Science.gov

Sample records for comparative economic assessment

  1. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

  2. Biogrouting compared to jet grouting: environmental (LCA) and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Hallberg, Niklas; Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Holm, Goran

    2009-03-01

    In order to predict consequences of replacing jet grouting with biogrouting, and identify major contributors to the cost of both technologies, a large road project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used as a case study. Jet grouting had been used to seal the contact between sheet piling and bedrock, biogrouting for the same function was computed. A comparative environmental and economical assessment was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that biogrouting was cheaper than jet grouting and would have had lower environmental impact. The major difference was the transport and use of heavier equipment for jet grouting. Biogrouting also used less water and produced less landfilled waste. However, the production of urea and CaCl(2) for biogrouting required much energy.

  3. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

  4. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production.

  5. Comparative economic and environmental assessment of four beech wood based biorefinery concepts.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Maik; Nitzsche, Roy

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze four conceptual beech wood based biorefineries generated during process design in terms of environmental and economic criteria. Biorefinery 1 annually converts 400,000 dry metric tons of beech wood into the primary products 41,600t/yr polymer-grade ethylene and 58,520tDM/yr organosolv lignin and the fuels 90,800tDM/yr hydrolysis lignin and 38,400t/yr biomethane. Biorefinery 2 is extended by the product of 58,400t/yr liquid "food-grade" carbon dioxide. Biorefinery 3 produces 69,600t/yr anhydrous ethanol instead of ethylene. Compared to biorefinery 3, biorefinery 4 additionally provides carbon dioxide as product. Biorefinery 3 and 4 seem most promising, since under basic assumptions both criteria, (i) economic effectiveness and (ii) reduction of potential environmental impacts, can be fulfilled. All four alternatives may reduce potential environmental impacts compared to reference systems using the ReCiPe methodology. Economic feasibilities of the analyzed biorefineries are highly sensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Economic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    1984-01-01

    Defines the predominate classifications of economic systems: traditional, command, market, capitalism, socialism, and communism. Considers property rights, role of government, economic freedom, incentives, market structure, economic goals and means of achieving those goals for each classification. Identifies 26 print and audio-visual sources for…

  7. Economic assessment of ethanol production comparing traditional and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Harshbarger, D.; Bautz, M.; Davison, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    This study analyzes the economic impact that a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis would have on a plant converting cornstarch into ethanol. The study addresses substituting this new technology into an existing plant or using it for a new plant. We have compared the processing steps required by the FBR with conventional technology, and developed process flow schematics, priced required equipment, and generated plant capital and operating cost estimates. This allowed a cost evaluation between the FBR and traditional technologies, such as well-mixed fed-batch fermentation. The study results indicate that the FBR technology can provide a significant reduction in the production costs of ethanol-a savings of > $0.02/gal if inserted into an existing plant, and a savings of > $0.06/gal if used at a new plant.

  8. Returns to Education in the Economic Transition: A Systematic Assessment Using Comparable Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flabbi, Luca; Paternostro, Stefano; Tiongson, Erwin R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies a sample of economies in transition to verify the assertion that returns to schooling increase as an economy transitions to a market environment. This claim has been difficult to assess in the past as the empirical evidence so far has covered only a few countries over short time periods. A number of studies find that returns to…

  9. Returns to Education in the Economic Transition: A Systematic Assessment Using Comparable Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flabbi, Luca; Paternostro, Stefano; Tiongson, Erwin R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies a sample of economies in transition to verify the assertion that returns to schooling increase as an economy transitions to a market environment. This claim has been difficult to assess in the past as the empirical evidence so far has covered only a few countries over short time periods. A number of studies find that returns to…

  10. SEASAT economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, K.; Steele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.

  11. Environmental and economic assessment of a road safety product made with virgin and recycled HDPE: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    L Simões, Carla; Costa Pinto, Lígia M; Bernardo, C A

    2013-01-15

    The development of value-added products made from post-consumer plastic recyclates has become an important goal in the quest for a sustainable society. To attain such goal, tools with higher accuracy and wider scope are increasingly necessary. The present work describes the application of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)/Life Cycle Costing (LCC) integrated model, with inclusion of externalities (environmental and social costs), to Anti-Glare Lamellae (AGL) made with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). It compares an AGL currently manufactured from virgin HDPE (current AGL) with an alternative one made with recycled HDPE (optional AGL). The results obtained show that neither the current nor the optional AGL depict the best environmental performance in all impact categories. Nevertheless, there is a clear overall environmental and economic advantage in replacing virgin HDPE with recycled HDPE. The present work also makes evident that the LCA/LCC integrated model allows the identification of economic and environmental win-win and trade-off situations related to the full life cycle of products. As such, its results can be used as valuable guidelines in product development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economics within Social Studies: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deplazes, Svetlana P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall level of student achievement on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment in Grades 6, 8, and high school, with major emphasis on the subject area of economics. It explored four specific research questions in order to: (1) determine the level of student knowledge of assessed economic…

  13. Economics within Social Studies: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deplazes, Svetlana P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall level of student achievement on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment in Grades 6, 8, and high school, with major emphasis on the subject area of economics. It explored four specific research questions in order to: (1) determine the level of student knowledge of assessed economic…

  14. Nebraska Home Economics Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julie M.

    An assessment of the needs of the economically disadvantaged measured the importance of specific home economics content for high school students. Mailed questionnaires were returned by 470 parents of economically and noneconomically disadvantaged students and representatives from the Nebraska Department of Social Services. The 136 concepts used in…

  15. Comparing Natural and Economic Carbon Cycle Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, D.; Fu, W.; Davis, S. J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Land and ocean carbon-climate feedbacks may accelerate the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, making it difficult to develop a mitigation strategy that stabilizes the climate system. Natural carbon feedbacks, which include carbon-concentration and carbon-climate components, have been extensively evaluated using full and reduced complexity earth system models. However, climate change also influences many socio-economic systems, creating a parallel set of anthropogenic carbon cycle feedbacks. Although some climate-energy interactions are represented in integrated assessment models, the sign and magnitude of the anthropogenic carbon cycle feedback has not been estimated or compared with that of the natural carbon cycle. Here we develop a framework for conceptualizing socio-economic carbon-climate feedbacks, complementing previous work on the natural carbon cycle. Using a relatively simple box model of the Earth system, scenarios from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), and the Kaya identity, which describes drivers of fossil fuel emissions, we provide estimates of the magnitude of different economic feedbacks. In our analysis we focused on the impact of temperature on gross domestic production (GDP), on the carbon intensity of energy, and on the energy intensity of GDP. Results from this simple model reveal that anthropogenic feedbacks may have magnitudes similar to those reported for the natural carbon cycle; however, more data and detailed analysis on the interactions between temperature, economic productivity, and energy systems are needed to better quantify these feedbacks. Our preliminary findings highlight the need for systematically comparing economic-climate feedbacks across integrated assessment models and the need for integrating this information into future scenarios of global change.

  16. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  17. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  18. ECONOMIC COMPARABILITY OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    not only on the probability distributions of channel in and outputs (events and messages) characterizing the information systems . This remains true when... information systems are interpreted as statistical experiments used to test hypotheses. Some pairs of information systems are, however, comparable...in the sense that one is preferable to another irrespective of the payoff function. There exists thus a partial ordering of information systems according

  19. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments.

  20. Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  1. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Electrothermal Swing Adsorption of Air Emissions from Sheet-Foam Production Compared to Conventional Abatement Techniques.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David L; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Guest, Jeremy S; Rood, Mark J

    2016-02-02

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis are presented comparing the environmental and economic impacts of using regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO), granular activated carbon (GAC), and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) systems to treat gaseous emissions from sheet-foam production. The ACFC system has the lowest operational energy consumption (i.e., 19.2, 8.7, and 3.4 TJ/year at a full-scale facility for RTO, GAC, and ACFC systems, respectively). The GAC system has the smallest environmental impacts across most impact categories for the use of electricity from select states in the United States that produce sheet foam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the GAC and ACFC systems perform similarly (within one standard deviation) for seven of nine environmental impact categories considered and have lower impacts than the RTO for every category for the use of natural gas to produce electricity. The GAC and ACFC systems recover adequate isobutane to pay for themselves through chemical-consumption offsets, whereas the net present value of the RTO is $4.1 M (20 years, $0.001/m(3) treated). The adsorption systems are more environmentally and economically competitive than the RTO due to recovered isobutane for the production process and are recommended for resource recovery from (and treatment of) sheet-foam-production exhaust gas. Research targets for these adsorption systems should focus on increasing adsorptive capacity and saturation of GAC systems and decreasing electricity and N2 consumption of ACFC systems.

  2. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall

    1991-01-01

    Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

  3. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall

    1991-01-01

    Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

  4. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments. PMID:20049237

  5. Assessing economic tradeoffs in forest management.

    Treesearch

    Ernie Niemi; Ed. Whitelaw

    1999-01-01

    Method is described for assessing the competing demands for forest resources in a forest management plan by addressing economics values, economic impacts, and perceptions of fairness around each demand. Economics trends and forces that shape the dynamic ecosystem-economy relation are developed. The method is demonstrated through an illustrative analysis of a forest-...

  6. Comparative Economics Systems in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…

  7. Comparative Economics Systems in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…

  8. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...

  9. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare or cause...

  10. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...

  11. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...

  12. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...

  13. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  14. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  15. Assessment Framework: 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Melican, Claire

    Knowledge of economic concepts and ideas and an ability to apply basic economic analysis to solve everyday problems are necessary for individuals to function as productive members of society. This framework is designed to assess the outcomes of student education in and understanding of economics in grade 12 as part of the National Assessment of…

  16. Comparative Judgement for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, students were judged long before they were marked. The tradition of marking, or scoring, pieces of work students offer for assessment is little more than two centuries old, and was introduced mainly to cope with specific problems arising from the growth in the numbers graduating from universities as the industrial revolution…

  17. Comparative Judgement for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, students were judged long before they were marked. The tradition of marking, or scoring, pieces of work students offer for assessment is little more than two centuries old, and was introduced mainly to cope with specific problems arising from the growth in the numbers graduating from universities as the industrial revolution…

  18. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  19. Comparative economics of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: utilities; industrial, IGCC, and post combustion technologies. Some of the titles are: The Black Dog Power Plant; Economics of magnesium enhanced lime wet FGD; The 160 MW AFBC demonstration plant.

  20. The Economics of Comparative Effectiveness Studies

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, David; Basu, Anirban; Conti, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) can provide valuable information for patients, providers and payers. These stakeholders differ in their incentives to invest in CER. To maximize benefits from public investments in CER, it is important to understand the value of CER from the perspectives of these stakeholders and how that affects their incentives to invest in CER. This article provides a conceptual framework for valuing CER, and illustrates the potential benefits of such studies from a number of perspectives using several case studies. We examine cases in which CER provides value by identifying when one treatment is consistently better than others, when different treatments are preferred for different subgroups, and when differences are small enough that decisions can be made based on price. We illustrate these findings using value-of-information techniques to assess the value of research, and by examining changes in pharmaceutical prices following publication of a comparative effectiveness study. Our results suggest that CER may have high societal value but limited private return to providers or payers. This suggests the importance of public efforts to promote the production of CER. We also conclude that value-of-information tools may help inform policy decisions about how much public funds to invest in CER and how to prioritize the use of available public funds for CER, in particular targeting public CER spending to areas where private incentives are low relative to social benefits. PMID:20831292

  1. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Economic assessment of animal health performance.

    PubMed

    Galligan, David

    2006-03-01

    This article describes the fundamental principles of economic assessment of animal health performance in the modem animal production environment. Animal production is a complex system of combined inputs (eg, physical inputs, managerial decision choices) into a production process that produces products valued by society. Perturbations to this system include disease processes and management inefficiencies. Economic valuation of these perturbations must account for the marginal changes in revenues and cost, the time dimensions of occurrence, the inherent risk characteristics of biologic systems, and any opportunity value that exists that allows management to intervene within the process and make economically influencing decisions. It has been recognized that improving animal health can play a major role in achieving efficient and economically rewarding production.

  4. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  5. Comparative economics of NGV's and other vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the US due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and health issues as well as operational issues.

  6. Solar Heating and Cooling: An Economic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Arthur E.

    This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…

  7. Social and economic assessment of the Chugach National Forest area.

    Treesearch

    Lisa K. Crone; Pat Reed; Julie. Schaefers

    2002-01-01

    This is an assessment of the social and economic conditions in the Chugach National Forest area for use as background information for forest planning. Current regional conditions and recent trends are compared and contrasted with state and national conditions and recent trends. Regional employment and income trends in industries that use forest-related resources are...

  8. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    PubMed

    Assenova, Valentina A; Regele, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i) European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii) economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  9. Economic assessment of the thin polymer icemaker

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    We have constructed and tested a small device to produce ice in ice/water mixtures using a cold fluid as the heat sink. The device is a flexible heat exchanger constructed from a thin film of a suitable polymer. When filled with circulating liquid coolant the heat exchanger consists of an inflated series of parallel tubes; Ice forms on the outside in complementary half cylinders. When the circulation in cut off, gravity drains the coolant and the static head of the water bath crushes the tubes, freeing them from the ice which floats to the surface. We here report an economic assessment of this device. In its present form, we find it competitive with existing commercial ice making systems. The analysis also points out two areas where further technical progress could lead to a significant economic advantage for the polymer film ice maker.

  10. Economics Framework for the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Melican, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a guide for the development of the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Economics Assessment. The framework is designed to assess the outcomes of student education in and understanding of economics in grade 12 as part of NAEP. Economic literacy is defined as the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate…

  11. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  12. Quality assessment of economic evaluations in selected pharmacy, medical, and health economics journals.

    PubMed

    Bradley, C A; Iskedjian, M; Lanctôt, K L; Mittmann, N; Simone, C; St Pierre, E; Miller, E; Blatman, B; Chabursky, B; Einarson, T R

    1995-01-01

    To assess and compare the quality of economic studies in selected pharmacy, medical, and health economics journals. DICP The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Hospital Pharmacy, New England Journal of Medicine, Medical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, PharmacoEconomics, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, and Journal of Health Economics using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Search terms included "economic," "cost," and "cost analysis." Reviewers appraised abstracts to identify original research published during 1989-1993 comparing costs and outcomes between drugs, treatments, and/or services. Initially, 123 articles met criteria; 16 were inappropriate, 17 were randomized out, and 90 (73%) were used (30/group). Quality was assessed using a 13-item checklist. Interrater reliability was 0.91 (p < 0.05) for 9 raters, test-retest reliability was 0.94 (p < 0.001). A 2-way ANOVA, with overall quality scores as a dependent variable with journal type and year as independent variables, was significant (F = 2.79, p = 0.002, r2 = 0.34), with no significant interaction (F = 0.71, p = 0.68) or time effect (F = 0.70, p = 0.60). Journal types differed; pharmacy journals scored significantly lower (chi 2 = 53.89, df = 2, p < 0.001). Items rated adequate (i.e., correct or acceptable) increased over time (chi 2 = 21.18, df = 4, p < 0.001). Ethical issues and study perspective most needed improvement. Article quality for all journal types increased over time nonsignificantly; health economics journals scored highest, then medical journals, with pharmacy journals significantly lower (and having the highest standard deviation). We recommend that authors and reviewers pay closer attention to study perspective and ethical implications.

  13. Comparative institutional response to economic policy managed competition and governmentality.

    PubMed

    Light, D W

    2001-04-01

    This article provides a comparative conceptual framework for understanding why so many governments found economic policies based on managed competition attractive and yet dangerous to implement. The framework conceptualizes governments as a kind of organizational complex and thus governments as an international population of organizations, each embedded in a state that tries to harness and direct behaviour through what Foucault called "governmentality". This nascent concept is made more robust here and joined with Fligstein's historical research on the response of leading organizations when fundamental change threatens a population of organizations, by embracing a new conception of control that allows them to re-establish their control and pre-eminence. Fligstein studied corporations, but his model can be fruitfully extended to governments. Economic sociology has not to date been able to do much comparative research on institutional responses to economic policy; but this set of case studies and conceptual framework provide such an opportunity.

  14. Technology assessment in Catalonia: integrating economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Granados, A; Borràs, J M

    1994-06-01

    A brief description of the evolution and role of the Catalan Office for Health Technology Assessment (COHTA) into the framework of the Catalan Health Care Service are presented. Methodological approaches used by COHTA range from synthesis of scientific evidence to the collection of primary data. Regarding the integration of economic appraisal into technology assessment, the main approaches are the following: integration into clinical trials funded by the COHTA and in the reimbursement policies of the Catalan Health Service. COHTA participates in the process of purchasing medical technologies, especially expensive ones, and in the establishment of reimbursement policies of medical technologies. The particular characteristics of COHTA as a regional agency for Technology Assessment and its position into the framework of the Department of Health are discussed. Among the advantages of this position are the knowledge of the relevant questions for policy makers and the potential influence in the process. Among the disadvantages are the possibility of losing autonomy. Regional agencies that are closely related to the regional health services could provide a better understanding of the real problems in clinical practice and in the utilization of health technologies.

  15. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  17. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume II: economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an economic assessment of the specialized study areas, reviewing recommendations from the specialized studies in relation to each other and to the GOJ's 5-year Development and Energy Sector Plans. After analyzing the effects of these recommendations on Jamaica's energy situation and economy, the recommendations are integrated and prioritized in a proposed Combined Energy Program (CEP) which is recommended for immediate GOJ implementation. Highest priority items include research, testing, training, and tax structures to encourage solar hot water and agricultural drying systems; installation of small- and medium-size biogas plants; and negotiating joint port usage for a possible coal-fired electricity plant.

  18. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower investment cost, shorter construction time, and new plants canmore easily be sited. NGCC can also be fitted with carbon capture equipment either during construction or as aretrofit. As a result, NGCC is seen as a potential bridge to a low-CO2 future, which would increasingly rely ontechnologies such as wind, solar, advanced nuclear, and carbon capture as those technologies mature [Cole et al.(2016), Nichols and Victor (2015), and C2ES (2013)]. A logical approach may be to displace coal with new NGCCin the near-term, building NGCC near geological storage sites. Later the NGCC could be retrofit with CO2 capture(NGCC-CCS) when the regulatory or economic drivers are in place [IEA (2007)]. There are, however, technicalchallenges to widespread deployment of NGCC-CCS. First, fugitive methane emissions associated with natural gasproduction, transmission, and distribution processes could offset some of the climate benefits of using natural gas[McJeon et al. (2014)]. Second, applying carbon capture retrofit technologies to NGCC results in cost and energypenalties [Teir et al. (2010)], both of which affect its competitiveness. Third, the lower carbon content of natural gasmay yield difficulties in captur

  19. Oral Assessment in GCSE Economics. Research Papers in Economics Education, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Russ

    Since the emergence of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) there have been calls for improved methods of assessing economics. Oral assessment has been suggested as a possible technique and this study investigated whether it might be used to allow students to demonstrate achievement in GCSE economics. The empirical study compared…

  20. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    PubMed

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical and economic outcomes assessment in nuclear cardiology.

    PubMed

    Shaw, L J; Miller, D D; Berman, D S; Hachamovitch, R

    2000-06-01

    The future of nuclear medicine procedures, as understood within our current economic climate, depends upon its ability to provide relevant clinical information at similar or lower comparative costs. With an ever-increasing emphasis on cost containment, outcome assessment forms the basis of preserving the quality of patient care. Today, outcomes assessment encompasses a wide array of subjects including clinical, economic, and humanistic (i.e., quality of life) outcomes. For nuclear cardiology, evidence-based medicine would require a threshold level of evidence in order to justify the added cost of any test in a patient's work-up. This evidence would include large multicenter, observational series as well as randomized trial data in sufficiently large and diverse patient populations. The new movement in evidence-based medicine is also being applied to the introduction of new technologies, in particular when comparative modalities exist. In the past 5 years, we have seen a dramatic shift in the quality of outcomes data published in nuclear cardiology. This includes the use of statistically rigorous risk-adjusted techniques as well as large populations (i.e., > 500 patients) representing multiple diverse medical care settings. This has been the direct result of the development of multiple outcomes databases that have now amassed thousands of patients worth of data. One of the benefits of examining outcomes in large patient datasets is the ability to assess individual endpoints (e.g., cardiac death) as compared with smaller datasets that often assess combined endpoints (e.g., death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina). New technologies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease have contributed to the rising costs of care. In the United States and in Europe, costs of care have risen dramatically, consuming an ever-increasing amount of available resources. The overuse of diagnostic angiography often leads to unnecessary revascularization that does not lead to

  2. [Methodology of economic assessment: example in oncology].

    PubMed

    Jaisson-Hot, Isabelle; Schott, Anne-Marie; Clippe, Christine; Ganne, Christell; Hajri, Touria; Poncet, Bénédicte; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Colin, Cyrille

    2003-11-01

    The increasing costs of care make it important to identify those strategies of greatest value from both an effectiveness and cost perspective. Economic analysis is characterized by a simultaneous consideration of alternatives costs and outcomes, and can provide useful data for managerial decision making. In this paper, methods of economic evaluations in general and in cancer in particular is reviewed. In cancer treatment, preventive, curative or palliative strategies can be concerned. Economic evaluation have become increasingly important in oncology because of the proliferation of expensive new treatments. Furthermore, considering quality of life effects is particularly important in oncology, where many treatments obtain modest improvements in response or survival. Quality of life measurements are also reviewed.

  3. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: A systematic review and critical appraisal of comparative effectiveness and health economics research.

    PubMed

    Steel, Amie; Sundberg, Tobias; Reid, Rebecca; Ward, Lesley; Bishop, Felicity L; Leach, Matthew; Cramer, Holger; Wardle, Jon; Adams, Jon

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, evidence has emerged regarding the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatments (OMT). Despite growing evidence in this field, there is need for appropriate research designs that effectively reflect the person-centred system of care promoted in osteopathy and provide data which can inform policy decisions within the healthcare system. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesise the evidence from comparative effectiveness and economic evaluation research involving OMT. A database search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, PEDro, AMED, SCOPUS and OSTMED.DR, from their inception to May 2015. Two separate searches were undertaken to identify original research articles encompassing the economic evaluation and comparative effectiveness of OMT. Identified comparative effectives studies were evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and appraised using the Good Reporting of Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) principles. Identified economic studies were assessed with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) guidelines. Sixteen studies reporting the findings of comparative effectiveness (n = 9) and economic evaluation (n = 7) research were included. The comparative effectiveness studies reported outcomes for varied health conditions and the majority (n = 6) demonstrated a high risk of bias. The economic evaluations included a range of analyses and considerable differences in the quality of reporting were evident. Despite some positive findings, published comparative effectiveness and health economic studies in OMT are of insufficient quality and quantity to inform policy and practice. High quality, well-designed, research that aligns with international best practice is greatly needed to build a pragmatic evidence base for OMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  5. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation — 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD). PMID:26837602

  6. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-05-03

    This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation - 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD).

  7. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  8. Assessing the Economic Value of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2003-03-01

    For almost half a century World War II and the Cold War provided the political and fiscal context for public investment in science and technoloby. The Bush report, Science the Endless Frontier, which became the charter for post war science policy, advanced an investment rationale for federal support of scientific research. In spite of pressure from Congress and the Office of the President the science community has resisted the development and application of economic criteria for the allocation of research resources.

  9. Economic assessment of alternative energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1980-04-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.

  10. Methodology for the economic assessment of PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Brikman, Inna; Kishore, Sheel; Kundel, Harold L.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1994-05-01

    Most economic studies of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) to date, including our own, have focused on the perspective of the radiology department and its direct costs. However, many researchers have suggested additional cost savings that may accrue to the medical center as a whole through increased operational capacity, fewer lost images, rapid simultaneous access to images, and other decreases in resource utilization. We describe here a new economic analysis framework we have developed to estimate these potential additional savings. Our framework is comprised of two parallel measurement methods. The first method estimates the cost of care actually delivered through online capture of charge entries from the hospital's billing computer and from the clinical practices' billing database. Multiple regression analyses will be used to model cost of care, length of stay, and other estimates of resource utilization. The second method is the measurement of actual resource utilization, such as technologist time, frequency and duration of film searches, and equipment utilization rates. The costs associated with changes in resource use will be estimated using wage rates and other standard economic methods. Our working hypothesis is that, after controlling for the underlying clinical and demographic differences among patients, patients imaged using a PACS will have shorter lengths of stay, shorter exam performance times, and decreased costs of care. We expect our analysis framework to explain and resolve some of the conflicting views of the cost-effectiveness of PACS.

  11. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-07

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage.

  12. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  13. Assessment of the Undergraduate Economics Major: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Steven C.; Nelson, Michael A.; Stratton, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Economics departments are faced with growing demands to document what their graduates have learned on completion of the undergraduate major. The results of a national survey of economics department chairs in the United States reveal that nearly two-thirds of the departments have a formal assessment plan. There is substantial agreement on the most…

  14. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  15. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Molist, Jordi; García, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) emerge as a promising sustainable technology with low energy requirements and operational costs. In this study, technical, economic and environmental aspects of STW are investigated and compared with other alternatives for sludge management in small communities (<2000 population equivalent). The performance of full-scale STW was characterised during 2 years. Sludge dewatering increased total solids (TS) concentration by 25%, while sludge biodegradation lead to volatile solids around 45% TS and DRI(24h) between 1.1 and 1.4 gO(2)/kgTS h, suggesting a partial stabilisation of biosolids. In the economic and environmental assessment, four scenarios were considered for comparison: 1) STW with direct land application of biosolids, 2) STW with compost post-treatment, 3) centrifuge with compost post-treatment and 4) sludge transport to an intensive wastewater treatment plant. According to the results, STW with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario, which is also characterised by the lowest environmental impact. The life cycle assessment highlights that global warming is a significant impact category in all scenarios, which is attributed to fossil fuel and electricity consumption; while greenhouse gas emissions from STW are insignificant. As a conclusion, STW are the most appropriate alternative for decentralised sludge management in small communities.

  16. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  17. Conducting Site and Economic Renewable Energy Project Feasibility Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides information on how organizations can take advantage of available tools and resources to take the initial steps in evaluating a renewable energy project, such as site and economic feasibility assessments.

