultrasound practitioners.

  13. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  14. Simulation of diagnostic ultrasound image pulse sequences in cavitation bioeffects research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Wiggins, Roger C

    2007-10-01

    Research on cavitational bioeffects of diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) typically involves a diagnostic scanner as the exposure source. However, this can limit the ranges of exposure parameters for experimentation. Anesthetized hairless rats were mounted in a water bath and their right kidneys were exposed to ultrasound. Amplitude modulation with Gaussian envelopes simulated the image pulse sequences (IPSs) produced by diagnostic scanning. A 10 mulkgmin IV dose of Definity((R)) contrast agent was given during 1-5 min exposures. Glomerular capillary hemorrhage was assessed by histology. A stationary exposure approximated the bioeffects induced by DUS within the beam area. However, the use of five closely spaced exposures more faithfully reproduced the total effect produced within a DUS scan plane. Single pulses delivered at 1 s intervals induced the same effect as the simulated DUS. Use of 100 ms triangle-wave modulations for ramp-up or ramp-down of the IPS gave no effect or a large effect, respectively. Finally, an air-backed transducer simulating DUS without contrast agent showed a zero effect even operating at twice the present DUS guideline upper limit. Relatively simple single-element laboratory exposure systems can simulate diagnostic ultrasound exposure and allow exploration of parameter ranges beyond those available on present clinical systems.

  15. Quality assessment of comparative diagnostic accuracy studies: our experience using a modified version of the QUADAS-2 tool.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Corbett, Mark; Eastwood, Alison

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the quality of included studies is a vital step in undertaking a systematic review. The recently revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool (QUADAS-2), which is the only validated quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, does not include specific criteria for assessing comparative studies. As part of an assessment that included comparative diagnostic accuracy studies, we used a modified version of QUADAS-2 to assess study quality. We modified QUADAS-2 by duplicating questions relating to the index test, to assess the relevant potential sources of bias for both the index test and comparator test. We also added review-specific questions. We have presented our modified version of QUADAS-2 and outlined some key issues for consideration when assessing the quality of comparative diagnostic accuracy studies, to help guide other systematic reviewers conducting comparative diagnostic reviews. Until QUADAS is updated to incorporate assessment of comparative studies, QUADAS-2 can be used, although modification and careful thought is required. It is important to reflect upon whether aspects of study design and methodology favour one of the tests over another.

  16. Image Quality Analysis of Various Gastrointestinal Endoscopes: Why Image Quality Is a Prerequisite for Proper Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Weon Jin; An, Pyeong; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Arising from human curiosity in terms of the desire to look within the human body, endoscopy has undergone significant advances in modern medicine. Direct visualization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by traditional endoscopy was first introduced over 50 years ago, after which fairly rapid advancement from rigid esophagogastric scopes to flexible scopes and high definition videoscopes has occurred. In an effort towards early detection of precancerous lesions in the GI tract, several high-technology imaging scopes have been developed, including narrow band imaging, autofocus imaging, magnified endoscopy, and confocal microendoscopy. However, these modern developments have resulted in fundamental imaging technology being skewed towards red-green-blue and this technology has obscured the advantages of other endoscope techniques. In this review article, we have described the importance of image quality analysis using a survey to consider the diversity of endoscope system selection in order to better achieve diagnostic and therapeutic goals. The ultimate aims can be achieved through the adoption of modern endoscopy systems that obtain high image quality. PMID:26473119

  17. A software framework for diagnostic medical image perception with feedback, and a novel perception visualization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Peter W.; Manning, David J.; Donovan, Tim; Crawford, Trevor; Higham, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a software framework and analysis tool to support the collection and analysis of eye movement and perceptual feedback data for a variety of diagnostic imaging modalities. The framework allows the rapid creation of experiment software that can display a collection of medical images of a particular modality, capture eye trace data, and record marks added to an image by the observer, together with their final decision. There are also a number of visualisation techniques for the display of eye trace information. The analysis tool supports the comparison of individual eye traces for a particular observer or traces from multiple observers for a particular image. Saccade and fixation data can be visualised, with user control of fixation identification functions and properties. Observer markings are displayed, and predefined regions of interest are supported. The software also supports some interactive and multi-image modalities. The analysis tool includes a novel visualisation of scan paths across multi-image modalities. Using an exploded 3D view of a stack of MRI scan sections, an observer's scan path can be shown traversing between images, in addition to inspecting them.

  18. The general optics structure of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic on TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Xie, J.; Liu, W. D.; Luo, C.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Chen, M.; Hu, X.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced imaging optics techniques have significantly improved the performance of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission imaging and Microwave Imaging of Reflectometry. The fundamental functions of millimeter-wave imaging optics are focusing, collecting the emission or reflected microwave signal from the target area in the plasma and focusing the emitted (reflected) signal on the detector array. The location of the observation area can be changed using the focus lens. Another important function of the imaging optics is zooming. The size of the observation area in poloidal direction can be adjusted by the zoom lenses and the poloidal spatial resolution is determined by the level of zoom. The field curvature adjustment lenses are employed to adjust the shape of the image plane in the poloidal direction to reduce crosstalk between neighboring channels. The incident angle on each channel is controlled using the specific surface type of the front-side lenses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. All functions are decoupled with the minimum number of lenses. Successful applications are given.

  19. Development of the gas-puff imaging diagnostic in the TEXTOR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shesterikov, I.; Xu, Y.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Schweer, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-05-15

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) [S. J. Zweben, D. P. Stotler et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1981 (2002); R. J. Maqueda, G. A. Wurden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2020 (2003)] is a powerful diagnostic that permits a two-dimensional measurement of turbulence in the edge region of a fusion plasma and is based on the observation of the local emission of a neutral gas, actively puffed into the periphery of the plasma. The developed in-vessel GPI telescope observes the emission from the puffed gas along local (at the puff) magnetic field lines. The GPI telescope is specially designed to operate in severe TEXTOR conditions and can be treated as a prototype for the GPI systems on next generation machines. Also, the gas puff nozzle is designed to have a lower divergence of the gas flow than previous GPI diagnostics. The resulting images show poloidally and radially propagating structures, which are associated with plasma blobs. We demonstrate that the local gas puff does not disturb plasma properties. Our results indicate also that the neutral gas emission intensity is more sensitive to the electron density than the electron temperature. Here, we present implementation details of the GPI system on TEXTOR and discuss some design and diagnostic issues related to the development of GPI systems in general.

  20. Sodium and T1ρ MRI for molecular and diagnostic imaging of articular cartilage†

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Mellon, Eric; Niyogi, Sampreet; Witschey, Walter; Kneeland, J. Bruce; Reddy, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In this article, both sodium magnetic resonance (MR) and T1ρ relaxation mapping aimed at measuring molecular changes in cartilage for the diagnostic imaging of osteoarthritis are reviewed. First, an introduction to structure of cartilage, its degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and an outline of diagnostic imaging methods in quantifying molecular changes and early diagnostic aspects of cartilage degeneration are described. The sodium MRI section begins with a brief overview of the theory of sodium NMR of biological tissues and is followed by a section on multiple quantum filters that can be used to quantify both bi-exponential relaxation and residual quadrupolar interaction. Specifically, (i) the rationale behind the use of sodium MRI in quantifying proteoglycan (PG) changes, (ii) validation studies using biochemical assays, (iii) studies on human OA specimens, (iv) results on animal models and (v) clinical imaging protocols are reviewed. Results demonstrating the feasibility of quantifying PG in OA patients and comparison with that in healthy subjects are also presented. The section concludes with the discussion of advantages and potential issues with sodium MRI and the impact of new technological advancements (e.g. ultra-high field scanners and parallel imaging methods). In the theory section on T1ρ, a brief description of (i) principles of measuring T1ρ relaxation, (ii) pulse sequences for computing T1ρ relaxation maps, (iii) issues regarding radio frequency power deposition, (iv) mechanisms that contribute to T1ρ in biological tissues and (v) effects of exchange and dipolar interaction on T1ρ dispersion are discussed. Correlation of T1ρ relaxation rate with macromolecular content and biomechanical properties in cartilage specimens subjected to trypsin and cytokine-induced glycosaminoglycan depletion and validation against biochemical assay and histopathology are presented. Experimental T1ρ data from osteoarthritic specimens, animal models, healthy human

  1. Diagnostics comparing sea surface temperature feedbacks from operational hurricane forecasts to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ian D.; Marchok, Timothy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the ability of recent versions of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Operational Hurricane Forecast Model (GHM) to reproduce the observed relationship between hurricane intensity and hurricane-induced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) cooling. The analysis was performed by taking a Lagrangian composite of all hurricanes in the North Atlantic from 1998-2009 in observations and 2005-2009 for the GHM. A marked improvement in the intensity-SST relationship for the GHM compared to observations was found between the years 2005 and 2006-2009 due to the introduction of warm-core eddies, a representation of the loop current, and changes to the drag coefficient parameterization for bulk turbulent flux computation. A Conceptual Hurricane Intensity Model illustrates the essential steady-state characteristics of the intensity-SST relationship and is explained by two coupled equations for the atmosphere and ocean. The conceptual model qualitatively matches observations and the 2006-2009 period in the GHM, and presents supporting evidence for the conclusion that weaker upper oceanic thermal stratification in the Gulf of Mexico, caused by the introduction of the loop current and warm core eddies, is crucial to explaining the observed SST-intensity pattern. The diagnostics proposed by the conceptual model offer an independent set of metrics for comparing operational hurricane forecast models to observations.

