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Sample records for comparative genomics based

  1. GenColors-based comparative genome databases for small eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Felder, Marius; Romualdi, Alessandro; Petzold, Andreas; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Glöckner, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many sequence data repositories can give a quick and easily accessible overview on genomes and their annotations. Less widespread is the possibility to compare related genomes with each other in a common database environment. We have previously described the GenColors database system (http://gencolors.fli-leibniz.de) and its applications to a number of bacterial genomes such as Borrelia, Legionella, Leptospira and Treponema. This system has an emphasis on genome comparison. It combines data from related genomes and provides the user with an extensive set of visualization and analysis tools. Eukaryote genomes are normally larger than prokaryote genomes and thus pose additional challenges for such a system. We have, therefore, adapted GenColors to also handle larger datasets of small eukaryotic genomes and to display eukaryotic gene structures. Further recent developments include whole genome views, genome list options and, for bacterial genome browsers, the display of horizontal gene transfer predictions. Two new GenColors-based databases for two fungal species (http://fgb.fli-leibniz.de) and for four social amoebas (http://sacgb.fli-leibniz.de) were set up. Both new resources open up a single entry point for related genomes for the amoebozoa and fungal research communities and other interested users. Comparative genomics approaches are greatly facilitated by these resources.

  2. GenColors-based comparative genome databases for small eukaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Marius; Romualdi, Alessandro; Petzold, Andreas; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Glöckner, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many sequence data repositories can give a quick and easily accessible overview on genomes and their annotations. Less widespread is the possibility to compare related genomes with each other in a common database environment. We have previously described the GenColors database system (http://gencolors.fli-leibniz.de) and its applications to a number of bacterial genomes such as Borrelia, Legionella, Leptospira and Treponema. This system has an emphasis on genome comparison. It combines data from related genomes and provides the user with an extensive set of visualization and analysis tools. Eukaryote genomes are normally larger than prokaryote genomes and thus pose additional challenges for such a system. We have, therefore, adapted GenColors to also handle larger datasets of small eukaryotic genomes and to display eukaryotic gene structures. Further recent developments include whole genome views, genome list options and, for bacterial genome browsers, the display of horizontal gene transfer predictions. Two new GenColors-based databases for two fungal species (http://fgb.fli-leibniz.de) and for four social amoebas (http://sacgb.fli-leibniz.de) were set up. Both new resources open up a single entry point for related genomes for the amoebozoa and fungal research communities and other interested users. Comparative genomics approaches are greatly facilitated by these resources. PMID:23193285

  3. Ten years of bacterial genome sequencing: comparative-genomics-based discoveries.

    PubMed

    Binnewies, Tim T; Motro, Yair; Hallin, Peter F; Lund, Ole; Dunn, David; La, Tom; Hampson, David J; Bellgard, Matthew; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2006-07-01

    It has been more than 10 years since the first bacterial genome sequence was published. Hundreds of bacterial genome sequences are now available for comparative genomics, and searching a given protein against more than a thousand genomes will soon be possible. The subject of this review will address a relatively straightforward question: "What have we learned from this vast amount of new genomic data?" Perhaps one of the most important lessons has been that genetic diversity, at the level of large-scale variation amongst even genomes of the same species, is far greater than was thought. The classical textbook view of evolution relying on the relatively slow accumulation of mutational events at the level of individual bases scattered throughout the genome has changed. One of the most obvious conclusions from examining the sequences from several hundred bacterial genomes is the enormous amount of diversity--even in different genomes from the same bacterial species. This diversity is generated by a variety of mechanisms, including mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages. An examination of the 20 Escherichia coli genomes sequenced so far dramatically illustrates this, with the genome size ranging from 4.6 to 5.5 Mbp; much of the variation appears to be of phage origin. This review also addresses mobile genetic elements, including pathogenicity islands and the structure of transposable elements. There are at least 20 different methods available to compare bacterial genomes. Metagenomics offers the chance to study genomic sequences found in ecosystems, including genomes of species that are difficult to culture. It has become clear that a genome sequence represents more than just a collection of gene sequences for an organism and that information concerning the environment and growth conditions for the organism are important for interpretation of the genomic data. The newly proposed Minimal Information about a Genome Sequence standard has been developed to obtain this

  4. CFGP: a web-based, comparative fungal genomics platform.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongsun; Park, Bongsoo; Jung, Kyongyong; Jang, Suwang; Yu, Kwangyul; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kong, Sunghyung; Park, Jaejin; Kim, Seryun; Kim, Hyojeong; Kim, Soonok; Kim, Jihyun F; Blair, Jaime E; Lee, Kwangwon; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Since the completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequencing project in 1996, the genomes of over 80 fungal species have been sequenced or are currently being sequenced. Resulting data provide opportunities for studying and comparing fungal biology and evolution at the genome level. To support such studies, the Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform (CFGP; http://cfgp.snu.ac.kr), a web-based multifunctional informatics workbench, was developed. The CFGP comprises three layers, including the basal layer, middleware and the user interface. The data warehouse in the basal layer contains standardized genome sequences of 65 fungal species. The middleware processes queries via six analysis tools, including BLAST, ClustalW, InterProScan, SignalP 3.0, PSORT II and a newly developed tool named BLASTMatrix. The BLASTMatrix permits the identification and visualization of genes homologous to a query across multiple species. The Data-driven User Interface (DUI) of the CFGP was built on a new concept of pre-collecting data and post-executing analysis instead of the 'fill-in-the-form-and-press-SUBMIT' user interfaces utilized by most bioinformatics sites. A tool termed Favorite, which supports the management of encapsulated sequence data and provides a personalized data repository to users, is another novel feature in the DUI.

  5. Statistical methods for detecting genomic alterations through array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuedong; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ABCGH) is an emerging high-resolution and high-throughput molecular genetic technique that allows genome-wide screening for chromosome alterations associated with tumorigenesis. Like the cDNA microarrays, ABCGH uses two differentially labeled test and reference DNAs which are cohybridized to cloned genomic fragments immobilized on glass slides. The hybridized DNAs are then detected in two different fluorochromes, and the significant deviation from unity in the ratios of the digitized intensity values is indicative of copy-number differences between the test and reference genomes. Proper statistical analyses need to account for many sources of variation besides genuine differences between the two genomes. In particular, spatial correlations, the variable nature of the ratio variance and non-Normal distribution call for careful statistical modeling. We propose two new statistics, the standard t-statistic and its modification with variances smoothed along the genome, and two tests for each statistic, the standard t-test and a test based on the hybrid adaptive spline (HAS). Simulations indicate that the smoothed t-statistic always improves the performance over the standard t-statistic. The t-tests are more powerful in detecting isolated alterations while those based on HAS are more powerful in detecting a cluster of alterations. We apply the proposed methods to the identification of genomic alterations in endometrium in women with endometriosis.

  6. A Web-Based Comparative Genomics Tutorial for Investigating Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    STRONG, MICHAEL; CASCIO, DUILIO; EISENBERG, DAVID

    2004-01-01

    As the number of completely sequenced microbial genomes continues to rise at an impressive rate, it is important to prepare students with the skills necessary to investigate microorganisms at the genomic level. As a part of the core curriculum for first-year graduate students in the biological sciences, we have implemented a web-based tutorial to introduce students to the fields of comparative and functional genomics. The tutorial focuses on recent computational methods for identifying functionally linked genes and proteins on a genome-wide scale and was used to introduce students to the Rosetta Stone, Phylogenetic Profile, conserved Gene Neighbor, and Operon computational methods. Students learned to use a number of publicly available web servers and databases to identify functionally linked genes in the Escherichia coli genome, with emphasis on genome organization and operon structure. The overall effectiveness of the tutorial was assessed based on student evaluations and homework assignments. The tutorial is available to other educators at http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/~strong/m253.php. PMID:23653555

  7. Detection of genomic imbalances by array based comparative genomic hybridisation in fetuses with multiple malformations

    PubMed Central

    Le Caignec, C; Boceno, M; Saugier-Veber, P; Jacquemont, S; Joubert, M; David, A; Frebourg, T; Rival, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malformations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in full term infants and genomic imbalances are a significant component of their aetiology. However, the causes of defects in many patients with multiple congenital malformations remain unexplained despite thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Methods: We used a commercially available array based comparative genomic hybridisation method (array CGH), able to screen all subtelomeric regions, main microdeletion syndromes, and 201 other regions covering the genome, to detect submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in 49 fetuses with three or more significant anomalies and normal karyotype. Results: Array CGH identified eight genomic rearrangements (16.3%), all confirmed by quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments. Subtelomeric and interstitial deletions, submicroscopic duplications, and a complex genomic imbalance were identified. In four de novo cases (15qtel deletion, 16q23.1–q23.3 deletion, 22q11.2 deletion, and mosaicism for a rearranged chromosome 18), the genomic imbalance identified clearly underlay the pathological phenotype. In one case, the relationship between the genotype and phenotype was unclear, since a subtelomeric 6q deletion was detected in a mother and her two fetuses bearing multiple malformations. In three cases, a subtelomeric 10q duplication, probably a genomic polymorphism, was identified. Conclusions: The detection of 5/49 causative chromosomal imbalances (or 4/49 if the 6qtel deletion is not considered as causative) suggests wide genome screening when standard chromosome analysis is normal and confirms that array CGH will have a major impact on pre and postnatal diagnosis as well as providing information for more accurate genetic counselling. PMID:15689449

  8. Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes: Functional Annotation, Genome-Based Phylogeny, and Deduced Evolutionary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Javier De Las; Lozano, Juan Jose; Ortiz, Angel R.

    2002-01-01

    All protein sequences from 19 complete chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) have been studied using a new computational method able to analyze functional correlations among series of protein sequences contained in complete proteomes. First, all open reading frames (ORFs) from the cpDNAs, comprising a total of 2266 protein sequences, were compared against the 3168 proteins from Synechocystis PCC6803 complete genome to find functionally related orthologous proteins. Additionally, all cpDNA genomes were pairwise compared to find orthologous groups not present in cyanobacteria. Annotations in the cluster of othologous proteins database and CyanoBase were used as reference for the functional assignments. Following this protocol, new functional assignments were made for ORFs of unknown function and for ycfs (hypothetical chloroplast frames), which still lack a functional assignment. Using this information, a matrix of functional relationships was derived from profiles of the presence and/or absence of orthologous proteins; the matrix included 1837 proteins in 277 orthologous clusters. A factor analysis study of this matrix, followed by cluster analysis, allowed us to obtain accurate phylogenetic reconstructions and the detection of genes probably involved in speciation as phylogenetic correlates. Finally, by grouping common evolutionary patterns, we show that it is possible to determine functionally linked protein networks. This has allowed us to suggest putative associations for some unknown ORFs. PMID:11932241

  9. Ensembl comparative genomics resources

    PubMed Central

    Muffato, Matthieu; Beal, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Gordon, Leo; Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J.; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Amode, Ridwan; Brent, Simon; Spooner, William; Kulesha, Eugene; Yates, Andrew; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26896847

  10. Ensembl comparative genomics resources.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Javier; Muffato, Matthieu; Beal, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Gordon, Leo; Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J; Searle, Stephen M J; Amode, Ridwan; Brent, Simon; Spooner, William; Kulesha, Eugene; Yates, Andrew; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  12. Genome Based Phylogeny and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Intra-Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Lefébure, Tristan; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Dogan, Belgin; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important cause of bovine mastitis and can cause both severe inflammation with a short-term transient infection, as well as less severe, but more chronic inflammation and infection persistence. E. coli is a highly diverse organism that has been classified into a number of different pathotypes or pathovars, and mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) has been proposed as a new such pathotype. The purpose of this study was to use genome sequence data derived from both transient and persistent MPEC isolates (two isolates of each phenotype) to construct a genome-based phylogeny that places MPEC in its phylogenetic context with other E. coli pathovars. A subsidiary goal was to conduct comparative genomic analyses of these MPEC isolates with other E. coli pathovars to provide a preliminary perspective on loci that might be correlated with the MPEC phenotype. Both concatenated and consensus tree phylogenies did not support MPEC monophyly or the monophyly of either transient or persistent phenotypes. Three of the MPEC isolates (ECA-727, ECC-Z, and ECA-O157) originated from within the predominately commensal clade of E. coli, referred to as phylogroup A. The fourth MPEC isolate, of the persistent phenotype (ECC-1470), was sister group to an isolate of ETEC, falling within the E. coli B1 clade. This suggests that the MPEC phenotype has arisen on numerous independent occasions and that this has often, although not invariably, occurred from commensal ancestry. Examination of the genes present in the MPEC strains relative to the commensal strains identified a consistent presence of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in the MPEC strains, with only occasional representation in commensal strains, suggesting that T6SS may be associated with MPEC pathogenesis and/or as an inter-bacterial competitive attribute and therefore could represent a useful target to explore for the development of MPEC specific inhibitors. PMID:25807497

  13. G-compass: a web-based comparative genome browser between human and other vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Sakate, Ryuichi; Matsuya, Akihiro; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Zhang, Hao; Gojobori, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2009-12-15

    G-compass is designed for efficient comparative genome analysis between human and other vertebrate genomes. The current version of G-compass allows us to browse two corresponding genomic regions between human and another species in parallel. One-to-one evolutionarily conserved regions (i.e. orthologous regions) between species are highlighted along the genomes. Information such as locations of duplicated regions, copy number variations and mammalian ultra-conserved elements is also provided. These features of G-compass enable us to easily determine patterns of genomic rearrangements and changes in gene orders through evolutionary time. Since G-compass is a satellite database of H-InvDB, which is a comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts, users can easily refer to manually curated functional annotations and other abundant biological information for each human transcript. G-compass is expected to be a valuable tool for comparing human and model organisms and promoting the exchange of functional information. G-compass is freely available at http://www.h-invitational.jp/g-compass/. t.imanishi@aist.go.jp

  14. Genome Sequence Analyses of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea and Subtractive Hybridization-Based Comparative Genomics with Nine Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingsheng; Wang, Dongping; Bradley, Carl A.; Zhao, Youfu

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea (Psg), is a common disease of soybean. In an effort to compare a current field isolate with one isolated in the early 1960s, the genomes of two Psg strains, race 4 and B076, were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. The genomes of both Psg strains share more than 4,900 highly conserved genes, indicating very low genetic diversity between Psg genomes. Though conserved, genome rearrangements and recombination events occur commonly within the two Psg genomes. When compared to each other, 437 and 163 specific genes were identified in B076 and race 4, respectively. Most specific genes are plasmid-borne, indicating that acquisition and maintenance of plasmids may represent a major mechanism to change the genetic composition of the genome and even acquire new virulence factors. Type three secretion gene clusters of Psg strains are near identical with that of P. savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Pph) strain 1448A and they shared 20 common effector genes. Furthermore, the coronatine biosynthetic cluster is present on a large plasmid in strain B076, but not in race 4. In silico subtractive hybridization-based comparative genomic analyses with nine sequenced phytopathogenic pseudomonads identified dozens of specific islands (SIs), and revealed that the genomes of Psg strains are more similar to those belonging to the same genomospecies such as Pph 1448A than to other phytopathogenic pseudomonads. The number of highly conserved genes (core genome) among them decreased dramatically when more genomes were included in the subtraction, suggesting the diversification of pseudomonads, and further indicating the genome heterogeneity among pseudomonads. However, the number of specific genes did not change significantly, suggesting these genes are indeed specific in Psg genomes. These results reinforce the idea of a species complex of P. syringae and support the reclassification of P. syringae into different species. PMID

  15. Genome profiling of chondrosarcoma using oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Meera; Ulger, Celal; Yasar, Duygu; Limaye, Neha; Kurvathi, Rohini; Streck, Deanna; Benevenia, Joseph; Patterson, Francis; Dermody, James J; Toruner, Gokce A

    2009-07-15

    Chondrosarcomas of the bone are malignant hyaline cartilage-forming tumors with an annual incidence rate of 3.6% of all primary bone malignancies in the United States. Specimens of 25 chondrosarcomas (10 grade I, 9 grade II, 1 grade III, and 5 dedifferentiated) from 23 patients were collected from the Department of Pathology at the University Hospital at UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School from 1996 to 2007. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies were performed on frozen tumor specimens. Recurrent deletions observed in at least in six tumors were 5q13.2, 5q14.2 approximately q21.3, 6q12 approximately q13, 6q16 approximately q25.3, 9p24.2 approximately q12, and 9p21.3. There was a statistically significant association between high-grade tumor (grade III and dedifferentiated) and the recurrent genetic deletions at 5q14.2 approximately q21.3, 6q16 approximately q25.3, 9p24.2 approximately q12, and 9p21.3. There is consistency between increased levels of aneuploidy and the progression of chondrosarcoma from lower to higher grades.