  18. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  19. COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, A BOOK OF READINGS FOR INDUCTIVE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Inst. of Tech., Pittsburgh, PA.

    THIS COURSE WAS DEVELOPED AS PART OF AN INTEGRATED AND SEQUENTIAL HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM FOR ABLE STUDENTS (UPPER 25 PERCENT). THE COURSE CONSISTS OF 12 UNITS OF STUDY, EACH UNIT CONTAINING A BRIEF STATEMENT OF AN ECONOMIC ISSUE AND SEVERAL READINGS ON THAT ISSUE. THE ISSUES COVERED WERE (1) MAKING ECONOMIC CHOICES (THE ROLE OF…

  20. Comparative Economic Organization: The Analysis of Discrete Structural Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Oliver E.

    1991-01-01

    Combines institutional economics with aspects of contract law and organization theory to identify and explicate the key differences distinguishing three generic forms of economic organization: market, hybrid, and hierarchy. These generic forms are distinguished by different coordinating and control mechanisms and by different abilities to adapt to…

  1. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  2. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  4. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome.

  5. Assessment of Methodological Quality of Economic Evaluations in Belgian Drug Reimbursement Applications

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations included in Belgian reimbursement applications for Class 1 drugs. Materials and Methods For 19 reimbursement applications submitted during 2011 and Spring 2012, a descriptive analysis assessed the methodological quality of the economic evaluation, evaluated the assessment of that economic evaluation by the Drug Reimbursement Committee and the response to that assessment by the company. Compliance with methodological guidelines issued by the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre was assessed using a detailed checklist of 23 methodological items. The rate of compliance was calculated based on the number of economic evaluations for which the item was applicable. Results Economic evaluations tended to comply with guidelines regarding perspective, target population, subgroup analyses, comparator, use of comparative clinical data and final outcome measures, calculation of costs, incremental analysis, discounting and time horizon. However, more attention needs to be paid to the description of limitations of indirect comparisons, the choice of an appropriate analytic technique, the expression of unit costs in values for the current year, the estimation and valuation of outcomes, the presentation of results of sensitivity analyses, and testing the face validity of model inputs and outputs. Also, a large variation was observed in the scope and depth of the quality assessment by the Drug Reimbursement Committee. Conclusions Although general guidelines exist, pharmaceutical companies and the Drug Reimbursement Committee would benefit from the existence of a more detailed checklist of methodological items that need to be reported in an economic evaluation. PMID:24386474

  6. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  7. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  8. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  9. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  10. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  11. An Economic Evaluation Comparing Stroke Telemedicine to Conventional Stroke Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budhram, Stanley Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only a serious medical problem, but it also poses an enormous economic burden on society. Stroke ranks the third as the leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer. The survivors of stroke suffer from various degrees of long-term disability which create a severe financial burden on society. University…

  12. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  13. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  14. An Economic Evaluation Comparing Stroke Telemedicine to Conventional Stroke Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budhram, Stanley Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only a serious medical problem, but it also poses an enormous economic burden on society. Stroke ranks the third as the leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer. The survivors of stroke suffer from various degrees of long-term disability which create a severe financial burden on society. University…

  15. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  16. Assessing the benefits and economic values of trees

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental...

  17. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  18. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  19. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  20. Comparative analysis of economic models in selected solar energy computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.; Barnes, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The economic evaluation models in five computer programs widely used for analyzing solar energy systems (F-CHART 3.0, F-CHART 4.0, SOLCOST, BLAST, and DOE-2) are compared. Differences in analysis techniques and assumptions among the programs are assessed from the point of view of consistency with the Federal requirements for life cycle costing (10 CFR Part 436), effect on predicted economic performance, and optimal system size, case of use, and general applicability to diverse systems types and building types. The FEDSOL program developed by the National Bureau of Standards specifically to meet the Federal life cycle cost requirements serves as a basis for the comparison. Results of the study are illustrated in test cases of two different types of Federally owned buildings: a single family residence and a low rise office building.

  1. Breast volume assessment: comparing five different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, N; Bellamy, E; Shrotria, S

    2001-04-01

    Breast volume assessment is not routinely performed pre-operatively because as yet there is no accepted technique. There have been a variety of methods published, but this is the first study to compare these techniques. We compared volume measurements obtained from mammograms (previously compared to mastectomy specimens) with estimates of volume obtained from four other techniques: thermoplastic moulding, magnetic resonance imaging, Archimedes principle and anatomical measurements. We also assessed the acceptability of each method to the patient. Measurements were performed on 10 women, which produced results for 20 breasts. We were able to calculate regression lines between volume measurements obtained from mammography to the other four methods: (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 379+(0.75 MRI) [r=0.48], (2) Thermoplastic moulding, 132+(1.46 Thermoplastic moulding) [r=0.82], (3) Anatomical measurements, 168+(1.55 Anatomical measurements) [r=0.83]. (4) Archimedes principle, 359+(0.6 Archimedes principle) [r=0.61] all units in cc. The regression curves for the different techniques are variable and it is difficult to reliably compare results. A standard method of volume measurement should be used when comparing volumes before and after intervention or between individual patients, and it is unreliable to compare volume measurements using different methods. Calculating the breast volume from mammography has previously been compared to mastectomy samples and shown to be reasonably accurate. However we feel thermoplastic moulding shows promise and should be further investigated as it gives not only a volume assessment but a three-dimensional impression of the breast shape, which may be valuable in assessing cosmesis following breast-conserving-surgery.

  2. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  3. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  4. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  5. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  6. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  7. Comparative economics truck haulage vs. conveying for lignite mines

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K.L.

    1983-11-01

    The traditional method of material transportation in open pit mines has been truck haulage. Principally, this is because trucks offer a high degree of flexibility which permits the operator to modify and redirect the mining plan in order to change production goals as variable factors dictate. In recent years, the trend in open pit mining has been to minimize truck haulage and substitute belt conveyor systems. Initially the crusher was placed at the pit perimeter, with the natural evolution to ''in-pit'' crushing, and finally, the relative recent development of portable in-pit crushers. Reduction of the ROM (run-off mine) material at the working face combined with belt conveyor haulage has long been recognized as an economically desirable method for transporting material from the mine to a location where it may be further processed. This method of mining and moving material was pioneered in Europe, and in particular, in the brown-coal fields of Germany. This was due to the fact that European countries are generally more dependent on imported oil, and truck haulage is extremely sensitive to escalating oil prices. In addition, in-pit crushing and conveying requires a significant capital expenditure. In the case of the open cast lignite mines of Germany, long term contracts were available to reduce the economic risk that this large capital expenditure would impose on the mining operation. This general world-wide trend to minimize truck haulage and maximize conveyor transport has slowly been implemented in the United States, and is now being fully recognized as a viable cost cutting measure. The reluctance to substitute conveyors for truck haulage may be attributed to the following factors: Natural resistance to change. The misconception that conveyors do not provide sufficient flexibility. Reluctance to apply ''state of the art'' technology when conservative, conventional methods are available.

  8. Assessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises.

    PubMed

    Sands, Peter; El Turabi, Anas; Saynisch, Philip A; Dzau, Victor J

    2016-11-12

    Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund's Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fold assessment for comparative protein structure modeling.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Sali, Andrej

    2007-11-01

    Accurate and automated assessment of both geometrical errors and incompleteness of comparative protein structure models is necessary for an adequate use of the models. Here, we describe a composite score for discriminating between models with the correct and incorrect fold. To find an accurate composite score, we designed and applied a genetic algorithm method that searched for a most informative subset of 21 input model features as well as their optimized nonlinear transformation into the composite score. The 21 input features included various statistical potential scores, stereochemistry quality descriptors, sequence alignment scores, geometrical descriptors, and measures of protein packing. The optimized composite score was found to depend on (1) a statistical potential z-score for residue accessibilities and distances, (2) model compactness, and (3) percentage sequence identity of the alignment used to build the model. The accuracy of the composite score was compared with the accuracy of assessment by single and combined features as well as by other commonly used assessment methods. The testing set was representative of models produced by automated comparative modeling on a genomic scale. The composite score performed better than any other tested score in terms of the maximum correct classification rate (i.e., 3.3% false positives and 2.5% false negatives) as well as the sensitivity and specificity across the whole range of thresholds. The composite score was implemented in our program MODELLER-8 and was used to assess models in the MODBASE database that contains comparative models for domains in approximately 1.3 million protein sequences.

  10. Fold assessment for comparative protein structure modeling

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Francisco; Sali, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and automated assessment of both geometrical errors and incompleteness of comparative protein structure models is necessary for an adequate use of the models. Here, we describe a composite score for discriminating between models with the correct and incorrect fold. To find an accurate composite score, we designed and applied a genetic algorithm method that searched for a most informative subset of 21 input model features as well as their optimized nonlinear transformation into the composite score. The 21 input features included various statistical potential scores, stereochemistry quality descriptors, sequence alignment scores, geometrical descriptors, and measures of protein packing. The optimized composite score was found to depend on (1) a statistical potential z-score for residue accessibilities and distances, (2) model compactness, and (3) percentage sequence identity of the alignment used to build the model. The accuracy of the composite score was compared with the accuracy of assessment by single and combined features as well as by other commonly used assessment methods. The testing set was representative of models produced by automated comparative modeling on a genomic scale. The composite score performed better than any other tested score in terms of the maximum correct classification rate (i.e., 3.3% false positives and 2.5% false negatives) as well as the sensitivity and specificity across the whole range of thresholds. The composite score was implemented in our program MODELLER-8 and was used to assess models in the MODBASE database that contains comparative models for domains in approximately 1.3 million protein sequences. PMID:17905832

  11. Technical and Economic Assessment of Span-Loaded Cargo Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The benefits are assessed of span distributed loading concepts as applied to future commercial air cargo operations. A two phased program is used to perform this assessment. The first phase consists of selected parametric studies to define significant configuration, performance, and economic trends. The second phase consists of more detailed engineering design, analysis, and economic evaluations to define the technical and economic feasibility of a selected spanloader design. A conventional all-cargo aircraft of comparable technology and size is used as a comparator system. The technical feasibility is demonstrated of the spanloader concept with no new major technology efforts required to implement the system. However, certain high pay-off technologies such as winglets, airfoil design, and advanced structural materials and manufacturing techniques need refinement and definition prior to application. In addition, further structural design analysis could establish the techniques and criteria necessary to fully capitalize upon the high degree of structural commonality and simplicity inherent in the spanloader concept.

  12. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models.

  13. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  14. Comparing top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for economic evaluation within social welfare.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M

    2011-10-01

    This study compares two approaches to the estimation of social welfare intervention costs: one "top-down" and the other "bottom-up" for a group of social welfare clients with severe problem behavior participating in a randomized trial. Intervention costs ranging over a two-year period were compared by intervention category (foster care placement, institutional placement, mentorship services, individual support services and structured support services), estimation method (price, micro costing, average cost) and treatment group (intervention, control). Analyses are based upon 2007 costs for 156 individuals receiving 404 interventions. Overall, both approaches were found to produce reliable estimates of intervention costs at the group level but not at the individual level. As choice of approach can greatly impact the estimate of mean difference, adjustment based on estimation approach should be incorporated into sensitivity analyses. Analysts must take care in assessing the purpose and perspective of the analysis when choosing a costing approach for use within economic evaluation.

  15. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  16. [Efficiency assessment of investment in workers' health--economic issues].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela; Dawydzik, Lech T

    2002-01-01

    The economic analysis of efficiency of investment in health care and health at large by means of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness techniques is the subject of implementation work in a number of countries. Poland's integration with the countries of the European Union justifies the need to understand and to use economic analyses. Unfortunately, these activities encounter many methodological and executive barriers. The investments in workers' health are not only investments in health care and the improvement of working conditions, but also in compensations, including financial ones, resulting from adverse effects of factors influencing the health of working population. The financial reporting system that exists in Poland does not ensure the possibility of full presentation of the aggregated data on the financing of activities for workers' health and diminishing of the adverse effects of factors present in the work environment. The information on the outcome of the investments in workers' health come from different sources, which means that it applies to different groups subjected to the analysis. The problem lies not only in the assessment of profitability of health investments but also in the social problem of the division of the resultant costs and benefits among various branches of the national economy. Therefore, the analyses involving mutual relations between individual sectors that invest in workers' health and those that bear consequences is essential in the terms of economic analyses. The authors present the determinants of economic evaluation in regard to health of working population in Poland.

  17. Thermal simulation and economic assessment of unglazed transpired collector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D.N.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    Unglazed transpired collectors (UTCs) have recently emerged as a new solar air heating technology. They are relatively inexpensive, efficient, and particularly suited to applications in which a high outdoor air requirement must be met. A TRNSYS model has been created for UTC systems. Annual simulations are performed for several representative buildings. The statewide economic potential of UTC systems is assessed for Wisconsin. UTC systems on existing buildings are competitive with electric heating systems but not with gas or oil heating. Electric heating is not widely used in most buildings that are well-suited for UTC systems, with the exception of large apartment buildings. Therefore, there is no significant statewide economic potential for retrofit of UTC systems on existing buildings except in the residential sector. However, UTC systems are cost effective for new buildings because their low first cost allows them to compete with gas and oil heating.

  18. Statistical, economic and other tools for assessing natural aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Moyle, P.R.; Bolm, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative aggregate resource assessment provides resource estimates useful for explorationists, land managers and those who make decisions about land allocation, which may have long-term implications concerning cost and the availability of aggregate resources. Aggregate assessment needs to be systematic and consistent, yet flexible enough to allow updating without invalidating other parts of the assessment. Evaluators need to use standard or consistent aggregate classification and statistic distributions or, in other words, models with geological, geotechnical and economic variables or interrelationships between these variables. These models can be used with subjective estimates, if needed, to estimate how much aggregate may be present in a region or country using distributions generated by Monte Carlo computer simulations.

  19. Comparative assessment of differential network analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Lichtblau, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Karin; Haldemann, Berit; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Leser, Ulf

    2017-09-01

    Differential network analysis (DiNA) denotes a recent class of network-based Bioinformatics algorithms which focus on the differences in network topologies between two states of a cell, such as healthy and disease, to identify key players in the discriminating biological processes. In contrast to conventional differential analysis, DiNA identifies changes in the interplay between molecules, rather than changes in single molecules. This ability is especially important in cases where effectors are changed, e.g. mutated, but their expression is not. A number of different DiNA approaches have been proposed, yet a comparative assessment of their performance in different settings is still lacking. In this paper, we evaluate 10 different DiNA algorithms regarding their ability to recover genetic key players from transcriptome data. We construct high-quality regulatory networks and enrich them with co-expression data from four different types of cancer. Next, we assess the results of applying DiNA algorithms on these data sets using a gold standard list (GSL). We find that local DiNA algorithms are generally superior to global algorithms, and that all DiNA algorithms outperform conventional differential expression analysis. We also assess the ability of DiNA methods to exploit additional knowledge in the underlying cellular networks. To this end, we enrich the cancer-type specific networks with known regulatory miRNAs and compare the algorithms performance in networks with and without miRNA. We find that including miRNAs consistently and considerably improves the performance of almost all tested algorithms. Our results underline the advantages of comprehensive cell models for the analysis of -omics data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 78 FR 52761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey and New York Commercial and... assessment of the social and economic impacts from Hurricane Sandy to the commercial and recreational...

  1. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  2. Comparative performance assessment of switching options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, Alex; Savoie, Michel J.

    2004-11-01

    Switching is one of the key functionalities in next generation optical networks. It might be performed by either an optical switch (optical-electrical-optical, or OEO) or a "purely" photonic switch (optical-optical-optical or OOO). Both switches are analyzed from two perspectives - as an individual network element, and as an integral part within the communication network. As an individual network element, the performance evaluation of the two switch types is based on the individual assessment of switch footprint and power dissipation, bandwidth utilization, scalability to high speed, transparency, interoperability, technology maturity and ability to manipulate data. Although both switch types have their own advantages as a network element, the full judgement of their role in next generation optical networks requires an overall network perspective. From that viewpoint, network functionalities such as grooming capabilities, scalability, traffic management, protection, line equalization and performance monitoring are those taken into account for comparative analyses to gain an understanding of the impacts of switch choice in the network. As a result of the comparative performance assessment, the merits and benefits of both switch types in actual network applications are analyzed and outlined. Although the paper evaluates some criteria for switch choice in a network, it points out potential technologies or techniques critical to next generation architectural solutions and protocols as well as the challenges to bridge the gap towards implementing flexible, cost-effective and dynamically provisioned networks of the future. Finally, the paper responds to one critical question - What is the expected role of each switch type in next generation applications and services?

  3. Technical and economic assessment of alternative dry-storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liikala, R. C.; Johnson, E. R.; McBride, J. A.

    1982-04-01

    The results of an assessment of four alternative methods of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented in respect to the state of technology, licensability, implementation schedule and costs when the storage is used at a location to supplement existing pool storage facilities. The methods of storage considered were storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos, and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were based on the current projected storage requirements of a US utility operating twin 824 MWe pressurized water reactors. Costs were estimated for a number of combinations of storage mode and packaging processes and considered storage of both intact assemblies and unconsolidated rods.

  4. Economic Value Of Accurate Assessments Of Hydrological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Sunding, D. L.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The improvement of techniques to assist in the sustainable management of water resource systems is a crucial issue since our limited resources are under ever increasing pressure. A proper understanding of the sources and effects of uncertainty is needed to achieve goals related to improvements in reliability and sustainability in water resource management and planning. To date, many hydrological techniques have been developed to improve the quality and accuracy of hydrological forecasts and to assess the uncertainty associated with these forecasts. The economic value of improvements in calculations of uncertainty associated with hydrological forecasts from the water supply and demand management perspective remains largely unknown. We first explore the effect of more accurate assessments of hydrological uncertainty on the management of water resources by using an integrated approach to identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty. Subsequently, we analyze the value of a more reliable water supply forecast by studying the change in moments of the distribution of final surface water deliveries. This allows us to calculate the economic value of improving the information about uncertainty provided to stakeholders, especially during drought spells.

  5. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health technology assessment and personalized medicine: are economic evaluation guidelines sufficient to support decision making?

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Marshall, Deborah A; Levy, Adrian R; Peacock, Stuart; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-04-01

    Many jurisdictions delivering health care, including Canada, have developed guidance for conducting economic evaluation, often in the service of larger health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement processes. Like any health intervention, personalized medical (PM) interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. However, current approaches to economic evaluation to support decision making have been largely developed from population-based approaches to therapy-that is, evaluating the costs and consequences of single interventions across single populations. This raises the issue as to whether these methods, as they are or more refined, are adequate to address more targeted approaches to therapy, or whether a new paradigm for assessing value in PM is required. We describe specific issues relevant to the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM and assess whether current guidance for economic evaluation is sufficient to support decision making for PM interventions. Issues were identified through literature review and informal interviews with national and international experts (n = 10) in these analyses. This article elaborates on findings and discussion at a workshop held in Ottawa, Canada, in January 2012. Specific issues related to better guiding economic evaluation of personalized medicine interventions include: how study questions are developed, populations are characterized, comparators are defined, effectiveness is evaluated, outcomes are valued and how resources are measured. Diagnostics-based PM also highlights the need for analyses outside of economic evaluation to support decision making. The consensus of this group of experts is that the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM may not require a new paradigm. However, greater complexity means that existing approaches and tools may require improvement to undertake these more analyses.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of a hybrid solar receiver and combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jin Han; Nathan, Graham; Dally, Bassam; Chinnici, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis is performed to compare two different configurations of hybrid solar thermal systems with fossil fuel backup to provide continuous electricity output. The assessment compares a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device with a reference conventional solar thermal system using a regular solar cavity receiver with a backup boiler, termed the Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH). The benefits of the integration is assessed by varying the size of the storage capacity and heliostat field while maintaining the same overall thermal input to the power block.

  8. Triggers of the Great Depression: Comparing Economic Climates in the 1920s With the 1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    factors are considered to have triggered the Great Depression , one of which is the insufficient flow of funds between surplus and debtor nations...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL C, C N Monterey, California DTICSI EL.ECTES D 19920 THESIS TRIGGERS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION : COMPARING ECONOMIC CLIMATES IN...Classification) TRIGGERS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION : COMPARING ECONOMIC CLIMATES IN THE 1920s WITH THE 1980s. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hidetoshi Fujita 13a

  9. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  10. Economic Studies in Colorectal Cancer: Challenges in Measuring and Comparing Costs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the costs associated with cancer care are essential both for assessing burden of disease at the population level and for conducting economic evaluations of interventions to prevent, detect, or treat cancer. Comparisons of cancer costs between health systems and across countries can improve understanding of the economic consequences of different health-care policies and programs. We conducted a structured review of the published literature on colorectal cancer (CRC) costs, including direct medical, direct nonmedical (ie, patient and caregiver time, travel), and productivity losses. We used MEDLINE to identify English language articles published between 2000 and 2010 and found 55 studies. The majority were conducted in the United States (52.7%), followed by France (12.7%), Canada (10.9%), the United Kingdom (9.1%), and other countries (9.1%). Almost 90% of studies estimated direct medical costs, but few studies estimated patient or caregiver time costs or productivity losses associated with CRC. Within a country, we found significant heterogeneity across the studies in populations examined, health-care delivery settings, methods for identifying incident and prevalent patients, types of medical services included, and analyses. Consequently, findings from studies with seemingly the same objective (eg, costs of chemotherapy in year following CRC diagnosis) are difficult to compare. Across countries, aggregate and patient-level estimates vary in so many respects that they are almost impossible to compare. Our findings suggest that valid cost comparisons should be based on studies with explicit standardization of populations, services, measures of costs, and methods with the goal of comparability within or between health systems or countries. Expected increases in CRC prevalence and costs in the future highlight the importance of such studies for informing health-care policy and program planning. PMID:23962510

  11. Quality assessment of published health economic analyses from South America.

    PubMed

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses

  12. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. PMID:27589945

  13. Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Colleen; Holt, Marla M; Mulsow, Jason; Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L

    2013-06-01

    Auditory sensitivity in pinnipeds is influenced by the need to balance efficient sound detection in two vastly different physical environments. Previous comparisons between aerial and underwater hearing capabilities have considered media-dependent differences relative to auditory anatomy, acoustic communication, ecology, and amphibious life history. New data for several species, including recently published audiograms and previously unreported measurements obtained in quiet conditions, necessitate a re-evaluation of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds. Several findings related to underwater hearing are consistent with earlier assessments, including an expanded frequency range of best hearing in true seals that spans at least six octaves. The most notable new results indicate markedly better aerial sensitivity in two seals (Phoca vitulina and Mirounga angustirostris) and one sea lion (Zalophus californianus), likely attributable to improved ambient noise control in test enclosures. An updated comparative analysis alters conventional views and demonstrates that these amphibious pinnipeds have not necessarily sacrificed aerial hearing capabilities in favor of enhanced underwater sound reception. Despite possessing underwater hearing that is nearly as sensitive as fully aquatic cetaceans and sirenians, many seals and sea lions have retained acute aerial hearing capabilities rivaling those of terrestrial carnivores.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c

  16. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed…

  17. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed…

  18. The impact of inclusion criteria in health economic assessments.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive

  19. Health economics education in undergraduate medical degrees: an assessment of curricula content and student knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ewan; Lorgelly, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    To define the structure and content of health economics teaching in undergraduate medical degrees in the UK, and identify and quantify differences in student knowledge, with a view to informing the health economics curricula. Semi-structured interviews with senior teaching staff in three Medical Schools, a review of course documentation, and an online survey to assess student knowledge. The survey was scored and mean scores were compared across medical schools, year of study, and teaching components, including the professional background of the teachers. There was considerable diversity across the medical schools in terms of the content of the health economics education, and in the way that the learning was structured and delivered. Student knowledge was found to vary across medical schools; the school with the most intensive health economics curricula was found to perform marginally better. Students who were taught by health economists scored higher than those who were taught by other professions. The teaching and learning environment and level of student knowledge of health economics was found to differ considerably across medical schools. The delivery of health economics teaching by specialised health economists would appear to be one possible strategy to improve student knowledge.

  20. Alternative future scenarios for the SPS comparative assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Ridker, R.G.; Watson, W.D. Jr.; Arnold, J.; Tayi, G.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of the comparative assessment is to develop an initial understanding of the SPS with respect to a limited set of energy alternatives. A comparative methodology report describes the multi-step process in the comparative assessment. The first step is the selection and characterization of alternative energy systems. Terrestrial alternatives are selected, and their cost, performance, and environmental and social attributes are specified for use in the comparison with the SPS in the post-2000 era. Data on alternative technologies were sought from previous research and from other comparisons. The object of this study is to provide a futures framework for evaluating SPS (i.e., factor prices, primary energy prices, and energy demands for the US from 1980 to 2030). The economic/energy interactions are discussed, and a number of specific modelling schemes that have been used for long-range forecasting purposes are described. This discussion provides the rationale for the choice of a specific model and methodology, which is described. Long-range cost assumptions used in the forecast are detailed, and the basis for the selection of specific scenarios follows. Results of the analysis are detailed. (WHK)

  1. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    PubMed

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-07-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  3. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  5. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  6. Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case-study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa

    2009-02-01

    This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as an analytical framework. While this tool is currently applied to forest and environmental assessment and specific applications to pest management strategies are to be found in agricultural economics, rather few attempts have been made in the field of forest pest management. In order to assess and compare with--without options, a case-study was analysed for the Setúbal Peninsula, south of Lisbon, an area where extensive stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) grow. The exercise has shown that CBA can be a valuable tool for assessing the economic and social profitability of pest management. The results demonstrate that the loss of revenues in the no-management option is not sufficient to make pest management profitable for private forest owners in the short-term. Conversely, a social profit is gained as pest management minimizes health risks for humans and avoids possible recreational losses.

  7. The Costs and Benefits of SNOMED CT Implementation: An Economic Assessment Model.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Birov, Strahil; Piesche, Klaus; Højen, Anne Randorff; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Dewenter, Heike; Nejad, Reza Fathollah; Thun, Sylvia; Volkert, Pim; Kufrin, Vesna Kronstein; Stroetmann, Veli

    2016-01-01

    As part of its investigations, the EU-funded ASSESS CT project developed an Economic Assessment Model for assessing SNOMED CT's and other terminologies' socio-economic impact in a systematic approach. Methodology and key elements of the model are presented: cost and benefit indicators for assessing deployment, and a cost-benefit analysis tool to collect, estimate, and evaluate data.