  2. Nonlinear imaging techniques as non-destructive, high-resolution diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Tserevelakis, G. J.; Selimis, A.; Fotakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we present a review of the implementation of nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) and multi-photon excitation fluorescence (MPEF), as high-resolution, non-invasive diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies. Specifically, the above nonlinear modalities are employed for the precise three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the protective layers bulk in model multilayer painting artworks. The high axial resolution thickness determination of protective layers through the use of THG imaging and the identification of the chemical composition of the artefacts via MPEF measurements are depicted. Furthermore, we reveal the potential of MPEF imaging measurements for the identification of the corrosion layers in silver-based artefacts. Finally, nonlinear modalities are employed for the assessment of the affected region and the obtainment of depth information during laser cleaning of polymeric coatings.

  3. Diagnostic imaging applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 8, 9, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckenbach, E. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    It is more important than ever that engineers have an understanding of the future needs of clinical and research medicine, and that physicians know somthing about probable future developments in instrumentation capabilities. Only by maintaining such a dialog can the most effective application of technological advances to medicine be achieved. This workshop attempted to provide this kind of information transfer in the limited field of diagnostic imaging. Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is discussed, taking into account imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Attention is also given to current and future indications for magnetic resonance in medicine, high speed quantitative digital microscopy, computer processing of radiographic images, computed tomography and its modern applications, position emission tomography, and developments related to medical ultrasound.

  4. EVALUATION OF DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF THE COMPARATIVE TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST IN REHABILITANT BORNEAN ORANGUTANS (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

    PubMed

    Dench, Rosalie; Sulistyo, Fransiska; Fahroni, Agus; Philippa, Joost

    2015-12-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) testing in primates for decades, but its interpretation in orangutans (Pongo spp.) is challenging, because many animals react strongly, without evidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. One explanation is cross-reactivity with environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The use of a comparative TST (CTST), comparing reactivity to avian (representing NTM) and bovine (representing tuberculous mycobacteria) tuberculins aids in distinguishing cross-reactivity due to sensitization by NTM from shared antigens. The specificity of the TST can be increased with the use of CTST. We considered three interpretations of the TST in rehabilitant Bornean orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus ) using avian purified protein derivative (APPD; 25,000 IU/ml) and two concentrations of bovine purified protein derivative (BPPD; 100,000 and 32,500 IU/ml). The tests were evaluated for their ability to identify accurately seven orangutans previously diagnosed with and treated for TB from a group of presumed negative individuals (n = 288 and n = 161 for the two respective BPPD concentrations). BPPD at 32,500 IU/ml had poor diagnostic capacity, whereas BPPD at 100,000 IU/ml performed better. The BPPD-only interpretation had moderate sensitivity (57%) and poor specificity (40%) and accuracy (41%). The comparative interpretation at 72 hr had similar sensitivity (57%) but improved specificity (95%) and accuracy (94%). However, best results were obtained by a comparative interpretation incorporating the 48- and 72-hr scores, which had good sensitivity (86%), specificity (95%) and accuracy (95%). These data reinforce recommendations that a CTST be used in orangutans and support the use of APPD at 25,000 IU/ml and BPPD at 100,000 IU/ml. The highest score at each site from the 48- and 72-hr checks should be considered the result for that tuberculin. If the bovine result is greater than the avian result, the

  5. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2008-07-15

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The ''x-ray interaction'' modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (<0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  6. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (< 0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  7. Analysis of the priority of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic task in cone-beam computed tomographic images

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate differences in the required visibility of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic tasks of implant planning and periapical diagnosis. Materials and Methods Images of a real skull phantom were acquired under 24 combinations of different exposure conditions in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 kV and 4, 6, 8, and 10 mA). Five radiologists evaluated the visibility of anatomic structures and the image quality for diagnostic tasks using a 6-point scale. Results The visibility of the periodontal ligament space showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for periapical diagnosis in both jaws. The visibility of the sinus floor and canal wall showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Variations in tube voltage were associated with significant differences in image quality for all diagnostic tasks. However, tube current did not show significant associations with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Conclusion The required visibility of anatomic structures varied depending on the diagnostic task. Tube voltage was a more important exposure parameter for image quality than tube current. Different settings should be used for optimization and image quality evaluation depending on the diagnostic task. PMID:28035302

  8. Biomedical Nanomagnetics: A Spin Through Possibilities in Imaging, Diagnostics, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical nanomagnetics is a multidisciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine with broad applications in imaging, diagnostics and therapy. Recent developments offer exciting possibilities in personalized medicine provided a truly integrated approach, combining chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering, biology and medicine, is implemented. Emphasizing this perspective, here we address important issues for the rapid development of the field, i.e., magnetic behavior at the nanoscale with emphasis on the relaxation dynamics, synthesis and surface functionalization of nanoparticles and core-shell structures, biocompatibility and toxicity studies, biological constraints and opportunities, and in vivo and in vitro applications. Specifically, we discuss targeted drug delivery and triggered release, novel contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy using magnetic fluid hyperthermia, in vitro diagnostics and the emerging magnetic particle imaging technique, that is quantitative and sensitive enough to compete with established imaging methods. In addition, the physics of self-assembly, which is fundamental to both biology and the future development of nanoscience, is illustrated with magnetic nanoparticles. It is shown that various competing energies associated with self-assembly converge on the nanometer length scale and different assemblies can be tailored by varying particle size and size distribution. Throughout this paper, while we discuss our recent research in the broad context of the multidisciplinary literature, we hope to bridge the gap between related work in physics/chemistry/engineering and biology/medicine and, at the same time, present the essential concepts in the individual disciplines. This approach is essential as biomedical nanomagnetics moves into the next phase of innovative translational research with emphasis on development of quantitative in vivo imaging, targeted and triggered drug release, and

  9. A compact microscope setup for multimodal nonlinear imaging in clinics and its application to disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Baumgartl, Martin; Gottschall, Thomas; Pascher, Torbjörn; Wuttig, Andreas; Matthäus, Christian; Romeike, Bernd F M; Brehm, Bernhard R; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-07-21

    The past years have seen increasing interest in nonlinear optical microscopic imaging approaches for the investigation of diseases due to the method's unique capabilities of deep tissue penetration, 3D sectioning and molecular contrast. Its application in clinical routine diagnostics, however, is hampered by large and costly equipment requiring trained staff and regular maintenance, hence it has not yet matured to a reliable tool for application in clinics. In this contribution implementing a novel compact fiber laser system into a tailored designed laser scanning microscope results in a small footprint easy to use multimodal imaging platform enabling simultaneously highly efficient generation and acquisition of second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) as well as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals with optimized CARS contrast for lipid imaging for label-free investigation of tissue samples. The instrument combining a laser source and a microscope features a unique combination of the highest NIR transmission and a fourfold enlarged field of view suited for investigating large tissue specimens. Despite its small size and turnkey operation rendering daily alignment dispensable the system provides the highest flexibility, an imaging speed of 1 megapixel per second and diffraction limited spatial resolution. This is illustrated by imaging samples of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and an animal model of atherosclerosis allowing for a complete characterization of the tissue composition and morphology, i.e. the tissue's morphochemistry. Highly valuable information for clinical diagnostics, e.g. monitoring the disease progression at the cellular level with molecular specificity, can be retrieved. Future combination with microscopic probes for in vivo imaging or even implementation in endoscopes will allow for in vivo grading of HNSCC and characterization of plaque deposits towards the detection of high

  10. Calyceal Diverticulum of the Kidney – Diagnostic Imaging Dilemma in Pediatric Patients – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Biejat, Agnieszka; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Krzemień, Grażyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Toth, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Calyceal diverticula are rarely diagnosed in children. They can mimic other renal cystic lesions and correct diagnosis can be difficult to establish. Connection between fluid collection and collecting system confirmed by imaging studies is the key diagnostic finding. Case Report In this report we present a case of pediatric patient with calyceal diverticulum, with initial ultrasonographic diagnosis of simple renal cyst. Final diagnosis was established after extended diagnostics following infection of a fluid collection. Conclusions 1. Differential diagnosis of well-circumscribed solitary renal fluid collections in children should include particularly: simple cyst, calyceal diverticulum and the first demonstration of ADPKD. 2. Diagnosis of calyceal diverticulum should be confirmed by contrast studies. 3. Standard management of calyceal diverticula in children includes ultrasonographic follow-up and conservative treatment and rarely requires surgical intervention. PMID:25610511

  11. Recent developments and key legal issues impacting diagnostic imaging services, part 2.

    PubMed

    Dresevic, Adrienne; Kalmowitz, Carey F

    2009-01-01

    Medicare's recently finalized anti-markup rule provides a flexible 2 alternative approach to determining whether or not a diagnostic testing arrangement is subject to the anti-markup payment limitation. Both tests measure whether a performing or supervising physician "shares a practice"with the billing physician or other supplier. Although in the 2009 Medicare Final Physician Fee Schedule CMS declined to implement the IDTF enrollment proposals, which would have required any physician or non-physician practitioner furnishing diagnostic testing services to enroll as an IDTF and be subject to most IDTF performance standards, CMS did finalize its earlier proposal to require mobile IDTFs to enroll and bill Medicare directly for the technical component services that they provide. Imaging services providers should be prepared for heightened Medicare auditing activity, as CMS has made permanent and is expanding its Recovery Audit Contractors program.