  16. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    DOE PAGES

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; ...

    2015-07-14

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. We examine the dynamics of this genome, comparing more than one hundred currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus, and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of themore » same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. In conclusion, this information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies.« less

  17. YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2015-01-16

    Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the

  18. Comparative analysis of the radish genome based on a conserved ortholog set (COS) of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyong; Chung, Hee; Kim, Namshin; Park, Beom-Seok; Lim, Ki-Byung; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    This manuscript provides a Brassica conserved ortholog set (COS) that can be used as diagnostic cross-species markers as well as tools for genetic mapping and genome comparison of the Brassicaceae. A conserved ortholog set (COS) is a collection of genes that are conserved in both sequence and copy number between closely related genomes. COS is a useful resource for developing gene-based markers and is suitable for comparative genome mapping. We developed a COS for Brassica based on proteome comparisons of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa, and B. oleracea to establish a basis for comparative genome analysis of crop species in the Brassicaceae. A total of 1,194 conserved orthologous single-copy genes were identified from the genomes based on whole-genome BLASTP analysis. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of them encoded proteins with unknown function and chloroplast-related genes were enriched. In addition, 152 Brassica COS primer sets were applied to 16 crop and wild species of the Brassicaceae and 57.9-92.8 % of them were successfully amplified across the species representing that a Brassica COS can be used as diagnostic cross-species markers of diverse Brassica species. We constructed a genetic map of Raphanus sativus by analyzing the segregation of 322 COS genes in an F2 population (93 individuals) of Korean cultivars (WK10039 × WK10024). Comparative genome analysis based on the COS genes showed conserved genome structures between R. sativus and B. rapa with lineage-specific rearrangement and fractionation of triplicated subgenome blocks indicating close evolutionary relationship and differentiation of the genomes. The Brassica COS developed in this study will play an important role in genetic, genomic, and breeding studies of crop Brassicaceae species.

  19. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S.; Pedersen, Thomas D.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan). PMID:26175035

  20. Ebolavirus comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S; Pedersen, Thomas D; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2015-09-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies.This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).

  1. Genome-Based Comparative Analyses of Antarctic and Temperate Species of Paenibacillus

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Melissa; Taylor, Michael W.; Turner, Susan J.; Aislabie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR). However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043–3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further investigations into

  2. Genome-based comparative analyses of Antarctic and temperate species of Paenibacillus.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, Melissa; Taylor, Michael W; Turner, Susan J; Aislabie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR). However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043-3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further investigations into

  3. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Blom, Jochen; Palva, Airi; Siezen, Roland J.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The genus Lactobacillus includes a diverse group of bacteria consisting of many species that are associated with fermentations of plants, meat or milk. In addition, various lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Finally, several Lactobacillus strains are marketed as probiotics as their consumption can confer a health benefit to host. Presently, 154 Lactobacillus species are known and a growing fraction of these are subject to draft genome sequencing. However, complete genome sequences are needed to provide a platform for detailed genomic comparisons. Therefore, we selected a total of 20 genomes of various Lactobacillus strains for which complete genomic sequences have been reported. These genomes had sizes varying from 1.8 to 3.3 Mb and other characteristic features, such as G+C content that ranged from 33% to 51%. The Lactobacillus pan genome was found to consist of approximately 14 000 protein‐encoding genes while all 20 genomes shared a total of 383 sets of orthologous genes that defined the Lactobacillus core genome (LCG). Based on advanced phylogeny of the proteins encoded by this LCG, we grouped the 20 strains into three main groups and defined core group genes present in all genomes of a single group, signature group genes shared in all genomes of one group but absent in all other Lactobacillus genomes, and Group‐specific ORFans present in core group genes of one group and absent in all other complete genomes. The latter are of specific value in defining the different groups of genomes. The study provides a platform for present individual comparisons as well as future analysis of new Lactobacillus genomes. PMID:21375712

  4. Comprehensive genome characterization of solitary fibrous tumors using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Bouvier-Labit, Corinne; Finetti, Pascal; Adélaïde, José; Metellus, Philippe; Mokhtari, Karima; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valérie; Miquel, Catherine; Jouvet, Anne; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pedeutour, Florence; Chaffanet, Max; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell tumors with limited therapeutic options. Their molecular basis is poorly known. No consistent cytogenetic abnormality has been reported. We used high-resolution whole-genome array-based comparative genomic hybridization (Agilent 244K oligonucleotide chips) to profile 47 samples, meningeal in >75% of cases. Few copy number aberrations (CNAs) were observed. Sixty-eight percent of samples did not show any gene CNA after exclusion of probes located in regions with referenced copy number variation (CNV). Only low-level CNAs were observed. The genomic profiles were very homogeneous among samples. No molecular class was revealed by clustering of DNA copy numbers. All cases displayed a "simplex" profile. No recurrent CNA was identified. Imbalances occurring in >20%, such as the gain of 8p11.23-11.22 region, contained known CNVs. The 13q14.11-13q31.1 region (lost in 4% of cases) was the largest altered region and contained the lowest percentage of genes with referenced CNVs. A total of 425 genes without CNV showed copy number transition in at least one sample, but only but only 1 in at least 10% of samples. The genomic profiles of meningeal and extra-meningeal cases did not show any differences.

  5. MBGD: a platform for microbial comparative genomics based on the automated construction of orthologous groups.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2007-01-01

    The microbial genome database for comparative analysis (MBGD) is a comprehensive platform for microbial comparative genomics. The central function of MBGD is to create orthologous groups among multiple genomes from precomputed all-against-all similarity relationships using the DomClust algorithm. The database now contains >300 published genomes and the number continues to grow. For researchers who are interested in ongoing genome projects, we have now started a new service called 'My MBGD,' which allows users to add their own genome sequences to MBGD for the purpose of identifying orthologs among both the new and the existing genomes. Furthermore, in order to make available the rapidly accumulating information on closely related genome sequences, we enhanced the interface for pairwise genome comparisons using the CGAT interface, which allows users to see nucleotide sequence alignments of non-coding as well as coding regions. MBGD is available at http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/.

  6. CrusView: A Java-Based Visualization Platform for Comparative Genomics Analyses in Brassicaceae Species[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/. PMID:23898041

  7. Assessing karyotype precision by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide microarray-based research investigations have revealed a high frequency of submicroscopic copy number alterations (CNAs) in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), suggesting microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has the potential to detect new clinically relevant genomic markers in a diagnostic laboratory. Results We performed an exploratory study on 30 cases of MDS, myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN) or evolving acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (% bone marrow blasts ≤ 30%, range 0-30%, median, 8%) by aCGH, using a genome-wide bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) microarray. The sample data were compared to corresponding cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and clinical-pathological findings. Previously unidentified imbalances, in particular those considered submicroscopic aberrations (< 10 Mb), were confirmed by FISH analysis. CNAs identified by aCGH were concordant with the cytogenetic/FISH results in 25/30 (83%) of the samples tested. aCGH revealed new CNAs in 14/30 (47%) patients, including 28 submicroscopic or hidden aberrations verified by FISH studies. Cryptic 344-kb RUNX1 deletions were found in three patients at time of AML transformation. Other hidden CNAs involved 3q26.2/EVI1, 5q22/APC, 5q32/TCERG1,12p13.1/EMP1, 12q21.3/KITLG, and 17q11.2/NF1. Gains of CCND2/12p13.32 were detected in two patients. aCGH failed to detect a balanced translocation (n = 1) and low-level clonality (n = 4) in five karyotypically aberrant samples, revealing clinically important assay limitations. Conclusions The detection of previously known and unknown genomic alterations suggests that aCGH has considerable promise for identification of both recurring microscopic and submicroscopic genomic imbalances that contribute to myeloid disease pathogenesis and progression. These findings suggest that development of higher-resolution microarray platforms could improve karyotyping in clinical practice. PMID:21078186

  8. Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Genomewide Detection of Submicroscopic Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M. ; de Vries, Bert B. A. ; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo ; Janssen, Irene M. ; Feuth, Ton ; Choy, Chik On ; Straatman, Huub ; van der Vliet, Walter ; Huys, Erik H. L. P. G. ; van Rijk, Anke ; Smeets, Dominique ; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A. ; Knoers, Nine V. ; van der Burgt, Ineke ; de Jong, Pieter J. ; Brunner, Han G. ; van Kessel, Ad Geurts ; Schoenmakers, Eric F. P. M. ; Veltman, Joris A. 

    2003-01-01

    Microdeletions and microduplications, not visible by routine chromosome analysis, are a major cause of human malformation and mental retardation. Novel high-resolution, whole-genome technologies can improve the diagnostic detection rate of these small chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization allows such a high-resolution screening by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference DNAs to arrays consisting of thousands of genomic clones. In this study, we tested the diagnostic capacity of this technology using ∼3,500 flourescent in situ hybridization–verified clones selected to cover the genome with an average of 1 clone per megabase (Mb). The sensitivity and specificity of the technology were tested in normal-versus-normal control experiments and through the screening of patients with known microdeletion syndromes. Subsequently, a series of 20 cytogenetically normal patients with mental retardation and dysmorphisms suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality were analyzed. In this series, three microdeletions and two microduplications were identified and validated. Two of these genomic changes were identified also in one of the parents, indicating that these are large-scale genomic polymorphisms. Deletions and duplications as small as 1 Mb could be reliably detected by our approach. The percentage of false-positive results was reduced to a minimum by use of a dye-swap-replicate analysis, all but eliminating the need for laborious validation experiments and facilitating implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. This high-resolution assay will facilitate the identification of novel genes involved in human mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and will provide insight into the flexibility and plasticity of the human genome. PMID:14628292

  9. An HMM-Based Comparative Genomic Framework for Detecting Introgression in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kevin J.; Dai, Jingxuan; Truong, Kathy; Song, Ying; Kohn, Michael H.; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-01-01

    One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on PhyloNet-HMM—a new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes. PhyloNet-HMM combines phylogenetic networks with hidden Markov models (HMMs) to simultaneously capture the (potentially reticulate) evolutionary history of the genomes and dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) genome detected a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgressed genomic regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 9% of all sites within chromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 13 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes). Further, our model detected no introgression in a negative control data set. We also found that our model accurately detected introgression and other evolutionary processes from synthetic data sets simulated under the coalescent model with recombination, isolation, and migration. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism. PMID:24922281

  10. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes.

    PubMed

    Batnyam, Nomin; Lee, Jimin; Lee, Jungnam; Hong, Seung Bok; Oh, Sejong; Han, Kyudong

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors.

  11. A RAD-based linkage map and comparative genomics in the gudgeons (genus Gnathopogon, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The construction of linkage maps is a first step in exploring the genetic basis for adaptive phenotypic divergence in closely related species by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Linkage maps are also useful for comparative genomics in non-model organisms. Advances in genomics technologies make it more feasible than ever to study the genetics of adaptation in natural populations. Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing in next-generation sequencers facilitates the development of many genetic markers and genotyping. We aimed to construct a linkage map of the gudgeons of the genus Gnathopogon (Cyprinidae) for comparative genomics with the zebrafish Danio rerio (a member of the same family as gudgeons) and for the future QTL analysis of the genetic architecture underlying adaptive phenotypic evolution of Gnathopogon. Results We constructed the first genetic linkage map of Gnathopogon using a 198 F2 interspecific cross between two closely related species in Japan: river-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus and lake-dwelling Gnathopogon caerulescens. Based on 1,622 RAD-tag markers, a linkage map spanning 1,390.9 cM with 25 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 0.87 cM was constructed. We also identified a region involving female-specific transmission ratio distortion (TRD). Synteny and collinearity were extensively conserved between Gnathopogon and zebrafish. Conclusions The dense SNP-based linkage map presented here provides a basis for future QTL analysis. It will also be useful for transferring genomic information from a “traditional” model fish species, zebrafish, to screen candidate genes underlying ecologically important traits of the gudgeons. PMID:23324215

  12. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis in neonates with congenital anomalies: detection of chromosomal imbalances.