  8. Comparative flood damage model assessment: Towards a European approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongman, B.; Kreibich, H.; Bates, P. D.; de Roo, A. P. J.; Barredo, J. I.; Gericke, A.; Apel, H.; Neal, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flood damage assessment models in use across countries and institutions, with large variations in their approaches and assumptions. In this study we compare seven established methodologies qualitatively and quantitatively, in order to identify key factors that should be taken into consideration in the development of a pan-European flood damage model. In the comparison, we included seven different flood damage models: FLEMO (Germany), Damage Scanner (The Netherlands), Rhine Atlas (Rhine basin), the Flemish method (Belgium), Multi-Coloured Manual (United Kingdom), HAZUS-MH (United States) and the aggregated EC-JRC approach (European Commission). The study is based on two case-studies of historical flood events, for which both hydrological and land-use data are available, as well as data on observed economic damages. One case-study is based on a 2002 flood event in Eilenburg, Germany. The second case-study covers the 2005 flooding in Carlisle, United Kingdom. We found that the models designed for the specific regions come very close to estimating the observed economic damage. A sensitivity analysis shows that the model results are most sensitive to variation in assumed maximum damage values, and almost as much to variation in the applied depth-damage functions. On the basis of these results, we propose the development of a Europe-wide flood damage model that is based on disaggregated land-use data, local asset values and a variable set of depth-damage functions.

  9. A comparative assessment of endogenous water institutional change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Ersten, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    This paper builds the theory of endogenous institutional change, first proposed by Greif and Laitin (2004), for water scarce regions in context of water institutions. The current emphasis on environmental change, including hydrological change, largely ignores the adaptation of human societies to change. Humans have mostly been considered as boundary conditions or parameters of the dynamics of hydrological change and are not considered as conduits of feedbacks. Nonetheless, the dynamical representation of hydrological change with feedbacks between various components of a system is assuring since it is reminiscent of processual ecological anthropology(Orlove, 1980), except that individual decision making is absent. This paper proposes to consider selected dryland basins of the world, to conceptualize proxies of water relevant socio-economic organisation, such as spatial scales of upstream-downstream cooperation in water use, synthesized over time and then proposes a comparative assessment to test regularities predicted by an extension of river game theory (Ambec and Ehlers, 2008; van der Brink et al, 2012) to endogenous institutional change. References: Orlove, B. S. (1980). Ecological Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 9 (1980), pp. 235-273. Greif. A. and D. D. Laitin (2004). A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change. American Political Science Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 November 2004. Ambec, S. and L. Ehlers (2008). Sharing a river amongst satiable agents. Games and Economic Behavior, 64, 35-50. Van der Brink, G. van der Laan and N. Moes (2012). Fair agreements for sharing international rivers with multiple springs and externalities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 63, 388-403.

  10. Assessment of economic losses from marine pollution: an introduction to economic principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, D D

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces economic concepts and theory pertaining to public policy issues and concerns about pollution in marine environments. Many of these concepts and theories are unfamiliar to individuals and professionals outside the field of economics, such as biologists, ecologists, environmental lawyers, and even public policymakers. Yet many of these individuals observe economics in action, often for the first time, within a public policy arena. Exposure and a better understanding of the concepts and ideas in economics that are particularly relevant for public policies can help to achieve efficiencies in the form of better designed policies, and help to bridge communications gaps across other professions and the economics profession.

  11. A Method For Assessing Economic Thresholds of Hardwood Competition

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe

    2002-01-01

    A procedure was developed for computing economic thresholds for hardwood competition in pine plantations. The economic threshold represents the break-even level of competition above which hardwood control is a financially attractive treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the relative importance of biological and economic factors in determining...

  12. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  13. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  14. Feasibility Study of Coal Gasification/Fuel Cell/Cogeneration Economic and Financing Assessment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    I p "" r FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT Lfl Lfl ’-..,.a REPORT CLIN 0004-0005...GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT REPORT CLIN 0004-0005 PREPARED FOR :...: DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION! Economic/Financing FUEL CELL/COGENERATION, ECONOMIC AND Analysis

  15. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand - purchases at lowest price; Omax - max. spent on marijuana; Pmax - price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants “purchased” high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2-weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine its reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  16. Risk Assessment and Alternatives Assessment: Comparing Two Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The selection and use of chemicals and materials with less hazardous profiles reflects a paradigm shift from reliance on risk minimization through exposure controls to hazard avoidance. This article introduces risk assessment and alternatives assessment frameworks in order to clarify a misconception that alternatives assessment is a less effective tool to guide decision making, discusses factors promoting the use of each framework, and also identifies how and when application of each framework is most effective. As part of an assessor's decision process to select one framework over the other, it is critical to recognize that each framework is intended to perform different functions. Although the two frameworks share a number of similarities (such as identifying hazards and assessing exposure), an alternatives assessment provides a more realistic framework with which to select environmentally preferable chemicals because of its primary reliance on assessing hazards and secondary reliance on exposure assessment. Relevant to other life cycle impacts, the hazard of a chemical is inherent, and although it may be possible to minimize exposure (and subsequently reduce risk), it is challenging to assess such exposures through a chemical's life cycle. Through increased use of alternatives assessments at the initial stage of material or product design, there will be less reliance on post facto risk‐based assessment techniques because the potential for harm is significantly reduced, if not avoided, negating the need for assessing risk in the first place. PMID:26694655

  17. Comparability of Two Cognitive Performance Assessment Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    reauesters Qualified requesters may obtain copies from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), Cameron Station , Alexandria, Virginia 22314...photometric expertise. Thanks also to Mr. Jim A. Chiaramonte, SPC4 Angelia Mattingly, 2LT Shawn Prickett , and PFC Hilda Pou for help in preparing the report...presentation and subject response characteristics of performance assessment batteries (PABs) which are implemented on the different computer systems

  18. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua; Townsend, Aaron; Melaina, Marc

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  19. The weather roulette: assessing the economic value of seasonal wind speed predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christel, Isadora; Cortesi, Nicola; Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Soret, Albert; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Climate prediction is an emerging and highly innovative research area. For the wind energy sector, predicting the future variability of wind resources over the coming weeks or seasons is especially relevant to quantify operation and maintenance logistic costs or to inform energy trading decision with potential cost savings and/or economic benefits. Recent advances in climate predictions have already shown that probabilistic forecasting can improve the current prediction practices, which are based in the use of retrospective climatology and the assumption that what happened in the past is the best estimation of future conditions. Energy decision makers now have this new set of climate services but, are they willing to use them? Our aim is to properly explain the potential economic benefits of adopting probabilistic predictions, compared with the current practice, by using the weather roulette methodology (Hagedorn & Smith, 2009). This methodology is a diagnostic tool created to inform in a more intuitive and relevant way about the skill and usefulness of a forecast in the decision making process, by providing an economic and financial oriented assessment of the benefits of using a particular forecast system. We have selected a region relevant to the energy stakeholders where the predictions of the EUPORIAS climate service prototype for the energy sector (RESILIENCE) are skillful. In this region, we have applied the weather roulette to compare the overall prediction success of RESILIENCE's predictions and climatology illustrating it as an effective interest rate, an economic term that is easier to understand for energy stakeholders.

  20. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  1. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173

  2. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.

  3. Comparing relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Elsie R; Fuchs, Regina; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has often considered education and economic resources as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. From a policy perspective, however, it is important to understand the relative strength of the effect of these social factors on health outcomes, particularly in developing countries. It is also important to examine not only the impact of education and economic resources of individuals, but also whether community and country levels of these factors affect health outcomes. This analysis uses multilevel regression models to assess the relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality at the family, community, and country level using data from demographic and Health Surveys in 43 low-and lower-middle-income countries. We find strong effects for both per capita gross national income and completed secondary education at the country level, but a greater impact of education within families and communities.

  4. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Gobina, Inese; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Hetland, Jørn; de Looze, Margaretha; Richter, Matthias; Due, Pernille

    2009-09-01

    To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries. The overall OR (95 % CI) for 2+ daily health complaints for all countries was 1.31 (1.27-1.36) in the medium versus high FAS group and 2.07 (2.00-2.14) in the low versus high FAS group. This socio-economic gradient in health complaints attenuated somewhat in the multilevel models which included macro level data. There was no association between GNP and health complaints. The OR for high symptom load was 1.35 (1.08-1.69) per 10 % increase in Gini coefficient. The socio-economic gradient in health complaints at the individual level was somewhat attenuated in the multilevel models which included macro level data. There was a significant association between low FAS and high level of health complaints in 30 of 37 countries. Health complaints increased significantly by increasing income inequality in the country.

  5. Multivariate economic performance assessment of an MPC controlled electric arc furnace.

    PubMed

    Wei, Donghui; Craig, Ian K; Bauer, Margret

    2007-06-01

    Economic performance is very important to advanced process control projects investigating whether the investment of control technology is worthwhile. In this paper economic performance assessment of a simulated electric arc furnace is conducted. The dependence of controlled variables and the corresponding economic impact are highlighted.

  6. The Limits of the Economic Ideology: A Comparative Anthropological Study of Work Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwimmer, Erik

    1980-01-01

    Presents a comparative study of folk concepts of work in six cultures--Norway, Shetland Islands, Lesotho, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, and Columbia. Concludes that in all cases studied, work represents a means of personal and social fulfillment as well as an economic necessity. (DB)

  7. Technological Change in Assessing Economics: A Cautionary Welcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Considine, John; Flannery, Darragh

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer-based automated assignment systems in economics has expanded significantly in recent years. The most widely used system is Aplia which was developed by Paul Romer in 2000. Aplia is a computer application designed to replace traditional paper-based assignments in economics. The main features of Aplia are: (1) interactive content…

  8. Assessing the Efficacy of Gaming in Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremmen, Hans; Potters, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that measured the efficacy of an international economics simulation among undergraduates. The simulation consisted of a macroeconomics game where students develop economic policies for four hypothetical countries. A multiple choice test and posttest questionnaire suggests that classroom games are more effective than…

  9. Assessing Expertise in Economic Problem Solving: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven L.; VanFossen, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines research literature and schematic models associated with the expert-novice model in cognitive psychology. Describes a model for rendering expertise in problem solving within economics. Reports that a preliminary study indicates that this model effectively rendered both expert and novice problem solving in economics. (CFR)

  10. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  12. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  13. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  14. Economic assessment of nine geothermal direct use applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.C.; Breton, T.R.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides an economic analysis of nine federally-supported geothermal direct heat applications which were part of DOE's Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program. Three of the projects analyzed were user-owned systems, and six were district heating systems. Five of the nine projects are successful from an economic standpoint and the majority of these projects are in areas where geothermal energy has long been used for heating. The results of this analysis indicate that geothermal energy projects can be economic under certain conditions, but these conditions may not be very widespread.

  15. Valuing Quiet: An economic assessment of US environmental noise as a cardiovascular health hazard

    PubMed Central

    Swinburn, Tracy K.; Hammer, Monica S.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental noise pollution increases the risk for hearing loss, stress, sleep disruption, annoyance, cardiovascular disease, and has other adverse health impacts. Recent (2013) estimates suggest that over 100 million Americans are exposed to unhealthy levels of noise. Given the pervasive nature and significant health effects of environmental noise pollution, the corresponding economic impacts may be significant. Methods This 2014 economic assessment developed a new approach to estimate the impact of environmental noise on the prevalence and cost of key components of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the US. By placing environmental noise in context with comparable environmental pollutants, this approach can inform public health law, planning and policy. The effects of hypothetical national-scale changes in environmental noise levels on the prevalence and corresponding costs of hypertension and coronary heart disease are estimated, with the caveat that the national-level US noise data our exposure estimates were derived from are >30 years old. Results The analyses suggest that a 5 dB noise reduction scenario would reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 1.4% and coronary heart disease by 1.8%. The annual economic benefit is estimated at $3.9 billion. Conclusions These findings suggest significant economic impacts from environmental noise-related cardiovascular disease. Given these initial findings, noise may deserve increased priority and research as an environmental health hazard. PMID:26024562

  16. Comparative assessment of semifragile watermarking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Oezguer; Coskun, Baris; Naci, Umut; Sankur, Bulent

    2001-11-01

    Semi-fragile watermarking techniques aim to prevent tampering and fraudulent use of modified images. A semi-fragile watermark monitors the integrity of the content of the image but not its exact representation. Thus the watermark is designed so that if the content of the image has not been tampered with, and so long as the correct key is known and the image ha sufficiently high quality, the integrity is proven. However if some parts of the image is replaced by someone who does not possess the key, the watermark information will not be reliably detected, which can be taken as evidence of forgery. In this paper we compare the performance of nine semi-fragile watermarking algorithms in terms of their miss probability under forgery attack, and in terms of false alarm probability under mild, hence non-malicious signal processing operations that preserve the content and quality of the image. We propose desiderata for semi-fragile watermarking algorithms and indicate the promising algorithms among existing ones.

  17. Assessing the Economic Impacts of University R&D and Identifying Roles for Technology Transfer Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.

    2000-01-01

    Sets forth guidelines for assessing the economic impact of university research and development and identifies what may become the roles and responsibilities of technology transfer officers in the assessment process. (Author/JOW)

  18. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  19. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  20. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2005-08-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  1. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    PubMed

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Accuracy, precision, and economic efficiency for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Andrew M; Parrella, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major horticultural pest and an important vector of plant viruses in many parts of the world. Methods for assessing thrips population density for pest management decision support are often inaccurate or imprecise due to thrips' positive thigmotaxis, small size, and naturally aggregated populations. Two established methods, flower tapping and an alcohol wash, were compared with a novel method, plant desiccation coupled with passive trapping, using accuracy, precision and economic efficiency as comparative variables. Observed accuracy was statistically similar and low (37.8-53.6%) for all three methods. Flower tapping was the least expensive method, in terms of person-hours, whereas the alcohol wash method was the most expensive. Precision, expressed by relative variation, depended on location within the greenhouse, location on greenhouse benches, and the sampling week, but it was generally highest for the flower tapping and desiccation methods. Economic efficiency, expressed by relative net precision, was highest for the flower tapping method and lowest for the alcohol wash method. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for all three methods used. If relative density assessment methods such as these can all be assumed to accurately estimate a constant proportion of absolute density, then high precision becomes the methodological goal in terms of measuring insect population density, decision making for pest management, and pesticide efficacy assessments.

  3. Sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for routine reversal of neuromuscular block: a systematic review and economic evaluation†

    PubMed Central

    Paton, F.; Paulden, M.; Chambers, D.; Heirs, M.; Duffy, S.; Hunter, J. M.; Sculpher, M.; Woolacott, N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cost-effectiveness of sugammadex for the routine reversal of muscle relaxation produced by rocuronium or vecuronium in UK practice is uncertain. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and an economic assessment of sugammadex for the reversal of moderate or profound neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by rocuronium or vecuronium. The economic assessment aimed to establish the reduction in recovery time and the ‘value of time saved’ which would be necessary for sugammadex to be potentially cost-effective compared with existing practice. Three trials indicated that sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 (4 mg kg−1) produces more rapid recovery from moderate (profound) NMB than neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. The economic assessment indicated that if the reductions in recovery time associated with sugammadex in the trials are replicated in routine practice, sugammadex would be cost-effective if those reductions are achieved in the operating theatre (assumed value of staff time, £4.44 per minute), but not if they are achieved in the recovery room (assumed value of staff time, £0.33 per minute). However, there is considerable uncertainty in these results. Sugammadex has the potential to be cost-effective compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate or profound NMB, provided that the time savings observed in trials can be achieved and put to productive use in clinical practice. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on patient safety, predictability of recovery from NMB, patient outcomes, and efficient use of resources. PMID:20935005

  4. An Economic Assessment of Electronic Text. Report Number Six of the Electronic Text Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This report outlines economic components that will eventually contribute to large models of electronic text services in institutions of higher education, and provides a simple and practical assessment of economic issues associated with electronic text for college administrators, faculty, and planners. This assessment constitutes a layman's guide…

  5. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  6. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  7. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  8. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy: Economic Substitutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. According to the first of these approaches, characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. The second approach, the demand analysis,…

  9. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy: Economic Substitutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. According to the first of these approaches, characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. The second approach, the demand analysis,…

  10. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  11. Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies.

    PubMed

    Otanicar, Todd P; Golden, Jay S

    2009-08-01

    This study compares environmental and economic impacts of using nanofluids to enhance solar collector efficiency as compared to conventional solar collectors for domestic hotwater systems. Results show that for the current cost of nanoparticles the nanofluid based solar collector has a slightly longer payback period but at the end of its useful life has the same economic savings as a conventional solar collector. The nanofluid based collector has a lower embodied energy (approximately 9%) and approximately 3% higher levels of pollution offsets than a conventional collector. In addition if 50% penetration of residential nanofluid based solar collector systems for hot water heating could be achieved in Phoenix, Arizona over 1 million metric tons of CO2 would be offset per year.

  12. Global assessment of the economics of land degradation and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkonya, Ephraim

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation—defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report as the long-term loss of ecosystems services—is a global problem, negatively affecting the livelihoods and food security of billions of people. Intensifying efforts, mobilizing more investments and strengthening the policy commitment for addressing land degradation at the global level needs to be supported by a careful evaluation of the costs and benefits of action versus costs of inaction against land degradation. Consistent with the definition of land degradation, we adopt the Total Economic Value (TEV) approach to determine the costs of land degradation and use remote sensing data and global statistical databases in our analysis. The results show that the annual costs of land degradation due to land use and land cover change (LUCC) are about US231 billion per year or about 0.41 % of the global GDP of US56.49 trillion in 2007. Contrary to past global land degradation assessment studies, land degradation is severe in both tropical and temperate countries. However, the losses from LUCC are especially high in Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for 26 % of the total global costs of land degradation due to LUCC. However, the local tangible losses (mainly provisioning services) account only for 46 % of the total cost of land degradation and the rest of the cost is due to the losses of ecosystem services (ES) accruable largely to beneficiaries other than the local land users. These external ES losses include carbon sequestration, biodiversity, genetic information and cultural services. This implies that the global community bears the largest cost of land degradation, which suggests that efforts to address land degradation should be done bearing in mind that the global community,as a whole, incurs larger losses than the local communities experiencing land degradation. The cost of soil fertility mining due to using land degrading management practices on maize, rice and wheat is estimated to be

  13. Economic policy and private investment since the oil crisis: a comparative study of France and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Artus, P.; Muet, P.A.; Palinkas, P.; Pauly, P.

    1980-10-01

    Present investment equations for private business investment (equipment and structures) in France and Germany are presented. The comparative analysis of properties of estimates and the relative importance of explanatory variables are emphasized. The results are presented of a comparative exercise in cliometrics: selective public policy measures actually taken in France and Germany during the period 1973 to 1978 and analyzed with respect to their efficiency as stabilization policy devices. The comparative study is executed within the framework of two comparable quarterly econometric models for the two countries, METRIC for France and SYSIFO for Germany. The basic theoretical framework for business investment in both models is briefly summarized. Empirical results are presented within the respective partial models, namely, the comparative analysis of economic factors explaining the behavior of business investment over the sample period. The comparative results of policy scenarios are presented to evaluate the role of active economic policy in determining the performance of private investment in France and Germany between 1973 and 1978. (MCW)

  14. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  15. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  16. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Social and Economic Conditions

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the social and economic conditions in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes an archeological and historical background, describes demographic conditions and...

  17. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Fragale, Jennifer E. C.; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders. PMID:28270744

  18. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fragale, Jennifer E C; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders.

  19. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  20. Quality assessment of economic analyses in pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Kokorowski, Paul J; Routh, Jonathan C; Nelson, Caleb P

    2013-02-01

    To describe and evaluate economic analyses or economic evaluations in pediatric urologic literature, including study types such as cost-effectiveness analysis, which are increasingly common in the medical literature. We performed a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990-2011) to identify economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics. Studies were evaluated using published quality metrics. We examined the analysis type, data sources, perspective, methodology, sensitivity analyses, and the reporting of methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. We identified 2945 nonduplicated studies, 60 of which met inclusion criteria. Economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics increased in number during the study period, from 1 study (2%) in 1990 to 7 (12%) in 2010 (P <.0001 for trend). The most common types of analyses were cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization (22 each, 37%), typically performed from the payer perspective (26 [43%]). Although 44 (73%) correctly identified the analysis type, only 21 (35%) correctly identified the study perspective. Optimal data sources were used in 7 studies (11%). Appropriate inflationary discounting was used in 17 of 53 (32%). Sensitivity analyses were not reported in 31 of 53 (58%). The descriptions of study methods were adequate in 43 studies (72%), assumptions were adequately reported in 42 (70%), and 37 (62%) adequately discussed limitations. Although economic analyses are increasing in the pediatric urologic literature, there is a need for standardization in methods and reporting. Future investigations should attempt to follow standardized reporting guidelines and should pay particular attention to reporting of methods and results, including a comprehensive discussion of limitations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  2. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-03

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  3. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale environmental assessments require integrating many available types of data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales. Moreover, the relationships among the environmental variables in the assessment tend to be poorly understood, a situation made even more compl...

  4. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale environmental assessments require integrating many available types of data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales. Moreover, the relationships among the environmental variables in the assessment tend to be poorly understood, a situation made even more compl...

  5. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  6. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  7. Economic assessment of flood forecasts for a risk-averse decision-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier-Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-04-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has also been suggested in past studies that ensemble forecasts might possess a greater economic value than deterministic forecasts. However, the vast majority of recent hydro-economic literature is based on the cost-loss ratio framework, which might be appealing for its simplicity and intuitiveness. One important drawback of the cost-loss ratio is that it implicitly assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. By definition, a risk-neutral individual is indifferent to forecasts' sharpness: as long as forecasts agree with observations on average, the risk-neutral individual is satisfied. A risk-averse individual, however, is sensitive to the level of precision (sharpness) of forecasts. This person is willing to pay to increase his or her certainty about future events. In fact, this is how insurance companies operate: the probability of seeing one's house burn down is relatively low, so the expected cost related to such event is also low. However, people are willing to buy insurance to avoid the risk, however small, of loosing everything. Similarly, in a context where people's safety and property is at stake, the typical decision maker is more risk-averse than risk-neutral. Consequently, the cost-loss ratio is not the most appropriate tool to assess the economic value of flood forecasts. This presentation describes a more realistic framework for assessing the economic value of such forecasts for flood mitigation purposes. Borrowing from economics, the Constant Absolute Risk Aversion utility function (CARA) is the central tool of this new framework. Utility functions allow explicitly accounting for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker and fully exploiting the information related to ensemble forecasts' uncertainty. Three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared in terms of quality (comparison with

  8. A bioeconomic model for comparing beef cattle genotypes at their optimal economic slaughter end point.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R; Kemp, R A; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Fox, G C; Smith, C

    1994-01-01

    A bioeconomic model of a feedlot was developed for the comparison of beef cattle genotypes under specified management and marketing conditions. The optimization behavior of commercial feedlot managers is incorporated into the model using optimum economic rotation theory. The days spent in the feedlot (rotation) by a group of animals are derived using this theory so as to maximize an objective function. Differences among breeds in the present value of profits from a single rotation, expressed per animal, represent the expected price premium paid for a feeder animal of a particular breed. Feed requirements and growth rates for a genotype are predicted over time for a specified diet from estimated mature size. Estimates of carcass fatness over time as a function of the energy content of the diet and estimates of dressing percentage over time are used for each genotype. A base model is described that incorporates biological parameters estimated for 11 breeds from a major breed comparison experiment and uses prices of inputs and outputs for Ontario feedlots. Sensitivity of the model to these biological and economic assumptions is shown. When breeds are compared at constant days fed, weight, or fat depth slaughter points, rankings are inconsistent, relative to those when each breed is slaughtered at its optimal economic point. The model can be used to establish appropriate slaughter end points for comparing beef cattle breeds and crosses and to evaluate breeding objectives for feedlot traits in genetic improvement programs.

  9. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT ON VITRIFICATION FACILITY OF LOW-AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Kun Jai; Ji, Pyung Kook; Park, Jong Kil; Ha, Jong Hyun; Song, Myung Jae

    2003-02-27

    The usefulness of vitrification technology for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was demonstrated with high volume reduction capability and good mechanical and chemical stability of final waste forms, and commercial vitrification facility is expected to be constructed at Ulchin site of Korean Nuclear Power Plant Ulchin Unit 5 and 6. Hence, overall economic assessment was necessary to find out the economic advantage of the vitrification facility and to predict the construction and operation costs of the facility on the preliminary bases. Additionally, the generation characteristics of radioactive wastes were investigated. The results of the cost analysis showed that the disposal cost of radioactive wastes treated by vitrification facility reduced to 85 percent compared with that by current waste treatment system. And the present worth analysis was performed through the cost-benefit analysis method for the commercial vitrification facility. The results showed that the vitrification facility combining cold crucible melter (CCM) for treatment of combustible DAW, spent resin, and borated liquid waste concentrate and plasma torch melter (PTM) for non-combustible DAW and spent filter is more economical than current waste treatment system when the escalation rate of disposal cost of more than 10 percent per year was applied.

  10. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  11. Educational Assortative Mating and Economic Inequality: A Comparative Analysis of Three Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    TORCHE, FLORENCIA

    2010-01-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses’ schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality. PMID:20608107

  12. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  13. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-27

    take place. First, the Federal Reserve had eased credit during the first half of 2001 to stimulate aggregate demand. The economy responds to policy...Second, the Federal Reserve on and immediately after 9/11 took appropriate action to avert a financial panic and liquidity shortage. This was...the Federal Reserve began to tighten credit in mid-1999. This tightening continued through May 2000. Key economic indicators reflected this

  14. An Economic Evaluation Framework for Assessing Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly imperative to integrate renewable energy, such as solar and wind, into electricity generation due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. This increased spotlight on renewable energy requires evaluating competing projects using either conventional economic analysis techniques or other economics-based models and approaches in order to select a subset of the projects to be funded. Even then, there are reasons to suspect that techniques applied to renewable energy projects may result in decisions that will reject viable projects due to the use of a limited number of quantifiable and tangible attributes about the projects. This paper presents a framework for economic evaluation of renewable energy projects. The framework is based on a systems approach in which the processes within the entire network of the system, from generation to consumption, are accounted for. Furthermore, the framework uses the concept of fuzzy system to calculate the value of information under conditions of uncertainty.