  12. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Ayromlou, Hormoz; Tarzamni, Mohammad K; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Methods. We prospectively performed electrodiagnostic, ultrasonographic, and MRI studies in UNE patients and healthy controls. Three cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the ulnar nerve at multiple levels along the arm and maximum CSA(-max) were recorded. Results. The ulnar nerve CSA measurements were different between the UNE severity grades (P < 0.05). CSA-max had the greatest sensitivity (93%) and specificity (68%). Moreover, CSA-max ≥10 mm(2) defined the severe UNE cases (sensitivity/specificity: 82%/72%). In MRI, ulnar nerve hyperintensity had the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (80%). Conclusion. Ultrasonography using CSA-max is sensitive and specific in UNE diagnosis and discriminating the severe UNE cases. Furthermore, MRI particularly targeting at increased signal of the ulnar nerve can be a useful diagnostic test of UNE.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Ayromlou, Hormoz; Tarzamni, Mohammad K.; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Methods. We prospectively performed electrodiagnostic, ultrasonographic, and MRI studies in UNE patients and healthy controls. Three cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the ulnar nerve at multiple levels along the arm and maximum CSA(-max) were recorded. Results. The ulnar nerve CSA measurements were different between the UNE severity grades (P < 0.05). CSA-max had the greatest sensitivity (93%) and specificity (68%). Moreover, CSA-max ≥10 mm2 defined the severe UNE cases (sensitivity/specificity: 82%/72%). In MRI, ulnar nerve hyperintensity had the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (80%). Conclusion. Ultrasonography using CSA-max is sensitive and specific in UNE diagnosis and discriminating the severe UNE cases. Furthermore, MRI particularly targeting at increased signal of the ulnar nerve can be a useful diagnostic test of UNE. PMID:22888452

  14. Can a revised paediatric radiation dose reduction CT protocol be applied and still maintain anatomical delineation, diagnostic confidence and overall imaging quality?

    PubMed Central

    Siriwanarangsun, P; Tanaanantarak, P; Krisanachinda, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare multidetector CT (MDCT) radiation doses between default settings and a revised dose reduction protocol and to determine whether the diagnostic confidence can be maintained with imaging quality made under the revised protocol in paediatric head, chest and abdominal CT studies. Methods: The study retrospectively reviewed head, chest, abdominal and thoracoabdominal MDCT studies, comparing 231 CT studies taken before (Phase 1) and 195 CT studies taken after (Phase 2) the implemented revised protocol. Image quality was assessed using a five-point grading scale based on anatomical criteria, diagnostic confidence and overall quality. Image noise and dose–length product (DLP) were collected and compared. Results: The relative dose reductions between Phase 1 and Phase 2 were statistically significant in 35%, 51% and 54% (p < 0.001) of head, chest and abdominal CT studies, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in overall image quality score comparisons in the head (p = 0.3), chest (p = 0.7), abdominal (p = 0.7) and contiguous thoracic (p = 0.1) and abdominal (p = 0.2) CT studies, with the exception of anatomical quality in definition of bronchial walls and delineation of intrahepatic portal branches in thoracoabdominal CTs, and diagnostic confidence in mass lesion in head CTs, liver lesion (>1 cm), splanchnic venous thrombosis, pancreatitis in abdominal CTs, and emphysema and aortic dissection in thoracoabdominal CTs. Conclusion: Paediatric CT radiation doses can be significantly reduced from manufacturer's default protocol while still maintaining anatomical delineation, diagnostic confidence and overall imaging quality. Advances in knowledge: Revised paediatric CT protocol can provide a half DLP reduction while preserving overall imaging quality. PMID:24959737

  15. A New Full-Field Digital Mammography System with and without the Use of an Advanced Post-Processing Algorithm: Comparison of Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Jang, Mijung; Yun, Bo La; Kim, Bohyoung; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Choi, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare new full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with and without use of an advanced post-processing algorithm to improve image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank. Materials and Methods During a 22-month period, we prospectively enrolled 100 cases of specimen FFDM mammography (Brestige®), which was performed alone or in combination with a post-processing algorithm developed by the manufacturer: group A (SMA), specimen mammography without application of "Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0"; group B (SMB), specimen mammography with application of "Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0". Two sets of specimen mammographies were randomly reviewed by five experienced radiologists. Image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank with regard to image preference were evaluated. Results Three aspects of image quality (overall quality, contrast, and noise) of the SMB were significantly superior to those of SMA (p < 0.05). SMB was significantly superior to SMA for visualizing calcifications (p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance, as evaluated by cancer score, was similar between SMA and SMB. SMB was preferred to SMA by four of the five reviewers. Conclusion The post-processing algorithm may improve image quality with better image preference in FFDM than without use of the software. PMID:24843234

  16. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  17. Automatic segmentation of medical images using image registration: diagnostic and simulation applications.

    PubMed

    Barber, D C; Hose, D R

    2005-01-01

    Automatic identification of the boundaries of significant structure (segmentation) within a medical image is an are of ongoing research. Various approaches have been proposed but only two methods have achieved widespread use: manual delineation of boundaries and segmentation using intensity values. In this paper we describe an approach based on image registration. A reference image is prepared and segmented, by hand or otherwise. A patient image is registered to the reference image and the mapping then applied to ther reference segmentation to map it back to the patient image. In general a high-resolution nonlinear mapping is required to achieve accurate segmentation. This paper describes an algorithm that can efficiently generate such mappings, and outlines the uses of this tool in two relevant applications. An important feature of the approach described in this paper is that the algorithm is independent of the segmentation problem being addresses. All knowledge about the problem at hand is contained in files of reference data. A secondary benefit is that the continuous three-dimensional mapping generated is well suited to the generation of patient-specific numerical models (e.g. finite element meshes) from the library models. Smoothness constraints in the morphing algorithm tend to maintain the geometric quality of the reference mesh.

  18. Fast parallel image registration on CPU and GPU for diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shamonin, Denis P; Bron, Esther E; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Smits, Marion; Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Nonrigid image registration is an important, but time-consuming task in medical image analysis. In typical neuroimaging studies, multiple image registrations are performed, i.e., for atlas-based segmentation or template construction. Faster image registration routines would therefore be beneficial. In this paper we explore acceleration of the image registration package elastix by a combination of several techniques: (i) parallelization on the CPU, to speed up the cost function derivative calculation; (ii) parallelization on the GPU building on and extending the OpenCL framework from ITKv4, to speed up the Gaussian pyramid computation and the image resampling step; (iii) exploitation of certain properties of the B-spline transformation model; (iv) further software optimizations. The accelerated registration tool is employed in a study on diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal controls based on T1-weighted MRI. We selected 299 participants from the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Classification is performed with a support vector machine based on gray matter volumes as a marker for atrophy. We evaluated two types of strategies (voxel-wise and region-wise) that heavily rely on nonrigid image registration. Parallelization and optimization resulted in an acceleration factor of 4-5x on an 8-core machine. Using OpenCL a speedup factor of 2 was realized for computation of the Gaussian pyramids, and 15-60 for the resampling step, for larger images. The voxel-wise and the region-wise classification methods had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 88 and 90%, respectively, both for standard and accelerated registration. We conclude that the image registration package elastix was substantially accelerated, with nearly identical results to the non-optimized version. The new functionality will become available in the next release of elastix as open source under the BSD license.

  19. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K.

    2014-08-21

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  20. Fast parallel image registration on CPU and GPU for diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shamonin, Denis P.; Bron, Esther E.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Smits, Marion; Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Nonrigid image registration is an important, but time-consuming task in medical image analysis. In typical neuroimaging studies, multiple image registrations are performed, i.e., for atlas-based segmentation or template construction. Faster image registration routines would therefore be beneficial. In this paper we explore acceleration of the image registration package elastix by a combination of several techniques: (i) parallelization on the CPU, to speed up the cost function derivative calculation; (ii) parallelization on the GPU building on and extending the OpenCL framework from ITKv4, to speed up the Gaussian pyramid computation and the image resampling step; (iii) exploitation of certain properties of the B-spline transformation model; (iv) further software optimizations. The accelerated registration tool is employed in a study on diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal controls based on T1-weighted MRI. We selected 299 participants from the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Classification is performed with a support vector machine based on gray matter volumes as a marker for atrophy. We evaluated two types of strategies (voxel-wise and region-wise) that heavily rely on nonrigid image registration. Parallelization and optimization resulted in an acceleration factor of 4–5x on an 8-core machine. Using OpenCL a speedup factor of 2 was realized for computation of the Gaussian pyramids, and 15–60 for the resampling step, for larger images. The voxel-wise and the region-wise classification methods had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 88 and 90%, respectively, both for standard and accelerated registration. We conclude that the image registration package elastix was substantially accelerated, with nearly identical results to the non-optimized version. The new functionality will become available in the next release of elastix as open source under the BSD license

  1. Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) Diagnostics for Wind Energy and Energy Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Suhas Uddhav

    2012-06-04

    Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is a laser based technique that involves correlation analysis of tracer particle images to estimate the velocity field in a fluid. High resolution velocity measurement capability and non-intrusive nature of PIV make it desirable for understanding complex fluid flow phenomena occurring in various scenarios. This presentation briefly describes the development of novel PIV diagnostics that forward Wind Energy research and advance scaling models to solve expensive maintenance issues of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Two new diagnostic implementations of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to facilitate understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics in unprecedented detail. It has been demonstrated that a Large-Field PIV (LF-PIV) diagnostic capable of measuring large scale flow fields of up to 4.3m x 2.8m per camera has been developed. This diagnostic, which represents a significant leap in the field of view of existing centimeter scale PIV systems, allows the measurement of velocity fields at multiple points with high accuracy for large scale flows, such as, flows around wind turbines. Further, to characterize the near blade boundary layer of wind turbines a rotating PIV system (R-PIV) is also under development at LANL (patent application in progress). Design considerations and results of bench top tests that confirm the reliability of PIV measurements obtained using the above diagnostics will be presented in this talk. PIV along with conductivity and temperature probe data has been useful to develop models that simulate the evolution of the layered structure of crude oil stored in the subterranean caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Understanding the evolution of stratified layers of crude oil that are subjected to geothermal forcing is crucial in improving the efficiency of maintenance procedures carried out for the SPR and hence ensure Energy Security of

  2. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results. PMID:22685439

  3. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results.