    PubMed

    Emy Dorfman, Luiza; Leite, Júlio César L; Giugliani, Roberto; Riegel, Mariluce

    2015-01-01

    To identify chromosomal imbalances by whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in DNA samples of neonates with congenital anomalies of unknown cause from a birth defects monitoring program at a public maternity hospital. A blind genomic analysis was performed retrospectively in 35 stored DNA samples of neonates born between July of 2011 and December of 2012. All potential DNA copy number variations detected (CNVs) were matched with those reported in public genomic databases, and their clinical significance was evaluated. Out of a total of 35 samples tested, 13 genomic imbalances were detected in 12/35 cases (34.3%). In 4/35 cases (11.4%), chromosomal imbalances could be defined as pathogenic; in 5/35 (14.3%) cases, DNA CNVs of uncertain clinical significance were identified; and in 4/35 cases (11.4%), normal variants were detected. Among the four cases with results considered causally related to the clinical findings, two of the four (50%) showed causative alterations already associated with well-defined microdeletion syndromes. In two of the four samples (50%), the chromosomal imbalances found, although predicted as pathogenic, had not been previously associated with recognized clinical entities. Array-CGH analysis allowed for a higher rate of detection of chromosomal anomalies, and this determination is especially valuable in neonates with congenital anomalies of unknown etiology, or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. Moreover, although the interpretation of the results must be refined, this method is a robust and precise tool that can be used in the first-line investigation of congenital anomalies, and should be considered for prospective/retrospective analyses of DNA samples by birth defect monitoring programs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Array-Based Genomic Comparative Hybridization Analysis of Field Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Melissa L.; Oneal, Michael J.; Gardner, Stuart W.; Strait, Erin L.; Nettleton, Dan; Thacker, Eileen L.; Minion, F. Chris

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia and a major factor in the porcine respiratory disease complex. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis does not exist, although it is clear that M. hyopneumoniae adheres to porcine ciliated epithelium by action of a protein called P97. Previous studies have shown variation in the gene encoding the P97 cilium adhesin in different strains of M. hyopneumoniae, but the extent of genetic variation among field strains across the genome is not known. Since M. hyopneumoniae is a worldwide problem, it is reasonable to expect that a wide range of genetic variability may exist given all of the different breeds and housing conditions. This variation may impact the overall virulence of a single strain. Using microarray technology, this study examined the potential variation of 14 field strains compared to strain 232, on which the array was based. Genomic DNA was obtained, amplified with TempliPhi, and labeled indirectly with Alexa dyes. After genomic hybridization, the arrays were scanned and data were analyzed using a linear statistical model. The results indicated that genetic variation could be detected in all 14 field strains but across different loci, suggesting that variation occurs throughout the genome. Fifty-nine percent of the variable loci were hypothetical genes. Twenty-two percent of the lipoprotein genes showed variation in at least one field strain. A permutation test identified a location in the M. hyopneumoniae genome where there is spatial clustering of variability between the field strains and strain 232. PMID:17873054

  14. Comparative analysis of whole genome sequencing-based telomere length measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Napier, Christine E; Yang, Sile F; Arthur, Jonathan W; Reddel, Roger R; Pickett, Hilda A

    2017-02-01

    Telomeres are regions of repetitive DNA at the ends of human chromosomes that function to maintain the integrity of the genome. Telomere attrition is associated with cellular ageing, whilst telomere maintenance is a prerequisite for malignant transformation. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) captures sequence information from the entire genome, including the telomeres, and is increasingly being applied in research and in the clinic. Several bioinformatics tools have been designed to determine telomere content and length from WGS data, and include Motif_counter, TelSeq, Computel, qMotif, and Telomerecat. These tools utilise different approaches to identify, quantify and normalise telomeric reads; however, it is not known how they compare to one another. Here we describe the details and utility of each tool, and directly compare WGS telomere length output with laboratory-based telomere length measurements. In addition, we evaluate the accessibility, practicality, speed, and additional features of each tool. Each tool was tested using a range of telomere read extraction criteria, to determine the optimal parameters for the specific WGS read length. The aim of this article is to improve the accessibility of WGS telomere length measurement tools, which have the potential to be applied to WGS cohorts for clinical as well as research benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GenomeFingerprinter: the genome fingerprint and the universal genome fingerprint analysis for systematic comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    up the methodology of systematic comparative genomics based on the genome fingerprint analysis.

  16. GenomeFingerprinter: The Genome Fingerprint and the Universal Genome Fingerprint Analysis for Systematic Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    outcome dataset. These have set up the methodology of systematic comparative genomics based on the genome fingerprint analysis. PMID:24205026

  17. SALAD database: a motif-based database of protein annotations for plant comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Motohiro; Itoh, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Proteins often have several motifs with distinct evolutionary histories. Proteins with similar motifs have similar biochemical properties and thus related biological functions. We constructed a unique comparative genomics database termed the SALAD database (http://salad.dna.affrc.go.jp/salad/) from plant-genome-based proteome data sets. We extracted evolutionarily conserved motifs by MEME software from 209,529 protein-sequence annotation groups selected by BLASTP from the proteome data sets of 10 species: rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis thaliana, grape, a lycophyte, a moss, 3 algae, and yeast. Similarity clustering of each protein group was performed by pairwise scoring of the motif patterns of the sequences. The SALAD database provides a user-friendly graphical viewer that displays a motif pattern diagram linked to the resulting bootstrapped dendrogram for each protein group. Amino-acid-sequence-based and nucleotide-sequence-based phylogenetic trees for motif combination alignment, a logo comparison diagram for each clade in the tree, and a Pfam-domain pattern diagram are also available. We also developed a viewer named 'SALAD on ARRAYs' to view arbitrary microarray data sets of paralogous genes linked to the same dendrogram in a window. The SALAD database is a powerful tool for comparing protein sequences and can provide valuable hints for biological analysis.

  18. SALAD database: a motif-based database of protein annotations for plant comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Motohiro; Itoh, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Proteins often have several motifs with distinct evolutionary histories. Proteins with similar motifs have similar biochemical properties and thus related biological functions. We constructed a unique comparative genomics database termed the SALAD database (http://salad.dna.affrc.go.jp/salad/) from plant-genome-based proteome data sets. We extracted evolutionarily conserved motifs by MEME software from 209 529 protein-sequence annotation groups selected by BLASTP from the proteome data sets of 10 species: rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis thaliana, grape, a lycophyte, a moss, 3 algae, and yeast. Similarity clustering of each protein group was performed by pairwise scoring of the motif patterns of the sequences. The SALAD database provides a user-friendly graphical viewer that displays a motif pattern diagram linked to the resulting bootstrapped dendrogram for each protein group. Amino-acid-sequence-based and nucleotide-sequence-based phylogenetic trees for motif combination alignment, a logo comparison diagram for each clade in the tree, and a Pfam-domain pattern diagram are also available. We also developed a viewer named ‘SALAD on ARRAYs’ to view arbitrary microarray data sets of paralogous genes linked to the same dendrogram in a window. The SALAD database is a powerful tool for comparing protein sequences and can provide valuable hints for biological analysis. PMID:19854933

  19. Comparative Genome Mapping in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Lagercrantz, U.; Lydiate, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    A Brassica nigra genetic linkage map was developed from a highly polymorphic cross analyzed with a set of low copy number Brassica RFLP probes. The Brassica genome is extensively duplicated with eight distinct sets of chromosomal segments, each present in three copies, covering virtually the whole genome. Thus, B. nigra could be descended from a hexaploid ancestor. A comparative analysis of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa genomes, based on maps developed using a common set of RFLP probes, was also performed. The three genomes have distinct chromosomal structures differentiated by a large number of rearrangements, but collinear regions involving virtually the whole of each the three genomes were identified. The genic contents of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa were basically equivalent and differences in chromosome number (8, 9 and 10, respectively) are probably the result of chromsome fusions and/or fissions. The strong conservation of overall genic content across the three Brassica genomes mirrors the conservation of genic content observed over a much longer evolutionary span in cereals. However, the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in crucifers is much higher than that observed in cereal genomes. PMID:8978073

  20. Identification of functional differences in metabolic networks using comparative genomics and constraint-based models.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Joshua J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Genome-scale network reconstructions are useful tools for understanding cellular metabolism, and comparisons of such reconstructions can provide insight into metabolic differences between organisms. Recent efforts toward comparing genome-scale models have focused primarily on aligning metabolic networks at the reaction level and then looking at differences and similarities in reaction and gene content. However, these reaction comparison approaches are time-consuming and do not identify the effect network differences have on the functional states of the network. We have developed a bilevel mixed-integer programming approach, CONGA, to identify functional differences between metabolic networks by comparing network reconstructions aligned at the gene level. We first identify orthologous genes across two reconstructions and then use CONGA to identify conditions under which differences in gene content give rise to differences in metabolic capabilities. By seeking genes whose deletion in one or both models disproportionately changes flux through a selected reaction (e.g., growth or by-product secretion) in one model over another, we are able to identify structural metabolic network differences enabling unique metabolic capabilities. Using CONGA, we explore functional differences between two metabolic reconstructions of Escherichia coli and identify a set of reactions responsible for chemical production differences between the two models. We also use this approach to aid in the development of a genome-scale model of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Finally, we propose potential antimicrobial targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus based on differences in their metabolic capabilities. Through these examples, we demonstrate that a gene-centric approach to comparing metabolic networks allows for a rapid comparison of metabolic models at a functional level. Using CONGA, we can identify differences in reaction and gene content which give rise to different

  1. Identification of Functional Differences in Metabolic Networks Using Comparative Genomics and Constraint-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Joshua J.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-scale network reconstructions are useful tools for understanding cellular metabolism, and comparisons of such reconstructions can provide insight into metabolic differences between organisms. Recent efforts toward comparing genome-scale models have focused primarily on aligning metabolic networks at the reaction level and then looking at differences and similarities in reaction and gene content. However, these reaction comparison approaches are time-consuming and do not identify the effect network differences have on the functional states of the network. We have developed a bilevel mixed-integer programming approach, CONGA, to identify functional differences between metabolic networks by comparing network reconstructions aligned at the gene level. We first identify orthologous genes across two reconstructions and then use CONGA to identify conditions under which differences in gene content give rise to differences in metabolic capabilities. By seeking genes whose deletion in one or both models disproportionately changes flux through a selected reaction (e.g., growth or by-product secretion) in one model over another, we are able to identify structural metabolic network differences enabling unique metabolic capabilities. Using CONGA, we explore functional differences between two metabolic reconstructions of Escherichia coli and identify a set of reactions responsible for chemical production differences between the two models. We also use this approach to aid in the development of a genome-scale model of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Finally, we propose potential antimicrobial targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus based on differences in their metabolic capabilities. Through these examples, we demonstrate that a gene-centric approach to comparing metabolic networks allows for a rapid comparison of metabolic models at a functional level. Using CONGA, we can identify differences in reaction and gene content which give rise to different

  2. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  3. Enhancer Identification through Comparative Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Bristow, James; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    With the availability of genomic sequence from numerousvertebrates, a paradigm shift has occurred in the identification ofdistant-acting gene regulatory elements. In contrast to traditionalgene-centric studies in which investigators randomly scanned genomicfragments that flank genes of interest in functional assays, the modernapproach begins electronically with publicly available comparativesequence datasets that provide investigators with prioritized lists ofputative functional sequences based on their evolutionary conservation.However, although a large number of tools and resources are nowavailable, application of comparative genomic approaches remains far fromtrivial. In particular, it requires users to dynamically consider thespecies and methods for comparison depending on the specific biologicalquestion under investigation. While there is currently no single generalrule to this end, it is clear that when applied appropriately,comparative genomic approaches exponentially increase our power ingenerating biological hypotheses for subsequent experimentaltesting.

  4. Array comparative genomic hybridization-based characterization of genetic alterations in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Johannes; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Killian, Jonathan Keith; Suuriniemi, Miia; Wang, Yonghong; Lucchi, Marco; Smith, William I; Meltzer, Paul; Wang, Yisong; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2010-07-20

    The goal of this study was to characterize and classify pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors based on array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Using aCGH, we performed karyotype analysis of 33 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors, 13 SCLC cell lines, 19 bronchial carcinoids, and 9 gastrointestinal carcinoids. In contrast to the relatively conserved karyotypes of carcinoid tumors, the karyotypes of SCLC tumors and cell lines were highly aberrant. High copy number (CN) gains were detected in SCLC tumors and cell lines in cytogenetic bands encoding JAK2, FGFR1, and MYC family members. In some of those samples, the CN of these genes exceeded 100, suggesting that they could represent driver alterations and potential drug targets in subgroups of SCLC patients. In SCLC tumors, as well as bronchial carcinoids and carcinoids of gastrointestinal origin, recurrent CN alterations were observed in 203 genes, including the RB1 gene and 59 microRNAs of which 51 locate in the DLK1-DIO3 domain. These findings suggest the existence of partially shared CN alterations in these tumor types. In contrast, CN alterations of the TP53 gene and the MYC family members were predominantly observed in SCLC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the aCGH profile of SCLC cell lines highly resembles that of clinical SCLC specimens. Finally, by analyzing potential drug targets, we provide a genomics-based rationale for targeting the AKT-mTOR and apoptosis pathways in SCLC.

  5. Comparative genomics of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Blaxter, Mark L; Bird, David M; McCarter, James P

    2005-10-01

    Recent transcriptome and genome projects have dramatically expanded the biological data available across the phylum Nematoda. Here we summarize analyses of these sequences, which have revealed multiple unexpected results. Despite a uniform body plan, nematodes are more diverse at the molecular level than was previously recognized, with many species- and group-specific novel genes. In the genus Caenorhabditis, changes in chromosome arrangement, particularly local inversions, are also rapid, with breakpoints occurring at 50-fold the rate in vertebrates. Tylenchid plant parasitic nematode genomes contain several genes closely related to genes in bacteria, implicating horizontal gene transfer events in the origins of plant parasitism. Functional genomics techniques are also moving from Caenorhabditis elegans to application throughout the phylum. Soon, eight more draft nematode genome sequences will be available. This unique resource will underpin both molecular understanding of these most abundant metazoan organisms and aid in the examination of the dynamics of genome evolution in animals.

  6. Detection of copy number variations in melanocytic lesions utilising array based comparative genomic hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Mesbah Ardakani, Nima; Thomas, Carla; Robinson, Cleo; Mina, Kym; Harvey, Nathan Tobias; Amanuel, Benhur; Wood, Benjamin Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Distinction between melanocytic naevi and melanoma occasionally poses a diagnostic challenge in ambiguous cases showing overlapping histological features. Melanomas are characterised by the presence of multiple genomic copy number variants (CNVs), while this is not a feature of naevi. We assessed the feasibility and utility of array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) to assess CNVs in melanocytic lesions. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) sections of unambiguous naevi (n=19) and melanomas (n=19). The test DNA and gender mismatched human reference DNA were differentially labelled with fluorophores. Equal quantities of the two DNA samples were mixed and co-hybridised to a SurePrint G3 Human CGH 8x60K array, and digitally scanned to capture and quantify the relative fluorescence intensities. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities was analysed by Cytogenomics software (Agilent). Frequent large CNVs were identified in 94.7% of melanoma samples, including losses of 9p (73.6%), 9q (52.6%), 10q (36.8%), 11q (36.8%), 3p (21%), and 10p (21%), and gains of 6p (42.1%), 7p (42.1%), 1q (36.8%), 8q (31.5%) and 20q (21%). Only one naevus showed two large copy number changes. Overall aCGH showed a specificity and sensitivity of 94.7% in separating naevi from melanomas. Based on our results, aCGH can be successfully used to analyse CNVs of melanocytic lesions utilising FFPE derived biopsy samples, providing a potentially useful adjunctive test for the classification of diagnostically challenging melanocytic proliferations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus) Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Francesca; Scimone, Concetta; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus) at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer) and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated) and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL) obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca). The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing) and Ion Torrent (RRL) runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources. PMID:26151450

  8. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus) Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Scimone, Concetta; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus) at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer) and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated) and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL) obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca). The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing) and Ion Torrent (RRL) runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources.