  15. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  16. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  17. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  18. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  19. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  20. A systematic review of economic evaluations assessing interventions aimed at preventing or treating pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Simon J; Stone, Patricia W

    2015-03-01

    Pressure ulcers have an adverse impact on patients and can also result in additional costs and workload for healthcare providers. Interventions to prevent pressure ulcers are focused on identifying at risk patients and using systems such as mattresses and turning to relieve pressure. Treatments for pressure ulcers are directed towards promoting wound healing and symptom relief. Both prevention and treatments have associated costs for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to systematically review the economic evidence for prevention and treatment interventions for pressure ulcers. A systematic review of comparative clinical studies that evaluate interventions to either prevent or treat pressure ulcers. Searches of the major electronic databases were conducted to identify citations that reported costs or economic analysis for interventions directed towards prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. Only comparative clinical studies were included. Review articles, case-series, non-randomised studies, and studies in a foreign language that did not have an abstract in English were excluded from the review. Decisions regarding inclusion or exclusion were based on a consensus of the authors after review of the title or abstract. Potential citations were obtained for more detailed review and assessed against the inclusion criteria. The studies identified for inclusion were assessed against the 24 key criteria contained in the CHEERS checklist. Costs were standardised to US dollars and adjusted for inflation to 2012 rates. The searches identified 105 potential studies. After review of the citations a total of 23 studies were included: 12 examined prevention interventions and 11 treatments. Review against the CHEERS criteria showed that the majority of included trials had poor reporting and a lack of detail regarding how costs were calculated. Few studies reported more than aggregate costs of treatments with only a small number reporting unit cost outcomes

  1. An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Ana M.

    2009-07-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (ΔDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the ΔDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of ΔDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity.

  2. An ecological and economic assessment methodology for coastal ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Ana M

    2009-07-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (DeltaDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the DeltaDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of DeltaDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity.

  3. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

    2015-04-01

    Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic and Technical Assessment of an Evolvable Lunar Architecture Leveraging Commercial Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.; Wilhite, A.; Kelso, R.; Cheuvront, D.; McCurdy, H.

    2015-10-01

    PI will present results of NASA-funded economic assessment of an evolvable lunar architecture that leverages commercial partnership. Analysis suggests that a lunar industrial base to mine propellant can be established within NASA's existing budget.

  5. Climate change mitigation: comparative assessment of Malaysian and ASEAN scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rasiah, Rajah; Ahmed, Adeel; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Chenayah, Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses empirically the optimal climate change mitigation policy of Malaysia with the business as usual scenario of ASEAN to compare their environmental and economic consequences over the period 2010-2110. A downscaling empirical dynamic model is constructed using a dual multidisciplinary framework combining economic, earth science, and ecological variables to analyse the long-run consequences. The model takes account of climatic variables, including carbon cycle, carbon emission, climatic damage, carbon control, carbon concentration, and temperature. The results indicate that without optimal climate policy and action, the cumulative cost of climate damage for Malaysia and ASEAN as a whole over the period 2010-2110 would be MYR40.1 trillion and MYR151.0 trillion, respectively. Under the optimal policy, the cumulative cost of climatic damage for Malaysia would fall to MYR5.3 trillion over the 100 years. Also, the additional economic output of Malaysia will rise from MYR2.1 billion in 2010 to MYR3.6 billion in 2050 and MYR5.5 billion in 2110 under the optimal climate change mitigation scenario. The additional economic output for ASEAN would fall from MYR8.1 billion in 2010 to MYR3.2 billion in 2050 before rising again slightly to MYR4.7 billion in 2110 in the business as usual ASEAN scenario.

  6. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  7. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  8. [Assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indices].

    PubMed

    Chubirko, M I; Pichuzhkina, N M; Masaĭlova, L A; Lastochkina, G V

    2012-01-01

    THE THEME: assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indicators. population of municipalities of the Voronezh region. the justification of the system of measures aimed at stabilizing the medical-demographic situation at the regional level. methods of Health Statistics; questionnaire. the low socio-economic status of the population is set in the territories, depressed at the level of demographic development. The contribution of socio-economic indicators in health and demographic situation has been determined Reliable cause-effect relationships between health and demographic indicators and the level of socio-economic development of the population have been identified.

  9. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of U.S. oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources for the US onshore areas and State waters. This area accounts for 80 percent of US hydrocarbon production and 85 percent of US proved reserves. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996). Estimates are as of January 1994. The economic evaluation uses mean values of the technically recoverable resources assessed by geologists.

  10. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Anderson, David M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  11. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental-Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous difficulties await those creating regional-scale environmental assessments, from data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales to poorly understood environmental processes and indicators. Including socioeconomic variables further complicates the situation. In place...

  12. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental-Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous difficulties await those creating regional-scale environmental assessments, from data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales to poorly understood environmental processes and indicators. Including socioeconomic variables further complicates the situation. In place...

  13. Systematic review and quality assessment of economic evaluations and quality-of-life studies related to generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Bereza, Basil G; Machado, Márcio; Einarson, Thomas R

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to systematically review, summarize the results of, and assess the quality of economic evaluations and humanistic studies related to patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). EMBASE, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE, and HealthSTAR databases were searched (from the time of inception through April 2008). Full-text publications describing full economic evaluations (cost-benefit, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses), partial economic evaluations (cost, burden-of-illness, and resource-utilization analyses), and humanistic outcomes (utilities, preferences, and willingness-to-pay analyses) were included. GAD diagnoses per official publications (eg, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and associated comorbid conditions were included; anxiety-related symptoms without a diagnosis of GAD were excluded. Study quality was assessed with a 38-point checklist of criteria previously developed by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Thirty-six articles were included. Full economic evaluations (n = 5) were based on conventional decision-making modeling or population-summary data, using time horizons < or =12 months. Cognitive-behavioral therapy by a public-salaried psychologist and evidence-based care generated savings compared with current care. Pharmacotherapy with extended-release venlafaxine treatment was cost-effective compared with diazepam; escitalopram was cost-effective compared with paroxetine because of productivity gains. Full economic evaluations addressed 55.3% to 68.4% of the 38 items on the quality-assessment checklist. Partial evaluations were reported; GAD incurred larger mean marginal health care costs compared with other anxiety disorders (a difference of US $2138 in year-1999 values). GAD patients with severe pain interference incurred significantly higher costs than did patients with pain but no GAD. Furthermore, GAD patients used more services from a primary care

  14. Predicting Adolescent Suicidality: Comparing Multiple Informants and Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer; Rueter, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent suicidality is a serious problem among American youth. Common risk factors for adolescent suicidality include depression and conduct problems but there is little agreement on the best means to assess these factors. We compared multiple informants (mothers, fathers, the adolescent and a sibling) and multiple assessment techniques using a…

  15. Comparative Validity of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure-200

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    A predominant dimensional model of general personality structure is the five-factor model (FFM). Quite a number of alternative instruments have been developed to assess the domains of the FFM. The current study compares the validity of 2 alternative versions of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) FFM scales, 1 that was developed…

  16. Predicting Adolescent Suicidality: Comparing Multiple Informants and Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer; Rueter, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent suicidality is a serious problem among American youth. Common risk factors for adolescent suicidality include depression and conduct problems but there is little agreement on the best means to assess these factors. We compared multiple informants (mothers, fathers, the adolescent and a sibling) and multiple assessment techniques using a…

  17. The comparative risk assessment framework and tools (CRAFT)

    Treesearch

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    To help address these challenges, the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) and the University of North Carolina Asheville’s National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC) designed a planning framework, called the Comparative Risk Assessment Framework and Tools (CRAFT). CRAFT is...

  18. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J; Smethells, John R; Ewan, Eric E; Hursh, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds that traditional measures of relative reinforcer efficacy (breakpoint, peak response rate, and choice) correspond to specific characteristics of non-normalized demand curves. The accuracy of these predictions was evaluated in rats' responding for food or water: two reinforcers known to function as complements. Consistent with the first approach, predicted peak normalized response output values obtained under single-schedule conditions ordinally predicted progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak response rates obtained in a separate condition. Combining the minimum-needs hypothesis with the normalized demand analysis helped to interpret prior findings, but was less useful in predicting choice between food and water—two strongly complementary reinforcers. Predictions of the demand analysis had mixed success. Peak response outputs predicted from the non-normalized water demand curves were significantly correlated with obtained peak responding for water in a separate condition, but none of the remaining three predicted correlations was statistically significant. The demand analysis fared better in predicting choice—relative consumption of food and water under single schedules of reinforcement predicted preference under concurrent schedules significantly better than chance. PMID:18047226

  19. Quality assessment of economic evaluations published in PharmacoEconomics. The first four years (1992 to 1995).

    PubMed

    Iskedjian, M; Trakas, K; Bradley, C A; Addis, A; Lanctôt, K; Kruk, D; Ilersich, A L; Einarson, T R

    1997-12-01

    Our objective was to assess the quality of reporting of original economic research articles in PharmacoEconomics from inception to the end of 1995, in order to identify areas of strength and weakness, and analyse trends over time. Each regular issue of the journal was examined for original economic evaluations. Accepted articles were categorised by study type and by year of publication. A previously developed 13-item quality-scoring checklist was applied. The maximum possible score that an article could be assigned was 4.0. Quality scores were analysed over time and by study type. 54 articles were identified for analysis. Mean overall score (OS) ranged from a minimum of 1.80 to a maximum of 3.75, with a mean OS of 3.01 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.47]. The item with the highest mean score was the 'definition of study aim' (mean OS = 3.46, SD = 0.69). The item with the lowest score was 'ethical problems discussed and identified' (mean OS = 1.44, SD = 0.92). Only 4 items on the checklist had mean scores lower than 3.0. No significant time trend was apparent for OS (R2 = 0.002). Cost-benefit (mean OS = 3.25, SD = 0.85, n = 5), cost-effectiveness (mean OS = 3.11, SD = 0.97, n = 27), and cost-utility (mean OS = 3.29, SD = 0.93, n = 6) analyses had mean scores significantly higher than cost-analysis/cost-of-illness studies (mean OS = 2.51, SD = 1.14, n = 8). The mean OS for cost-minimisation studies was 2.74 (SD = 0.49, n = 8). Despite some weaknesses in particular aspects of economic evaluations published in PharmacoEconomics, we conclude that the journal has offered publications with acceptable overall quality and adequate methodology.

  20. An economic analysis of payment for health care services: the United States and Switzerland compared.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Peter; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2009-06-01

    This article seeks to assess whether physician payment reforms in the United States and Switzerland were likely to attain their objectives. We first introduce basic contract theory, with the organizing principle being the degree of information asymmetry between the patient and the health care provider. Depending on the degree of information asymmetry, different forms of payment induce "appropriate" behavior. These theoretical results are then pitted against the RBRVS of the United States to find that a number of its aspects are not optimal. We then turn to Switzerland's Tarmed and find that it fails to conform with the prescriptions of economic contract theory as well. The article closes with a review of possible reforms that could do away with uniform fee schedules to improve the performance of the health care system.

  1. An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturi, P.

    1980-12-01

    The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass Energy Systems. This study scrutinizes the key parameters affecting the overall productivity and the cost of electricity from such systems. The conditions for obtaining net energy productivity and associated costs are examined for electrical power generation from wood yields of the giant koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala) as a reference point. Current technology involving direct combustion of biomass generates substantial net electrical energy though from a cost perspective it would appear that conditions for biomass production and harvest as a replacement for diesel fuel in utilities having conventional generator units are only now being met. Some potentials and constraints for three other candidate plant species using similar conversion system are also explored.

  2. Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

  3. Relative importance of physical and economic factors in Appalachian coalbed gas assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well stimulation technology could offset slow gas desorption rates, Appalachian Province economic gas could increase to more then 70% of the technically recoverable gas. Similarly, if operators are able to develop strategies to selectively drill plays by avoiding dry holes and non-commercial occurrences, the economic fraction of technically recoverable gas could increase to over half.In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well

  4. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  5. Joint protection and hand exercises for hand osteoarthritis: an economic evaluation comparing methods for the analysis of factorial trials

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Nicholls, Elaine; Whitehurst, David G. T.; Hill, Susan; Hammond, Alison; Hay, Elaine M.; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of joint protection and hand exercises for the management of hand OA is not well established. The primary aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) of these management options. In addition, given the absence of consensus regarding the conduct of economic evaluation alongside factorial trials, we compare different analytical methodologies. Methods. A trial-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-utility of joint protection only, hand exercises only and joint protection plus hand exercises compared with leaflet and advice was undertaken over a 12 month period from a UK National Health Service perspective. Patient-level mean costs and mean quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated for each trial arm. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were constructed. The base case analysis used a within-the-table analysis methodology. Two further methods were explored: the at-the-margins approach and a regression-based approach with or without an interaction term. Results. Mean costs (QALYs) were £58.46 (s.d. 0.662) for leaflet and advice, £92.12 (s.d. 0.659) for joint protection, £64.51 (s.d. 0.681) for hand exercises and £112.38 (s.d. 0.658) for joint protection plus hand exercises. In the base case, hand exercises were the cost-effective option, with an ICER of £318 per QALY gained. Hand exercises remained the most cost-effective management strategy when adopting alternative methodological approaches. Conclusion. This is the first trial evaluating the cost-effectiveness of occupational therapy-supported approaches to self-management for hand OA. Our findings showed that hand exercises were the most cost-effective option. PMID:25339642

  6. Comparing Trawl and Creel Fishing for Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus): Biological and Economic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Leocádio, Ana Maria; Castro, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the fishing activity and landings of the trawl and creel fisheries for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus (L.)) off the Portuguese coast, and evaluates the financial viability of two vessels typical of each fleet. Crustacean trawlers are part of an industrial fleet that, besides Nephrops, targets deep water shrimps. Creels are used by a multi-gear, multi-target artisanal fleet, fishing only in areas unavailable to trawlers and, when catching Nephrops, set specifically to target this species. Trawlers have in recent years contributed with 85% of the landings in weight, but only 74% in value (2005–2009 average). Despite smaller landings, the Nephrops creel fishery provides individuals of larger size and in better condition, thereby obtaining higher unit prices. Economic viability was also higher for the creel vessel, with trawling being only viable if major costs (such as labor and fuel) are covered by the revenue from other target species (e.g., the rose shrimp). At present, Nephrops populations on the South and SW coast are subject to intense fishing and to a recovery plan. The possibility of reallocation of some of the fishing effort directed at Nephrops from trawlers to creels is discussed in terms of the conservation of the resource and economic return. PMID:22848357

  7. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine.

  8. The 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis, Human Genetic Diversity, and Comparative Economic Development

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that deep-rooted factors, determined tens of thousands of years ago, had a significant effect on the course of economic development from the dawn of human civilization to the contemporary era. It advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that, in the course of the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa, variation in migratory distance from the cradle of humankind to various settlements across the globe affected genetic diversity and has had a long-lasting effect on the pattern of comparative economic development that is not captured by geographical, institutional, and cultural factors. In particular, the level of genetic diversity within a society is found to have a hump-shaped effect on development outcomes in both the pre-colonial and the modern era, reflecting the trade-off between the beneficial and the detrimental effects of diversity on productivity. While the intermediate level of genetic diversity prevalent among Asian and European populations has been conducive for development, the high degree of diversity among African populations and the low degree of diversity among Native American populations have been a detrimental force in the development of these regions. PMID:25506083

  9. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways: Economic impacts of biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: 1) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, 2) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and 3) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect, and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5,960 and 8,470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized for one million dollars of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter more jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2,000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. The agriculture/forest, services, and trade industries are the primary sectors that will benefit from the ongoing operation of biorefineries.

  11. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  12. Methodological approach for assessing the economic impact of forest fires using MODIS remote sensing images

    Treesearch

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Castillo Soto

    2013-01-01

    Assessing areas affected by forest fires requires comprehensive studies covering a wide range of analyzes. From an economic standpoint, assessing the affected area in monetary terms is crucial. Determining the degree of loss in the value of natural resources, both those of a tangible and intangible nature, enables knowing the residual value remaining after a fire, i.e...

  13. Whose Knowledge Counts in International Student Assessments: Examining the AHELO Epistemic Community of Economics Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    International student assessments have become the "lifeblood" of the accountability movement in educational policy contexts. Drawing upon Stuart Hall's concept of representation, I critically examined who comprises epistemic communities responsible for developing the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Assessment of…

  14. Whose Knowledge Counts in International Student Assessments: Examining the AHELO Epistemic Community of Economics Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    International student assessments have become the "lifeblood" of the accountability movement in educational policy contexts. Drawing upon Stuart Hall's concept of representation, I critically examined who comprises epistemic communities responsible for developing the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Assessment of…

  15. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  16. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  17. Assessment of the Economics and Finance Collections at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tygett, Mary

    This document describes a collection assessment made of the Economics and Finance holdings at Ward Edwards Library at Central Missouri State University (CMSU). The assessment is divided into three parts: (1) books, (2) serials, and (3) standing orders/reference materials. In addition to standard collection development sources such as…

  18. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  19. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  20. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  1. Health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanni; Thomas, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes. Although law makers in the USA have barred the use of NICE's cost/quality-adjusted life year or similar health economics approaches by public payers for coverage decision making, there are suggestions of prioritizing relative efficacy evaluation over economic assessment under a comparative effectiveness research (CER) framework to inform payment rates of public payers (an approach similar to German and French HTA processes). However, such an approach is unlikely to prove viable. It should also be noted that, if cost considerations are made explicit in US CER policy decisions, CER may become an unsustainable approach undermined by a conflicting emphasis on both cost containment and a demand for costly comparative evidence. On the other hand, properly designed CER initiatives can serve as a facilitator of more efficient research activities and drug development models. With these points in mind, the likely pathway of US CER is explored and the plausible impact on industry innovation is discussed.

  2. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-05-15

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  3. Waste collection systems for recyclables: an environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Larsen, A W; Merrild, H; Møller, J; Christensen, T H

    2010-05-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method.

  5. Environmental-Economic Assessment Of Generation, Flow And Efficiency Of Use Of Production And Consumption Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Golofastova, N. N.; Galanina, T. V.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailova, Ya S.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of environmental and economic analysis of industrial and economic activities of an enterprise to assess the generation, flow and efficiency of production and consumption waste. The purpose of research is the analysis and the development of theoretical propositions for the functioning of the system of environmental and economic indicators for the effective management of production and consumption waste in the enterprise. The analysis of the existing systems of environmental and economic indicators taking into consideration the industry characteristics and the types of negative impacts is carried out. The main result of the study is the development of the system of environmental and economic indicators of production and consumption waste, adapted to the modern requirements. The results of the study can be recommended to support the effective management decision-making concerning waste management and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure.

  6. Economic Literacy in German Speaking Countries and the United States. First Steps to a Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Klaus; Krumm, Volker

    The lack of a German language testing instrument for economic literacy has led to problems for researchers in German-speaking countries to establish the level of economic literacy in those countries. The translation of the 23rd edition (1987) of the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) into a German version, known as the Wirtschalfliche Bildung Test…

  7. Clinical, Ergonomic, and Economic Outcomes With Multichamber Bags Compared With (Hospital) Pharmacy Compounded Bags and Multibottle Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Jorge Emilio; Berlana, David; Ukleja, Andrew; Boullata, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Multichamber bags (MCBs) may offer potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic advantages compared with (hospital) pharmacy compounded bags (COBs) and multibottle systems (MBSs). A systematic literature review was performed to identify and assess the available evidence regarding advantages of MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Databases, and EconLit were searched for articles reporting clinical, ergonomic, and economic outcomes for MCBs compared with COBs or MBSs. The search was limited to studies conducted in hospitalized patients >2 years of age that were published in English between January 1990 and November 2014. The Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes Study Design (PICOS) framework was used for the analysis. From 1307 unique citations, 74 potentially relevant publications were identified; review of references identified 2 additional publications. Among the 76 publications, 18 published studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were retrospective in design. Ten studies reported clinical outcomes, including 1 prospective randomized trial and multiple retrospective analyses that reported a lower risk of bloodstream infection for MCBs compared with other delivery systems. Sixteen studies reported ergonomic and/or economic outcomes; most reported a potential cost benefit for MCBs, with consistent reports of reduced time and labor compared with other systems. The largest cost benefit was observed in studies evaluating total hospitalization costs. The systematic literature review identified evidence of potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic benefits for MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs; however, methodological factors limited evidence quality. More prospective studies are required to corroborate existing evidence. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options: Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossert, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The analysis defines a baseline management approach for the estimated 1.2 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) expected to be generated from DOE deactivation and decommissioning activities, and compares two options using a net cost model. The baseline and competing options are described here. Baseline: Packaging and land disposal of RSM using standard DOE procedures, and procurement of a virgin-metal waste container (for comparative analysis with competing options). Option 1: RSM recycling by melting and fabrication into limited reuse products, generally waste containers. The analysis considers different types of waste container products. Option 2: RSM recycling by decontamination and release of scrap metal into commercial markets, and procurement of a comparable virgin-metal waste container. The analysis concludes that, for standard waste container products, the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 2 is lower than the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 1, considering the projected costs of melting RSM and fabricating drums and boxes. The analysis also suggests that the preferred products for recycling under Option 1 are specialized waste containers fabricated with high-value metals (e.g. stainless steel Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters). Other factors favoring each of the recycling options, are also identified.

  9. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    PubMed

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  10. Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness.

  12. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and immunogenicity comparability assessment strategies for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Wendy S; Prabhu, Saileta; Zheng, Yanan; Subramanyam, Meena; Wang, Yow-Ming C

    2010-10-01

    Regulatory guidance stipulates that comparability assessment is required to support manufacturing process changes during the development of a biological product or post-approval. However, strategies for assessing the comparability of pre- and post-change materials are still evolving. A hierarchical risk-based approach is recommended, starting with analytical testing to ensure quality, followed by biological characterization and, if needed, in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), PK-pharmacodynamic (PD), safety and/or efficacy studies. The need for an in vivo study and the type of study required depend on the magnitude and the potential impact of the changes and the timing in the development process. This review discusses factors affecting the PK, PD and immunogenicity of monoclonal antibodies, and provides guidance for determining non-clinical and clinical comparability assessment strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  14. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  15. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    PubMed Central

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  16. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility.

    PubMed

    Pendell, Dustin L; Marsh, Thomas L; Coble, Keith H; Lusk, Jayson L; Szmania, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms.

  17. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

  18. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  19. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  1. Economic impact of hospital closure on small rural counties, 1984 to 1988: demonstration of a comparative analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Probst, J C; Samuels, M E; Hussey, J R; Berry, D E; Ricketts, T C

    1999-01-01

    Hospital closure in a rural community may affect the locale's economic prospects as well as the health of its residents. Studies of economic effects have primarily relied on modeling techniques rather than observation of actual change. This study demonstrates the use of a comparative analysis approach for estimating the economic effects of hospital closure on small rural counties. The experiences of 103 small rural counties at which a hospital closed between 1984 and 1988 was compared with a matched group of counties at which no closure took place. "Comparable" counties were selected based on seven scales measuring the similarity between a closure county and potential comparisons. Three scales examined population and economic characteristics in the year before closure; two scales measured change throughout a three-year period preceding closure; and two scales measured change throughout a five-year period preceding closure. Closure effects were measured through a multivariate analysis of the post-closure economic history of closure and comparison counties. The key assumption is that similar counties should have similar experiences over time. If an event occurs within some of these counties but not others, this event should have visible effects. Comparative analysis suggested that earned income in closure counties (excluding farming and mining income) was lower than in comparison counties subsequent to closure and that labor force growth was similarly affected. A comparative analysis approach produces results that parallel those obtained from economic modeling and should be considered for further research.

  2. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  4. Evaluating ecological and economic benefits of a low-carbon industrial park based on millennium ecosystem assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 10(8) RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction.

  5. Evaluating Ecological and Economic Benefits of a Low-Carbon Industrial Park Based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 108 RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction. PMID:23365537

  6. Assessing the effects of global warming and local social and economic conditions on the malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Yang, H M; Ferreira, M U

    2000-06-01

    To show how a mathematical model can be used to describe and to understand the malaria transmission. The effects on malaria transmission due to the impact of the global temperature changes and prevailing social and economic conditions in a community were assessed based on a previously presented compartmental model, which describes the overall transmission of malaria. The assessments were made from the scenarios produced by the model both in steady state and dynamic analyses. Depending on the risk level of malaria, the effects on malaria transmission can be predicted by the temperature ambient or local social and-economic conditions.