  4. Fielding of an Imaging VISAR Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R; Bower, J; Capelle, G; Celeste, J; Celliers, P; Frogget, B C; Guyton, R L; Kauffman, M; Lare, G; Lee, T; MacGowan, B; Montelongo, S; Thomas, T; Tunnell, T; Watts, P

    2004-06-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. As a core NIF early light diagnostic, this system measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. A 659.5 nm VISAR probe laser illuminates the target. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 33-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) interferometers. Both streak cameras and CCD cameras record the images. Total track is 75 feet. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing for other experimenters to use that port. The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. Along with special coatings on the mirrors, cutoff filters reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, for passive shock breakout light, or for thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). Finite Element Analysis was performed on all mounting structures. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts, so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. A two-color laser alignment scheme is discussed.

  5. Fielding of an imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Bower, John R.; Capelle, Gene A.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lare, Gregory A.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Montelongo, Samuel; Ng, Edmund W.; Thomas, Thayne L., Jr.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2004-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires diagnostics to analyze high-energy density physics experiments. As a core NIF early light diagnostic, this system measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and shock emission of targets with sizes from 1 to 5 mm. A 659.5 nm VISAR probe laser illuminates the target. An 8-inch-diameter fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 33-foot-diameter vacuum chamber. The optical relay sends the image out an equatorial port, through a 2-inch-thick vacuum window, and into two VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) interferometers. Both streak cameras and CCD cameras record the images. Total track is 75 feet. The front end of the optical relay can be temporarily removed from the equatorial port, allowing for other experimenters to use that port. The first triplet can be no closer than 500 mm from the target chamber center and is protected from debris by a blast window that is replaced after every event. Along with special coatings on the mirrors, cutoff filters reject the NIF drive laser wavelengths and pass a band of wavelengths for VISAR, for passive shock breakout light, or for thermal imaging light (bypassing the interferometers). Finite Element Analysis was performed on all mounting structures. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts, so that the pointing accuracy of the optical axis can be checked. A two-color laser alignment scheme is discussed.

  6. Comparative evaluation of target volumes defined by deformable and rigid registration of diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT in primary esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanluan; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Peng; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min; Li, Yankang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the geometrical differences of target volumes propagated by deformable image registration (DIR) and rigid image registration (RIR) to assist target volume delineation between diagnostic Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and planning CT for primary esophageal cancer (EC). Methods: Twenty-five patients with EC sequentially underwent a diagnostic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT scan and planning CT simulation. Only 19 patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ≥ 2.0 of the primary volume were available. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated using CT and PET display settings. The PET/CT images were then registered with planning CT using MIM software. Subsequently, the PET and CT contours were propagated by RIR and DIR to planning CT. The properties of these volumes were compared. Results: When GTVCT delineated on CT of PET/CT after both RIR and DIR was compared with GTV contoured on planning CT, significant improvements using DIR were observed in the volume, displacements of the center of mass (COM) in the 3-dimensional (3D) direction, and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) (P = 0.003; 0.006; 0.014). Although similar improvements were not observed for the same comparison using DIR for propagated PET contours from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT (P > 0.05), for DSC and displacements of COM in the 3D direction of PET contours, the DIR resulted in the improved volume of a large percentage of patients (73.7%; 68.45%; 63.2%) compared with RIR. For diagnostic CT-based contours or PET contours at SUV2.5 propagated by DIR with planning CT, the DSC and displacements of COM in 3D directions in the distal segment were significantly improved compared to the upper and middle segments (P > 0.05). Conclusion: We observed a trend that deformable registration might improve the overlap for gross target volumes from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT. The distal EC might benefit more from DIR

  7. Comparison of the Diagnostic Image Quality of the Canine Maxillary Dentoalveolar Structures Obtained by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and 64-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Jason W; Drees, Randi; Koenig, Lisa J; Snyder, Christopher J; Hetzel, Scott; Miles, Chanda R; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this blinded study was to validate the use of cone beam computed tomography (C) for imaging of the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures by comparing its diagnostic image quality with that of 64-multidetector row CT Sagittal slices of a tooth-bearing segment of the maxilla of a commercially purchased dog skull embedded in methylmethacrylate were obtained along a line parallel with the dental arch using a commercial histology diamond saw. The slice of tooth-bearing bone that best depicted the dentoalveolar structures was chosen and photographed. The maxillary segment was imaged with cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT. Four blinded evaluators compared the cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT images and image quality was scored as it related to the anatomy of dentoalveolar structures. Trabecular bone, enamel, dentin, pulp cavity, periodontal ligament space, and lamina dura were scored In addition, a score depicting the evaluators overall impression of the image was recorded. Images acquired with cone beam CT were found to be significantly superior in image quality to images acquired with 64-multidetector row CT overall, and in all scored categories. In our study setting cone beam CT was found to be a valid and clinically superior imaging modality for the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures when compared to 64-multidetector row CT.

  8. Time Efficiency and Diagnostic Accuracy of New Automated Myocardial Perfusion Analysis Software in 320-Row CT Cardiac Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rief, Matthias; Stenzel, Fabian; Kranz, Anisha; Schlattmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of automated myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) image analysis software. Materials and Methods 320-row CTP was performed in 30 patients, and analyses were conducted independently by three different blinded readers by the use of two recent software releases (version 4.6 and novel version 4.71GR001, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). Analysis times were compared, and automated epi- and endocardial contour detection was subjectively rated in five categories (excellent, good, fair, poor and very poor). As semi-quantitative perfusion parameters, myocardial attenuation and transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) were calculated for each myocardial segment and agreement was tested by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Conventional coronary angiography served as reference standard. Results The analysis time was significantly reduced with the novel automated software version as compared with the former release (Reader 1: 43:08 ± 11:39 min vs. 09:47 ± 04:51 min, Reader 2: 42:07 ± 06:44 min vs. 09:42 ± 02:50 min and Reader 3: 21:38 ± 3:44 min vs. 07:34 ± 02:12 min; p < 0.001 for all). Epi- and endocardial contour detection for the novel software was rated to be significantly better (p < 0.001) than with the former software. ICCs demonstrated strong agreement (≥ 0.75) for myocardial attenuation in 93% and for TPR in 82%. Diagnostic accuracy for the two software versions was not significantly different (p = 0.169) as compared with conventional coronary angiography. Conclusion The novel automated CTP analysis software offers enhanced time efficiency with an improvement by a factor of about four, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23323027

  9. Comparative Study of Breast Normal and Cancer Cells Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang Hyuk; Cho, Eun Hee; Shin, Sang-Mo; Oh, Myoung-kyu; Ko, Do-Kyeong

    2012-08-01

    A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy imaging system was developed using a femtosecond laser and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We separated resonant and non-resonant CARS signals in the time domain by the chirp of the PCF, and applied this system to compare live human breast normal and cancer cells. The CARS image and spectrum at C-H stretch vibration in lipid droplets could subsequently be used to differentiate cancer cells from normal cells, thereby confirming the potential of the CARS microspectroscopy imaging system as a diagnostic tool that allows the high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and fast detection of breast cancer.

  10. Unbiased Review of Digital Diagnostic Images in Practice: Informatics Prototype and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fotenos, Anthony F.; Safdar, Nabile M.; Nagy, Paul G.; Mezrich, Reuben; Lewin, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Clinical and contextual information associated with images may influence how radiologists draw diagnostic inferences, highlighting the need to control multiple sources of bias in the methodological design of investigations involving radiological interpretation. In the past, manual control methods to mask review films presented in practice have been used to reduce potential interpretive bias associated with differences between viewing images for patient care versus reviewing images for purposes of research, education, and quality improvement. These manual precedents from the film era raise the question whether similar methods to reduce bias can be implemented in the modern digital environment. Materials and Methods We built prototype “CreateAPatient” information technology for masking review case presentations within our institution’s production Radiology Information and Picture Archiving and Reporting Systems (RIS and PACS). To test whether CreateAPatient could be used to mask review images presented in practice, six board-certified radiologists participated in a pilot study. During pilot testing, seven digital chest radiographs, known to contain lung nodules and associated with fictitious patient identifiers, were mixed into the routine workload of the participating radiologists while they covered general evening call shifts. We tested whether it was possible to mask the presentation of these review cases, both by probing the interpreting radiologists to report detection and by conducting a forced-choice experiment on a separate cohort of 20 radiologists and information technology professionals. Results None of the participating radiologists reported awareness of review activity, and forced-choice detection was less than predicted at chance, suggesting radiologists were effectively blinded. In addition, we identified no evidence of review reports unsafely propagating beyond their intended scope or otherwise interfering with patient

  11. Mars ultraviolet reflectance compared with imaging, topography and geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, K. E.; Mankoff, K. D.; Hendrix, A. R.; Barth, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    We compare ultraviolet reflectance spectra from the Mariner Mars 1971 (MM71) Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) with imaging data from the Viking Mars Digital Image Model (MDIM), with surface topography from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and with geology from the USGS Survey Atlas of Mars digital maps. We use a new web-accessible database of MM71 UVS Reflectances and two software tools: 1) a surface and atmosphere database visualization tool called Albatross and 2) a web-based Mars data comparison tool called MDC. See http://lasp.colorado.edu/software_tools/. We present several examples, including the northern polar region and Lyot Crater.