  9. Freshwater bacterial lifestyles inferred from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Joshua A; Emrich, Scott J; Tan, John; Jones, Stuart E

    2014-03-01

    While micro-organisms actively mediate and participate in freshwater ecosystem services, we know little about freshwater microbial genetic diversity. Genome sequences are available for many bacteria from the human microbiome and the ocean (over 800 and 200, respectively), but only two freshwater genomes are currently available: the streamlined genomes of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp. asymbioticus and the Actinobacterium AcI-B1. Here, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of eight phylogentically diverse freshwater bacteria exhibiting a range of lifestyle characteristics. Comparative genomics of these bacteria reveals putative freshwater bacterial lifestyles based on differences in predicted growth rate, capability to respond to environmental stimuli and diversity of useable carbon substrates. Our conceptual model based on these genomic characteristics provides a foundation on which further ecophysiological and genomic studies can be built. In addition, these genomes greatly expand the diversity of existing genomic context for future studies on the ecology and genetics of freshwater bacteria.

  10. CFGP 2.0: a versatile web-based platform for supporting comparative and evolutionary genomics of fungi and Oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Jung, Kyongyong; Jeon, Jongbum; Lee, Gir-Won; Kang, Seogchan; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform (CFGP; http://cfgp.snu.ac.kr/) was publicly open with 65 genomes corresponding to 58 fungal and Oomycete species. The CFGP provided six bioinformatics tools, including a novel tool entitled BLASTMatrix that enables search homologous genes to queries in multiple species simultaneously. CFGP also introduced Favorite, a personalized virtual space for data storage and analysis with these six tools. Since 2007, CFGP has grown to archive 283 genomes corresponding to 152 fungal and Oomycete species as well as 201 genomes that correspond to seven bacteria, 39 plants and 105 animals. In addition, the number of tools in Favorite increased to 27. The Taxonomy Browser of CFGP 2.0 allows users to interactively navigate through a large number of genomes according to their taxonomic positions. The user interface of BLASTMatrix was also improved to facilitate subsequent analyses of retrieved data. A newly developed genome browser, Seoul National University Genome Browser (SNUGB), was integrated into CFGP 2.0 to support graphical presentation of diverse genomic contexts. Based on the standardized genome warehouse of CFGP 2.0, several systematic platforms designed to support studies on selected gene families have been developed. Most of them are connected through Favorite to allow of sharing data across the platforms.

  11. Comparative genomics of Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Li, Xiaonan; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2014-01-01

    The family Brassicaceae is one of the major groups of the plant kingdom and comprises diverse species of great economic, agronomic and scientific importance, including the model plant Arabidopsis. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome has revolutionized our knowledge in the field of plant biology and provides a foundation in genomics and comparative biology. Genomic resources have been utilized in Brassica for diversity analyses, construction of genetic maps and identification of agronomic traits. In Brassicaceae, comparative sequence analysis across the species has been utilized to understand genome structure, evolution and the detection of conserved genomic segments. In this review, we focus on the progress made in genetic resource development, genome sequencing and comparative mapping in Brassica and related species. The utilization of genomic resources and next-generation sequencing approaches in improvement of Brassica crops is also discussed. PMID:24987286

  12. Using Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Diagnose Pallister-Killian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Na; Lee, Jiwon; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Jeehun

    2017-01-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by isochromosome 12p and tissue-limited mosaic tetrasomy 12p. In this study, we diagnosed three pediatric patients who were suspicious of having PKS using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and FISH analyses performed on peripheral lymphocytes. Patients 1 and 2 presented with craniofacial dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and a developmental delay. Array CGH revealed two to three copies of 12p in patient 1 and three copies in patient 2. FISH analysis showed trisomy or tetrasomy 12p. Patient 3, who had clinical features comparable to those of patients 1 and 2, was diagnosed by using FISH analysis alone. Here, we report three patients with mosaic tetrasomy 12p. There have been only reported cases diagnosed by chromosome analysis and FISH analysis on skin fibroblast or amniotic fluid. To our knowledge, patient 1 was the first case diagnosed by using array CGH performed on peripheral lymphocytes in Korea. PMID:27834069

  13. Using Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Diagnose Pallister-Killian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Na; Lee, Jiwon; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Jeehun; Kim, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by isochromosome 12p and tissue-limited mosaic tetrasomy 12p. In this study, we diagnosed three pediatric patients who were suspicious of having PKS using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and FISH analyses performed on peripheral lymphocytes. Patients 1 and 2 presented with craniofacial dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and a developmental delay. Array CGH revealed two to three copies of 12p in patient 1 and three copies in patient 2. FISH analysis showed trisomy or tetrasomy 12p. Patient 3, who had clinical features comparable to those of patients 1 and 2, was diagnosed by using FISH analysis alone. Here, we report three patients with mosaic tetrasomy 12p. There have been only reported cases diagnosed by chromosome analysis and FISH analysis on skin fibroblast or amniotic fluid. To our knowledge, patient 1 was the first case diagnosed by using array CGH performed on peripheral lymphocytes in Korea.

  14. Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus environmental isolates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shatavia S; Williams, Tiffany; Cain, Aurora; Froelich, Brett; Taylor, Casey; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Hartnell, Rachel; Oliver, James D; Gibas, Cynthia J

    2012-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control reported that the only category of food-borne infections increasing in frequency were those caused by members of the genus Vibrio. The gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous inhabitant of estuarine waters, and is the number one cause of seafood-related deaths in the US. Many V. vulnificus isolates have been studied, and it has been shown that two genetically distinct subtypes, distinguished by 16S rDNA and other gene polymorphisms, are associated predominantly with either environmental or clinical isolation. While local genetic differences between the subtypes have been probed, only the genomes of clinical isolates have so far been completely sequenced. In order to better understand V. vulnificus as an agent of disease and to identify the molecular components of its virulence mechanisms, we have completed whole genome shotgun sequencing of three diverse environmental genotypes using a pyrosequencing approach. V. vulnificus strain JY1305 was sequenced to a depth of 33×, and strains E64MW and JY1701 were sequenced to lesser depth, covering approximately 99.9% of each genome. We have performed a comparative analysis of these sequences against the previously published sequences of three V. vulnificus clinical isolates. We find that the genome of V. vulnificus is dynamic, with 1.27% of genes in the C-genotype genomes not found in the E- genotype genomes. We identified key genes that differentiate between the genomes of the clinical and environmental genotypes. 167 genes were found to be specifically associated with environmental genotypes and 278 genes with clinical genotypes. Genes specific to the clinical strains include components of sialic acid catabolism, mannitol fermentation, and a component of a Type IV secretory pathway VirB4, as well as several other genes with potential significance for human virulence. Genes specific to environmental strains included several that may have

  15. xBASE, a collection of online databases for bacterial comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Pallen, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The schema of the previously described Escherischia coli database coliBASE has been applied to a number of other bacterial taxa, under the collective name xBASE. The new databases include CampyDB for Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Wolinella; PseudoDB for pseudomonads; ClostriDB for clostridia; RhizoDB for Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium; and MycoDB, for Mycobacterium, Streptomyces and related organisms. The databases provide user friendly access to annotation and genome comparisons through a web-based graphical interface. Newly developed features include whole genome displays, 'painting' of genes according to properties such as GC content, a pattern search system to identify conserved motifs and batch BLAST searching of every protein encoded by a region. Examples of how the databases have been, and continue to be, used to generate hypotheses for subsequent laboratory investigation are presented. xBASE is available online at http://xbase.bham.ac.uk.

  16. Stochastic segmentation models for array-based comparative genomic hybridization data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tze Leung; Xing, Haipeng; Zhang, Nancy

    2008-04-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a high throughput, high resolution technique for studying the genetics of cancer. Analysis of array-CGH data typically involves estimation of the underlying chromosome copy numbers from the log fluorescence ratios and segmenting the chromosome into regions with the same copy number at each location. We propose for the analysis of array-CGH data, a new stochastic segmentation model and an associated estimation procedure that has attractive statistical and computational properties. An important benefit of this Bayesian segmentation model is that it yields explicit formulas for posterior means, which can be used to estimate the signal directly without performing segmentation. Other quantities relating to the posterior distribution that are useful for providing confidence assessments of any given segmentation can also be estimated by using our method. We propose an approximation method whose computation time is linear in sequence length which makes our method practically applicable to the new higher density arrays. Simulation studies and applications to real array-CGH data illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

  17. Identification of Genetic Bases of Vibrio fluvialis Species-Specific Biochemical Pathways and Potential Virulence Factors by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Liang, Weili; Wang, Yunduan; Xu, Jialiang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis is an important food-borne pathogen that causes diarrheal illness and sometimes extraintestinal infections in humans. In this study, we sequenced the genome of a clinical V. fluvialis strain and determined its phylogenetic relationships with other Vibrio species by comparative genomic analysis. We found that the closest relationship was between V. fluvialis and V. furnissii, followed by those with V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Moreover, based on genome comparisons and gene complementation experiments, we revealed genetic mechanisms of the biochemical tests that differentiate V. fluvialis from closely related species. Importantly, we identified a variety of genes encoding potential virulence factors, including multiple hemolysins, transcriptional regulators, and environmental survival and adaptation apparatuses, and the type VI secretion system, which is indicative of complex regulatory pathways modulating pathogenesis in this organism. The availability of V. fluvialis genome sequences may promote our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms for this emerging pathogen. PMID:24441165

  18. Comparative Microbial Genomics and Forensics.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis. Such analyses rely on the increasingly large numbers of microbial genomes present in public databases, the ability of individual investigators to rapidly sequence whole microbial genomes, and an increasing depth of understanding of their evolution and function. Suggestions are made as to how comparative microbial genomics might be applied forensically and may represent possibilities for the future development of forensic techniques. A particular emphasis is on the nascent field of genomic epidemiology, which utilizes rapid whole-genome sequencing to identify the source and spread of infectious outbreaks. Also discussed is the application of comparative microbial genomics to the study of historical epidemics and deaths and how the approaches developed may also be applicable to more recent and actionable cases.

  19. Cloud computing for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wall, Dennis P; Kudtarkar, Parul; Fusaro, Vincent A; Pivovarov, Rimma; Patil, Prasad; Tonellato, Peter J

    2010-05-18

    Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  20. Cloud computing for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. Results We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. Conclusions The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems. PMID:20482786

  1. Association between chromosomal aberration of COX8C and tethered spinal cord syndrome: array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiu-jiong; Bai, Shao-cong; Cheng, Cheng; Tao, Ben-zhang; Wang, Le-kai; Liang, Shuang; Yin, Ling; Hang, Xing-yi; Shang, Ai-jia

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variations have been found in patients with neural tube abnormalities. In this study, we performed genome-wide screening using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization in three children with tethered spinal cord syndrome and two healthy parents. Of eight copy number variations, four were non-polymorphic. These non-polymorphic copy number variations were associated with Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes, and microcephaly. Gene function enrichment analysis revealed that COX8C, a gene associated with metabolic disorders of the nervous system, was located in the copy number variation region of Patient 1. Our results indicate that array-based comparative genomic hybridization can be used to diagnose tethered spinal cord syndrome. Our results may help determine the pathogenesis of tethered spinal cord syndrome and prevent occurrence of this disease. PMID:27651783

  2. Comparative Genomics of the Cucurbitaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome size for watermelon, melon, cucumber, and pumpkin is 425, 454, 367, and 502 Mbp, respectively, and considered medium size as compared with most other crops. Whole-genome duplication is common in angiosperm plants. Research has revealed a paleohexaploidy (') event in the common ancestor of...

  3. [Study on an inquiry-based teaching case in genomics curriculum: identifying virulence factors of Escherichia coli by using comparative genomics].

    PubMed

    Jidong, Zhou; Yudong, Li

    2015-02-01

    Genomics is the core subject of various "omics" and it also becomes a topic of increasing interest in undergraduate curricula of biological sciences. However, the study on teaching methodology of genomics courses was very limited so far. Here we report an application of inquiry-based teaching in genomics courses by using virulence factors of Escherichia coli as an example of comparative genomics study. Specially, students first built a multiple-genome alignment of different E. coli strains to investigate the gene conservation using the Mauve tool; then putative virulence factor genes were identified by using BLAST tool to obtain gene annotations. The teaching process was divided into five modules: situation, resources, task, process and evaluation. Learning-assessment results revealed that students had acquired the knowledge and skills of genomics, and their learning interest and ability of self-study were also motivated. Moreover, the special teaching case can be applied to other related courses, such as microbiology, bioinformatics, molecular biology and food safety detection technology.

  4. Culex genome is not just another genome for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Labbé, Pierrick; Corbel, Vincent

    2012-03-30

    Formal publication of the Culex genome sequence has closed the human disease vector triangle by meeting the Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti genome sequences. Compared to these other mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus possesses many specific hallmark characteristics, and may thus provide different angles for research which ultimately leads to a practical solution for controlling the ever increasing burden of insect-vector-borne diseases around the globe. We argue the special importance of the cosmopolitan species- Culex genome sequence by invoking many interesting questions and the possible of potential of the Culex genome to answer those.