  7. Economic burden of primary compared with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shah, D N; Aitken, S L; Barragan, L F; Bozorgui, S; Goddu, S; Navarro, M E; Xie, Y; DuPont, H L; Garey, K W

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the additional healthcare costs of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). To quantify inpatient treatment costs for CDI and length of stay among hospitalized patients with primary CDI only, compared with CDI patients who experienced recurrent CDI. This was a prospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized adult patients with primary CDI followed for three months to assess for recurrent CDI episodes. Total and CDI-attributable hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs were compared among patients who did or did not experience at least one recurrent CDI episode. In all, 540 hospitalized patients aged 62±17 years (42% males) with primary CDI were enrolled, of whom 95 patients (18%) experienced 101 recurrent CDI episodes. CDI-attributable median (interquartile range) LOS and costs (in US$) increased from 7 (4-13) days and $13,168 (7,525-24,456) for patients with primary CDI only versus 15 (8-25) days and $28,218 (15,050-47,030) for patients with recurrent CDI (P<0.0001, each). Total hospital median LOS and costs increased from 11 (6-22) days and $20,693 (11,287-41,386) for patients with primary CDI only versus 24 (11-48) days and $45,148 (20,693-82,772) for patients with recurrent CDI (P<0.0001, each). The median cost of pharmacological treatment while hospitalized was $60 (23-200) for patients with primary CDI only (N=445) and $140 (30-260) for patients with recurrent CDI (P=0.0013). This study demonstrated that patients with CDI experience a significant healthcare economic burden attributed to CDI. Economic costs and healthcare burden increased significantly for patients with recurrent CDI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  9. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacologic Pre- and Postconditioning With Sevoflurane Compared With Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Liver Surgery: A Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Urner, Martin; Twerenbold, Claudia; Kern, Sabine; Brügger, Urs; Spahn, Donat R.; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Ganter, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic pre- and postconditioning with sevoflurane compared with total IV anesthesia in patients undergoing liver surgery reduced complication rates as shown in 2 recent randomized controlled trials. However, the potential health economic consequences of these different anesthesia regimens have not yet been assessed. METHODS: An expostcost analysis of these 2 trials in 129 patients treated between 2006 and 2010 was performed. We analyzed direct medical costs for in-hospital stay and compared pharmacologic pre- and postconditioning with sevoflurane (intervention) with total IV anesthesia (control) from the perspective of a Swiss university hospital. Year 2015 costs, converted to US dollars, were derived from hospital cost accounting data and compared with a multivariable regression analysis adjusting for relevant covariables. Costs with negative prefix indicate savings and costs with positive prefix represent higher spending in our analysis. RESULTS: Treatment-related costs per patient showed a nonsignificant change by −12,697 US dollars (95% confidence interval [CI], 10,956 to −36,352; P = .29) with preconditioning and by −6139 US dollars (95% CI, 6723 to −19,000; P = .35) with postconditioning compared with the control group. Results were robust in our sensitivity analysis. For both procedures (control and intervention) together, major complications led to a significant increase in costs by 86,018 US dollars (95% CI, 13,839-158,198; P = .02) per patient compared with patients with no major complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this cost analysis, reduced in-hospital costs by pharmacologic conditioning with sevoflurane in patients undergoing liver surgery are suggested. This possible difference in costs compared with total IV anesthesia is the result of reduced complication rates with pharmacologic conditioning, because major complications have significant cost implications. PMID:28067701

  10. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  11. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products.

  12. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    economic uncertainties. Results indicate a significant potential for CCS in Austria and a very high probability for any CO2 storage activity. The assessment of the average practical capacity of the whole country is 120Mt at 15€/tCO2 of storage budget, while the average matched national capacity is 40Mt. Concerning the individual reservoirs, reservoir development probabilities generally lie between 20 and 30%. These numbers served as basis for a reservoir exploration ranking. Compared to current emissions, total storage capacity is at the low end, which is likely the main technical limiting factor for CCS deployment in Austria. Also, current policy seems not in favour of CCS. Storage capacity is however high enough to provide a significant contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the country, in the order of a few million tonnes per year. Opportunities to combine CO2 geological storage and geothermal energy seem promising, but require additional evaluation. Welkenhuysen, K., Ramirez, A., Swennen, R. & Piessens, K., 2013. Ranking potential CO2 storage reservoirs: an exploration priority list for Belgium. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 17, p. 431-449

  13. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  14. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  15. Combined solar heat and power system with a latent heat storage - system simulations for an economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Decentralized solar combined heat and power (CHP) systems can be economically feasible, especially when they have a thermal storage. In such systems, heat provided by solar thermal collectors is used to generate electricity and useful heat for e.g. industrial processes. For the supply of energy in times without solar irradiation, a thermal storage can be integrated. In this work, the performance of a solar CHP system using an active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger is investigated. Annual yield calculations are conducted in order to calculate annual energy gains and, based on them; economic assumptions are used to calculated economic numbers in order to assess the system performance. The energy savings of a solar system, compared to a system with a fossil fuel supply, are calculated. Then the net present value and the dynamic payback are calculated with these savings, the initial investment costs and the operational costs. By interpretation and comparison of these economic numbers, an optimum system design in terms of solar field size and storage size was determined. It has been shown that the utilization of such systems can be economical in remote areas without gas and grid connection. Optimal storage design parameters in terms of the temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the storage capacity have been determined which can further increase the net present value of such system.

  16. Development of a decision model for the techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste utilization pathways.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Jain, Siddharth; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    Economic competitiveness is one of the key factors in making decisions towards the development of waste conversion facilities and devising a sustainable waste management strategy. The goal of this study is to develop a framework, as well as to develop and demonstrate a comprehensive techno-economic model to help county and municipal decision makers in establishing waste conversion facilities. The user-friendly data-intensive model, called the FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of Cost of Energy and Fuels from MSW (FUNNEL-Cost-MSW), compares nine different waste management scenarios, including landfilling and composting, in terms of economic parameters such as gate fees and return on investment. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) model was developed to determine suitable locations for waste conversion facilities and landfill sites based on integration of environmental, social, and economic factors. Finally, a case study on Parkland County and its surrounding counties in the province of Alberta, Canada, was conducted and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the key technical and economic parameters on the calculated results.

  17. Using Vignettes to Compare the Quality of Clinical Care Variation in Economically Divergent Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John W; Tozija, Fimka; Muñoz, Jorge A; Nordyke, Robert J; Luck, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine whether clinical vignettes can measure variations in the quality of clinical care in two economically divergent countries. Data Source/Study Setting Primary data collected between February 1997 and February 1998 at two Veterans Affairs facilities in the United States and four government-run outpatient facilities in Macedonia. Study Design Randomly selected, eligible Macedonian and U.S. physicians (>97 percent participation rate) completed vignettes for four common outpatient conditions. Responses were judged against a master list of explicit quality criteria and scored as percent correct. Data Collection/ Extraction An ANOVA model and two-tailed t-tests were used to compare overall scores by case, study site, and country. Principal Findings The mean score for U.S. physicians was 67 percent (+/−11 percent) compared to 48 percent (+/−11 percent) for Macedonian physicians. The quality of clinical practice, which emphasizes basic skills, varied greatly in both sites, but more so in Macedonia. However, the top Macedonian physicians in all sites approached or—in one case—exceeded the median score in the U.S. sites. Conclusions Vignettes are a useful method for making cross-national comparisons of the quality of care provided in very different settings. The vignette measurements revealed that some physicians in Macedonia performed at a standard comparable to that of their counterparts in the United States, despite the disparity of the two health systems. We infer that in poorer countries, policy that promotes improvements in the quality of clinical practice—not just structural inputs—could lead to rapid improvements in health. PMID:15544639

  18. Comparing two forms of dynamic assessment and traditional assessment of preschool phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Thatcher Kantor, Patricia; Wagner, Richard K; Torgesen, Joseph K; Rashotte, Carol A

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic assessment was direct instruction of the phonological awareness tasks. The results indicate that preschool children's phonological awareness can be assessed using standard assessment procedures, provided the items require processing units larger than the individual phoneme. No advantage was found in reliability or validity for either dynamic assessment condition relative to the standard assessment condition. Dynamic assessment does not appear to improve reliability or validity of phonological awareness assessments when preschool children are given tasks that they can perform using standard administration procedures.

  19. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic assessment was direct instruction of the phonological awareness tasks. The results indicate that preschool children's phonological awareness can be assessed using standard assessment procedures, provided the items require processing units larger than the individual phoneme. No advantage was found in reliability or validity for either dynamic assessment condition relative to the standard assessment condition. Dynamic assessment does not appear to improve reliability or validity of phonological awareness assessments when preschool children are given tasks that they can perform using standard administration procedures. PMID:21685350

  20. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  1. Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William; Tavoni, Massimo; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Akimoto, Keigo; Blanford, Geoffrey; Carraro, Carlo; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James; Iyer, Gokul C.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Richels, Richard; Rose, Steven; Sano, Fuminori

    2016-11-01

    The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition towards an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2 °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination. Marginal costs rise almost proportionally with income, but full policy costs reveal more complex regional patterns due to terms of trade effects.

  2. Bio-oil transport by pipeline: a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-09-01

    Bio-oil, produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass, has high energy density compared to 'as received' biomass. The study assesses and compares the cost of transportation ($/liter of bio-oil) of bio-oil by pipeline and truck. The fixed and variable cost components of transportation of bio-oil at a pipeline capacity of 560 m(3)/day and to a distance of 100 km are 0.0423$/m(3) and 0.1201$/m(3)/km, respectively. Pipeline transportation of bio-oil costs less than transportation by liquid tank truck (load capacity 30 m(3)) and super B-train trailer (load capacity 60 m(3)) above pipeline capacities of 1000 and 1700 m(3)/day, respectively. When transportation distance is greater than 100 km, bio-oil must be heated at booster stations. When transporting bio-oil by pipeline to a distance of 400 km, minimum pipeline capacities of 1150 and 2000 m(3)/day are required to compete economically with liquid tank trucks and super B-train tank trailers, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Strategies of the Black and "Chicano" Movements in Achieving Economic and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Frequently references to spokesmen and issues of the Chicano movement for social and economic equality refer to prior experiences of the black American mass social movement. Through examining both mass social movements, it becomes obvious that exact comparisons are misleading. Numerous similarities in economic, social, and political suppression…

  4. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  5. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  6. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    PubMed

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  8. The 'plant economic spectrum' in bryophytes, a comparative study in subalpine forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Bader, Maaike Y; Feng, Defeng; Bao, Weikai

    2017-02-01

    Tradeoffs among functional traits of vascular plants are starting to be better understood, but it is unclear whether bryophytes possess similar tradeoffs or how trait relationships, or the 'economic spectrum', differ between the two groups. We determined functional-trait values [including shoot mass per area (SMA), light-saturated assimilation rate (Amass), dark respiration rate (Rdmass), N and P concentrations (Nmass and Pmass), and photosynthetic N and P use efficiency (PNUE and PPUE)] and their bivariate relationships for 28 bryophytes growing in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Trait values and scaling relationships of these bryophytes were compared with data for vascular plant leaves from the Global Plant Trait Network (GLOPNET) dataset. We found that the Amass, Nmass, N:P, PNUE and PPUE of bryophyte shoots were lower than those of vascular plant leaves. In contrast, bryophytes possessed higher Pmass and the two groups had similar values of SMA and Rdmass. The Nmass and Pmass were closely associated with Amass and Rdmass, and these traits were all significantly negatively related to SMA. Metabolic rates increased faster with nutrient concentrations in bryophytes than in vascular plants. Our research indicates that bryophytes have similar trait relationships as vascular plant leaves, although the slopes of the relationships differ for most trait combinations. This study confirms a functional-trait tradeoff in bryophytes, and reveals that bryophytes allocate greater proportions of N and P into the metabolic pools. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  10. Mathematical economics methods in assessing the effects of institutional factors on foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, M. A.; Nepp, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    Foreign trade activity (FT) is an essential driver of economic development; therefore, factors affecting its efficiency should be analysed. Along with the conventional economic factors affecting FT development, a focus should be given to institutional factors, whose role also cannot be neglected. Recent studies show institutional factors to produce both qualitative and quantitative effects on a country's economic development, with various criteria and assessment approaches having been developed for their estimation. This paper classifies mathematical methods used to assess the effect of institutional factors on FT efficiency. An analysis of conventional mathematical models describing the relationship between institutional factors and FT indicators is provided. Mathematical methods are currently the major instrument for the analysis of FT parameters and their dependence on various external factors.

  11. The role of decision analytic modeling in the health economic assessment of spinal intervention.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Natalie C; Skelly, Andrea C; Ziewacz, John E; Cahill, Kevin; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-10-15

    Narrative review. To review the common tenets, strengths, and weaknesses of decision modeling for health economic assessment and to review the use of decision modeling in the spine literature to date. For the majority of spinal interventions, well-designed prospective, randomized, pragmatic cost-effectiveness studies that address the specific decision-in-need are lacking. Decision analytic modeling allows for the estimation of cost-effectiveness based on data available to date. Given the rising demands for proven value in spine care, the use of decision analytic modeling is rapidly increasing by clinicians and policy makers. This narrative review discusses the general components of decision analytic models, how decision analytic models are populated and the trade-offs entailed, makes recommendations for how users of spine intervention decision models might go about appraising the models, and presents an overview of published spine economic models. A proper, integrated, clinical, and economic critical appraisal is necessary in the evaluation of the strength of evidence provided by a modeling evaluation. As is the case with clinical research, all options for collecting health economic or value data are not without their limitations and flaws. There is substantial heterogeneity across the 20 spine intervention health economic modeling studies summarized with respect to study design, models used, reporting, and general quality. There is sparse evidence for populating spine intervention models. Results mostly showed that interventions were cost-effective based on $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Spine care providers, as partners with their health economic colleagues, have unique clinical expertise and perspectives that are critical to interpret the strengths and weaknesses of health economic models. Health economic models must be critically appraised for both clinical validity and economic quality before altering health care policy, payment strategies, or

  12. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  13. Research on Novel Algorithms for Smart Grid Reliability Assessment and Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenjin

    In this dissertation, several studies of electric power system reliability and economy assessment methods are presented. To be more precise, several algorithms in evaluating power system reliability and economy are studied. Furthermore, two novel algorithms are applied to this field and their simulation results are compared with conventional results. As the electrical power system develops towards extra high voltage, remote distance, large capacity and regional networking, the application of a number of new technique equipments and the electric market system have be gradually established, and the results caused by power cut has become more and more serious. The electrical power system needs the highest possible reliability due to its complication and security. In this dissertation the Boolean logic Driven Markov Process (BDMP) method is studied and applied to evaluate power system reliability. This approach has several benefits. It allows complex dynamic models to be defined, while maintaining its easy readability as conventional methods. This method has been applied to evaluate IEEE reliability test system. The simulation results obtained are close to IEEE experimental data which means that it could be used for future study of the system reliability. Besides reliability, modern power system is expected to be more economic. This dissertation presents a novel evolutionary algorithm named as quantum evolutionary membrane algorithm (QEPS), which combines the concept and theory of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm and membrane computation, to solve the economic dispatch problem in renewable power system with on land and offshore wind farms. The case derived from real data is used for simulation tests. Another conventional evolutionary algorithm is also used to solve the same problem for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quick and accurate to obtain the optimal solution which is the minimum cost for electricity supplied by wind

  14. Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring

  15. Assessment of the Economic Losses Resulting from Land Subsidence in Bandung Basin, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Gumilar, I.; Andreas, H.; Fukuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Bandung Basin is a large intra-montane basin surrounded by volcanic highlands, in western Java, Indonesia, inhabited by more than seven million people. The basin, an area of about 2300 km2, is a highland plateau at approximately 650-700 m above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2400 m high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. Based on the results of 9 GPS surveys conducted since 2000 up to 2011 it was shown that several locations in the Bandung Basin have experienced land subsidence, with an average rate of about -8 cm/year and can go up to about -23 cm/year in certain locations. A similar rate of subsidence was also detected by the InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in Bandung basin could be seen in several forms, such as cracking of houses, permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. The tangible and intangible impacts of land subsidence cannot be underestimated. The primary environmental and economic effects of land subsidence phenomena can vary from negligible to severe depending on the present land-use nature of the affected area and the subsidence magnitude and coverage. The indirect effects of subsidence through aggravation of other hazards already present in the area are frequently more severe than the direct effects. In the case of Bandung basin, the increase in flooding coverage caused by continuing subsidence introduce more problems compared to other indirect effects of land subsidence. Land subsidence also Increases the maintenance costs for the affected buildings and infrastructure, and lowering the quality of living environment (e.g. health and sanitation condition) and ecosystem in the affected areas. Although not easy, quantitative assessment of economic losses resulting from land subsidence in Bandung basin has been carried out. Methodology and estimated

  16. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  17. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  18. Government use licenses in Thailand: an assessment of the health and economic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i) Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained and ii) increased productivity in US dollars (USD) as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI). Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive. Specifically, the policy

  19. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  20. 78 FR 15355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pilot Project Assessing Economic Benefits of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Project Assessing Economic Benefits of Marine Debris Removal AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for a new information collection. Under the authority of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (Marine Debris Act of 2012, 33 U.S.C. 1951 et seq., as amended by Title VI of Public Law...

  1. 77 FR 14726 - Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program Lands for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Conservation Reserve Program Lands for Hunting AGENCY: Farm Service Agency and Commodity Credit Corporation... with the Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Lands for Hunting. DATES: We will...

  2. Assessment of potential economic and environmental impacts caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Europe

    Treesearch

    Hella Kehlenbeck

    2008-01-01

    Economic and environmental impacts of Phytophthora ramorum in Europe were evaluated within the European Union framework 6 project on ?Risk Analysis for P. ramorum a pathogen threat to Europe? (RAPRA). Impact assessment was conducted according to three different scenarios: 1. ?Nursery System? - describes losses occurring in...

  3. Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to…

  4. Double-Shift Schooling and EFA Goals: Assessing Economic, Educational and Social Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the system of double-shift schooling and assess it from economic, social and educational angles referring to different cases from Sub-Saharan African countries. The paper makes an attempt to prove that despite certain challenges that it faces, the system of double-shift schooling is the best solution for poor…

  5. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  6. Economic assessment of using a mobile Micromill® for processing small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    Dennis R. Becker; Evan E. Hjerpe; Eini C. Lowell

    2004-01-01

    An economic assessment of an SLP5000 Diesel Micromill® was conducted to determine the maintenance and operation costs and the logistics of a mobile sawmill used to process small-diameter ponderosa pine. The Micromill® was first introduced in 1997 and has since received considerable attention. In 2003, the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station...

  7. Comparing Course Assessments: When Lower is Higher and Higher, Lower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Dobele, Tony; Greber, Myles; Roberts, Tim

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an exercise in determining the cognitive difficulty of the assessment tasks in six computing courses within an Information Technology (IT) degree, importing Bloom's taxonomy from the field of educational psychology as an analytical framework. Three of the six courses comprise a Programming stream and three a Data Communications and Networking stream. Bloom's taxonomy is described and we present other studies within computer science based on it. Next, we introduce the courses that were selected for the study and describe the process of analysis. The aggregated results are then presented and some inferences made. The results indicate that the programming courses required a relatively higher cognitive level in assessment tasks compared to the data communications and networking courses. This outcome suggests the need for alternative approaches to assessment.

  8. A GIS based European Hydro Power Atlas: a tool for technical and economical feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The service consists of a tool for quick technical and economic feasibility assessment of small hydropower sites, based on topography, hydrology, environmental flows and other constraints such as distance from existing electric grids. The system works in a web-mapping wrap and allows analysis at a scale comparable to common geo-browsing tools (such Google Earth ©), just like e.g. popular JRC's PVGIS for the estimation of photovoltaic potential. The system provides basically two levels of operation: (1) mapping of the hydropower potential at Europe or regional scale, and (2) preliminary assessment of hydropower production at a site specific level. In the first level, a map of the potential production is provided taking into account a predefined length of the diversion of water (derivation channel and penstock) and calculating related Hydraulic jump; the system combines then topographic information together with flow duration curve information for the whole European/regional stream network and operative hypothesis on maximum derivable flow and other relevant derivation parameters. In the second level user defines in detail project parameters (amount of withdrawal, length of derivation, distance from connection grid, type of turbine, local feed in tariff) and the system evaluates preliminary feasibility check (size of the plat, maximum allowed investment for a fixed for a payback time). Interface via Google Map/Earth © or similar geo-browsing tools will be provided. This tool is expected to play a role in promoting investment in pico-to micro-hydropower plants by making preliminary feasibility assessment much quicker and affordable, and providing reliable estimation of potential available resource, which may be a critical aspect in the development of small plants and for site scouting activity The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 603587 (SWITCH-ON).

  9. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  10. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  11. Social and economic assessment: A technical report used in amending the Rocky Mountain regional guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Socio-economic Assessment is threefold in nature: to describe the socio-economic forces at work within the rural and urban areas throughout the Rocky Mountain Region (the Region); to develop social and economic profiles for the Region as a whole and each of its eight subregions; and, finally, to describe the potential impacts of the above mentioned forces on the Region and to make recommendations for developing future strategies to facilitate coordination between the Forest Service, the various state, local, and other federal agencies, and Native American Indian tribes. This project involved the analysis of various social and economic variables in an attempt to determine the social and economic situation in the Rocky Mountain Region, and how it has been altered over the last three decades. To this end, data was collected on demographic changes, income growth, employment and unemployment, payrolls, number and size of firms, and SIC industrial breakdowns for various industries within each subregion and economic impact area.

  12. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  13. Economic deprivation and racial segregation: comparing Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chad L

    2009-09-01

    The research presented here weighs the ability of two major explanations of social inequality-Massey and Denton's racial segregation explanation and Wilson's emphasis on economic deprivation (concentrated poverty)-to predict environmental inequality. Two sets of logistic regression analyses are used to predict the location of Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan providing a conditional understanding of environmental inequality within a larger sociological context. The analysis includes a general examination of the two theories in all census tracts in both cities and a set of analyses focusing upon Black neighborhoods in Detroit. The findings indicate that there is support for explanations of environmental inequality that include both racial segregation and economic deprivation, but that the more powerful of the two is economic deprivation. The results suggest that even though African-American neighborhoods disproportionately house Superfund sites, these facilities are more likely to be located in Black neighborhoods that are economically deprived.

  14. Comparative life cycle assessment of three biohydrogen pathways.

    PubMed

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify and compare the energetic and environmental performances of hydrogen from wheat straw (WS-H(2)), sweet sorghum stalk (SSS-H(2)), and steam potato peels (SPP-H(2)). Inventory data were derived from a pilot plant. Impacts were assessed using the impact 2002+ method. When co-product was not considered, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5.60 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for WS-H(2), 5.32 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SSS-H(2), and 5.18 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SPP-H(2). BioH(2) pathways reduced GHG emissions by 52-56% compared to diesel and by 54-57% compared to steam methane reforming production of H(2). The energy ratios (ER) were also comparable: 1.08 for WS-H(2), 1.14 for SSS-H(2) and 1.17 for SPP-H(2). A shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) would therefore not affect the ER and GHG emissions of these BioH(2) pathways. When co-product was considered, a shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) or SSS-H(2) decreased the ER, while increasing the GHG emissions significantly. Co-product yield should be considered when selecting BioH(2) feedstocks.

  15. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  16. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  17. Comparing preference assessments: selection- versus duration-based preference assessment procedures.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piché, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15, 439-455] and a variation of a Free-Operant (FO) preference assessment procedure [Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a brief stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 605-620] were conducted with four participants. A reinforcer assessment was conducted to determine which preference assessment procedure identified the item that produced the highest rates of responding. The items identified as most highly preferred were different across preference assessment procedures for all participants. Results of the reinforcer assessment showed that the MSW identified the item that functioned as the most effective reinforcer for two participants.

  18. Comparative assessment of different drought indices across the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglioni, Michele; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Lombardo, Federico; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Droughts have become one of the most challenging issues in hydrological sciences due to their major socio-economic impacts all over the world. In the context of the everyday water resources management practice, the identification and evaluation of droughts are mainly based on simplified indices, which are estimated through easily accessible information. In this work, we employ several meteorological indices, i.e. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Palmer Drought Z Index, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), in order to evaluate the severity and duration of the observed drought events. The main purpose of this study is to underline the difference in the onset time of drought, the distance between events, and the discrepancies in the magnitude assessment for the same event. Various temporal aggregation scales, from one month to one year, have been considered in order to investigate the impacts of the adopted time scale on the drought characteristics. Our analysis focuses to the Mediterranean region, using data from Southern Italy and Greece.

  19. ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTEES: A SCOPING REVIEW OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Lewandowski, Amanda; Klenow, Tyler D; Orriola, John J; Miro, Rebecca M; Hill, Owen T; Raschke, Sylvia Ursula; Orendurff, Michael S; Highsmith, James T; Sutton, Bryce S

    2016-09-01

    Transtibial amputation (TTA) is life-altering emotionally, functionally, and economically. The economic impact to all stakeholders is largely unknown, as is the cost-effectiveness of prosthetic intervention. This scoping report's purpose was to determine if there is sufficient evidence to conduct a formal systematic review or meta-analysis in any particular prosthetic intervention area and to determine if any evidence statements could be synthesized relative to economic evaluation of interventions provided to patients with TTA. The scoping review revealed six articles representing three topical areas of transtibial care: Care Models, Prosthetic Treatment, and Prosthetic Sockets. All six articles were cost-identification or cost-consequence design and included a total of 704 subjects. Presently, it can be concluded with moderate confidence that specific weight-bearing and total-contact sockets for transtibial amputees are functionally and economically equivalent in the short term when costs, delivery time, and all stakeholder perspectives are considered. Long-term socket outcomes are relatively unexplored. Further primary research is needed beyond this to determine cost-effectiveness for other areas of transtibial prosthetic care although clinical outcomes are somewhat established through systematic review and meta-analysis in other areas of care. Conversely, evaluation of narrative economic reports relative to transtibial care may be sufficient to warrant further analysis. Guidance from the profession may also be useful in devising a strategy for how to assure economic analyses are a routine element of future prosthetic science.

  20. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  1. A comparison between two full-scale MBR and CAS municipal wastewater treatment plants: techno-economic-environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Laera, Giuseppe; Vaccari, Mentore; Svanström, Magdalena; Heimersson, Sara

    2017-07-01

    A holistic assessment procedure has been used in this study for comparing conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Technical, social, administrative, economic and environmental impacts have been evaluated based on 1 year of operational data from three full-scale lines (one MBR and two CAS) working in parallel in a large municipal treatment plant. The comparative assessment evidences a slight advantage of the conventional process in the studied case, essentially due to lower costs, complexity and energy consumption. On the other hand, the MBR technology has a better social acceptance and similar overall environmental footprint. Although these results are influenced by site-specific parameters and cannot be generalized, the assessment procedure allowed identifying the most important factors affecting the final scores for each technology and the main differences between the compared technologies. Local conditions can affect the relative importance of the assessed impacts, and the use of weighting factors is proposed for better tailoring the comparative assessment to the local needs and circumstances. A sensitivity analysis on the weighted final scores demonstrated how local factors are very important and must be carefully evaluated in the decision making process.

  2. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  3. Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M.

    2010-09-15

    Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

  4. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition.