  12. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Astaf'eva, N. G.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials.

  13. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Nan; Cheung, Ka Wai; Wong, Hiu Tung; Ho, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art. PMID:25365460

  14. Sugar recognition: designing artificial receptors for applications in biological diagnostics and imaging.

    PubMed

    Miron, Caitlin E; Petitjean, Anne

    2015-02-09

    At the cellular level, numerous processes ranging from protein folding to disease development are mediated by a sugar-based molecular information system that is much less well known than its DNA- or protein-based counterparts. The subtle structural diversity of such sugar tags nevertheless offers an excellent, if challenging, opportunity to design receptors for the selective recognition of biorelevant sugars. Over the past 40 years, growing interest in the field of sugar recognition has led to the development of several promising artificial receptors, which could soon find widespread use in medical diagnostics and cell imaging.

  15. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  16. Fidelity of a Time-Resolved Imaging Diagnostic for Electron Beam Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Frayer, Daniel; Ekdahl, Carl A.; Johnson, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Four optical lines of sight create projections of an image of an electron beam on a Cerenkov target, which are relayed via optical fiber to streak cameras. From these projections, a reconstruction algorithm creates time histories of the beam’s cross section. The instrument was fielded during and after facility commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported beam parameters. Results from reconstructions and analysis are noted.

  17. Data processing and analysis of the imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system on HT-7 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaofeng; Shao, Chunqiang; Xi, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Junyu; Qing, Zang; Yang, Jianhua; Dai, Xingxing; Kado, Shinichiro

    2013-05-01

    A high spatial resolution imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system was developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). After about one month trial running on the superconducting HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) tokamak, the system was proved to be capable of measuring plasma electron temperature. The system setup and data calibration are described in this paper and then the instrument function is studied in detail, as well as the measurement capability, an electron temperature of 50 eV to 2 keV and density beyond 1 × 10(19) m(-3). Finally, the data processing method and experimental results are presented.

  18. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine: a comparative and evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Wellman, Maxey L

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a core veterinary pathology service involving specimens from domestic animals, laboratory animals, and exotic species. Evidence-based application of cytopathology involves management of preanalytical factors, and thorough evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the technique in each species and for all specimen types. Unique to veterinary medicine is the reliance on cytology as the basis for crucial medical decisions such as humane euthanasia, especially when the patient is critically ill or when financial considerations limit diagnostic and therapeutic options. This article reviews the cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of selected neoplastic and infectious diseases.

  19. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  20. Diagnostic imaging for spinal disorders in the elderly: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John Am; Bussières, André

    2012-05-24

    The high prevalence of neck and low back pain in the rapidly aging population is associated with significant increases in health care expenditure. While spinal imaging can be useful to identify less common causes of neck and back pain, overuse and misuse of imaging services has been widely reported. This narrative review aims to provide primary care providers with an overview of available imaging studies with associated potential benefits, adverse effects, and costs for the evaluation of neck and back pain disorders in the elderly population. While the prevalence of arthritis and degenerative disc disease increase with age, fracture, infection, and tumor remain uncommon. Prevalence of other conditions such as spinal stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) also increase with age and demand special considerations. Radiography of the lumbar spine is not recommended for the early management of non-specific low back pain in adults under the age of 65. Aside from conventional radiography for suspected fracture or arthritis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) offer better characterization of most musculoskeletal diseases. If available, MRI is usually preferred over CT because it involves less radiation exposure and has better soft-tissue visualization. Use of subspecialty radiologists to interpret diagnostic imaging studies is recommended.

  1. Polarization-based optical imaging and processing techniques with application to the cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang L.; Li, Yanfang; Cameron, Brent D.

    2002-06-01

    In this investigation, a polarization-based imaging system is developed and described that measures the two-dimensional effective backscattering Mueller matrix of a sample in near real-time. As is well known, a Mueller matrix can provide considerable information on the makeup and optical characteristics of a sample and also directly describes how the sample transforms an incident light beam. The ability to measure the two-dimensional Mueller matrix of a biological sample, therefore, can provide considerable information on the sample composition as well as the potential to reveal significant structural information that normally would not be visible through standard imaging techniques. Additional information can also be obtained through the application of image-processing, decomposition, and reconstruction techniques that operate directly on the 2D Mueller matrix. Using the developed system, it is shown how the induction of internal strain within the sample coupled with image reconstruction and decomposition techniques can further improve image contrast and aid in the detection of boundaries between tissues of different biomechanical and structural properties. The studies presented were performed with both rat tissue and a melanoma-based tissue culture. The results demonstrate how these techniques could provide information that may be of diagnostic value in the physical detection of malignant lesion boundaries.

  2. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Karellas, A

    2016-06-01

    dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1-8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography. In

  3. On-shot laser beam diagnostics for high-power laser facility with phase modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Veetil, S. P.; Liu, C.; Tao, H.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.

    2016-05-01

    A coherent-modulation-imaging-based (CMI) algorithm has been employed for on-shot laser beam diagnostics in high-power laser facilities, where high-intensity short-pulsed lasers from terawatt to petawatt are designed to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A single-shot intensity measurement is sufficient for wave-front reconstruction, both for the near-field and far-field at the same time. The iterative reconstruction process is computationally very efficient and was completed in dozens of seconds by the additional use of a GPU device to speed it up. The compact measurement unit—including a CCD and a piece of pre-characterized phase plate—makes it convenient for focal-spot intensity prediction in the target chamber. It can be placed almost anywhere in high-power laser facilities to achieve near-field wave-front diagnostics. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by conducting a series of experiments with diagnostic beams and seed pulses with deactivated amplifiers in our high-power laser system.

  4. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  5. Optical disk archiving using a personal computer: a solution to image storage problems in diagnostic imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Parkin, A; Norwood, H; Erdentug, A; Hall, A J

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to solving the problem of providing a large-capacity image archive for diagnostic imaging departments at reasonable cost. Optical disk stores, when fitted retrospectively to scanners, are very expensive and may not be compatible with existing computer hardware. We describe the use of an industry standard personal computer (PC) linked to a standard 5 1/4-in. optical disk drive as a 'stand-alone' image store. Image data are transferred from the scanner using 8-in. floppy disks, and these are read into the PC using an attached 8-in. floppy disk drive and then transferred to the optical disk. The patient details (patient name, ID, date, etc.) are entered into a database program held on the PC and these are used to generate a reference pointer to the optical disk file through which the data can be retrieved. Data retrieval involves entering the patient details into the data base and inserting a blank 8-in. floppy disk into the drive attached to the PC. A sector copy is then made from the optical disk to the 8-in. floppy disk, which can then be used at the viewing station at the scanner. The system is flexible since it can accept data from a variety of sources in any format; it is also low cost and operates independently of the scanner. The hardware is industry standard, ensuring low maintenance costs.

  6. Argon X-ray line imaging - A compression diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes argon X-ray line imaging which measures the compressed fuel volume directly by forming one-dimensional images of X-rays from argon gas seeded into the D-T fuel. The photon energies of the X-rays are recorded on the film of a diffraction-crystal spectrograph. Neutron activation, which detects activated nuclei produced by the interaction of 14-MeV neutrons with the selected materials of the target, allows to calculate the final compressed fuel density using a hydrodynamics simulation code and the knowledge of the total number of activated nuclei and the neutron yield. Argon X-ray appears to be a valid fuel-compression diagnostic for final fuel densities in the range of 10 to 50 times liquid D-T density.

  7. Singular structure of Mueller matrices images of biological crystal networks for diagnostic human tissues pathological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnovskiy, M. Y.; Ushenko, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    The process of converting of laser radiation by optically anisotropic crystals of biological networks are singular in the sense of total (simultaneous) of mechanisms of orientation and phase (birefringence) anisotropy the formation of polarization-inhomogeneous field of scattered radiation. This work is aimed at developing a method of polarization selection mechanisms of blood plasma polycrystalline networks anisotropy. The relationship between statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of polarization-inhomogeneous images of blood plasma and by linear dichroism and linear birefringence of polycrystalline networks albumin and globulin was found. The criteria of differentiation and diagnostic images of polarization-inhomogeneous plasma samples of the control group (donor) and a group of patients with malignant changes of breast tissue was identified.

  8. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  9. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-04-30

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  10. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2011-04-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo.