  5. Culex genome is not just another genome for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Formal publication of the Culex genome sequence has closed the human disease vector triangle by meeting the Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti genome sequences. Compared to these other mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus possesses many specific hallmark characteristics, and may thus provide different angles for research which ultimately leads to a practical solution for controlling the ever increasing burden of insect-vector-borne diseases around the globe. We argue the special importance of the cosmopolitan species- Culex genome sequence by invoking many interesting questions and the possible of potential of the Culex genome to answer those. PMID:22463777

  6. Map-Based Comparative Genomic Analysis of Virulent Haemophilus Parasuis Serovars 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Paulraj; Bey, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal bacterium of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs. However, in conjunction with viral infections in immunocompromised animals H. parasuis can transform into a pathogen that is responsible for causing Glasser's disease which is typically characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, meningitis and sometimes acute pneumonia and septicemia in pigs. Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 is highly virulent and more frequently isolated from respiratory and systemic infection in pigs. Recently a highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 was isolated from the tissues of diseased pigs. To understand the differences in virulence and virulence-associated genes between H. parasuis serovar 5 and highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 strains, a genomic library was generated by TruSeq preparation and sequenced on Illumina HiSeq 2000 obtaining 50 bp PE reads. A three-way comparative genomic analysis was conducted between two highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 strains and H. parasuis serovar 5. Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 GenBank isolate SH0165 (GenBank accession number CP001321.1) was used as reference strain for assembly. Results of these analysis revealed the highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 lacks genes encoding for, glycosyl transferases, polysaccharide biosynthesis protein capD, spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein C, polysaccharide export protein and sialyltransferase which can modify the lipopolysaccharide forming a short-chain LPS lacking O-specific polysaccharide chains often referred to as lipooligosaccharide (LOS). In addition, it can modify the outer membrane protein (OMP) structure. The lack of sialyltransferase significantly reduced the amount of sialic acid incorporated into LOS, a major and essential component of the cell wall and an important virulence determinant. These molecules may be involved in various stages of pathogenesis through molecular mimicry and by causing host cell cytotoxicity, reduced

  7. Map-based comparative genomic analysis of virulent haemophilus parasuis serovars 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj; Bey, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal bacterium of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs. However, in conjunction with viral infections in immunocompromised animals H. parasuis can transform into a pathogen that is responsible for causing Glasser's disease which is typically characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, meningitis and sometimes acute pneumonia and septicemia in pigs. Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 is highly virulent and more frequently isolated from respiratory and systemic infection in pigs. Recently a highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 was isolated from the tissues of diseased pigs. To understand the differences in virulence and virulence-associated genes between H. parasuis serovar 5 and highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 strains, a genomic library was generated by TruSeq preparation and sequenced on Illumina HiSeq 2000 obtaining 50 bp PE reads. A three-way comparative genomic analysis was conducted between two highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 strains and H. parasuis serovar 5. Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 GenBank isolate SH0165 (GenBank accession number CP001321.1) was used as reference strain for assembly. Results of these analysis revealed the highly virulent H. parasuis serovar 4 lacks genes encoding for, glycosyl transferases, polysaccharide biosynthesis protein capD, spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein C, polysaccharide export protein and sialyltransferase which can modify the lipopolysaccharide forming a short-chain LPS lacking O-specific polysaccharide chains often referred to as lipooligosaccharide (LOS). In addition, it can modify the outer membrane protein (OMP) structure. The lack of sialyltransferase significantly reduced the amount of sialic acid incorporated into LOS, a major and essential component of the cell wall and an important virulence determinant. These molecules may be involved in various stages of pathogenesis through molecular mimicry and by causing host cell cytotoxicity, reduced

  8. Application of array-based comparative genomic hybridization to pediatric neurologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jung Hye; Shin, Eunsim; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Kyungok; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a technique used to analyze quantitative increase or decrease of chromosomes by competitive DNA hybridization of patients and controls. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and yield of array-CGH in comparison with conventional karyotyping in pediatric neurology patients. We included 87 patients from the pediatric neurology clinic with at least one of the following features: developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphic face, or epilepsy. DNA extracted from patients and controls was hybridized on the Roche NimbleGen 135K oligonucleotide array and compared with G-band karyotyping. The results were analyzed with findings reported in recent publications and internet databases. Chromosome imbalances, including 9 cases detected also by G-band karyotyping, were found in 28 patients (32.2%), and at least 19 of them seemed to be causally related to the abnormal phenotypes. Regarding each clinical symptom, 26.2% of 42 developmental delay patients, 44.4% of 18 mental retardation patients, 42.9% of 28 dysmorphic face patients, and 34.6% of 26 epilepsy patients showed abnormal array results. Although there were relatively small number of tests in patients with pediatric neurologic disease, this study demonstrated that array-CGH is a very useful tool for clinical diagnosis of unknown genome abnormalities performed in pediatric neurology clinics.

  9. Application of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Pediatric Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Jung Hye; Shin, Eunsim; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Kyungok; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a technique used to analyze quantitative increase or decrease of chromosomes by competitive DNA hybridization of patients and controls. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and yield of array-CGH in comparison with conventional karyotyping in pediatric neurology patients. Materials and Methods We included 87 patients from the pediatric neurology clinic with at least one of the following features: developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphic face, or epilepsy. DNA extracted from patients and controls was hybridized on the Roche NimbleGen 135K oligonucleotide array and compared with G-band karyotyping. The results were analyzed with findings reported in recent publications and internet databases. Results Chromosome imbalances, including 9 cases detected also by G-band karyotyping, were found in 28 patients (32.2%), and at least 19 of them seemed to be causally related to the abnormal phenotypes. Regarding each clinical symptom, 26.2% of 42 developmental delay patients, 44.4% of 18 mental retardation patients, 42.9% of 28 dysmorphic face patients, and 34.6% of 26 epilepsy patients showed abnormal array results. Conclusion Although there were relatively small number of tests in patients with pediatric neurologic disease, this study demonstrated that array-CGH is a very useful tool for clinical diagnosis of unknown genome abnormalities performed in pediatric neurology clinics. PMID:24339284

  10. Comparative genomics-based investigation of resequencing targets in Vibrio fischeri: Focus on point miscalls and artefactual expansions

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Mark J; Stabb, Eric V; Ruby, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequence closure often represents the end-point of a genome project, without a system in place for subsequent improvement and refinement. Building on the genome project of Vibrio fischeri ES114, we used a comparative approach to identify and investigate genes that had a high likelihood of sequence error. Results Comparison of the V. fischeri ES114 genome with that of conspecific strain MJ11 identified 82 target loci in ES114 as containing likely errors, and thus of high-priority for resequencing. Analysis of the targets identified 75 loci in which an error had occurred, resulting in the correction of 10,457 base pairs to generate the new ES114 genomic sequence. A majority of the inaccurate loci involved frameshift errors, correction of which fused adjacent ORFs. Although insertions/deletions are thought to be rare in microbial genome assemblies, fourteen of the loci contained extraneous sequence of over 300 bp, likely due to imperfect contig ends that were misassembled in tandem rather than as overlapping segments. Additionally we updated the entire genome annotation with 113 new features including previously uncalled protein-coding genes, regulatory RNA genes and operon leader peptides, and we analyzed the transcriptional apparatus encoded by ES114. Conclusion We demonstrate that errors in microbial genome sequences, thought to largely be confined to point mutations, may also consist of other prevalent large-scale rearrangements such as insertions. Ongoing genome quality control and annotation programs are necessary to accompany technological advancements in data generation. These updates further advance V. fischeri as an important model for understanding intercellular communication and colonization of animal tissue. PMID:18366731

  11. dbCRY: a Web-based comparative and evolutionary genomics platform for blue-light receptors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Min; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Gir-Won; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that play a central role in the circadian oscillations of all living organisms except archaea. Cryptochromes are clustered into three subfamilies: plant-type cryptochromes, animal-type cryptochromes and cryptochrome-DASH proteins. These subfamilies are composed of photolyase/cryptochrome superfamily with 6-4 photolyase and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase. Cryptochromes have conserved domain architectures with two distinct domains, an N-terminal photolyase-related domain and a C-terminal domain. Although the molecular function and domain architecture of cryptochromes are conserved, their molecular mechanisms differ between plants and animals. Thus, cryptochromes are one of the best candidates for comparative and evolutionary studies. Here, we have developed a Web-based platform for comparative and evolutionary studies of cryptochromes, dbCRY (http://www.dbcryptochrome.org/). A pipeline built upon the consensus domain profile was applied to 1438 genomes and identified 1309 genes. To support comparative and evolutionary genomics studies, the Web interface provides diverse functions such as (i) browsing by species, (ii) protein domain analysis, (iii) multiple sequence alignment, (iv) homology search and (v) extended analysis opportunities through the implementation of 'Favorite Browser' powered by the Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform 2.0 (CFGP 2.0; http://cfgp.snu.ac.kr/). dbCRY would serve as a standardized and systematic solution for cryptochrome genomics studies. Database URL: http://www.dbcryptochrome.org/

  12. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  13. Comparative genomics-based identification and analysis of cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Hajime; Ochi, Haruki; Uchiyama, Chihiro; Louie, Sarah; Grainger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identification of cis-regulatory elements, such as enhancers and promoters, is very important not only for analysis of gene regulatory networks but also as a tool for targeted gene expression experiments. In this chapter, we introduce an easy but reliable approach to predict enhancers of a gene of interest by comparing mammalian and Xenopus genome sequences, and to examine their activity using a co-transgenesis technique in Xenopus embryos. Since the bioinformatics analysis utilizes publically available web-tools, bench biologists can easily perform it without any need for special computing capability. The co-transgenesis assay, which directly uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, quickly screens for activity of the candidate elements in a cloning-free manner. PMID:22956093

  14. Comparative genomic analyses in Asparagus.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Joseph C; Havey, Michael J; Martin, William J; Cheung, Foo; Yuan, Qiaoping; Landherr, Lena; Hu, Yi; Leebens-Mack, James; Town, Christopher D; Sink, Kenneth C

    2005-12-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) belongs to the monocot family Asparagaceae in the order Asparagales. Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Asparagus officinalis are 2 of the most economically important plants of the core Asparagales, a well supported monophyletic group within the Asparagales. Coding regions in onion have lower GC contents than the grasses. We compared the GC content of 3374 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from A. officinalis with Lycoris longituba and onion (both members of the core Asparagales), Acorus americanus (sister to all other monocots), the grasses, and Arabidopsis. Although ESTs in A. officinalis and Acorus had a higher average GC content than Arabidopsis, Lycoris, and onion, all were clearly lower than the grasses. The Asparagaceae have the smallest nuclear genomes among all plants in the core Asparagales, which typically have huge genomes. Within the Asparagaceae, European Asparagus species have approximately twice the nuclear DNA of that of southern African Asparagus species. We cloned and sequenced 20 genomic amplicons from European A. officinalis and the southern African species Asparagus plumosus and observed no clear evidence for a recent genome doubling in A. officinalis relative to A. plumosus. These results indicate that members of the genus Asparagus with smaller genomes may be useful genomic models for plants in the core Asparagales.

  15. Detection of genomic imbalances in microdissected Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sylvia; Martin-Subero, José I; Gesk, Stefan; Hüsken, Julia; Giefing, Maciej; Nagel, Inga; Riemke, Jennifer; Chott, Andreas; Klapper, Wolfram; Parrens, Marie; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Küppers, Ralf; Bräuninger, Andreas; Siebert, Reiner; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is limited by the low content of the neoplastic Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells in the affected tissues. However, available cytogenetic data point to an extreme karyotype complexity. To obtain insights into chromosomal imbalances in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, we applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array comparative genomic hybridization) using DNA from microdissected Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. To avoid biases introduced by DNA amplification for array comparative genomic hybridization, cHL cases rich in Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells were selected. DNA obtained from approximately 100,000 microdissected Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells of each of ten classical Hodgkin's lymphoma cases was hybridized onto commercial 105 K oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Selected imbalances were confirmed by interphase cytogenetics and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and further studied in an independent series of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Gains identified in at least five cHL affected 2p12-16, 5q15-23, 6p22, 8q13, 8q24, 9p21-24, 9q34, 12q13-14, 17q12, 19p13, 19q13 and 20q11 whereas losses recurrent in at least five cases involved Xp21, 6q23-24 and 13q22. Copy number changes of selected genes and a small deletion (156 kb) of the CDKN2B (p15) gene were confirmed by interphase cytogenetics and polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Several gained regions included genes constitutively expressed in cHL. Among these, gains of STAT6 (12q13), NOTCH1 (9q34) and JUNB (19p13) were present in additional cHL with the usual low Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cell content. The present study demonstrates that array comparative genomic hybridization of microdissected Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells is suitable for identifying and characterizing chromosomal imbalances. Regions affected by genomic changes in Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells recurrently include genes constitutively

  16. Comparative Analysis of Human B Cell Epitopes Based on BCG Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis is a huge global health problem. BCG is the only vaccine used for about 100 years against TB, but the reasons for protection variability in populations remain unclear. To improve BCG efficacy and develop a strategy for new vaccines, the underlying genetic differences among BCG subtypes should be understood urgently. Methods and Findings. Human B cell epitope data were collected from the Immune Epitope Database. Epitope sequences were mapped with those of 15 genomes, including 13 BCGs, M. bovis AF2122/97, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, to identify epitopes distribution. Among 398 experimentally verified B cell epitopes, 321 (80.7%) were conserved, while the remaining 77 (19.3%) were lost to varying degrees in BCGs. The variable protective efficacy of BCGs may result from the degree of B cell epitopes deficiency. Conclusions. Here we firstly analyzed the genetic characteristics of BCGs based on B cell epitopes and found that B cell epitopes distribution may contribute to vaccine efficacy. Restoration of important antigens or effective B cell epitopes in BCG could be a useful strategy for vaccine development. PMID:27382565

  17. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Indexing of the Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...

  18. Plant Comparative and Functional Genomics

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaohan; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Chen, Feng; ...

    2015-01-01

    Plants form the foundation for our global ecosystem and are essential for environmental and human health. An increasing number of available plant genomes and tractable experimental systems, comparative and functional plant genomics research is greatly expanding our knowledge of the molecular basis of economically and nutritionally important traits in crop plants. Inferences drawn from comparative genomics are motivating experimental investigations of gene function and gene interactions. In this special issue aims to highlight recent advances made in comparative and functional genomics research in plants. Nine original research articles in this special issue cover five important topics: (1) transcription factor genemore » families relevant to abiotic stress tolerance; (2) plant secondary metabolism; (3) transcriptomebased markers for quantitative trait locus; (4) epigenetic modifications in plant-microbe interactions; and (5) computational prediction of protein-protein interactions. Finally, we studied the plant species in these articles which include model species as well as nonmodel plant species of economic importance (e.g., food crops and medicinal plants).« less

  19. Protein domain architectures provide a fast, efficient and scalable alternative to sequence-based methods for comparative functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Koehorst, Jasper J.; Saccenti, Edoardo; Schaap, Peter J.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A functional comparative genome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying bacterial evolution and adaptation. Detection of functional orthologs using standard global sequence similarity methods faces several problems; the need for defining arbitrary acceptance thresholds for similarity and alignment length, lateral gene acquisition and the high computational cost for finding bi-directional best matches at a large scale. We investigated the use of protein domain architectures for large scale functional comparative analysis as an alternative method. The performance of both approaches was assessed through functional comparison of 446 bacterial genomes sampled at different taxonomic levels. We show that protein domain architectures provide a fast and efficient alternative to methods based on sequence similarity to identify groups of functionally equivalent proteins within and across taxonomic boundaries. As the computational cost scales linearly, and not quadratically with the number of genomes, it is suitable for large scale comparative analysis. Running both methods in parallel pinpoints potential functional adaptations that may add to bacterial fitness. PMID:27703668

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities using array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a targeted array-CGH strategy for prenatal diagnosis of genomic imbalances in a clinical setting of current pregnancies. Women undergoing prenatal diagnosis were counseled and offered array-CGH (BCM V4.0) in addition to routine chromosome ...