  5. Appropriateness of plantar pressure measurement devices: a comparative technical assessment.

    PubMed

    Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Accurate plantar pressure measurements are mandatory in both clinical and research contexts. Differences in accuracy, precision and reliability of the available devices have prevented so far the onset of standardization processes or the definition of reliable reference datasets. In order to comparatively assess the appropriateness of the most used pressure measurement devices (PMD) on-the-market, in 2006 the Institute the author is working for approved a two-year scientific project aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods for both in-factory and on-the field assessment. A first testing phase was also performed which finished in December 2008. Five commercial PMDs using different technologies-resistive, elastomer-based capacitive, air-based capacitive-were assessed and compared with respect to absolute pressure measurements, hysteresis, creep and COP estimation. The static and dynamic pressure tests showed very high accuracy of capacitive, elastomer-based technology (RMSE<0.5%), and quite a good performance of capacitive, air-based technology (RMSE<5%). High accuracy was also found for the resistive technology by TEKSCAN (RMSE<2.5%), even though a complex ad hoc calibration was necessary.

  6. Comparing Preference Assessments: Selection- versus Duration-Based Preference Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piche, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). "Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods." "Research in Developmental Disabilities,…

  7. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Novel Mini-Laparoscopic Tools.

    PubMed

    Dorian, Emily D; DeAsis, Francis J; Lapin, Brittany; Amesbury, Robert; Tanaka, Ryota; Ujiki, Michael B

    2017-02-01

    Mini-laparoscopy, or needlescopy, is an emerging minimally invasive technique that aims to improve on standard laparoscopy in the areas of tissue trauma, pain, and cosmesis. The objective of this study was to determine if there was a difference in functionality between 2 novel mini-laparoscopic instruments when compared to standard laparoscopic tools. Differences were assessed in a simulated surgical environment. Twenty participants (5 novices, 10 intermediate, 5 expert) were recruited for this institutional review board-approved study in a surgical simulation training center. Group A tools were assembled intracorporeally, and Group B tools were assembled extracorporeally. Using standard laparoscopic graspers, mini-laparoscopic graspers, or a combination of both, each participant performed 3 basic laparoscopic training tasks: a Peg Transfer, Rubber Band Stretch, and Tootsie Roll Unwrapping. Following each round of tasks, participants completed a survey evaluating the mini-laparoscopic graspers with respect to standard laparoscopic graspers. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's test for post hoc comparisons. When comparing task times, both mini tools performed at the level of standard laparoscopic graspers in all participant groups. Group A tools were quicker to assemble and disassemble versus Group B tools. According to posttask surveys, all participant groups indicated that both sets of mini-laparoscopic graspers were comparable to the standard graspers. In a nonclinical setting, mini-laparoscopic instruments perform at the level of standard laparoscopic tools. Based on these results, clinical trials would be a reasonable next step in assessing feasibility and safety.

  9. On predicting future economic losses from tropical cyclones: Comparing damage functions for the Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Tobias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    for the Eastern USA until the year 2100. The projection is based on downscaling five different GCM model runs for the RCP8.5 scenario, as conducted by Emanuel et al. [7], and accounts for population and GDP changes relying on the newly developed Shared Socioenonomic Pathways (SSPs) [8]. We hereby contribute valuable input to the scientific community as well as the societies at risk. The possibility of extending this work to different regions in order to access the future impact of tropical cyclones on a global scale will also be discussed. References [1] Thomas R. Knutson, John L. McBride, Johnny Chan, Kerry Emanuel, Greg Holland, Chris Landsea, Isaac Held, James P. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and Masato Sugi. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience, 3(3):157-163, 2010. [2] Robert Mendelsohn, Kerry Emanuel, Shun Chonabayashi, and Laura Bakkensen. The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nature Climate Change, 2(3):205-209, 2012. [3] Silvio Schmidt, Claudia Kemfert, and Peter Höppe. The impact of socio-economics and climate change on tropical cyclone losses in the USA. Regional Environmental Change, 10(1):13-26, 2009. [4] William D. Nordhaus. The Economics of Hurricanes and Implications of Global Warming. Climate Change Economics, 01(01):1-20, 2010. [5] Kerry Emanuel. Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage. Weather, Climate, and Society, 3(4):261-268, 2011. [6] Richard J. Murnane and James B. Elsner. Maximum wind speeds and US hurricane losses. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(16):707, 2012. [7] Kerry Emanuel. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(30):12219-24, 2013. [8] Detlef P. van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi, and Richard Moss. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities. Global Environmental Change, 22

  10. Value for money: economic evaluation of two different caries prevention programmes compared with standard care in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F; Krol, M

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme or a non-operative caries treatment and prevention (NOCTP) programme. Information on resource use during the 3-year period was documented by the dental nurse at every patient visit, such as treatment time, travel time and travel distance. Caries increment scores (at D3MFS level) were used to assess effectiveness. Cost calculations were performed using bottom-up micro-costing. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were expressed as additional average costs per prevented DMFS. The ICERs compared with regular dental care from a health care system perspective and societal perspective were, respectively, EUR 269 and EUR 1,369 per prevented DMFS in the IPFA programme, and EUR 30 and EUR 100 in the NOCTP programme. The largest investments for the NOCTP group were made in the first year of the study; they decreased in the second and equalled the costs of control group in third year of the study. From both medical and economic points of view, the NOCTP strategy may be considered the preferred strategy for caries prevention.

  11. Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students' Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, Patrick U.

    2014-01-01

    The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics…

  12. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  13. A comparative assessment of statistical methods for extreme weather analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögl, Matthias; Laaha, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather exposure assessment is of major importance for scientists and practitioners alike. We compare different extreme value approaches and fitting methods with respect to their value for assessing extreme precipitation and temperature impacts. Based on an Austrian data set from 25 meteorological stations representing diverse meteorological conditions, we assess the added value of partial duration series over the standardly used annual maxima series in order to give recommendations for performing extreme value statistics of meteorological hazards. Results show the merits of the robust L-moment estimation, which yielded better results than maximum likelihood estimation in 62 % of all cases. At the same time, results question the general assumption of the threshold excess approach (employing partial duration series, PDS) being superior to the block maxima approach (employing annual maxima series, AMS) due to information gain. For low return periods (non-extreme events) the PDS approach tends to overestimate return levels as compared to the AMS approach, whereas an opposite behavior was found for high return levels (extreme events). In extreme cases, an inappropriate threshold was shown to lead to considerable biases that may outperform the possible gain of information from including additional extreme events by far. This effect was neither visible from the square-root criterion, nor from standardly used graphical diagnosis (mean residual life plot), but from a direct comparison of AMS and PDS in synoptic quantile plots. We therefore recommend performing AMS and PDS approaches simultaneously in order to select the best suited approach. This will make the analyses more robust, in cases where threshold selection and dependency introduces biases to the PDS approach, but also in cases where the AMS contains non-extreme events that may introduce similar biases. For assessing the performance of extreme events we recommend conditional performance measures that focus

  14. A systematic review assessing the economic impact of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Martin, Amber L; Huelin, Rachel; Wilson, David; Foster, Talia S; Mould, Joaquin F

    2013-05-01

    Sildenafil was the first oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor introduced as primary therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). In the 7 years following its market launch, sildenafil was prescribed by more than 750,000 physicians to more than 23 million men worldwide. To date, few studies have evaluated the economic impact of sildenafil in treating ED. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of sildenafil on health care costs for patients with ED in multiple countries. Economic outcomes including cost, cost-effectiveness, cost of illness, cost consequence, resource use, productivity, work loss, and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Using keywords related to economic outcomes and sildenafil, we systematically searched literature published between July 2001 and July 2011 using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Included articles pertained to costs, WTP, and economic evaluations. In the last 10 years, 12 studies assessed economic outcomes associated with sildenafil for ED. Most studies were conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom, with one study identified in Canada and one from Mexico. Six studies evaluated cost of illness, cost consequence, or cost of care, and four studies evaluated WTP or drug pricing by country in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United States and the United Kingdom, costs to health care systems have increased with demand for treatment. Cost analyses suggested that sildenafil would lower direct costs compared with other PDE5 inhibitors. U.S. and U.K. studies found that patients exhibited WTP for sildenafil. The two cost-effectiveness models we identified examined ED sub-groups, those with spinal cord injury and those with diabetes or hypertension. These models indicated favorable cost-effectiveness profiles for sildenafil compared with other active-treatment options in both Mexico and Canada. The relative value of sildenafil vs. surgically implanted prosthetic devices and other PDE5 inhibitors, is underscored

  15. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  16. Assessment of clinical and economic benefits of weight management with sibutramine in general practice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Ara, Roberta; Sterz, Raimund; Matiba, Bernd; Bergemann, Rito

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is associated with major health risks and a high economic burden impacting on health care systems. This study utilises the latest evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to explore and to assess the cost effectiveness of sibutramine in combination with diet and lifestyle advice compared to diet and lifestyle advice alone for the treatment of obese subjects without comorbidities at baseline in Germany. New evidence from recently published RCTs and post-marketing surveillance studies, including health economic data as well as quality of life (QoL) data, were used to model the long-term outcomes of weight management with sibutramine in German practice. German healthcare costs and new data from over 8,000 patients were analysed based on a recently published model. These new RCT data were used to model weight losses, proportion of responders to treatment, utilities by weight loss and variability in weight regain post-treatment. Costs and QoL benefits associated with weight loss (using SF-36 data from sibutramine trials), reduced incidence of coronary heart disease (using Framingham equations) and diabetes were used to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life year of sibutramine treatment. For 1,000 patients treated with sibutramine for 1 year, extrapolating outcomes over 4 further years, sibutramine is estimated to save 4.18 CHD events, 2.58 diabetes incident cases and give 51.5 more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The cost-utility analysis (CUA) estimates 13,706 euro per QALY gained. Results are sensitive to changes in weight loss, rate of weight regain and discounting rate. Although the non-pharmacological weight management programme in the comparator arm yielded higher weight losses than generally observed in clinical practice, these results demonstrate that additional sibutramine treatment is a cost effective therapy for an obese population without comorbidities in Germany. The CUA results are within the range generally accepted as cost

  17. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  18. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit.

  19. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  20. Assessment of health level and socio-economic characteristics of people working in the shipbuilding industry: a control group study.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Agoritsa; Roupa, Zoe; Sarafis, Pavlos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2014-10-09

    The health level of the population and the way people perceive it has been associated with their physical and mental health, as well as with their social and occupational characteristics. The comparative assessment of mental and health level in shipbuilding industry workers and general population and its relationship to social and economic parameters. A group of one hundred men working in the shipbuilding industry aged 51.8±8.2 years old and a control group of one hundred men of the general population aged 51.1±6.4 were studied. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire - 28 and Fagerstrom test and a form with demographic, occupational and economic status characteristics. The statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis. Twenty-six percent of the general population and 47% of men working in the shipbuilding industry assessed their health as moderate/poor. Higher median values of anxiety and depressive symptomatology were observed in individuals characterizing their health as moderate/poor (p<0.001), their work as physically too demanding and in individuals with high dependency on smoking (p<0.05). With regard to the parameter of physical complaints, people working in the shipbuilding industry, non-active employees and those with comorbidities were found more burdened in relation to the general population (p<0.05). Depressive disorders were more common in those stating that their economic situation had been significantly deteriorated and in individuals with chronic diseases, which also showed reduced social functioning (p<0.05). Health level and its individual dimensions are both associated with health self-assessment and occupational and economic status. The coexistence of chronic diseases and smoking dependence affects emotion and social functioning of individuals.

  1. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    PubMed

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  2. Assessing the Quality of Economic Evaluations of FDA Novel Drug Approvals: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Woersching, Alex L; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W

    2016-12-01

    To systematically review and assess the quality of the novel drugs' economic evaluation literature in print during the drugs' early commercial availability following US regulatory approval. MEDLINE and the United Kingdom National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were searched from 1946 through December 2011 for economic evaluations of the 50 novel drugs approved by the FDA in 2008 and 2009. The inclusion criteria were English-language, peer-reviewed, original economic evaluations (cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, cost-minimization, and cost-benefit analyses). We extracted and analyzed data from 36 articles considering 19 of the 50 drugs. Two reviewers assessed each publication's quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument and summarized study quality on a 100-point scale. Study quality had a mean of 70.0 ± 16.2 QHES points. The only study characteristics associated with QHES score (with P < 0.05) were having used modeling or advanced statistics, 75.1 versus 61.9 without; using quality-adjusted life years as an outcome, 75.9 versus 64.7 without; and cost-utility versus cost-minimization analysis, 75.9 versus 58.7. Studies most often satisfied quality aspects about stating study design choices and least often satisfied aspects about justifying design choices. The reviewed literature considered a minority of the 2008-2009 novel drugs and had mixed study quality. Cost-effectiveness stakeholders might benefit from efforts to improve the quality and quantity of literature examining novel drugs. Editors and reviewers may support quality improvement by stringently imposing economic evaluation guidelines about justifying study design choices. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of

  4. Comparative endocrinology of leptin: Assessing function in a phylogenetic context

    PubMed Central

    Londraville, Richard L.; Macotela, Yazmin; Duff, Robert J.; Easterling, Marietta R.; Liu, Qin; Crespi, Erica J.

    2014-01-01

    As we approach the end of two decades of leptin research, the comparative biology of leptin is just beginning. We now have several leptin orthologs described from nearly every major clade among vertebrates, and are moving beyond gene descriptions to functional studies. Even at this early stage, it is clear that non-mammals display clear functional similarities and differences with their better-studied mammalian counterparts. This review assesses what we know about leptin function in mammals and non-mammals, and gives examples of how these data can inform leptin biology in humans. PMID:24525452

  5. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  6. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  7. The Cost-Effectiveness of Wound-Edge Protection Devices Compared to Standard Care in Reducing Surgical Site Infection after Laparotomy: An Economic Evaluation alongside the ROSSINI Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E.; Pinkney, Thomas D.; Bartlett, David C.; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. Methods and Findings An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources. PMID:24748154

  8. The cost-effectiveness of wound-edge protection devices compared to standard care in reducing surgical site infection after laparotomy: an economic evaluation alongside the ROSSINI trial.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E; Pinkney, Thomas D; Bartlett, David C; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources.

  9. A comparative model and techno-economic analysis of next generation AON ethernet and TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Larsen, Claus Popp; Gavler, Anders; Lannoo, Bart; Chiaroni, Dominique; Popov, Mikhail

    2010-12-01

    A global reference model covering next generation active and passive networks has been developed for techno-economic evaluations, and an extensive techno-economic analysis with a focus on CAPEX has been performed for 10G TDM PON and 1G AON - both capable of delivering 1Gbit/s to end-users. Two major cases have been considered: urban and rural at green field deployment. The results show that AON is less expensive than PON solution in urban case while in rural case 10G TDM PON is more competitive.

  10. A life cycle assessment and economic analysis of the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment and technical economic analysis tools in evaluating a novel Scum-to-Biodiesel technology and compares the technology with scum digestion and combustion processes. The key variables that control environmental and economic performance are identified and discussed. The results show that all impacts examined for the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology are below zero indicating significant environmental benefits could be drawn from it. Of the three technologies examined, the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology has the best environmental performance in fossil fuel depletion, GHG emissions, and eutrophication, whereas combustion has the best performance on acidification. Of all process inputs assessed, process heat, glycerol, and methanol uses had the highest impacts, much more than any other inputs considered. The Scum-to-Biodiesel technology also makes higher revenue than other technologies. The diesel price is a key variable for its economic performance. The research demonstrates the feasibility and benefits in developing Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment facilities.

  11. Assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of utility scaled PV electricity production in the state of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruthie; Critttenden, John

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an increasingly popular source for renewable energy, is being deployed in places with solar insolation that is comparable to that in state of Georgia. This study assesses the feasibility and environmental impact of utility scale photovoltaic (PV) electricity production in Georgia by assessing the economic costs, avoided costs, health benefits, and environmental benefits. The cost of PV used in this study is 3.52 $/kW. The RETScreen model was employed to analyze the impact of incentives on the economic viability of the plants that produce 93 GWh, 371 GWh, and 1,484 GWh, respectively. 57% of the capital cost is required in the form of incentives or subsidies to make the projects economically feasible. The high estimated cost of cleaning the equivalent amount of emissions from a coal-fired power plant is $14.5 million, $58 million, and $232 million for a 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plant, respectively Avoided costs in health damages are estimated to be $28 million, $112 million, and $449 million and the numbers of jobs to be created are 2,500, 10,000, and 40,000 for 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plants, respectively. And, the cumulative value of renewable energy credits from a 50 MW, 200 MW, and a 800 MW plant are $59 million, $237 million, and $789 million, respectively.

  12. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  13. NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING – AN ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC AND NONPROLIFERATION BENEFITS

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Phillips, Jon R.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2009-06-11

    To enable the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes while discouraging the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology to additional countries, existing front- and back-end supplier States are considering a variety of approaches to encourage the establishment of Reliable Fuel Service & Supply (RFS&S) arrangements for providing fresh fuel and taking back of spent fuel. Important aspects of such a trade regime are the economic basis, the product offerings, and alternative business models for RFS&S arrangements. This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic and nonproliferation benefits of one type of RFS&S trade regime currently under active consideration: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Several different fuel leasing implementation models are evaluated to develop an understanding of the range of potential economic benefit to the lessee and, conversely, the economic liability to the lessor. Results suggest that while economic benefits are potentially substantial, these benefits also vary substantially depending on how a fuel leasing arrangement is implemented.

  14. Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

  15. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990-1992 to 2007-2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7-8% and sorghum prices by 19-20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 10(9) annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 10(9) annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000-390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990–1992 to 2007–2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. RESULTS Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7–8% and sorghum prices by 19–20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 109 annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 109 annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000–390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSION Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. PestManagement Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24318916

  17. Assessing the economic value of a new antidepressant. A willingness-to-pay approach.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, B J; Novosel, S; Torrance, G; Streiner, D

    1995-07-01

    Using the method of willingness to pay (WTP), this study assesses the value of a new antidepressant, moclobemide, relative to that of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), which have equivalent efficacy but less favourable adverse effect profiles. From a published meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials, we identified 7 adverse effects, the risk of which differed significantly between moclobemide and TCAs. We obtained risk reduction data and descriptions of adverse effects from interviews with 95 individuals who had mild to moderate depression and who had been taking one or more TCAs in the previous year. Using a visual analogue scale, respondents ranked and rated each adverse effect. Participants were then asked (using the scenario of additional out-of-pocket drug payment) to quantify the maximum amount that they would pay for a new drug that reduced each adverse effect by the specified probability. Blurred vision and tremor were ranked and rated as the most bothersome adverse effects, with dry mouth being the least bothersome. On average, respondents were willing to pay an additional $Can22 per month [95% confidence interval (CI) 16-28] to reduce the risk of blurred vision from 10 to 5%. The lowest WTP value was for reducing the risk of dry mouth from 40 to 15%, at $Can11 per month (95% CI 8-15). Although not measured directly, we derived 2 estimates of WTP for multiple (i.e. all 7) risk reductions. We obtained upper and lower WTP limits of $Can118 and $Can36 per month, respectively, depending upon aggregation assumptions. Compared with the TCAs amitriptyline and imipramine, the net cost of moclobemide is greater, but the overall net benefit (WTP minus cost) is ambiguous given uncertainty about WTP aggregation over adverse effects. However, compared with the TCAs desipramine and clomipramine, the net benefit of moclobemide is unambiguously positive. We conclude that the WTP approach is a potentially valuable tool that requires more development for use in

  18. Skin condition assessment: a comparative study of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, Ravindar M.; Wong, Joretta K.; Andrew, Jeremy J.; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Bufa; Imhof, Robert E.

    1996-05-01

    We report the results of a study aimed at comparing Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) with established techniques of assessing skin condition, namely evaporimetry (TEWL), skin dielectric constant measurement, ATR-FTIR and clinical assessment. Comparisons were made during a week-long study of the effects of intensive washing on the volar forearms of 14 subjects. The study also provided a comparison of skin condition after washing with two different cleansers, a mild isethionate betaine cleansing bar and a soap bar. The subject-averaged results from OTTER and TEWL were found to correlate with the clinical assessments, namely that intensive washing with the soap bar produces greater skin damage than with the isethionate betaine bar. Skin dielectric constant measurements were found to be sensitive to changes of skin condition other than hydration, as evidenced by a daily oscillation that dominate the results. The ATR-FTIR measurements proved difficult to evaluate, because of interfering calcium deposits from the soap bar. On the practical side, OTTER and skin dielectric constant measurements were found to be quicker and more convenient to use than TEWL and ATR-FTIR.

  19. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Human Development: A Comparative Analysis of Turkey and Azerbaijan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulaliyev, Mayis G.; Ok, Nuri I.; Musayeva, Fargana Q.; Efendiyev, Rufat J.; Musayeva, Jamila Q.; Agayeva, Samira R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to study the nature of liberalization as a specific economic process, which is formed and developed under the influence of the changing conditions of the globalization and integration processes in the society, as well as to identify the characteristic differences in the processes of liberalization of Turkey and Azerbaijan…

  20. Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, David

    2011-01-01

    Research on happiness casts doubt on the notion that increases in income generally bring greater happiness. This finding can be taken to imply that economic migration might fail to result in increased happiness for the migrants: migration as a means of increasing one's income might be no more effective in raising happiness than other means of…

  1. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  2. Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, David

    2011-01-01

    Research on happiness casts doubt on the notion that increases in income generally bring greater happiness. This finding can be taken to imply that economic migration might fail to result in increased happiness for the migrants: migration as a means of increasing one's income might be no more effective in raising happiness than other means of…

  3. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  4. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Revisited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2009-01-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up…

  5. Economic and environmental assessment of propionic acid production by fermentation using different renewable raw materials.

    PubMed

    Tufvesson, Pär; Ekman, Anna; Sardari, Roya R R; Engdahl, Kristina; Tufvesson, Linda

    2013-12-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of glycerol as a renewable resource has been suggested as a means for developing an environmentally-friendly route for this commodity chemical. However, in order to quantify the environmental benefits, life cycle assessment of the production, including raw materials, fermentation, upstream and downstream processing is required. The economic viability of the process also needs to be analysed to make sure that any environmental savings can be realised. In this study an environmental and economic assessment from cradle-to-gate has been conducted. The study highlights the need for a highly efficient bioprocess in terms of product titre (more than 100g/L and productivity more than 2g/(L · h)) in order to be sustainable. The importance of the raw materials and energy production for operating the process to minimize emissions of greenhouse gases is also shown.

  6. Social class variation in risk: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of economic vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Christopher T; Maître, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    A joint concern with multidimensionality and dynamics is a defining feature of the pervasive use of the terminology of social exclusion in the European Union. The notion of social exclusion focuses attention on economic vulnerability in the sense of exposure to risk and uncertainty. Sociological concern with these issues has been associated with the thesis that risk and uncertainty have become more pervasive and extend substantially beyond the working class. This paper combines features of recent approaches to statistical modelling of poverty dynamics and multidimensional deprivation in order to develop our understanding of the dynamics of economic vulnerability. An analysis involving nine countries and covering the first five waves of the European Community Household Panel shows that, across nations and time, it is possible to identify an economically vulnerable class. This class is characterized by heightened risk of falling below a critical resource level, exposure to material deprivation and experience of subjective economic stress. Cross-national differentials in persistence of vulnerability are wider than in the case of income poverty and less affected by measurement error. Economic vulnerability profiles vary across welfare regimes in a manner broadly consistent with our expectations. Variation in the impact of social class within and across countries provides no support for the argument that its role in structuring such risk has become much less important. Our findings suggest that it is possible to accept the importance of the emergence of new forms of social risk and acknowledge the significance of efforts to develop welfare states policies involving a shift of opportunities and decision making on to individuals without accepting the 'death of social class' thesis.

  7. Economic evaluation of zuclopenthixol acetate compared with injectable haloperidol in schizophrenic patients with acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Laurier, C; Kennedy, W; Lachaine, J; Gariepy, L; Tessier, G

    1997-01-01

    Zuclopenthixol acetate is a rapid-acting, injectable neuroleptic drug with a duration of action that allows for administration once every 2 to 3 days, in contrast to injectable haloperidol, which may require administration more than once daily. To assess the place of zuclopenthixol acetate in the treatment of acute episodes of schizophrenia, a cost-consequence analysis was performed comparing this new medication with short-acting, injectable haloperidol. The perspective of the Quebec health care system was adopted. The study population comprised patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who experienced an acute episode of psychosis and who were treated with intramuscular (i.m.) haloperidol. The study assessed patients for 9 days after the start of treatment. The literature was the principal source of comparative data about the clinical outcomes of the two treatments. The total cost associated with zuclopenthixol acetate i.m. or haloperidol i.m. was modeled using a decision tree built around the number of i.m. injections required to achieve stabilization. To establish costs, expert panels were consulted and patients' files were reviewed for a sample of schizophrenic patients who had been hospitalized in a large psychiatric or general hospital subsequent to a visit to the emergency department and had received a short-acting i.m. neuroleptic drug. Only a direct medical records costs were considered. Because zuclopenthixol acetate was not on the market at the time of the study, the file review did not allow for a direct estimate of its related costs but did provide an account of haloperidol use. The literature shows that zuclopenthixol acetate is similar to haloperidol with respect to the control of psychotic episodes; however, zuclopenthixol acetate is associated with increased sedation and a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. Using the base-case estimate for the number of injections required for stabilization, the incremental cost of zuclopenthixol acetate 50 mg

  8. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed as significant sources of information about the effectiveness of science education. However, these assessments do not provide information about the reasons for particular effectiveness-or more importantly a lack thereof-as these assessments are based on one-time measurements of student achievement. In order to identify reasons for the effectiveness of science education, it is necessary to investigate students' learning as a result of science instruction. In this manuscript we report about the development of an instrument to assess students' learning in the field of electricity and the use of this instrument to collect data from N = 2,193 middle school students in Finland, Germany and Switzerland prior to and after instruction on the topic of electricity. Our findings indicate that the differences in students' science achievement as observed in large-scale assessments are a result of differences in students' science learning. And our findings suggest that these differences are more likely to stem from differences in science instruction than from systemic differences: a result that needs to be further explored by analyzing instruction in the three countries and its effect on students' learning.