  11. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography for oral masses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kafka, U C M; Carstens, A; Steenkamp, G; Symington, H

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in oral masses of dogs. Nineteen dogs underwent clinical, MR and CT examinations. Eleven malignant and ten non-malignant masses were evaluated. Osteosarcoma was the most commonly found malignant oral mass and gingival hyperplasia was the most commonly found benign mass. The results showed that MRI provided more accurate information regarding the size of the masses and invasion of adjacent structures although MRI and CT show similar accuracy in assessment of bone invasion. Calcification and cortical bone erosion was better seen on CT images. Whereas contrast-MRI provided useful additional information, contrast-CT had no added benefit. In general, oral masses located in the caudal mandible, oropharynx and maxilla are better evaluated using MRI, once the histological type has been verified.

  12. Design strategy and implementation of the medical diagnostic image support system at two large military medical centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Stan M.; Sauls, F.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Telepak, Robert J.

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) system contract for federal medical treatment facilities was awarded to Loral/Siemens in the Fall of 1991. This contract places ''filmless'' imaging in a variety of situations from small clients to large medical centers. The MDIS system approach is a ''turn-key'', performance based specification driven by clinical requirements.

  13. [The comparative evaluation of the diagnostic value of methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins under rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Novikov, A A; Cherkasova, M V; Aleksandrova, E N; Popkova, T V; Luchikhina, E L; Rytikova, N S; Nasonov, E L

    2012-10-01

    The hyper production of large specter of autoantibodies, primarily rheumatoid factors and antibodies to citrullinized proteins, is a characteristic sign of rheumatoid arthritis. The detection of these antibodies plays an important role in diagnosing the disease, especially on its early stages. The study compared the diagnostic accuracy of different methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins under rheumatoid arthritis. The examined sample included 144 patients aged 33-58 years with reliable diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The patients with systemic lupus erythematous, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, OVERLAP syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis and conditionally healthy donors consisted the comparative group. To detect antibodies to citrullinized proteins the methods of enzyme immunoassay, electrochemiluminescence, immunochromatography were applied. The study demonstrated that all the methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins have adequate diagnostic value to be implemented both in a routine clinical diagnostic practice and on the stage of screening of patients.

  14. Classification, diagnostic imaging, and imaging characterization of a lumbar herniated disk.

    PubMed

    Milette, P C

    2000-11-01

    The absence of universal nomenclature standardization with respect to the definition of a disk herniation and its different categories, especially regarding type and location, is still a major problem that will only be overcome when major national or international scientific societies join efforts to support a particular scheme. Meanwhile, it is important to realize that the two models that are currently most used are based on a different [figure: see text] perspective. Trying to straddle the two by opposing, for instance, bulging disk and herniation is doomed to failure because this exercise defies formal logic. MR imaging is currently the most accurate noninvasive imaging modality to diagnose a disk herniation and to determine its exact location. The determination of some pathoanatomic characteristics of herniated disks (type and composition) may require the use of CT, diskography, or CT diskography.

  15. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  16. WE-D-18C-01: Art of Imaging: Diagnostic Ultrasound Image Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Zagzebski, J; Lu, Z

    2014-06-15

    Assumptions followed during construction of B-mode and color flow images are that the pulse-echo transit time can be converted to reflector depth through uniform tissue models, echoes originate only from locations along the transmit-receive axes of pulse propagation, and first order correction schemes adequately account for acoustic wave attenuation and absorption. The latter allows the display brightness to encode tissue echogenicity. This course will challenge participants to identify imaging artifacts whose origins stem from the more complex and realistic propagating and scattering conditions common in clinical ultrasound. Speckle, a very common artifact but a clinically employed feature, originates from simultaneous echoes from diffuse scatterers and is a result of coherent detection of signals. One of the most bothersome artifacts are those due to reverberations especially that originating from superficial tissue interfaces. Methods to overcome these will be discussed. This presentation also will describe and illustrate speed of sound, refraction, enhancement, shadowing, mirroring, beam width, beam-forming, and slice thickness artifacts. All are useful examples of limitations introduced by acoustic waves propagating through complex tissue paths. New formats for physician board certification exams are demanding the inclusion of image-based examples of ultrasound physics. Instructors' knowledge of, and access to examples of ultrasound artifacts are important in this effort. The presentation will incorporate an audience response system to challenge participants in correct identification of some of these artifacts. Learning Objectives: Review basic mechanisms for producing ultrasound images. Identify the etiology of speckle, reverberation noise, beam width and slice thickness artifacts, and artifacts associated with pulse propagation. Discuss methods that reduce the impact of artifacts OR employ artifacts effectively to facilitate clinical diagnosis.

  17. Imaging techniques used in the diagnostic workup of acute venous thromboembolic disease.

    PubMed

    Tilve-Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Fernández, P; Trillo-Fandiño, L; Plasencia-Martínez, J M

    2016-12-13

    Early diagnosis is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE); however, the clinical presentation of PE is often very unspecific and it can simulate other diseases. For these reasons, imaging tests, especially computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, have become the keystone in the diagnostic workup of PE. The wide availability and high diagnostic performance of pulmonary CTA has led to an increase in the number of examinations done and a consequent increase in the population's exposure to radiation and iodinated contrast material. Thus, other techniques such as scintigraphy and venous ultrasonography of the lower limbs, although less accurate, continue to be used in certain circumstances, and optimized protocols have been developed for CTA to reduce the dose of radiation (by decreasing the kilovoltage) and the dose of contrast agents. We describe the technical characteristics and interpretation of the findings for each imaging technique used to diagnose PE and discuss their advantages and limitations; this knowledge will help the best technique to be chosen for each case. Finally, we comment on some data about the increased use of CTA, its clinical repercussions, its "overuse", and doubts about its cost-effectiveness.

  18. A damage diagnostic imaging algorithm based on the quantitative comparison of Lamb wave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ye, Lin; Lu, Ye; Li, Fucai

    2010-06-01

    With the objective of improving the temperature stability of the quantitative comparison of Lamb wave signals captured in different states, a damage diagnostic imaging algorithm integrated with Shannon-entropy-based interrogation was proposed. It was evaluated experimentally by identifying surface damage in a stiffener-reinforced CF/EP quasi-isotropic woven laminate. The variations in Shannon entropy of the reference (without damage) and present (with damage) signals from individual sensing paths were calibrated as damage signatures and utilized to estimate the probability of the presence of damage in the monitoring area enclosed by an active sensor network. The effects of temperature change on calibration of the damage signatures and estimation of the probability values for the presence of damage were investigated using a set of desynchronized signals. The results demonstrate that the Shannon-entropy-based damage diagnostic imaging algorithm with improved robustness in the presence of temperature change has the capability of providing accurate identification of damage in actual environments.

  19. MO-C-BRB-06: Translating NIH / NIBIB funding to clinical reality in quantitative diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  20. Measurement and simulation of ICRF wave intensity with a recalibrated phase contrast imaging diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Edlund, E. M.; Ennever, P. C.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2015-12-10

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are one of the major tools to heat fusion plasmas. Full-wave simulations are essential to predict the wave propagation and absorption quantitatively, and it is important that these codes be validated against actual experimental measurements. In this work, the absolute intensity of the ICRF waves previously measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic was recalibrated and compared once more with full-wave predictions. In the earlier work, significant discrepancies were found between the measured and the simulated mode converted wave intensity [N. Tsujii et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082508]. With the new calibration of the detector array, the measured mode converted wave intensity is now in much better agreement with the full-wave predictions. The agreement is especially good for comparisons performed close to the antenna.

  1. Thermosense XIV; Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal Sensing and Imaging Diagnostic Applications, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22-24, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Jan K.

    The present volume on thermal sensing and imaging diagnostic applications discusses predictive maintenance, buildings and structures, products and processes, materials evaluation, and research and development. Attention is given to the role of comparative and qualitative thermography in predictive maintenance, thermographic inspection and heat flow simulation of midspan joints, thermographic inspections of air distribution systems, and predictive maintenance of district heating networks by IR measurement. Topics addressed include thermographic imaging of cracks in thin metal sheets, processing of IR images of aircraft lapjoints, IR thermography of fatigue in metals, and thermography evaluation of metal bonding materials. Also discussed are desirable features of an IR imaging system for aerodynamic research full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces, IR imaging of MW sources, and IR air flow studies of chemical hood performance.