  1. A White Paper on Nematode Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bird, David McK.; Blaxter, Mark L.; McCarter, James P.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Sternberg, Paul W.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In response to the new opportunities for genome sequencing and comparative genomics, the Society of Nematology (SON) formed a committee to develop a white paper in support of the broad scientific needs associated with this phylum and interests of SON members. Although genome sequencing is expensive, the data generated are unique in biological systems in that genomes have the potential to be complete (every base of the genome can be accounted for), accurate (the data are digital and not subject to stochastic variation), and permanent (once obtained, the genome of a species does not need to be experimentally re-sampled). The availability of complete, accurate, and permanent genome sequences from diverse nematode species will underpin future studies into the biology and evolution of this phylum and the ecological associations (particularly parasitic) nematodes have with other organisms. We anticipate that upwards of 100 nematode genomes will be solved to varying levels of completion in the coming decade and suggest biological and practical considerations to guide the selection of the most informative taxa for sequencing. PMID:19262884

  2. A white paper on nematode comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Bird, David McK; Blaxter, Mark L; McCarter, James P; Mitreva, Makedonka; Sternberg, Paul W; Thomas, W Kelley

    2005-12-01

    In response to the new opportunities for genome sequencing and comparative genomics, the Society of Nematology (SON) formed a committee to develop a white paper in support of the broad scientific needs associated with this phylum and interests of SON members. Although genome sequencing is expensive, the data generated are unique in biological systems in that genomes have the potential to be complete (every base of the genome can be accounted for), accurate (the data are digital and not subject to stochastic variation), and permanent (once obtained, the genome of a species does not need to be experimentally re-sampled). The availability of complete, accurate, and permanent genome sequences from diverse nematode species will underpin future studies into the biology and evolution of this phylum and the ecological associations (particularly parasitic) nematodes have with other organisms. We anticipate that upwards of 100 nematode genomes will be solved to varying levels of completion in the coming decade and suggest biological and practical considerations to guide the selection of the most informative taxa for sequencing.

  3. Aquerium: A web application for comparative exploration of domain-based protein occurrences on the taxonomically clustered genome tree.

    PubMed

    Adebali, Ogun; Zhulin, Igor B

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication and loss are major driving forces in evolution. While many important genomic resources provide information on gene presence, there is a lack of tools giving equal importance to presence and absence information as well as web platforms enabling easy visual comparison of multiple domain-based protein occurrences at once. Here, we present Aquerium, a platform for visualizing genomic presence and absence of biomolecules with a focus on protein domain architectures. The web server offers advanced domain organization querying against the database of pre-computed domains for ∼26,000 organisms and it can be utilized for identification of evolutionary events, such as fusion, disassociation, duplication, and shuffling of protein domains. The tool also allows alternative inputs of custom entries or BLASTP results for visualization. Aquerium will be a useful tool for biologists who perform comparative genomic and evolutionary analyses. The web server is freely accessible at http://aquerium.utk.edu. Proteins 2016; 85:72-77. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genetic characterization of dogs via chromosomal analysis and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

    PubMed

    Müller, M H; Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H

    2012-01-01

    The results of cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic investigations revealed similarities in genetic background and biological behaviour between tumours and genetic diseases of humans and dogs. These findings classify the dog a good and accepted model for human cancers such as osteosarcomas, mammary carcinomas, oral melanomas and others. With the appearance of new studies and advances in canine genome sequencing, the number of known homologies in diseases between these species raised and still is expected to increase. In this context, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a novel tool to rapidly characterize numerical aberrations in canine tumours or to detect copy number aberrations between different breeds. As it is possible to spot probes covering the whole genome on each chip to discover copy number aberrations of all chromosomes simultaneously, this method is time-saving and cost-effective - considering the relation of costs and the amount of data obtained. Complemented with traditional methods like karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, the aCGH is able to provide new insights into the underlying causes of canine carcinogenesis.

  5. Effects of chromosomal variations on pharmacokinetic activity of zolpidem in healthy volunteers: an array-based comparative genomic hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jin Soo; Park, E-Jin; Kang, Chin-Yang; Jeon, Yang-Whan; Lee, Kweon-Haeng; Rha, Hyoung Kyun; Han, Sang-Ick

    2007-05-18

    Zolpidem has been known as a very safe and effective hypnotic drug used to treat a variety of patients with insomnia. Even though the same dose of the medicine is administered to each patient, the blood level of zolpidem and the time required to obtain peak concentration are not consistent among different people. We evaluated the relationship between the peak concentrations of zolpidem and chromosomal imbalances using a high-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 16 healthy volunteers in order to detect the genetic factors underlying the variations. The present study showed that chromosomal losses were detected in the 4q35.2, 9p13.1 and 9p12 regions, and those gains were indicated in the 2p14, 11q13.4 and 15q11.2 regions. The abnormal regions were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time PCR. It is suggested that array-CGH analysis may be used as a measure for pharmacogenomic applications in the patients with insomnia and for further exploration of candidate genomic regions implicated in sleep disturbances.

  6. Comparative Genomics of the Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Gerald M.; Yandell, Mark D.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Gabor Miklos, George L.; Nelson, Catherine R.; Hariharan, Iswar K.; Fortini, Mark E.; Li, Peter W.; Apweiler, Rolf; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Cherry, J. Michael; Henikoff, Steven; Skupski, Marian P.; Misra, Sima; Ashburner, Michael; Birney, Ewan; Boguski, Mark S.; Brody, Thomas; Brokstein, Peter; Celniker, Susan E.; Chervitz, Stephen A.; Coates, David; Cravchik, Anibal; Gabrielian, Andrei; Galle, Richard F.; Gelbart, William M.; George, Reed A.; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Gong, Fangcheng; Guan, Ping; Harris, Nomi L.; Hay, Bruce A.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Li, Jiayin; Li, Zhenya; Hynes, Richard O.; Jones, S. J. M.; Kuehl, Peter M.; Lemaitre, Bruno; Littleton, J. Troy; Morrison, Deborah K.; Mungall, Chris; O'Farrell, Patrick H.; Pickeral, Oxana K.; Shue, Chris; Vosshall, Leslie B.; Zhang, Jiong; Zhao, Qi; Zheng, Xiangqun H.; Zhong, Fei; Zhong, Wenyan; Gibbs, Richard; Venter, J. Craig; Adams, Mark D.; Lewis, Suzanna

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae—and the proteins they are predicted to encode—was undertaken in the context of cellular, developmental, and evolutionary processes. The nonredundant protein sets of flies and worms are similar in size and are only twice that of yeast, but different gene families are expanded in each genome, and the multidomain proteins and signaling pathways of the fly and worm are far more complex than those of yeast. The fly has orthologs to 177 of the 289 human disease genes examined and provides the foundation for rapid analysis of some of the basic processes involved in human disease. PMID:10731134

  7. Structure, evolution, and comparative genomics of tetraploid cotton based on a high-density genetic linkage map.

    PubMed

    Li, Ximei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Hantao; Zhang, Xianlong; Lin, Zhongxu

    2016-06-01

    A high-density linkage map was constructed using 1,885 newly obtained loci and 3,747 previously published loci, which included 5,152 loci with 4696.03 cM in total length and 0.91 cM in mean distance. Homology analysis in the cotton genome further confirmed the 13 expected homologous chromosome pairs and revealed an obvious inversion on Chr10 or Chr20 and repeated inversions on Chr07 or Chr16. In addition, two reciprocal translocations between Chr02 and Chr03 and between Chr04 and Chr05 were confirmed. Comparative genomics between the tetraploid cotton and the diploid cottons showed that no major structural changes exist between DT and D chromosomes but rather between AT and A chromosomes. Blast analysis between the tetraploid cotton genome and the mixed genome of two diploid cottons showed that most AD chromosomes, regardless of whether it is from the AT or DT genome, preferentially matched with the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid A genome, and then the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid D genome, indicating that the diploid D genome underwent converted evolution by the diploid A genome to form the DT genome during polyploidization. In addition, the results reflected that a series of chromosomal translocations occurred among Chr01/Chr15, Chr02/Chr14, Chr03/Chr17, Chr04/Chr22, and Chr05/Chr19.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Two Helicobacter pylori Strains using Genomics and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Roger; Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Kenny, Diarmuid; Sihlbom, Carina; Sjöling, Åsa; Karlsson, Anders; Nookaew, Intawat

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastroenteric pathogen believed to have co-evolved with humans over 100,000 years, shows significant genetic variability. This motivates the study of different H. pylori strains and the diseases they cause in order to identify determinants for disease evolution. In this study, we used proteomics tools to compare two H. pylori strains. Nic25_A was isolated in Nicaragua from a patient with intestinal metaplasia, and P12 was isolated in Europe from a patient with duodenal ulcers. Differences in the abundance of surface proteins between the two strains were determined with two mass spectrometry-based methods, label-free quantification (MaxQuant) or the use of tandem mass tags (TMT). Each approach used a lipid-based protein immobilization (LPITM) technique to enrich peptides of surface proteins. Using the MaxQuant software, we found 52 proteins that differed significantly in abundance between the two strains (up- or downregulated by a factor of 1.5); with TMT, we found 18 proteins that differed in abundance between the strains. Strain P12 had a higher abundance of proteins encoded by the cag pathogenicity island, while levels of the acid response regulator ArsR and its regulatory targets (KatA, AmiE, and proteins involved in urease production) were higher in strain Nic25_A. Our results show that differences in protein abundance between H. pylori strains can be detected with proteomic approaches; this could have important implications for the study of disease progression. PMID:27891114

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Song, Yuqin; Liu, Wenjun; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    As important lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus species are widely used in the production of fermented food. However, as some strains of Enterococcus are opportunistic pathogens, their safety has not been generally accepted. In recent years, a large number of new species have been described and classified within the genus Enterococcus, so a better understanding of the genetic relationships and evolution of Enterococcus species is needed. In this study, the genomes of 29 type strains of Enterococcus species were sequenced. In combination with eight complete genome sequences from the Genbank database, the whole genomes of 37 strains of Enterococcus were comparatively analyzed. The average length of Enterococcus genomes was 3.20Mb and the average GC content was 37.99%. The core- and pan- genomes were defined based on the genomes of the 37 strains of Enterococcus. The core-genome contained 605 genes, a large proportion of which were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, DNA and RNA metabolism. The phylogenetic tree showed that habitat is very important in the evolution of Enterococcus. The genetic relationships were closer in strains that come from similar habitats. According to the topology of the time tree, we found that humans and mammals may be the original hosts of Enterococcus, and then species from humans and mammals made a host-shift to plants, birds, food and other environments. However, it was just an evolutionary scenario, and more data and efforts were needed to prove this postulation. The comparative genomic analysis provided a snapshot of the evolution and genetic diversity of the genus Enterococcus, which paves the way for follow-up studies on its taxonomy and functional genomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequencing and comparing whole mitochondrial genomes ofanimals

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Macey, J. Robert; Medina, Monica

    2005-04-22

    Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome-level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, that can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mtDNA, for amplifying these by PCR or RCA, for cloning,sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements. On several topics, we offer general observations based on our experiences to date with determining and comparing complete mtDNA sequences.

  11. Comparative genomics approaches to study organism similarities and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Liping; Liu, Yueyi; Dubchak, Inna; Shon, John; Park, John

    2002-06-01

    Comparative genomics is a large-scale, holistic approach that compares two or more genomes to discover the similarities and differences between the genomes and to study the biology of the individual genomes. Comparative studies can be performed at different levels of the genomes to obtain multiple perspectives about the organisms. We discuss in detail the type of analyses that offer significant biological insights in the comparisons of (1) genome structure including overall genome statistics, repeats, genome rearrangement at both DNA and gene level, synteny, and breakpoints; (2) coding regions including gene content, protein content, orthologs, and paralogs; and (3) noncoding regions including the prediction of regulatory elements. We also briefly review the currently available computational tools in comparative genomics such as algorithms for genome-scale sequence alignment, gene identification, and nonhomology-based function prediction.

  12. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for various primate species, and analyses of several others are underway. Whole-genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other non-human primates offer valuable insights into genetic similarities and differences among species that are used as models for disease-related research. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics, and proposes a series of goals for the near future.

  13. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for several primates, with analyses of several others underway. Whole genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other nonhuman primates provide valuable insight into genetic similarities and differences among species used as models for disease-related research. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics and offers a series of goals for the near future. PMID:24709753

  14. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gouré, Julien; Findlay, Wendy A; Deslandes, Vincent; Bouevitch, Anne; Foote, Simon J; MacInnes, Janet I; Coulton, James W; Nash, John HE; Jacques, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology. PMID:19239696

  15. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets. PMID:23554570

  16. A comparative genomic study in schizophrenic and in bipolar disorder patients, based on microarray expression profiling meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%-5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.

  17. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S.; Pedersen, Thomas D.; Ussery, David W.

    2015-07-14

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. We examine the dynamics of this genome, comparing more than one hundred currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus, and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. In conclusion, this information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies.

  18. Comparative genomics of Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stx bacteriophages are responsible for driving the dissemination of Stx toxin genes (stx) across their bacterial host range. Lysogens carrying Stx phages can cause severe, life-threatening disease and Stx toxin is an integral virulence factor. The Stx-bacteriophage vB_EcoP-24B, commonly referred to as Ф24B, is capable of multiply infecting a single bacterial host cell at a high frequency, with secondary infection increasing the rate at which subsequent bacteriophage infections can occur. This is biologically unusual, therefore determining the genomic content and context of Ф24B compared to other lambdoid Stx phages is important to understanding the factors controlling this phenomenon and determining whether they occur in other Stx phages. Results The genome of the Stx2 encoding phage, Ф24B was sequenced and annotated. The genomic organisation and general features are similar to other sequenced Stx bacteriophages induced from Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), however Ф24B possesses significant regions of heterogeneity, with implications for phage biology and behaviour. The Ф24B genome was compared to other sequenced Stx phages and the archetypal lambdoid phage, lambda, using the Circos genome comparison tool and a PCR-based multi-loci comparison system. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that Stx phages are mosaic, and recombination events between the host, phages and their remnants within the same infected bacterial cell will continue to drive the evolution of Stx phage variants and the subsequent dissemination of shigatoxigenic potential. PMID:22799768

  19. Comparative genome-scale analysis of niche-based stress-responsive genes in Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    PubMed

    Senan, Suja; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-04-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies with advanced bioinformatic tools present a unique opportunity to compare genomes from diverse niches. The identification of niche-specific stress-responsive genes can help in characterizing robust strains for multiple applications. In this study, we attempted to compare the stress-responsive genes of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463, and a cheese starter strain, Lactobacillus helveticus DPC 4571, from a gut and dairy niche, respectively. Sequencing of MTCC 5463 was done using 454 GS FLX, and contigs were assembled using GS Assembler software. Genome analysis was done using BLAST hits and the prokaryotic annotation server RAST. The MTCC 5463 genome carried multiple orthologs of genes governing stress responses, whereas the DPC 4571 genome lacked in the number of major stress-response proteins. The absence of the bile salt hydrolase gene in DPC 4571 and its presence in MTCC 5463 clearly indicated niche adaptation. Further, MTCC 5463 carried higher copy numbers of genes contributing towards heat, cold, osmotic, and oxidative stress resistance as compared with DPC 4571. Through comparative genomics, we could thus identify stress-responsive gene sets required to adapt to gut and dairy niches.