  9. Assessment of the Status of Implementation of Response to Intervention in High, Average, and Low Economic Resource-Need Long Island School Districts: Feedback from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siciliano, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare Long Island special education directors' early assessments of the implementation of Response to intervention (RTI) in high, average, and low economic resource-need Long Island school districts in an attempt to provide the field feedback to better guide and operationalize the Individuals with…

  10. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

  11. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  12. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  13. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  14. Assessing economic and social pressure for the control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Gunn, G J; Saatkamp, H W; Humphry, R W; Stott, A W

    2005-11-15

    The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary assessment of variation in the economic impact of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) at dairy farm level between a sample of nations within the EU and hence assess differences in pressure to respond to this disease that may be impeding progress in control and hence restricting collective benefits from healthier livestock. We used a questionnaire to obtain national average values of key epidemiological and economic parameters for a typical dairy farm from BVDV experts in the countries concerned. These parameters were converted into assessments of economic impact using a computer simulation model. Uncontrolled output losses for a BVDV-naïve herd with virus introduced in year 1 of a 10-year epidemic represented 22, 7, 8, 5, 8 and 20% of the BVDV-free annuity for the UK, Northern Portugal, Holland, Norway, Italy and Germany, respectively. Differences between countries will be widened by differences in the risk of acquiring BVDV. These will be much reduced in countries, such as Norway that have a national BVDV eradication programme. Farmers in such countries can therefore justify spending much less on maintaining BVDV-free status than BVDV-free farms in other countries. This result illustrates the paradox that in countries where BVDV prevalence is high, farmers have least to gain from unilateral BVDV eradication because of the high cost of maintaining freedom from the disease. We discuss this issue in the light of increasing recognition at international level of the importance of BVDV control.

  15. Bioterrorism in Canada: An economic assessment of prevention and postattack response.

    PubMed

    St John, R; Finlay, B; Blair, C

    2001-09-01

    The present paper calculates the human and economic consequences of a bioterrorist attack on Canadian soil using aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum. The study assumed that 100,000 people in a Canadian suburban neighbourhood were exposed over a 2 h period to an infectious dose of one of the agents. Using an epidemic curve based on the epidemiology and management of anthrax and botulinum poisoning, the costs of intervention and treatment after an attack were compared with the costs of preparedness before a bioterrorist attack. The results show that an investment in planning and preparedness to manage the consequences of an attack can reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The sooner that an intervention program is instituted, the more significant are the health and economic benefits. The greatest benefits were realized when postattack intervention was initiated before day 3 after the event. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack in Canada could range from $6.4 billion/100,000 exposed to B anthracis to $8.6 billion/100,000 exposed in an attack using C botulinum. Without the benefit of an effective consequence management program, predicted deaths totalled 32,875 from anthrax and 30,000 from botulinum toxin. Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program that includes the stockpiling of antibiotics, vaccines and antitoxins; training of first responders in the diagnosis, handling and treatment of pathogens; and the general enhancement of Canada's response capability would reduce both human and economic losses.

  16. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  17. Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lara; Furusjö, Erik; Kirtania, Kawnish; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Anheden, Marie; Wolf, Jens

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25€/MWh to be economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

  19. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  1. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-15

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  2. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  3. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steve; Keegan, Conor; Barry, Sarah; Layte, Richard; Jowett, Matt; Normand, Charles

    2013-10-30

    The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess

  4. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory

  5. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  6. Separating Macroecological Pattern and Process: Comparing Ecological, Economic, and Geological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form (‘first-order effects’), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns (‘second-order effects’). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems. PMID:25383874

  7. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask`s primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives.

  8. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  9. Comparative economic analysis of three processes for mineral recovery from fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, C.

    1983-12-30

    A review of the economic analyses of the lime-soda sinter, Hichlor, and direct acid leach processes to remove metals from flyash was conducted. Aluminum, iron, and possibly titanium recovery were emphasized. Data on the metals content of fly ash were collected and analyzed based on types of coal actually burned in coal-fired power plants in each state and DOE region. Results are presented. (PSB)

  10. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study.

  11. Comparing life cycle assessments of different biofuel options.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alissa; Yuan, Juhong

    2013-06-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has shown that first generation biofuels provide a little to no benefit for greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions compared to petroleum fuels, particularly when indirect effects are considered. Second generation fuels are intended to achieve greater GHG reductions and avoid other sustainability issues. LCAs of second generation biofuels exhibit great variability and uncertainty, leading to inconclusive results for the performance of particular pathways (combinations of feedstocks and fuels). Variability arises in part because of the prospective nature of LCAs for future fuels; however, a review of recent articles on biofuel LCA methodology indicates two additional sources of variability: real sources such as spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and methodological sources such as choices for co-product allocation methods and system boundary definition.

  12. Coaches' assessment of their coaching efficacy compared to athletes' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Short, Sandra E; Short, Martin W

    2004-10-01

    This study compared coaches' assessments of their own coaching efficacy with their athletes' perceptions of the coaches' efficacy. Coaching efficacy was measured with the Coaching Efficacy Scale. Participants were 9 football coaches and 76 football players from the same team. Analysis indicated coaches were confident in their coaching abilities (range 6.5 to 9.0 on a 9-point scale). For 7 of the 9 coaches the coaches' ratings of themselves were higher than the athletes' ratings. For the other 2 coaches, athletes' ratings of coaches' efficacy were higher than the coaches' ratings of themselves. All coaches' ratings fell within the 95% confidence interval based on the athletes' ratings of the coaches' efficacy. Results are discussed in terms of the interplay between athletes and coaches efficacy beliefs and its influence on behavior.

  13. Collaborative framework for PIV uncertainty quantification: comparative assessment of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Neal, Douglas R.; Smith, Barton L.; Warner, Scott O.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    A posteriori uncertainty quantification of particle image velocimetry (PIV) data is essential to obtain accurate estimates of the uncertainty associated with a given experiment. This is particularly relevant when measurements are used to validate computational models or in design and decision processes. In spite of the importance of the subject, the first PIV uncertainty quantification (PIV-UQ) methods have been developed only in the last three years. The present work is a comparative assessment of four approaches recently proposed in the literature: the uncertainty surface method (Timmins et al 2012), the particle disparity approach (Sciacchitano et al 2013), the peak ratio criterion (Charonko and Vlachos 2013) and the correlation statistics method (Wieneke 2015). The analysis is based upon experiments conducted for this specific purpose, where several measurement techniques are employed simultaneously. The performances of the above approaches are surveyed across different measurement conditions and flow regimes.

  14. Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    The use of concept inventories to investigate students' learning gains is common in physics education research. However, comparatively little research has compared students' learning gains on concept inventories with other more traditional assessments in the classroom. We present a study comparing second semester calculus-based physics students' performance on traditional classroom assessments including exams and homework with learning gains on SEMCO (Survey of Electricity, Magnetism, Circuits and Optics), which was previously created by combining questions on other conceptual surveys such as CSEM and DIRECT. We report on students' performance on specific items on SEMCO and corresponding traditional classroom assessments that are based on the same topic. Our results indicate that while the overall performance on SEMCO might correlate with aggregate performance on class exams, the performance on clusters of SEMCO items that assess conceptual understanding in various topical areas does not correlate as strongly with performance on corresponding traditional exams. These results raise some potentially interesting issues on the validity and usefulness of traditional classroom assessments and conceptual assessments that are often used to measure student learning in introductory physics.

  15. Comparative assessment of three standardized robotic surgery training methods.

    PubMed

    Hung, Andrew J; Jayaratna, Isuru S; Teruya, Kara; Desai, Mihir M; Gill, Inderbir S; Goh, Alvin C

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate three standardized robotic surgery training methods, inanimate, virtual reality and in vivo, for their construct validity. To explore the concept of cross-method validity, where the relative performance of each method is compared. Robotic surgical skills were prospectively assessed in 49 participating surgeons who were classified as follows: 'novice/trainee': urology residents, previous experience <30 cases (n = 38) and 'experts': faculty surgeons, previous experience ≥30 cases (n = 11). Three standardized, validated training methods were used: (i) structured inanimate tasks; (ii) virtual reality exercises on the da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA); and (iii) a standardized robotic surgical task in a live porcine model with performance graded by the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) tool. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate performance differences between novices and experts (construct validity). Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to measure the association of performance across inanimate, simulation and in vivo methods (cross-method validity). Novice and expert surgeons had previously performed a median (range) of 0 (0-20) and 300 (30-2000) robotic cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Construct validity: experts consistently outperformed residents with all three methods (P < 0.001). Cross-method validity: overall performance of inanimate tasks significantly correlated with virtual reality robotic performance (ρ = -0.7, P < 0.001) and in vivo robotic performance based on GEARS (ρ = -0.8, P < 0.0001). Virtual reality performance and in vivo tissue performance were also found to be strongly correlated (ρ = 0.6, P < 0.001). We propose the novel concept of cross-method validity, which may provide a method of evaluating the relative value of various forms of skills education and assessment. We externally confirmed the construct validity of each featured training tool. © 2013 BJU

  16. Comparative assessment of clinical rating scales in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Volpert, Hanna M; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Gröner, Jan B; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Schäfer, Mark; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Weiler, Markus

    2017-07-21

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in multifaceted neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The objective of the study was to comparatively assess two clinical rating scales for WD, the Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) and the Global Assessment Scale for Wilson's disease (GAS for WD), and to test the feasibility of the patient reported part of the UWDRS neurological subscale (termed the "minimal UWDRS"). In this prospective, monocentric, cross-sectional study, 65 patients (median age 35 [range: 15-62] years; 33 female, 32 male) with treated WD were scored according to the two rating scales. The UWDRS neurological subscore correlated with the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.80; p < 0.001). Correlations of the UWDRS hepatic subscore and the GAS for WD Tier 1 score with both the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (r = 0.44/r = 0.28; p < 0.001/p = 0.027) and the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.32/r = 0.12; p = 0.015/p = 0.376) were weak. The "minimal UWDRS" score significantly correlated with the UWDRS total score (r = 0.86), the UWDRS neurological subscore (r = 0.89), and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.86). The UWDRS neurological and psychiatric subscales and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score are valuable tools for the clinical assessment of WD patients. The "minimal UWDRS" is a practical prescreening tool outside scientific trials.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancy: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    N., Dilip Kumar; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G., Arun Kumar; K.R., Sridhar; B.R., Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit’s appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Materials and Methods Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient’s reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. Statistical Analysis The data was subjected to statistical analysis student’s t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. Results In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°–34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Conclusion Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal

  18. Comparative assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy: a cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Aparna, P; Kumar, Dilip N; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G, Arun Kumar; K R, Sridhar; B R, Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-04-01

    Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit's appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient's reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. The data was subjected to statistical analysis student's t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°-34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal.

  19. An Assessment of Direct and Indirect Economic Losses of Climatic Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, C.; Willner, S. N.; Wenz, L.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risk of extreme weather events like storms, heat extremes, and floods has already risen due to anthropogenic climate change and is likely to increase further under future global warming. Additionally, the structure of the global economy has changed importantly in the last decades. In the process of globalization, local economies have become more and more interwoven forming a complex network. Together with a trend towards lean production, this has resulted in a strong dependency of local manufacturers on global supply and value added chains, which may render the economic network more vulnerable to climatic extremes; outages of local manufacturers trigger indirect losses, which spread along supply chains and can even outstrip direct losses. Accordingly, in a comprehensive climate risk assessment these inter-linkages should be considered. Here, we present acclimate, an agent based dynamic damage propagation model. Its agents are production and consumption sites, which are interlinked by economic flows accounting for the complexity as well as the heterogeneity of the global supply network. Assessing the economic response on the timescale of the adverse event, the model permits to study temporal and spatial evolution of indirect production losses during the disaster and in the subsequent recovery phase of the economy. In this study, we focus on the dynamic economic resilience defined here as the ratio of direct to total losses. This implies that the resilience of the system under consideration is low if the high indirect losses are high. We find and assess a nonlinear dependence of the resilience on the disaster size. Further, we analyze the influence of the network structure upon resilience and discuss the potential of warehousing as an adaptation option.

  20. Economic evaluations of comprehensive geriatric assessment in surgical patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2017-10-01

    Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  3. Tipping elements and climate-economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Shwom, Rachael L.; Wagner, Gernot; Yuan, Jiacan

    2016-08-01

    The literature on the costs of climate change often draws a link between climatic "tipping points" and large economic shocks, frequently called "catastrophes." The phrase "tipping points" in this context can be misleading. In popular and social scientific discourse, "tipping points" involve abrupt state changes. For some climatic "tipping points," the commitment to a state change may occur abruptly, but the change itself may be rate-limited and take centuries or longer to realize. Additionally, the connection between climatic "tipping points" and economic losses is tenuous, although emerging empirical and process-model-based tools provide pathways for investigating it. We propose terminology to clarify the distinction between "tipping points" in the popular sense, the critical thresholds exhibited by climatic and social "tipping elements," and "economic shocks." The last may be associated with tipping elements, gradual climate change, or nonclimatic triggers. We illustrate our proposed distinctions by surveying the literature on climatic tipping elements, climatically sensitive social tipping elements, and climate-economic shocks, and we propose a research agenda to advance the integrated assessment of all three.

  4. A review of the economic tools for assessing new medical devices.

    PubMed

    Craig, Joyce A; Carr, Louise; Hutton, John; Glanville, Julie; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Sims, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Whereas the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals is an established practice within international health technology assessment (HTA) and is often produced with the support of comprehensive methodological guidance, the equivalent procedure for medical devices is less developed. Medical devices, including diagnostic products, are a rapidly growing market in healthcare, with over 10,000 medical technology patent applications filed in Europe in 2012-nearly double the number filed for pharmaceuticals. This increase in the market place, in combination with the limited, or constricting, budgets that healthcare decision makers face, has led to a greater level of examination with respect to the economic evaluation of medical devices. However, methodological questions that arise due to the unique characteristics of medical devices have yet to be addressed fully. This review of journal publications and HTA guidance identified these characteristics and the challenges they may subsequently pose from an economic evaluation perspective. These unique features of devices can be grouped into four categories: (1) data quality issues; (2) learning curve; (3) measuring long-term outcomes from diagnostic devices; and (4) wider impact from organisational change. We review the current evaluation toolbox available to researchers and explore potential future approaches to improve the economic evaluation of medical devices.

  5. Integrated regional modeling assessment of the environmental and economic potential of perennial grass bioenergy feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S.; Wang, W.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses have been proposed as viable bioenergy crops because of their potential to yield harvestable biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by storing carbon in soil. Switchgrass, miscanthus, and restored native prairie are among the crops being considered in the corn and agricultural regions of the eastern United States. In this study, we used an extensive dataset of site observations for each of these crops to evaluate and improve a combined ecosystem and economic modeling framework about how both yield and GHG fluxes would respond to different land use strategies. Using this model-data integration approach, we found 30-75% improvement in our predictions over previous studies and good model-data agreement of harvested yields and soil carbon stocks (r2 > 0.62 for all crops). We found that growing perennial grasses would result in average onsite GHG reductions of 0.5-2.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1compared to a corn-soy baseline, not including fossil fuel offsets. If grown on marginal lands, average onsite GHG reductions remain significant at 0.3-1.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1. After conversion to bioenergy and complete life cycle assessment, offsite GHG savings can increase by up to 150%, providing a dry biomass supply of 11-22 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for energy use. Preliminary model results of the abatement cost range between 62- 250 per ton of CO2e abated. While a carbon tax would provide an incentive, we find that it would need to be larger than the abatement cost to induce production of cellulosic biofuels.

  6. Assessing the production and economic benefits from preventing cows grazing on wet soils in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Seth; Houlbrooke, David J; Beukes, Pierre C

    2016-10-01

    Intensive grazing by cattle on wet pasture can have a negative effect on soil physical quality and future pasture production. On a North Otago dairy farm in New Zealand, experimental plots were monitored for four years to assess whether preventing cow grazing of wet pastures during the milking season would improve soil structure and pasture production compared with unrestricted access to pastures. The DairyNZ Whole Farm Model was used to scale up results to a farm system level and ascertain the cost benefit of deferred grazing management. Soils under deferred grazing management had significantly higher total porosity, yet no significant improvement in macroporosity (values ranging between 0.112 and 0.146 m(3)  m(-3) ). Annual pasture production did not differ between the control and deferred grazing treatments, averaging 17.0 ± 3.8 and 17.9 ± 4.1 t DM ha(-1) year(-1) respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, whole farm modelling indicated that farm operating profit was reduced by NZ$1683 ha(-1) year(-1) (four-year average) under deferred grazing management. Deferring dairy cow grazing from wet Pallic soils in North Otago was effective in improving soil structure (measured as total soil porosity), yet did not lead to a significant increase in pasture production. Whole farm modelling indicated no economic benefit of removing cows from wet soils during the milking season. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Assessing and Comparing Global Health Competencies in Rehabilitation Students

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Globalization is contributing to changes in health outcomes and healthcare use in many ways, including health professionals' practices. The objective of this study was to assess and compare global health competencies in rehabilitation students. Method. Online cross-sectional survey of physiotherapy and occupational therapy students from five universities within Ontario. We used descriptive statistics to analyze students' perceived knowledge, skills, and learning needs in global health. We used Chi-square tests, with significance set at P < 0.05, to compare results across professions. Results. One hundred and sixty-six students completed the survey. In general, both physiotherapy and occupational therapy students scored higher on the “relationship between work and health,” “relationship between income and health,” and “socioeconomic position (SEP) and impact on health” and lower on “Access to healthcare for low income nations,” “mechanisms for why racial and ethnic disparities exist,” and “racial stereotyping and medical decision making.” Occupational therapy students placed greater importance on learning concerning social determinants of health (P = 0.03). Conclusion. This paper highlights several opportunities for improvement in global health education for rehabilitation students. Educators and professionals should consider developing strategies to address these needs and provide more global health opportunities in rehabilitation training programs. PMID:24381763

  8. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  9. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project.

  10. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of sewage sludge wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Svanström, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to minimise sludge production and contamination. In order to avoid a shifting of burdens between different areas, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. Wet oxidation (WO) is an alternative solution to incineration for recovering energy in sewage sludge while converting it to mostly inorganic residues. This paper deals with an experimentation carried out within the EU project "ROUTES". A mass balance was made for a WWTP (500,000 person equivalents) in which a WO stage for sludge minimisation was considered to be installed. Both bench- and full-scale test results were used. Design of treatment units and estimation of capital and operational costs were then performed. Subsequently, technical and economic aspects were evaluated by means of a detailed methodology which was developed within the ROUTES project. Finally, an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective was performed. The integrated assessment showed that for the specific upgrade considered in this study, WO technology, although requiring a certain increase of technical complexity at the WWTP, may contribute to environmental and economic advantages. The paper provides guidance in terms of which aspects need a more thorough evaluation in relation to the specific case in which an upgrade with WO is considered.

  11. Comparison of AOPs for the removal of natural organic matter: performance and economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Murray, C A; Parsons, S A

    2004-01-01

    Control of disinfection by-products during water treatment is primarily achieved by reducing the levels of organic precursor species prior to chlorination. Many waters contain natural organic matter at levels up to 15 mg L(-1); therefore it is necessary to have a range of control methods to support conventional coagulation. Advanced oxidation processes are such processes and in this paper the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes along with photocatalysis are assessed for their NOM removal potential. The performance of each process is shown to be dependent on pH and chemical dose as well as the initial NOM concentration. Under optimum conditions the processes achieved greater than 90% removal of DOC and UV254 absorbance. This removal led to the THMFP of the source water being reduced from 140 to below 10 microg L(-1), well below UK and US standards. An economic assessment of the processes revealed that currently such processes are not economic. With advances in technology and tightening of water quality standards these processes should become economically feasible options.

  12. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Comparative economics of a 12-gene assay for predicting risk of recurrence in stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Steven R; Yu, Tiffany M; Behrens, Robert J; Renfro, Lindsay A; Srivastava, Geetika; Soori, Gamini S; Dakhil, Shaker R; Mowat, Rex B; Kuebler, John P; Kim, George P; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A; Hornberger, John

    2014-12-01

    Prior economic analysis that compared the 12-gene assay to published patterns of care predicted the assay would improve outcomes while lowering medical costs for stage II, T3, mismatch-repair-proficient (MMR-P) colon cancer patients. This study assessed the validity of those findings with real-world adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) recommendations from the US third-party payer perspective. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients using guideline-compliant, state-transition probability estimation methods in a Markov model. A study of 141 patients from 17 sites in the Mayo Clinic Cancer Research Consortium provided aCT recommendations before and after knowledge of the 12-gene assay results. Progression and adverse events data with aCT regimens were based on published literature. Drug and administration costs for aCT were obtained from 2014 Medicare Fee Schedule. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the drivers and robustness of the primary outcomes. After receiving the 12-gene assay results, physician recommendations in favor of aCT decreased 22 %; fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and FOLFOX recommendations each declined 11 %. Average per-patient drugs, administration, and adverse events costs decreased $US2,339, $US733, and $US3,211, respectively. Average total direct medical costs decreased $US991. Average patient well-being improved by 0.114 QALYs. Savings are expected to persist even if the cost of oxaliplatin drops by >75 % due to generic substitution. This study provides evidence that real-world changes in aCT recommendations due to the 12-gene assay are likely to reduce direct medical costs and improve well-being for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients.

  14. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  15. Comparative Assessment of Lixisenatide, Exenatide, and Liraglutide Pen Devices

    PubMed Central

    Enginee, Diplom; Elton, Hina; Penfornis, Alfred; Edelman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a relatively recent addition to the treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are administered using prefilled pen devices. Method: In this open-label task and interview-based pilot study, 3 GLP-1 receptor agonist pen devices—exenatide (Byetta®, Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZeneca), liraglutide (Victoza®, Novo Nordisk), and lixisenatide (Lyxumia®, Sanofi-Aventis)—were comparatively assessed in a randomized order in 30 participants with T2DM for ease of use, using a series of key performance measures (time taken to complete a series of tasks, number of user errors [successful performance], and user satisfaction rating). Linear and logistic regression analysis was conducted for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen. Participants’ mean age was 60 years; 27% and 20% of the participants had visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity, respectively. Results: Tasks were completed faster (P < .001) and with higher successful performance (P = .001) with the lixisenatide pen than with the exenatide pen, whereas the liraglutide pen was not statistically significant versus the exenatide pen on these parameters. Overall, user satisfaction was statistically higher for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen (P < .001 for both). Conclusions: Lixisenatide and liraglutide pens are associated with higher user satisfaction compared with the exenatide pen. In addition, the lixisenatide pen is faster and results in fewer errors than its comparator (exenatide). The lixisenatide pen may therefore be a suitable choice for patients with T2DM, including older and pen device-naïve patients, and those with visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity. PMID:24876548

  16. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. In conclusion, our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture

  17. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; ...

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the constructionmore » of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. In conclusion, our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture

  18. Estimation of Economic Impacts of Cellulosic Biofuel Production: A Comparative Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan Aye

    2016-05-01

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: (i) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, (ii) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and (iii) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect (revenue- and supply-chain-related), and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5960 and 8470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period, depending on the biofuel pathways. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized on the scale of $1 million of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter higher numbers of jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. Unlike construction jobs, these operation-related jobs are necessary over the entire life of the biorefineries. Our results show that indirect effects stimulated by the operation of biorefineries are the primary contributor to job growth. The agriculture/forest, services, and

  19. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  20. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model.

    PubMed

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs.

  1. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2013-07-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water abstraction and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Abstraction to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water abstraction from a river divided by the daily consumption-based potential water demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water-stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%) respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present-day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing

  2. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways - Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water withdrawal and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Withdrawal to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from a river over the potential daily water consumption demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071-2100 the population living under severely water stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588-2793 × 106 (39-42% of total population), 3966-4298 × 106 (46-50%), 5334-5643 × 106 (52-55%), 3427-3786 × 106 (40-45%), 3164-3379 × 106 (46-49%), respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate) global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic activity in developing countries, and

  3. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  4. Forest ecosystem management: An ecological, economic, and social assessment. Report of the forest ecosystem management assessment team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objectives based on the President's mandate and principles are to identify management alternatives that attain the greatest economic and social contribution from the forests of the region and meet the requirements of the applicable laws and regulations, including the Endangered Species Act, the National Forest Management Act, the Federal Land Policy Management Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The Ecosystem Management Assessment working group should explore adaptive management and silvicultural techniques and base its work on the best technical and scientific information currently available.

  5. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  6. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  7. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  8. Techno-economic assessment of novel vanadium redox flow batteries with large-area cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising electrochemical storage system for stationary megawatt-class applications. The currently limited cell area determined by the bipolar plate (BPP) could be enlarged significantly with a novel extruded large-area plate. For the first time a techno-economic assessment of VRFB in a power range of 1 MW-20 MW and energy capacities of up to 160 MWh is presented on the basis of the production cost model of large-area BPP. The economic model is based on the configuration of a 250 kW stack and the overall system including stacks, power electronics, electrolyte and auxiliaries. Final results include a simple function for the calculation of system costs within the above described scope. In addition, the impact of cost reduction potentials for key components (membrane, electrode, BPP, vanadium electrolyte) on stack and system costs is quantified and validated.

  9. Current impact of gene technology on healthcare. A map of economic assessments.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Wolf

    2007-02-01

    It has been claimed that gene technology will induce revolutionary changes in healthcare. This paper investigates how and to what extent these changes have been economically assessed. A generic framework was developed to distinguish between methodologically similar evaluations of healthcare technology. Methodological issues and the current state of economic evidence concerning human DNA technology were extracted from publications within these groups of evaluations. Economic evaluations of "healthcare consisting of gene technology" were identified primarily for in vitro diagnostics for hereditary disease and others for pharmacogenetics and molecular pathology. "Healthcare enabled by gene technology" is far more encompassing and includes, e.g., biotechnology drugs for which various health economic evaluations can be found. Yet here, the impact of gene technology intertwines with the impact of other technologies and is therefore hardly susceptible to evaluation. The fields of evaluation may be classified best according to the two dimensions "purpose" and "stage of development". Current evaluations cover screening, diagnostic and treatment technologies in investigational, new and established stages. Apart from prenatal screening, healthcare consisting of gene technology was cost saving only for genotype tests replacing continuous phenotype tests and for one pharmacogenetic test. Conclusive evidence of favourable cost-effectiveness ratios is available only for few conditions. Hypotheses about the impact of gene technology on healthcare must be explicit about the definition of "genetic" medicine. A general statement regarding healthcare enabled by gene technology is not possible. Based on current evidence, an era of healthcare consisting of gene technology built on widespread predictive testing is not desirable from a health economic viewpoint.