  2. New Family of Generalized Metrics for Comparative Imaging System Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Russ, M.; Singh, V.; Loughran, B.; Bednarek, D.R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-01-01

    A family of imaging task-specific metrics designated Relative Object Detectability (ROD) metrics was developed to enable objective, quantitative comparisons of different x-ray systems. Previously, ROD was defined as the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier Transform of the object function, weighted by the detector DQE for one detector, divided by the comparable integral for another detector. When effects of scatter and focal spot unsharpness are included, the generalized metric, GDQE, is substituted for the DQE, resulting in the G-ROD metric. The G-ROD was calculated for two different detectors with two focal spot sizes using various-sized simulated objects to quantify the improved performance of new high-resolution CMOS detector systems. When a measured image is used as the object, a Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) value can be generated. A neuro-vascular stent (Wingspan) was imaged with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and a standard flat panel detector (FPD) for comparison using the GM-ROD calculation. As the lower integration bound increased from 0 toward the detector Nyquist frequency, increasingly superior performance of the MAF was evidenced. Another new metric, the R-ROD, enables comparing detectors to a reference detector of given imaging ability. R-RODs for the MAF, a new CMOS detector and an FPD will be presented. The ROD family of metrics can provide quantitative more understandable comparisons for different systems where the detector, focal spot, scatter, object, techniques or dose are varied and can be used to optimize system selection for given imaging tasks. PMID:26912942

  3. New family of generalized metrics for comparative imaging system evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, M.; Singh, V.; Loughran, B.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    A family of imaging task-specific metrics designated Relative Object Detectability (ROD) metrics was developed to enable objective, quantitative comparisons of different x-ray systems. Previously, ROD was defined as the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier Transform of the object function, weighted by the detector DQE for one detector, divided by the comparable integral for another detector. When effects of scatter and focal spot unsharpness are included, the generalized metric, GDQE, is substituted for the DQE, resulting in the G-ROD metric. The G-ROD was calculated for two different detectors with two focal spot sizes using various-sized simulated objects to quantify the improved performance of new high-resolution CMOS detector systems. When a measured image is used as the object, a Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) value can be generated. A neuro-vascular stent (Wingspan) was imaged with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and a standard flat panel detector (FPD) for comparison using the GM-ROD calculation. As the lower integration bound increased from 0 toward the detector Nyquist frequency, increasingly superior performance of the MAF was evidenced. Another new metric, the R-ROD, enables comparing detectors to a reference detector of given imaging ability. R-RODs for the MAF, a new CMOS detector and an FPD will be presented. The ROD family of metrics can provide quantitative more understandable comparisons for different systems where the detector, focal spot, scatter, object, techniques or dose are varied and can be used to optimize system selection for given imaging tasks.

  4. Intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a review of the diagnostic imaging features of four jaw cases.

    PubMed

    Chan, K C; Pharoah, M; Lee, L; Weinreb, I; Perez-Ordonez, B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case series is to present the common features of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (IMC) of the jaws in plain film and CT imaging. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists reviewed and characterized the common features of four biopsy-proven cases of IMC in the jaws in plain film and CT imaging obtained from the files of the Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. The common features are a well-defined sclerotic periphery, the presence of internal amorphous sclerotic bone and numerous small loculations, lack of septae bordering many of the loculations, and expansion and perforation of the outer cortical plate with extension into surrounding soft tissue. Other characteristics include tooth displacement and root resorption. The four cases of IMC reviewed have common imaging characteristics. All cases share some diagnostic imaging features with other multilocular-appearing entities of the jaws. However, the presence of amorphous sclerotic bone and malignant characteristics can be useful in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  6. Injectable microbubbles as contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound imaging: the key role of perfluorochemicals.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Ernest G; Klein, David H; Mattrey, Robert M; Riess, Jean G

    2003-07-21

    Ultrasonography has, until recently, lacked effective contrast-enhancing agents. Micrometer-sized gas bubbles that resonate at a diagnostic frequency are ideal reflectors for ultrasound. However, simple air bubbles, when injected into the blood stream, disappear within seconds through the combined effects of Laplace pressure, blood pressure, and exposure to ultrasound energy. Use of fluorocarbon vapor, by extending the persistence of microbubbles in vivo from seconds to minutes, propelled contrast ultrasonography into clinical practice. Imaging techniques that selectively suppress tissue, but not microbubble signal, further increase image contrast. Approved products consist of C3F8 or SF6 microbubbles, and N2 microbubbles osmotically stabilized with C6F14. These agents allow the detection and characterization of cardiovascular abnormalities and solid organ lesions, such as tumors. By providing higher quality images, they improve the accuracy and confidence of disease diagnosis, and can play a decisive role in clinical decision making. New objectives include agents that target specific cells for the molecular imaging of disease, and drug and gene delivery, including ultrasound-triggered delivery.

  7. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.M.; Zander, M.E.; Brown, S.K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Gibson, H.E.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) will be discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data.

  8. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.M.; Zander, M.E.; Brown, S.K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Gibson, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) will be discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data.

  9. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging guidance improves the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Karmarkar, Parag; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy is low, particularly in disease that affects the myocardium in a non-uniform distribution. We hypothesized that real-time MRI guidance could improve the yield through targeted biopsy of focal myocardial pathology. Methods An animal model of focal myocardial pathology was created by infusing 3mL of fluorescent microspheres (NuFlow Hydrocoat, 15μm diameter, 5 million spheres/mL) followed by 2mL of 100% ethanol to a branch coronary artery. Animals were survived for minimum 14days, before undergoing MRI guided endomyocardial biopsy using a custom 6.5Fr active visualization MRI-conditional bioptome and X-ray guided biopsy using a commercial bioptome. Specimens were analyzed using a dissecting microscope under ultraviolet light to determine the proportion of ‘on-target’ specimens containing fluorescent microspheres. Results A total of 77 specimens were obtained using real-time MRI guidance and 87 using X-ray guidance, in five animals. Specimens obtained with the MRI-conditional bioptome were smaller compared with the commercial X-ray bioptome. Real-time MRI guidance significantly increased the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (82% vs. 56% on-target biopsy specimens with real-time MRI vs. X-ray guidance, p<0.01). Conclusions Endomyocardial biopsy performed using real-time MRI guidance is feasible and significantly improves the diagnostic yield compared with X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. PMID:27631028

  10. State of the art imaging of multiple myeloma: comparative review of FDG PET/CT imaging in various clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Fardanesh, Reza; Tanenbaum, Lawrence; Chari, Ajai; Jagannath, Sundar; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2014-12-01

    18-Flurodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have higher sensitivity and specificity than whole-body X-ray (WBXR) survey in evaluating disease extent in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Both modalities are now recommended by the Durie-Salmon Plus classification although the emphasis is more on MRI than PET/CT. The presence of extra-medullary disease (EMD) as evaluated by PET/CT imaging, initial SUVmax and number of focal lesions (FL) are deemed to be strong prognostic parameters at staging. MRI remains the most sensitive technique for the detection of diffuse bone marrow involvement in both the pre and post-therapy setting. Compression fractures are best characterized with MRI signal changes, for determining vertebroplasty candidates. While PET/CT allows for earlier and more specific evaluation of therapeutic efficacy compared to MRI, when signal abnormalities persist years after treatment. PET/CT interpretation, however, can be challenging in the vertebral column and pelvis as well as in cases with post-therapy changes. Hence, a reading approach combining the high sensitivity of MRI and superior specificity of FDG PET/CT would be preferred to increase the diagnostic accuracy. In summary, the established management methods in MM, mainly relying on biological tumor parameters should be complemented with functional imaging data, both at staging and restaging for optimal management of MM.

  11. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  12. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  13. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  14. Three-dimensional volume rendering of the ankle based on magnetic resonance images enables the generation of images comparable to real anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Cammaroto, Simona; Duca, Antonio; Bramanti, Placido; Favaloro, Angelo; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied high-quality medical imaging techniques to study the structure of the human ankle. Direct volume rendering, using specific algorithms, transforms conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance image (MRI) series into 3D volume datasets. This tool allows high-definition visualization of single or multiple structures for diagnostic, research, and teaching purposes. No other image reformatting technique so accurately highlights each anatomic relationship and preserves soft tissue definition. Here, we used this method to study the structure of the human ankle to analyze tendon–bone–muscle relationships. We compared ankle MRI and computerized tomography (CT) images from 17 healthy volunteers, aged 18–30 years (mean 23 years). An additional subject had a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon. The MRI images demonstrated superiority in overall quality of detail compared to the CT images. The MRI series accurately rendered soft tissue and bone in simultaneous image acquisition, whereas CT required several window-reformatting algorithms, with loss of image data quality. We obtained high-quality digital images of the human ankle that were sufficiently accurate for surgical and clinical intervention planning, as well as for teaching human anatomy. Our approach demonstrates that complex anatomical structures such as the ankle, which is rich in articular facets and ligaments, can be easily studied non-invasively using MRI data. PMID:19678857

  15. Comparative studies of X-ray images and fluorescence images of the same specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, T.; Tomie, T.; Shimizu, H.

    2003-03-01

    A flash contact soft x-ray microscope using laser-induced plasma as a flash x-ray source is a practical instrument for observation of living organisms in water [1-4]. As previously reported we developed a tabletop flash contact soft x-ray microscope System [3]. In this System, x-ray images are given as whole projection of the specimens on the PMMA membrane. This causes us some complexity for understanding the x-ray images. It is necessary to attribute features in the x-ray images to sub-cellular structures of the specimen. For this purpose we have developed a new sample holder, where specimens are observable with a fluorescence microscope just before x-ray exposure. Fluorescence images of onion epidermal cells stained by DAPI and x-ray images of the same specimens are compared.