  20. Datasets for evolutionary comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A

    2005-01-01

    Many decisions about genome sequencing projects are directed by perceived gaps in the tree of life, or towards model organisms. With the goal of a better understanding of biology through the lens of evolution, however, there are additional genomes that are worth sequencing. One such rationale for whole-genome sequencing is discussed here, along with other important strategies for understanding the phenotypic divergence of species. PMID:16086856

  1. Gramene database: navigating plant comparative genomics resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationship...

  2. Comparative genomics of the liberibacteral plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative analyses of multiple Liberibacter genomes provide significant insights into the evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and phylogenetic and metabolomic capacities among pathogenic bacteria that have caused tremendous economic losses to agricultural crops. In addition, genomic analyses ...

  3. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  4. Haemonchus contortus: Genome Structure, Organization and Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Laing, R; Martinelli, A; Tracey, A; Holroyd, N; Gilleard, J S; Cotton, J A

    2016-01-01

    One of the first genome sequencing projects for a parasitic nematode was that for Haemonchus contortus. The open access data from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute provided a valuable early resource for the research community, particularly for the identification of specific genes and genetic markers. Later, a second sequencing project was initiated by the University of Melbourne, and the two draft genome sequences for H. contortus were published back-to-back in 2013. There is a pressing need for long-range genomic information for genetic mapping, population genetics and functional genomic studies, so we are continuing to improve the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute assembly to provide a finished reference genome for H. contortus. This review describes this process, compares the H. contortus genome assemblies with draft genomes from other members of the strongylid group and discusses future directions for parasite genomics using the H. contortus model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Upham, Kathleen; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Scott, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6%; P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS.

  6. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  7. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    PubMed

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  8. Transcriptome-based exon capture enables highly cost-effective comparative genomic data collection at moderate evolutionary scales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, exon capture has largely been restricted to species with fully sequenced genomes, which has precluded its application to lineages that lack high quality genomic resources. We developed a novel strategy for designing array-based exon capture in chipmunks (Tamias) based on de novo transcriptome assemblies. We evaluated the performance of our approach across specimens from four chipmunk species. Results We selectively targeted 11,975 exons (~4 Mb) on custom capture arrays, and enriched over 99% of the targets in all libraries. The percentage of aligned reads was highly consistent (24.4-29.1%) across all specimens, including in multiplexing up to 20 barcoded individuals on a single array. Base coverage among specimens and within targets in each species library was uniform, and the performance of targets among independent exon captures was highly reproducible. There was no decrease in coverage among chipmunk species, which showed up to 1.5% sequence divergence in coding regions. We did observe a decline in capture performance of a subset of targets designed from a much more divergent ground squirrel genome (30 My), however, over 90% of the targets were also recovered. Final assemblies yielded over ten thousand orthologous loci (~3.6 Mb) with thousands of fixed and polymorphic SNPs among species identified. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the potential of a transcriptome-enabled, multiplexed, exon capture method to create thousands of informative markers for population genomic and phylogenetic studies in non-model species across the tree of life. PMID:22900609

  9. [First experiences with preimplantation genetic screening of chromosomal aberrations using oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization].

    PubMed

    Kuglík, Petr; Smetana, Jan; Němcová, Darja; Vallová, Vladimíra; Mikulášová, Aneta; Gaillyová, Renata; Hubinka, Vít; Koudelka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a complex approach for detecting genetic abnormalities in early-stage embryos using genetic or molecular cytogenetic methods. Recently, single cell genomic methods based on DNA microarrays have been used for PGD. In the presented paper, we discuss and demonstrate the possibility to detect copy number variation (CNVs) in trophectoderm cells biopsied from 5-day embryos using 60-mer oligonucleotide-based array-CGH with CytoSure 8 × 15K Aneuploidy Array. Whereas this microarray platform was originally designed for analysis of unamplified DNA derived from many cells, the new methods, developed for single-cell genomics, allow the application of oligo arrays technology in preimplanation genetic diagnosis. Preclinical validation of single cell array-CGH was made by analysis of 30 positive and negative controls. Validation process included whole genome amplification of DNA from 5-10 cells with normal karyotype and from samples with known aneuploidies and structural aberrations. Subsequently, we analyzed the whole genome profiles in 118 embryos; aneuploidies of chromosomes were observed in 26.7%; segmental imbalances were proved in 6.8% of embryos. Our first experience confirmed that this oligonucleotide-based array technique enables high-resolution preimplantation aneuploidy screening of all the 23 chromosome pairs and sensitive preimplantation diagnosis of segmental imbalances such as deletions, duplications and amplifications.

  10. Microarray based comparative genomic hybridization testing in deletion bearing patients with Angelman syndrome: genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, T; Peters, S U; Madduri, N S; Glaze, D G; German, J R; Bird, L M; Barbieri-Welge, R; Bichell, T J; Beaudet, A L; Bacino, C A

    2006-06-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe mental retardation, dysmorphic features, ataxia, seizures, and typical behavioural characteristics, including a happy sociable disposition. AS is caused by maternal deficiency of UBE3A (E6 associated protein ubiquitin protein ligase 3A gene), located in an imprinted region on chromosome 15q11-q13. Although there are four different molecular types of AS, deletions of the 15q11-q13 region account for approximately 70% of the AS patients. These deletions are usually detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation studies. The deletions can also be subclassified based on their size into class I and class II, with the former being larger and encompassing the latter. We studied 22 patients with AS due to microdeletions using a microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) assay to define the deletions and analysed their phenotypic severity, especially expression of the autism phenotype, in order to establish clinical correlations. Overall, children with larger, class I deletions were significantly more likely to meet criteria for autism, had lower cognitive scores, and lower expressive language scores compared with children with smaller, class II deletions. Children with class I deletions also required more medications to control their seizures than did those in the class II group. There are four known genes (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYFIP1, & GCP5) that are affected by class I but not class II deletions, thus raising the possibility of a role for these genes in autism as well as the development of expressive language skills.

  11. Comparative genomics of protoploid Saccharomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    Souciet, Jean-Luc; Dujon, Bernard; Gaillardin, Claude; Johnston, Mark; Baret, Philippe V.; Cliften, Paul; Sherman, David J.; Weissenbach, Jean; Westhof, Eric; Wincker, Patrick; Jubin, Claire; Poulain, Julie; Barbe, Valérie; Ségurens, Béatrice; Artiguenave, François; Anthouard, Véronique; Vacherie, Benoit; Val, Marie-Eve; Fulton, Robert S.; Minx, Patrick; Wilson, Richard; Durrens, Pascal; Jean, Géraldine; Marck, Christian; Martin, Tiphaine; Nikolski, Macha; Rolland, Thomas; Seret, Marie-Line; Casarégola, Serge; Despons, Laurence; Fairhead, Cécile; Fischer, Gilles; Lafontaine, Ingrid; Leh, Véronique; Lemaire, Marc; de Montigny, Jacky; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Thierry, Agnès; Blanc-Lenfle, Isabelle; Bleykasten, Claudine; Diffels, Julie; Fritsch, Emilie; Frangeul, Lionel; Goëffon, Adrien; Jauniaux, Nicolas; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Payen, Célia; Potier, Serge; Pribylova, Lenka; Ozanne, Christophe; Richard, Guy-Franck; Sacerdot, Christine; Straub, Marie-Laure; Talla, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of yeast genomes remains largely dominated by the extensive studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the consequences of its ancestral duplication, leaving the evolution of the entire class of hemiascomycetes only partly explored. We concentrate here on five species of Saccharomycetaceae, a large subdivision of hemiascomycetes, that we call “protoploid” because they diverged from the S. cerevisiae lineage prior to its genome duplication. We determined the complete genome sequences of three of these species: Kluyveromyces (Lachancea) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces (Lachancea) kluyveri (two members of the newly described Lachancea clade), and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. We included in our comparisons the previously available sequences of Kluyveromyces lactis and Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii. Despite their broad evolutionary range and significant individual variations in each lineage, the five protoploid Saccharomycetaceae share a core repertoire of approximately 3300 protein families and a high degree of conserved synteny. Synteny blocks were used to define gene orthology and to infer ancestors. Far from representing minimal genomes without redundancy, the five protoploid yeasts contain numerous copies of paralogous genes, either dispersed or in tandem arrays, that, altogether, constitute a third of each genome. Ancient, conserved paralogs as well as novel, lineage-specific paralogs were identified. PMID:19525356

  12. A three-step workflow procedure for the interpretation of array-based comparative genome hybridization results in patients with idiopathic mental retardation and congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Poot, Martin; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2010-08-01

    One of the aims of clinical genetics is to identify gene mutations or genomic rearrangements that may underlie complex presentations of phenotypic features, such as multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. During the decade after publication of the first article on array-based comparative genome hybridization, this technique has supplemented karyotyping as the prime genome-wide screening method in patients with idiopathic multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The use of this novel, discovery-based, approach has dramatically increased the detection rate of genomic imbalances. Array-based comparative genome hybridization detects copy number changes in the genome of patients and healthy subjects, some of which may represent phenotypically neutral copy number variations. This prompts the need for properly distinguishing between those copy number changes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype amid a pool of neutral copy number variations. We briefly review the characteristics of copy number changes in relation to their clinical relevance. Second, we discuss several published workflow schemes to identify copy number changes putatively contributing to the phenotype, and third, we propose a three-step procedure aiming to rapidly evaluate copy number changes on a case-by-case basis as to their potential contribution to the phenotype of patients with idiopathic multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. This workflow is gene-centered and should aid in identification of disease-related candidate genes and in estimating the recurrence risk for the disorder in the family.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Genome Sequences with VISTA

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dubchak, Inna

    VISTA is a comprehensive suite of programs and databases developed by and hosted at the Genomics Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. They provide information and tools designed to facilitate comparative analysis of genomic sequences. Users have two ways to interact with the suite of applications at the VISTA portal. They can submit their own sequences and alignments for analysis (VISTA servers) or examine pre-computed whole-genome alignments of different species. A key menu option is the Enhancer Browser and Database at http://enhancer.lbl.gov/. The VISTA Enhancer Browser is a central resource for experimentally validated human noncoding fragments with gene enhancer activity as assessed in transgenic mice. Most of these noncoding elements were selected for testing based on their extreme conservation with other vertebrates. The results of this enhancer screen are provided through this publicly available website. The browser also features relevant results by external contributors and a large collection of additional genome-wide conserved noncoding elements which are candidate enhancer sequences. The LBL developers invite external groups to submit computational predictions of developmental enhancers. As of 10/19/2009 the database contains information on 1109 in vivo tested elements - 508 elements with enhancer activity.

  14. In silico synteny based comparative genomics approach for identification and characterization of novel therapeutic targets in Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Bilachi S; Krishnamurthy, Venkatappa; Krishna, Venkatarangaiah; C, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae is one of the most important and well studied gram negative bacterial strain with respect to community acquired pneumonia and other respiratory diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Chronic asthma, Alzheimer's disease, Atherosclerosis and Multisclerosis which have a great potential to infect humans and many other mammals. According to WHO prediction, COPD is to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms leading to chronic infections are poorly understood and the difficulty in culturing C pneumoniae in experimental conditions and lack of entirely satisfactory serological methods for diagnosis is also a hurdle for drug discovery and development. We have performed an insilico synteny based comparative genomics analysis of C pneumoniae and other eight Chlamydial organisms to know the potential of C pneumoniae which cause COPD but other Chlamydial organisms lack in potential to cause COPD though some are involved in human pathogenesis. We have identified total 354 protein sequences as non-orthologous to other Chlamydial organisms, except hypothetical proteins 70 were found functional out of which 60 are non homologous to Homo sapiens proteome and among them 18 protein sequences are found to be essential for survival of the C pneumoniae based on BLASTP search against DEG database of essential genes. CELLO analysis results showed that about 80% proteins are found to be cytoplasmic, Among which 5 were found as bacterial exotoxins and 2 as bacterial endotoxins, remaining 11 proteins were found to be involved in DNA binding, RNA binding, catalytic activity, ATP binding, oxidoreductase activity, hydrolase activity and proteolysis activity. It is expected that our data will facilitate selection of C pneumoniae proteins for successful entry into drug design pipelines.

  15. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  16. Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

  17. Rescue karyotyping: a case series of array-based comparative genomic hybridization evaluation of archival conceptual tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Determination of fetal aneuploidy is central to evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, obtaining this information at the time of a miscarriage is not always possible or may not have been ordered. Here we report on “rescue karyotyping”, wherein DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded pregnancy loss tissue from a prior dilation and curettage (D&C) is evaluated by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods A retrospective case series was conducted at an academic medical center. Patients included had unexplained RPL and a prior pregnancy loss for which karyotype information would be clinically informative but was unavailable. After extracting DNA from slides of archived tissue, aCGH with a reduced stringency approach was performed, allowing for analysis of partially degraded DNA. Statistics were computed using STATA v12.1 (College Station, TX). Results Rescue karyotyping was attempted on 20 specimens from 17 women. DNA was successfully extracted in 16 samples (80.0%), enabling analysis at either high or low resolution. The longest interval from tissue collection to DNA extraction was 4.2 years. There was no significant difference in specimen sufficiency for analysis in the collection-to-extraction interval (p = 0.14) or gestational age at pregnancy loss (p = 0.32). Eight specimens showed copy number variants: 3 trisomies, 2 partial chromosomal deletions, 1 mosaic abnormality and 2 unclassified variants. Conclusions Rescue karyotyping using aCGH on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue provides the opportunity to obtain critical fetal cytogenetic information from a prior loss, even if it occurred years earlier. Given the ubiquitous archiving of paraffin embedded tissue obtained during a D&C and the ease of obtaining results despite long loss-to-testing intervals or early gestational age at time of fetal demise, this may provide a useful technique in the evaluation of couples with recurrent pregnancy

  18. Rescue karyotyping: a case series of array-based comparative genomic hybridization evaluation of archival conceptual tissue.