  10. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  12. An assessment of the economic impact of Local Boards of Health on West Virginia's economy.

    PubMed

    Rutsohn, Phil; Kent, Cal

    2010-01-01

    West Virginia, as is true for the nation as a whole, spends far less on public health interventions than on curative care. In 2008 the United States spent approximately $2.4 trillion on healthcare, of which approximately $72 billion was allocated for public health activities-obviously a very small percentage (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services 2010). In West Virginia the 2006 per capita budget allocation for Local Boards of Health (LBH) for Basic Public Health Services was about $6.91, and total public health funding was between $63 and $91 per capita depending on the definition of public health. At the same time, Medicaid expenditures by the State are approximately $269 per capita with total Medicaid expenditures around $995 per capita. The difference in funding for Medicaid is almost 10 times the amount allocated to public health. The funding differences between curative care and preventive care may not be the result of the public's lack of understanding of the benefits of prevention, but rather its focus on short term rather than long term economic benefits. For a state like West Virginia, in which per capita income is below the national average, Medicaid is good business for the State's economy. Far too often public health funding is viewed as a drain from a state's budget not as an economic contributor to the state's economy. As a result, the funding of LBHs is almost always insufficient. The authors were interested in evaluating the economic impact of Local Boards of Health on West Virginia's economy. Although the authors recognize that the greatest economic benefits of public health are the costs averted through prevention and early detection, they believe that if LBH produce a positive economic multiplier State officials may view public health allocations in a more positive light. To assess the impact of LBH in West Virginia, spending data for each was collected. The direct, indirect, and induced spending

  13. A human ecological assessment of air quality management: A convergence in economic and ecological thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1988-05-01

    Traditional air pollution management practices are examined using the human ecological framework adopted by Boyden and others (1981) in their study of Hong Kong—the biohistorical or biosocial approach. The subsequent analysis of current air quality management practices assesses their effectiveness in protecting the overall health of both humans and the natural environment. The uncertainties inherent in air pollution management practices which emerge highlight the need to reduce emissions rather than rely on scientific knowledge to define “clean” air. The assessment also clearly defines roles for research in various areas such as atmospheric models, health effects, and environmental damage. The final recommendations emphasize the need for the introduction of such incentives to reduce emissions as economic instruments and warn against using health information to define clean air. Health and environmental damage information can, however, be used in risk assessment strategies together with atmospheric dispersion models.

  14. Applicability and Validity of the Amnestic Comparative Self-Assessment in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Karolin; Schwerdtle, Barbara; Eichholz, Ruth; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-02

    The Amnestic Comparative Self-Assessment (ACSA) is a sensitive, efficient, and economic instrument to assess overall quality of life in adult populations. The present study investigates the applicability of the ACSA in an adolescent sample and compares it to a measure of health-related quality of life, the Kiddo-Kindl. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (50 girls, 42 boys) aged 11-17 years (mean age: 13.67, standard deviation: 1.34). Of the investigated sample, n=69 (75%) completed the ACSA. No significant demographic differences were found between ACSA-respondents and non-respondents. The correlation of the Kiddo-Kindl and the ACSA was moderate (r=0.50). The Kiddo-Kindl subscales and the ACSA correlated between r=0.07 and 0.41. The majority of adolescents are able to complete the ASCA, and its acceptance and validity are independent of age. Thus, future investigations could adopt the ACSA in adolescents to assess overall quality of life.

  15. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. Methods To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. Results The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. Conclusions The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware

  16. Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

    2005-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale.

  17. Comparative assessment of the methods for exchangeable acidity measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchikova, E. V.; Shamrikova, E. V.; Bespyatykh, N. V.; Zaboeva, G. A.; Bobrova, Yu. I.; Kyz"yurova, E. V.; Grishchenko, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A comparative assessment of the results of measuring the exchangeable acidity and its components by different methods was performed for the main mineral genetic horizons of texturally-differentiated gleyed and nongleyed soddy-podzolic and gley-podzolic soils of the Komi Republic. It was shown that the contents of all the components of exchangeable soil acidity determined by the Russian method (with potassium chloride solution as extractant, c(KCl) = 1 mol/dm3) were significantly higher than those obtained by the international method (with barium chloride solution as extractant, c(BaCl2) = 0.1 mol/dm3). The error of the estimate of the concentration of H+ ions extracted with barium chloride solution equaled 100%, and this allowed only qualitative description of this component of the soil acidity. In the case of the extraction with potassium chloride, the error of measurements was 50%. It was also shown that the use of potentiometric titration suggested by the Russian method overestimates the results of soil acidity measurement caused by the exchangeable metal ions (Al(III), Fe(III), and Mn(II)) in comparison with the atomic emission method.

  18. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  19. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song Guojun Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-11-15

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of contemporary home haemodialysis modalities compared with facility haemodialysis: a systematic review of full economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachael; Marshall, Mark R; Morton, Rachael L; McFarlane, Philip; Howard, Kirsten

    2014-08-01

    The financial burden of the increasing dialysis population challenges healthcare resources internationally. Home haemodialysis offers many benefits over conventional facility dialysis including superior clinical, patient-centred outcomes and reduced cost. This review updates a previous review, conducted a decade prior, incorporating contemporary home dialysis techniques of frequent and nocturnal dialysis. We sought comparative cost-effectiveness studies of home versus facility haemodialysis (HD) for people with end-stage kidney failure (ESKF). We conducted a systematic review of literature from January 2000-March 2014. Studies were included if they provided comparative information on the costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness ratios of home HD and facility HD. We searched medical and health economic databases using MeSH headings and text words for economic evaluation and haemodialysis. Six studies of economic evaluations that compared home to facility HD were identified. Two studies compared home nocturnal HD, one home nocturnal and daily home HD, and three compared contemporary home HD to facility HD. Overall these studies suggest that contemporary home HD modalities are less costly and more effective than facility HD. Home HD start-up costs tend to be higher in the short term, but these are offset by cost savings over the longer term. Contemporaneous dialysis modalities including nocturnal and daily home haemodialysis are cost-effective or cost-saving compared with facility-based haemodialysis. This result is largely driven by lower staff costs, and better health outcomes for survival and quality of life. Expanding the proportion of haemodialysis patients managed at home is likely to produce cost savings. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. A Holistic Assessment of Energy Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in Williams County, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdeo, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    unified and holistic assessment that can be used to readily compare the impact of energy development across American counties. This type of assessment can be used in corporate and political decision-making to examine the environmental, economic, and social impacts of energy-related activity.

  2. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  4. Some aspects of resource uncertainty and their economic consequences in assessment of the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration ventures in frontier areas have high risks. Before committing to them, firms prepare regional resource assessments to evaluate the potential payoffs. With no historical basis for directly estimating size distribution of undiscovered accumulations, reservoir attribute probability distributions can be assessed subjectively and used to project undiscovered accumulation sizes. Three questions considered here are: (1) what distributions should be used to characterize the subjective assessments of reservoir attributes, (2) how parsimonious can the analyst be when eliciting subjective information from the assessment geologist, and (3) what are consequences of ignoring dependencies among reservoir attributes? The standard or norm used for comparing outcomes is the computed cost function describing costs of finding, developing, and producing undiscovered oil accumulations. These questions are examined in the context of the US Geological Survey's recently published regional assessment of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. We study effects of using the various common distributions to characterize the geologist's subjective distributions representing reservoir attributes. Specific findings show that triangular distributions result in substantial bias in economic forecasts when used to characterize skewed distributions. Moreover, some forms of the lognormal distribution also result in biased economic inferences. Alternatively, we generally determined four fractiles (100, 50, 5, 0) to be sufficient to capture essential economic characteristics of the underlying attribute distributions. Ignoring actual dependencies among reservoir attributes biases the economic evaluation. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. Comparative device assessments: Humalog KwikPen compared with vial and syringe and FlexPen.

    PubMed

    Ignaut, Debra A; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Sarwat, Samiha; Murphy, Heather L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pen device-naïve patients' preferences for Humalog KwikPen (insulin lispro injection) (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) to use of a vial and syringe and FlexPen(R) (insulin aspart injection) (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark). This open-label, randomized, crossover 1-day study tested the hypotheses that KwikPen was preferred to vial and syringe, and if this was found to be a significant preference, that KwikPen was preferred to FlexPen. Accuracy of doses prepared, ease of use via insulin device assessment battery, and preference via insulin device preference battery were administered following each pen evaluation, and a final preference question administered following the evaluation of both pens. Clinical measures were not included as subjects injected into an appliance to simulate the injection experience. Primary outcome variables were evaluated by Question 13 of the insulin device preference battery and the final preference question. Among 232 enrolled patients randomized to 1 of 4 sequences (n = 58), Humalog KwikPen was significantly preferred over vial and syringe and over FlexPen. After patients were asked to assess Humalog KwikPen or FlexPen versus V&S by choosing "strongly agreed" or "agreed" to the following attributes: easy to use, easy to hold in their hands when injecting, and easy to press the injection button, the results exhibited significant differences in patient responses. Humalog KwikPen was significantly more accurate and was preferred to vial and syringe in appearance, quality, discretion, convenience, public use, easy to learn, easy to use, reliability, dose confidence, following insulin regimen, overall satisfaction, and recommendation to others. Humalog KwikPen was significantly preferred over vial and syringe and FlexPen. When compared with vial and syringe, Humalog KwikPen and FlexPen were easier to use and operate, demonstrated superior accuracy of doses prepared, and preferred by pen

  6. Technical and economic assessment of span-distributed loading cargo aircraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, D. H.; Whitner, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design study of the performance and economics resulting from the application of the distributed load concept to large freighter aircraft was made. The study was limited to configurations having the payload entirely contained in unswept wings of constant chord with conventional tail surfaces supported from the wing by twin booms. A parametric study based on current technology showed that increases in chord had a similar effect on the economics as increases in span. Increases in both span and chord or airplane size had the largest and most favorable effect. At 600,000 lbs payload a configuration was selected and refined to incorporate advanced technology that could be in production by 1990 and compared with a reference conventional airplane having similar technology.

  7. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  8. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Astley; Mos, Michal; Yesufu, Jalil A.; McCalmont, Jon; Schwarz, Kai; Shafei, Reza; Ashman, Chris; Nunn, Chris; Schuele, Heinrich; Cosentino, Salvatore; Scalici, Giovanni; Scordia, Danilo; Wagner, Moritz; Clifton-Brown, John

    2017-01-01

    Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes). The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha-1. Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM)]-1), respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha-1 y-1, which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha-1 in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg-1 km-1) and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is more economic

  9. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Astley; Mos, Michal; Yesufu, Jalil A; McCalmont, Jon; Schwarz, Kai; Shafei, Reza; Ashman, Chris; Nunn, Chris; Schuele, Heinrich; Cosentino, Salvatore; Scalici, Giovanni; Scordia, Danilo; Wagner, Moritz; Clifton-Brown, John

    2017-01-01

    Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes). The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha(-1). Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM)](-1)), respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha(-1) y(-1), which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha(-1) in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg(-1) km(-1)) and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is

  10. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  11. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  12. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  13. Online Finance and Economics Courses: A Comparative Study of Course Satisfaction and Outcomes across Learning Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechowski, Linda; Washburn, Terri L.

    2014-01-01

    Student learning outcomes and course satisfaction scores are two key considerations when assessing the success of any degree program. This empirical study was based upon more than 3,000 end-of-semester course evaluations collected from 171 courses in the 2010-2011 academic year. The study, conducted at a Midwestern business college, considered the…

  14. The Productivity Factor. Comparing Japanese and American Modes of Production. A Resource for Teachers of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Paul

    Focusing on the human element through a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Japanese modes of production, this resource guide features an assessment of the major factors that affect productivity performance. Each section contains a goal statement and an overview outline of the featured topics. The text includes primary sources, such as documents…

  15. The Productivity Factor. Comparing Japanese and American Modes of Production. A Resource for Teachers of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Paul

    Focusing on the human element through a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Japanese modes of production, this resource guide features an assessment of the major factors that affect productivity performance. Each section contains a goal statement and an overview outline of the featured topics. The text includes primary sources, such as documents…

  16. Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2014-05-01

    Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling

  17. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made.

  18. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  19. Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: estimating the energetic, economic, and climate change potential.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kelli G; Gloy, Brent A; Joseph, Stephen; Scott, Norman R; Lehmann, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil is a possible strategy for climate change mitigation and reducing fossil fuel consumption. Pyrolysis with biochar applied to soils results in four coproducts: long-term carbon (C) sequestration from stable C in the biochar, renewable energy generation, biochar as a soil amendment, and biomass waste management. Life cycle assessment was used to estimate the energy and climate change impacts and the economics of biochar systems. The feedstocks analyzed represent agricultural residues (corn stover), yard waste, and switchgrass energy crops. The net energy of the system is greatest with switchgrass (4899 MJ t(-1) dry feedstock). The net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for both stover and yard waste are negative, at -864 and -885 kg CO(2) equivalent (CO(2)e) emissions reductions per tonne dry feedstock, respectively. Of these total reductions, 62-66% are realized from C sequestration in the biochar. The switchgrass biochar-pyrolysis system can be a net GHG emitter (+36 kg CO(2)e t(-1) dry feedstock), depending on the accounting method for indirect land-use change impacts. The economic viability of the pyrolysis-biochar system is largely dependent on the costs of feedstock production, pyrolysis, and the value of C offsets. Biomass sources that have a need for waste management such as yard waste have the highest potential for economic profitability (+$69 t(-1) dry feedstock when CO(2)e emission reductions are valued at $80 t(-1) CO(2)e). The transportation distance for feedstock creates a significant hurdle to the economic profitability of biochar-pyrolysis systems. Biochar may at present only deliver climate change mitigation benefits and be financially viable as a distributed system using waste biomass.

  20. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  1. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  2. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields

  3. Economic assessment of FEC-based targeted selective drenching in horses.

    PubMed

    Sallé, Guillaume; Cortet, Jacques; Koch, Christine; Reigner, Fabrice; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-11-30

    In the face of an increased prevalence of drug-resistant cyathostomin populations, a targeted selective treatment (TST) strategy based on Faecal Egg Counts (FECs) has been proposed as an alternative management strategy. However, associated costs may be a barrier to the uptake of this strategy. Our study aims to provide an economic assessment of FEC-based TST. FECs were determined in a Welsh pony herd thrice a year from 2010 to 2014. This database was used to explore the impact of FEC price, sampling strategy (individual or pooled) and labour-associated costs. Drug price was set at the cheapest level, hence providing a conservative framework to determine the maximum viable FEC price in the context of a cost-driven horse industry. The maximum viable FEC price for a cost-efficient individual based strategy was determined by an in silico bootstrap approach consisting of randomly sampling 1000 virtual pony herds of various sizes (1 to 100 ponies) from the available database and estimating the associated costs (FEC price ranging from € 1 to € 10, anthelmintic costs and labour-associated costs). The costs and benefits of the pooling strategy that consists of basing the decision to treat on group FEC values were also investigated. This is thought to reduce FEC-based costs but may result in highly infected individuals being left undrenched, i.e. in false-negatives, as a result of FEC overdispersion. For various pool-sizes (1-20 ponies) and various cut-off thresholds (50-200 eggs/g), we sampled 1000 pony herds in silico to estimate the associated costs and determine the number of positive ponies within a negative pool. Following these simulations, pool-based FECs of various sizes were performed on 40 ponies to compare predictions with real data. Within 4 years, anthelmintic costs were cut by 80%, albeit with free FECs. In silico estimations suggested that an individual FEC-based TST would not be cost-efficient in this context for an FEC price above € 5. With a pooled

  4. Strategic risk appraisal. Comparing expert- and literature-informed consequence assessments for environmental policy risks receiving national attention.

    PubMed

    Dagonneau, Jérôme; Rocks, Sophie A; Prpich, George; Garnett, Kenisha; Black, Edgar; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-10-01

    Strategic risk appraisal (SRA) has been applied to compare diverse policy level risks to and from the environment in England and Wales. Its application has relied on expert-informed assessments of the potential consequences from residual risks that attract policy attention at the national scale. Here we compare consequence assessments, across environmental, economic and social impact categories that draw on 'expert'- and 'literature-based' analyses of the evidence for 12 public risks appraised by Government. For environmental consequences there is reasonable agreement between the two sources of assessment, with expert-informed assessments providing a narrower dispersion of impact severity and with median values similar in scale to those produced by an analysis of the literature. The situation is more complex for economic consequences, with a greater spread in the median values, less consistency between the two assessment types and a shift toward higher severity values across the risk portfolio. For social consequences, the spread of severity values is greater still, with no consistent trend between the severities of impact expressed by the two types of assessment. For the latter, the findings suggest the need for a fuller representation of socioeconomic expertise in SRA and the workshops that inform SRA output. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative early stage assessment of multiproduct biorefinery systems: An application to the isobutanol platform.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; Posada, John A; Ramírez, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    An early stage assessment method is applied to the production of isobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass, and to three multiproduct portfolios from the conversion of isobutanol: Case 1: production of isobutyl acetate and glycerol tert-butyl ether (GTBE), Case 2: production of isobutyl acetate and ketones, and Case 3: production of isobutyl acetate alkanes. The method screens and compares each route with its equivalent petrochemical counterpart. The method is composed by different indicators involving economic and environmental aspects. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to account for variation in prices, weighting factors and distribution of isobutanol to isobutyl acetate (in multiproduct portfolios). Results show that bio-based isobutanol has advantages over fossil-based isobutanol. In multiproduct systems, case 1 performs better, followed by cases 2 and 3. Screening using economic or environmental aspects show to have a significant effect on the results, where bio-based systems tend to perform better when environmental aspects are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  7. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  8. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Method for technical, economic and environmental assessment of advanced sludge processing routes.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Magdalena; Bertanza, Giorgio; Bolzonella, David; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Mininni, Giuseppe; Peters, Greg; Tomei, Maria Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The legislative framework in force in Europe entails restrictive effluent standards for sensitive areas, and quite severe restrictions on the properties of residual sewage sludge, both for landfill disposal and for agricultural use. Several technologies and management strategies have been proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants to minimise sludge production and contamination. However, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. The ROUTES project, funded within the EU Seventh Framework programme, aims to find new routes for wastewater treatment and sludge management and thereby guide EU members in their future choices. Within this project, the authors have developed and applied a procedure for techno-economic-environmental assessment of new wastewater and sludge processing lines in comparison to reference plants. The reference plants are model conventional plants that experience different types of problems and the new plants are modified plants in which different innovative technologies have been added to solve these problems. The procedure involves a rating of selected technical issues, estimates of operating costs and an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. This paper reports on the procedure and shows examples of results.

  10. Assessment of transparency of cost estimates in economic evaluations of patient safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2009-06-01

    Transparency of costing is essential for decision-makers who require information on the efficiency of a health care programme, because effective decisions depend largely on applicability to their settings. The main objectives of this study were to assess published studies for transparency of cost estimates. We first developed criteria with two axes by reviewing publications dealing with economic evaluations and cost accounting studies: clarification of the scope of costing and accuracy of method evaluating costs. We then performed systematic searches of the literature for studies which estimated prevention costs and assessed the transparency and accuracy of costing based on our criteria. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Half of the studies reported data for both the quantity and unit price of programmes in regard to prevention costs. Although 30 studies estimated costs of adverse events, 19 of these described the scope of costing only, and just five studies used a micro-costing method. Among 30 studies that estimated 'gross cost savings' and 'net cost savings', there was a huge discrepancy in labels. Even if a cost study was conducted in accordance with existing techniques of economic evaluation which mostly paid attention to internal validity of cost estimates, without adequate explanation of the process of costing, reproducibility cannot be assured and the study may lose its value as scientific information. This study found that there is tremendous room for improvement.

  11. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  12. Macro-economic assessment of flood risk in Italy under current and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Lorenzo; Koks, Elco; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Aerts, Jeroen; Standardi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    This paper explores an integrated methodology for assessing direct and indirect costs of fluvial flooding to estimate current and future fluvial flood risk in Italy. Our methodology combines a Geographic Information System spatial approach, with a general economic equilibrium approach using a downscaled modified version of a Computable General Equilibrium model at NUTS2 scale. Given the level of uncertainty in the behavior of disaster-affected economies, the simulation considers a wide range of business recovery periods. We calculate expected annual losses for each NUTS2 region, and exceedence probability curves to determine probable maximum losses. Given a certain acceptable level of risk, we describe the conditions of flood protection and business recovery periods under which losses are contained within this limit. Because of the difference between direct costs, which are an overestimation of stock losses, and indirect costs, which represent the macro-economic effects, our results have different policy meanings. While the former is relevant for post-disaster recovery, the latter is more relevant for public policy issues, particularly for cost-benefit analysis and resilience assessment.

  13. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  14. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  15. The comparative economic performance of investor-owned chain and not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Watt, J M; Derzon, R A; Renn, S C; Schramm, C J; Hahn, J S; Pillari, G D

    1986-01-09

    We examined the differences in the economic performance of 80 matched pairs of investor-owned chain and not-for-profit hospitals in eight states during 1978 and 1980, and considered how their operating strategies might affect their relative success in a more price-conscious market. We found that total charges (adjusted for case mix) and net revenues per case were both significantly higher in the investor-owned chain hospitals, mainly because of higher charges for ancillary services; there were no significant differences between the two groups of hospitals in regard to patient-care costs per case (adjusted for case mix), but the investor-owned hospitals had significantly higher administrative overhead costs; investor-owned hospitals were more profitable; investor-owned hospitals had fewer employees per occupied bed but paid more per employee; investor-owned hospitals had funded more of their capital through debt and had significantly higher capital costs in proportion to their operating costs; and the two groups did not differ in patient mix, as measured by their Medicare case-mix indexes or the proportions of their patients covered by Medicare or Medicaid. We conclude that investor-owned chain hospitals generated higher profits through more aggressive pricing practices rather than operating efficiencies - a result not unexpected in view of past cost-based reimbursement policies. Recent changes in these policies are creating new pressures for cost control and moderation in charges, to which both types of hospitals must adapt. Neither type has a clear-cut advantage in the ability to make the necessary changes.

  16. A Framework for Developing Comparable Multilingual Assessments for Minority Populations: Why Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Simon, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of linguistic minorities often involves using multiple language versions of assessments. In these assessments, comparability of scores across language groups is central to valid comparative interpretations. Various frameworks and guidelines describe factors that need to be considered when developing comparable assessments. These…

  17. Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giulia; Abramsky, Tanya; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James; Morison, Linda; Phetla, Godfrey; Porter, John; Pronyk, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore whether adding a gender and HIV training programme to microfinance initiatives can lead to health and social benefits beyond those achieved by microfinance alone. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from three randomly selected matched clusters in rural South Africa: (i) four villages with 2-year exposure to the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE), a combined microfinance–health training intervention; (ii) four villages with 2-year exposure to microfinance services alone; and (iii) four control villages not targeted by any intervention. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) employing village-level summaries compared associations between groups in relation to indicators of economic well-being, empowerment, intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk behaviour. The magnitude and consistency of aRRs allowed for an estimate of incremental effects. Findings A total of 1409 participants were enrolled, all female, with a median age of 45. After 2 years, both the microfinance-only group and the IMAGE group showed economic improvements relative to the control group. However, only the IMAGE group demonstrated consistent associations across all domains with regard to women’s empowerment, intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviour. Conclusion The addition of a training component to group-based microfinance programmes may be critical for achieving broader health benefits. Donor agencies should encourage intersectoral partnerships that can foster synergy and broaden the health and social effects of economic interventions such as microfinance. PMID:20072767

  18. Economic and environmental assessment of office building rainwater harvesting systems in various U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2015-02-03

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems implemented in office buildings under heterogeneous urban settings in the United States, including combined and separated storm sewer systems, will result in varying environmental and economic costs and benefits across multiple water sectors. The potable water saving and stormwater abatement potentials were found to strongly correlate with the local annual precipitation totals and patterns, specifically the long-period antecedent dry weather period. Given the current water rates and stormwater fees in large U.S. cities, RWH systems implemented in office buildings may not be cost-effective compared to the municipal supplies over their lifetime, except in Seattle, which has the highest stormwater fees in the country ($77.50/1000 sf impervious surface/month). The minimum net life cycle costs range from -$1.60 (Seattle) to $11.9 (Phoenix) per m(3) of rainwater yield, resulting in a potential economic gain of over $520 (Seattle) to a net loss of $800 (Phoenix) per building annually. By preventing the rooftop runoff from entering the wastewater treatment plant, between 3 and 9 kg N eq per year could be reduced in combined sewer systems depending on local conditions. This N reduction comes at the expense 0.7-4.6 kg CO2 eq per m(3) rainwater yield. In separate sewer systems, eutrophication reduction benefits result from reducing N loading associated with stormwater runoff. The overall sustainability of implementing RWH depends on the site-specific functional, economic, and environmental benefits, impacts, and trade-offs.

  19. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 4: Ocean mining case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the weather sensitive features of near shore and deep water ocean mining industries are described. Problems with the evaluation of economic benefits for the deep water ocean mining industry are attributed to the relative immaturity and highly proprietary nature of the industry. Case studies on the gold industry, diamond industry, tin industry and sand and gravel industry are cited.

  20. Designing a socio-economic assessment method for integrative biomedical research: the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Stroetmann, Karl A; Stroetmann, Veli N; Viceconti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In integrative biomedical research, methods assessing the clinical or even socio-economic impact of more complex technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based tools for modelling and simulation of human physiology have rarely been applied. The EU funded Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human (VPHOP) research project, part of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) European initiative, will create a patient-specific hypermodel to predict the absolute risk of bone fracture much more accurately than predictions based on current clinical practice. The project has developed an innovative, multilevel generic methodological framework to assess the clinical and socio-economic impact of biocomputational models. The assessment framework consists of three components: a socio-economic cost benefit analysis, health economic analysis of care pathways, and disease cost simulation models. Through its holistic perspective, the method provides a tool to appraise the overall value of biocomputational models for society.