  16. Diagnostic Value of the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) for Detection of Pelvic Malignancies Compared with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mojaver, Shokouh Paymani; Rouhi, Mitra; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Moghaddam, Reza Nafisi; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic masses are among most the common causes of patient admission into gynecology clinics and one of the most common reasons for referral to gynecologic oncology departments due to the risk of uterine or ovarian malignancies. The aim of this study is to compare the four indices of the risk of malignancy index (RMI 1–4), as a combination of menstrual status, radiological findings, and serum CA125 concentration, for discrimination of benign from malignant pelvic masses. Methods This retrospective descriptive and analytic study was conducted on 200 patients with pelvic mass, post-surgery, and who were referred to the oncology department in Shahid Sadoughi hospital of Yazd (Iran) between June 2007 and September 2011. Data regarding demographics, pathology reports, paraclinical and clinical tests were analyzed. The four RMI indices were separately used for determination of benign vs. malignant masses using the optimized cutoff points, ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive and negative, and accuracy. Finally, p value for each index was calculated, and a final discrimination power was measured by using SPSS version 17 software. Results The calculated p values in the four RMI indices in ultrasound findings indicated statistical significance, and the RMI 2 showed the highest level of accuracy or diagnostic performance. RMI 2 had a cutoff point of 90, an under-chart area 86.7, 79.36% sensitivity, 78.95% specificity, 58.44%, positive predictive value, 90.08% negative predictive value, and 78.93% accuracy, and a p value of 0.004. However, this relationship was found not to be meaningful using CT scan images. Conclusions Using RMI 2 for differentiation of malignant from benign pelvic masses is a reliable method with ultrasound findings. PMID:26767105

  17. A comparative study of the different diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus and its incidence

    PubMed Central

    Somani, BL; Arora, MM; Bhatia, Kapil; Arora, Devendra; Banerjee, Mithu

    2012-01-01

    Background High prevalence of diabetes and genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome among Indians places Indian women at risk to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its complications. Literature defines multiple criteria for GDM. This prospective study compares available diagnostic criteria for GDM in Indian women and their correlation with perinatal morbidity. Method Nine hundred and forty-eight consecutive voluntary nondiabetic pregnant women were recruited for the study. Seven hundred and twenty-three of these (mean age 23.45 years; 75.7% < 25 years) who reported for the follow-up were screened for GDM at 24–28 weeks gestation by American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG) guidelines and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting and two-hours postglucose plasma insulin levels were also analysed. Pregnancy outcome was known for 291 of these. Concordance of risk factors and perinatal complications was analysed with respect to GDM. Results Prevalence of GDM at 24–28 weeks gestation was found to be 4.8% by WHO criteria, 6.36% by Carpenter and Coustan's criteria, and 3.5% by O'Sullivan's criteria. Prevalence was marginally higher in women of higher age, having past history of abortion or family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (P > 0.05). None of these women had HbA1c > 6%. Relative risk of abnormal delivery (pregnancy outcome) was 1.93, 1.39, and 1.17 in women with GDM by O'Sullivan's, WHO, and Carpenter's criteria, respectively (P > 0.05). Abnormal deliveries were marginally higher in women with high postglucose load insulin levels. Mean weight of the newborns was essentially the same in GDM and nonGDM women by any of the criteria. One-hour and two-hours postglucose values were more sensitive in diagnosing GDM by O'Sullivan's criteria while fasting plasma glucose value had the poorest specificity with 2.5% of nonGDM women having values above the cut-off. Modifications of these criteria did not

  18. Basic aerodynamic research facility for comparative studies of flow diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Gartrell, Luther R.; Stainback, P. Calvin

    1987-01-01

    Current flow diagnostic research efforts are focusing on higher order flow field data bases, such as those generated by laser velocimetry (LV), hot-wire anemometry, and multi-hole pressure probes. Recent low-speed comparisons of results obtained with LV and hot wires have revealed strengths and weaknesses of each instrument. A seeding study will be initiated to determine particulate tracking ability.

  19. The Effect of Study Design Biases on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Silicone Breast Implant Ruptures: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Bellfi, Lillian T.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Background All silicone breast implant recipients are recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration to undergo serial screening to detect implant rupture with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture and conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effect of study design biases on the estimation of MRI diagnostic accuracy measures. Method Studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and ultrasound in evaluating ruptured silicone breast implants were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies for inclusion and extracted data. Study design biases were assessed using the QUADAS tool and the STARDS checklist. Meta-analyses estimated the influence of biases on diagnostic odds ratios. Results Among 1175 identified articles, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Most studies using MRI (n= 10 of 16) and ultrasound (n=10 of 13) examined symptomatic subjects. Meta-analyses revealed that MRI studies evaluating symptomatic subjects had 14-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using an asymptomatic sample (RDOR 13.8; 95% CI 1.83–104.6) and 2-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using a screening sample (RDOR 1.89; 95% CI 0.05–75.7). Conclusion Many of the published studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture are flawed with methodological biases. These methodological shortcomings may result in overestimated MRI diagnostic accuracy measures and should be interpreted with caution when applying the data to a screening population. PMID:21364405

  20. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  1. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian

    2017-01-01

    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease.

  2. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian

    2017-01-01

    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease. PMID:28139688

  3. Protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional medical imaging: collaboration is the key.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Kimberly E

    2015-02-01

    The radiology community (medical physicists, radiologic technologists, radiologists, and interventional proceduralists) has led the educational and awareness efforts in the medical arena to reduce radiation dose to patients through effective collaborations that bridge traditional medical specialty silos to reach health worker stakeholders. These successful collaborations have also included both vendors and regulators, with the overarching goal of radiation protection of patients (justification, optimization, and use of dose reference levels). This focus on patients often raises overall safety awareness and lowers occupational radiation doses as well. It is critical that the entire radiology community continue to act as leaders in these radiation safety efforts for both employees and patients. In order to be successful, it is important to understand safety culture and the growing, worldwide, multimedia resources that are available. There is little time or budget to recreate or duplicate training materials or risk communication information that may already exist. Together with the increasingly fast-paced and demanding healthcare environment and sharp focus on quality, it has never been more important to understand how to achieve better quality care for radiology departments. It is also important to measure and report quality for many customers, including patients, referring providers, and many other stakeholders. This short report will briefly define safety culture and describe methods for using collective learning tools that document radiation protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional imaging. These tools include the use of imaging modality registries, such as the Computed Tomography Does Index Registry, peer review of imaging reports, the use of clinical decision support, and guidelines. Finally, the Image Gently and Image Wisely campaigns provide examples of cross-disciplinary collaboration to improve radiation protection of patients.

  4. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  5. Innovative magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic agents based on paramagnetic Gd(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Aime, Silvio; Dastrù, Walter; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Gianolio, Eliana; Mainero, Valentina

    2002-01-01

    Gd(III) complexes are under intense scrutiny as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They act by enhancing tissutal proton relaxation rates. Much has already been done in order to get an in-depth understanding of the relationships between structure, dynamics, and contrastographic ability of these paramagnetic complexes. Their potential in the assessment of flow, perfusion, and capillary permeability has already been established. The next challenges are in the field of molecular imaging applications, which would allow the attainment of early diagnosis based on the recognition of specific reporters of the onset of the pathological state. To this end, Gd(III) complexes have to be endowed with improved targeting capabilities by conjugating suitable recognition synthons on their surfaces. Small peptides are candidates of choice for the attainment of this goal. Moreover, the intrinsic low sensitivity of the NMR techniques implies the need to deliver large amounts of contrast agents to the target in order to get its visualization in the resulting images. Highly efficient delivery systems have been identified, which bring a great promise for the development of innovative diagnostic agents based on Gd(III) complexes.

  6. Design of a phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlund, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Grulke, O.; Böttger, L.-G.; Sehren, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator at IPP Greifswald commenced operation in 2015, and while its design has been aimed at minimizing neoclassical transport, turbulent transport is expected to be strongly affected by the magnetic geometry. With this in mind, MIT and IPP-Greifswald scientists have undertaken a project to design and implement a phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to measure turbulence in W7-X in the OP1.2 operating phase starting in 2017. The principle and design aspects of the PCI method have been described in numerous past publications. In W7-X the PCI system will have two imaging systems differing only in the angle of the spatial mask that selects for magnetic pitch angle, and will produce measurements of poloidal and radial correlations. A series of remotely controllable optics will allow the beam size and image magnification to be adjustable. We expect sensitivity to fluctuations in the range of 2 kHz to approximately 2 MHz and wavenumbers in the range of 1 cm-1 to 30 cm-1 which should allow us to detect ITG, TEM and possibly ETG turbulence. The MIT portion of this project is supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-SC0014229, and the IPP part is funded under Euratom Grant agreement No 633053.

  7. Radiological Management of Hemoptysis: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnostic Imaging and Bronchial Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Joo-Young Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening respiratory emergency and indicates potentially serious underlying intrathoracic disease. Large-volume hemoptysis carries significant mortality and warrants urgent investigation and intervention. Initial assessment by chest radiography, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) is useful in localizing the bleeding site and identifying the underlying cause. Multidetector CT angiography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows delineation of abnormal bronchial and nonbronchial arteries using reformatted images in multiple projections, which can be used to guide therapeutic arterial embolization procedures. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is now considered to be the most effective procedure for the management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, either as a first-line therapy or as an adjunct to elective surgery. It is a safe technique in the hands of an experienced operator with knowledge of bronchial artery anatomy and the potential pitfalls of the procedure. Recurrent bleeding is not uncommon, especially if there is progression of the underlying disease process. Prompt repeat embolization is advised in patients with recurrent hemoptysis in order to identify nonbronchial systemic and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology and causes of hemoptysis, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic options, and technique and outcomes of BAE.

  8. Comparing Bayesian neural network algorithms for classifying segmented outdoor images.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, F; Williams, C K

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we investigate the Bayesian training of neural networks for region labelling of segmented outdoor scenes; the data are drawn from the Sowerby Image Database of British Aerospace. Neural networks are trained with two Bayesian methods, (i) the evidence framework of MacKay (1992a,b) and (ii) a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method due to Neal (1996). The performance of the two methods is compared to evaluating the empirical learning curves of neural networks trained with the two methods. We also investigate the use of the Automatic Relevance Determination method for input feature selection.

  9. Investigation of the possibility o