    PubMed

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Li, Marilyn; Smith, Janice; Patel, Ankita; Williams, Zev

    2014-03-03

    Determination of fetal aneuploidy is central to evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, obtaining this information at the time of a miscarriage is not always possible or may not have been ordered. Here we report on "rescue karyotyping", wherein DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded pregnancy loss tissue from a prior dilation and curettage (D&C) is evaluated by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). A retrospective case series was conducted at an academic medical center. Patients included had unexplained RPL and a prior pregnancy loss for which karyotype information would be clinically informative but was unavailable. After extracting DNA from slides of archived tissue, aCGH with a reduced stringency approach was performed, allowing for analysis of partially degraded DNA. Statistics were computed using STATA v12.1 (College Station, TX). Rescue karyotyping was attempted on 20 specimens from 17 women. DNA was successfully extracted in 16 samples (80.0%), enabling analysis at either high or low resolution. The longest interval from tissue collection to DNA extraction was 4.2 years. There was no significant difference in specimen sufficiency for analysis in the collection-to-extraction interval (p=0.14) or gestational age at pregnancy loss (p=0.32). Eight specimens showed copy number variants: 3 trisomies, 2 partial chromosomal deletions, 1 mosaic abnormality and 2 unclassified variants. Rescue karyotyping using aCGH on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue provides the opportunity to obtain critical fetal cytogenetic information from a prior loss, even if it occurred years earlier. Given the ubiquitous archiving of paraffin embedded tissue obtained during a D&C and the ease of obtaining results despite long loss-to-testing intervals or early gestational age at time of fetal demise, this may provide a useful technique in the evaluation of couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of sixty mycobacteriophage genomes: Genome clustering, gene acquisition and gene size

    PubMed Central

    Hatfull, Graham F.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Pope, Welkin H.; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Weber, Rebecca J.; Patel, Manisha C.; Germane, Katherine L.; Edgar, Robert H.; Hoyte, Natasha N.; Bowman, Charles A.; Tantoco, Anthony T.; Paladin, Elizabeth C.; Myers, Marlana S.; Smith, Alexis L.; Grace, Molly S.; Pham, Thuy T.; O'Brien, Matthew B.; Vogelsberger, Amy M.; Hryckowian, Andrew J.; Wynalek, Jessica L.; Donis-Keller, Helen; Bogel, Matt W.; Peebles, Craig L.; Cresawn, Steve G.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts. Expansion of a collection of sequenced phage genomes to a total of sixty – all infecting a common bacterial host – provides further insight into their diversity and evolution. Of the sixty phage genomes, 55 can be grouped into nine clusters according to their nucleotide sequence similarities, five of which can be further divided into subclusters; five genomes do not cluster with other phages. The sequence diversity between genomes within a cluster varies greatly; for example, the six genomes in cluster D share more than 97.5% average nucleotide similarity with each other. In contrast, similarity between the two genomes in Cluster I is barely detectable by diagonal plot analysis. The total of 6,858 predicted ORFs have been grouped into 1523 phamilies (phams) of related sequences, 46% of which possess only a single member. Only 18.8% of the phams have sequence similarity to non-mycobacteriophage database entries and fewer than 10% of all phams can be assigned functions based on database searching or synteny. Genome clustering facilitates the identification of genes that are in greatest genetic flux and are more likely to have been exchanged horizontally in relatively recent evolutionary time. Although mycobacteriophage genes exhibit smaller average size than genes of their host (205 residues compared to 315), phage genes in higher flux average only ∼100 amino acids, suggesting that the primary units of genetic exchange correspond to single protein domains. PMID:20064525

  20. Comparative analysis and visualization of multiple collinear genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome browsers are a common tool used by biologists to visualize genomic features including genes, polymorphisms, and many others. However, existing genome browsers and visualization tools are not well-suited to perform meaningful comparative analysis among a large number of genomes. With the increasing quantity and availability of genomic data, there is an increased burden to provide useful visualization and analysis tools for comparison of multiple collinear genomes such as the large panels of model organisms which are the basis for much of the current genetic research. Results We have developed a novel web-based tool for visualizing and analyzing multiple collinear genomes. Our tool illustrates genome-sequence similarity through a mosaic of intervals representing local phylogeny, subspecific origin, and haplotype identity. Comparative analysis is facilitated through reordering and clustering of tracks, which can vary throughout the genome. In addition, we provide local phylogenetic trees as an alternate visualization to assess local variations. Conclusions Unlike previous genome browsers and viewers, ours allows for simultaneous and comparative analysis. Our browser provides intuitive selection and interactive navigation about features of interest. Dynamic visualizations adjust to scale and data content making analysis at variable resolutions and of multiple data sets more informative. We demonstrate our genome browser for an extensive set of genomic data sets composed of almost 200 distinct mouse laboratory strains. PMID:22536897

  1. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource.

  2. Gramene 2013: Comparative plant genomics resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a curated online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species, currently hosting 27 fully and 10 partially sequenced reference genomes in its build number 38. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework fo...

  3. Gramene: a growing plant comparative genomics resource

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (www.gramene.org) is a curated genetic, genomic and comparative genome analysis resource for the major crop species, such as rice, maize, wheat and many other plant (mainly grass) species. Gramene is an open-source project, with all data and software freely downloadable through the ftp site ...

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers.

    PubMed

    Caygill, Christine P J; Gatenby, Piers A C; Herceg, Zdenko; Lima, Sheila C S; Pinto, Luis F R; Watson, Anthony; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers: genomic polymorphisms, the genetic and epigenetic drivers in esophageal cancers, and the collection of data in the UK Barrett's Oesophagus Registry.

  5. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2005-04-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in-situ hybridization technique. In this type of analysis, two differentially labeled genomic DNAs (study and reference) are cohybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Thus, CGH allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. Since its development, comparative genomic hybridization has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. It is also a powerful tool for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal, postnatal and preimplantation diagnostics. The development of comparative genomic hybridization and increase in resolution analysis by using the microarray-based technique offer new information on chromosomal pathologies and thus better management of patients.

  6. Comparative assembly hubs: Web-accessible browsers for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Raney, Brian J.; Armstrong, Joel; Clawson, Hiram; Zweig, Ann; Karolchik, Donna; Kent, William James; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Researchers now have access to large volumes of genome sequences for comparative analysis, some generated by the plethora of public sequencing projects and, increasingly, from individual efforts. It is not possible, or necessarily desirable, that the public genome browsers attempt to curate all these data. Instead, a wealth of powerful tools is emerging to empower users to create their own visualizations and browsers. Results: We introduce a pipeline to easily generate collections of Web-accessible UCSC Genome Browsers interrelated by an alignment. It is intended to democratize our comparative genomic browser resources, serving the broad and growing community of evolutionary genomicists and facilitating easy public sharing via the Internet. Using the alignment, all annotations and the alignment itself can be efficiently viewed with reference to any genome in the collection, symmetrically. A new, intelligently scaled alignment display makes it simple to view all changes between the genomes at all levels of resolution, from substitutions to complex structural rearrangements, including duplications. To demonstrate this work, we create a comparative assembly hub containing 57 Escherichia coli and 9 Shigella genomes and show examples that highlight their unique biology. Availability and implementation: The source code is available as open source at: https://github.com/glennhickey/progressiveCactus The E.coli and Shigella genome hub is now a public hub listed on the UCSC browser public hubs Web page. Contact: benedict@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25138168

  7. Homology-independent metrics for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Tarcisio José Domingos; Franco, Glória Regina; Lobo, Francisco Pereira

    2015-01-01

    A mainstream procedure to analyze the wealth of genomic data available nowadays is the detection of homologous regions shared across genomes, followed by the extraction of biological information from the patterns of conservation and variation observed in such regions. Although of pivotal importance, comparative genomic procedures that rely on homology inference are obviously not applicable if no homologous regions are detectable. This fact excludes a considerable portion of "genomic dark matter" with no significant similarity - and, consequently, no inferred homology to any other known sequence - from several downstream comparative genomic methods. In this review we compile several sequence metrics that do not rely on homology inference and can be used to compare nucleotide sequences and extract biologically meaningful information from them. These metrics comprise several compositional parameters calculated from sequence data alone, such as GC content, dinucleotide odds ratio, and several codon bias metrics. They also share other interesting properties, such as pervasiveness (patterns persist on smaller scales) and phylogenetic signal. We also cite examples where these homology-independent metrics have been successfully applied to support several bioinformatics challenges, such as taxonomic classification of biological sequences without homology inference. They where also used to detect higher-order patterns of interactions in biological systems, ranging from detecting coevolutionary trends between the genomes of viruses and their hosts to characterization of gene pools of entire microbial communities. We argue that, if correctly understood and applied, homology-independent metrics can add important layers of biological information in comparative genomic studies without prior homology inference.

  8. DNA microarrays for comparative genomic hybridization based on DOP-PCR amplification of BAC and PAC clones.

    PubMed

    Fiegler, Heike; Carr, Philippa; Douglas, Eleanor J; Burford, Deborah C; Hunt, Sarah; Scott, Carol E; Smith, James; Vetrie, David; Gorman, Patricia; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Carter, Nigel P

    2003-04-01

    We have designed DOP-PCR primers specifically for the amplification of large insert clones for use in the construction of DNA microarrays. A bioinformatic approach was used to construct primers that were efficient in the general amplification of human DNA but were poor at amplifying E. coli DNA, a common contaminant of DNA preparations from large insert clones. We chose the three most selective primers for use in printing DNA microarrays. DNA combined from the amplification of large insert clones by use of these three primers and spotted onto glass slides showed more than a sixfold increase in the human to E. coli hybridization ratio when compared to the standard DOP-PCR primer, 6MW. The microarrays reproducibly delineated previously characterized gains and deletions in a cancer cell line and identified a small gain not detected by use of conventional CGH. We also describe a method for the bulk testing of the hybridization characteristics of chromosome-specific clones spotted on microarrays by use of DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes. Finally, we describe a set of clones selected from the publicly available Golden Path of the human genome at 1-Mb intervals and a view in the Ensembl genome browser from which data required for the use of these clones in array CGH and other experiments can be downloaded across the Internet.

  9. An evaluation of Comparative Genome Sequencing (CGS) by comparing two previously-sequenced bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Christopher D; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2007-01-01

    Background With the development of new technology, it has recently become practical to resequence the genome of a bacterium after experimental manipulation. It is critical though to know the accuracy of the technique used, and to establish confidence that all of the mutations were detected. Results In order to evaluate the accuracy of genome resequencing using the microarray-based Comparative Genome Sequencing service provided by Nimblegen Systems Inc., we resequenced the E. coli strain W3110 Kohara using MG1655 as a reference, both of which have been completely sequenced using traditional sequencing methods. CGS detected 7 of 8 small sequence differences, one large deletion, and 9 of 12 IS element insertions present in W3110, but did not detect a large chromosomal inversion. In addition, we confirmed that CGS also detected 2 SNPs, one deletion and 7 IS element insertions that are not present in the genome sequence, which we attribute to changes that occurred after the creation of the W3110 lambda clone library. The false positive rate for SNPs was one per 244 Kb of genome sequence. Conclusion CGS is an effective way to detect multiple mutations present in one bacterium relative to another, and while highly cost-effective, is prone to certain errors. Mutations occurring in repeated sequences or in sequences with a high degree of secondary structure may go undetected. It is also critical to follow up on regions of interest in which SNPs were not called because they often indicate deletions or IS element insertions. PMID:17697331

  10. A dictionary based informational genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era several methods of computational genomics are emerging to understand how the whole information is structured within genomes. Literature of last five years accounts for several alignment-free methods, arisen as alternative metrics for dissimilarity of biological sequences. Among the others, recent approaches are based on empirical frequencies of DNA k-mers in whole genomes. Results Any set of words (factors) occurring in a genome provides a genomic dictionary. About sixty genomes were analyzed by means of informational indexes based on genomic dictionaries, where a systemic view replaces a local sequence analysis. A software prototype applying a methodology here outlined carried out some computations on genomic data. We computed informational indexes, built the genomic dictionaries with different sizes, along with frequency distributions. The software performed three main tasks: computation of informational indexes, storage of these in a database, index analysis and visualization. The validation was done by investigating genomes of various organisms. A systematic analysis of genomic repeats of several lengths, which is of vivid interest in biology (for example to compute excessively represented functional sequences, such as promoters), was discussed, and suggested a method to define synthetic genetic networks. Conclusions We introduced a methodology based on dictionaries, and an efficient motif-finding software application for comparative genomics. This approach could be extended along many investigation lines, namely exported in other contexts of computational genomics, as a basis for discrimination of genomic pathologies. PMID:22985068

  11. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of a Novel Myxobacterium Myxococcus hansupus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Narwani, Tarun; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative aerobes, belong to the class δ-proteobacteria and order Myxococcales. Unlike anaerobic δ-proteobacteria, they exhibit several unusual physiogenomic properties like gliding motility, desiccation-resistant myxospores and large genomes with high coding density. Here we report a 9.5 Mbp complete genome of Myxococcus hansupus that encodes 7,753 proteins. Phylogenomic and genome-genome distance based analysis suggest that Myxococcus hansupus is a novel member of the genus Myxococcus. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the genus Myxococcus was performed to explore their genome diversity. The variation in number of unique proteins observed across different species is suggestive of diversity at the genus level while the overrepresentation of several Pfam families indicates the extent and mode of genome expansion as compared to non-Myxococcales δ-proteobacteria.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of a Novel Myxobacterium Myxococcus hansupus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Narwani, Tarun; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative aerobes, belong to the class δ-proteobacteria and order Myxococcales. Unlike anaerobic δ-proteobacteria, they exhibit several unusual physiogenomic properties like gliding motility, desiccation-resistant myxospores and large genomes with high coding density. Here we report a 9.5 Mbp complete genome of Myxococcus hansupus that encodes 7,753 proteins. Phylogenomic and genome-genome distance based analysis suggest that Myxococcus hansupus is a novel member of the genus Myxococcus. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the genus Myxococcus was performed to explore their genome diversity. The variation in number of unique proteins observed across different species is suggestive of diversity at the genus level while the overrepresentation of several Pfam families indicates the extent and mode of genome expansion as compared to non-Myxococcales δ-proteobacteria. PMID:26900859

  13. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-04

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches.

  14. Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314

  15. easyGWAS: A Cloud-Based Platform for Comparing the Results of Genome-Wide Association Studies[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roqueiro, Damian; Salomé, Patrice A.; Kleeberger, Stefan; Zhu, Wangsheng; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The ever-growing availability of high-quality genotypes for a multitude of species has enabled researchers to explore the underlying genetic architecture of complex phenotypes at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The systematic comparison of results obtained from GWAS of different traits opens up new possibilities, including the analysis of pleiotropic effects. Other advantages that result from the integration of multiple GWAS are the ability to replicate GWAS signals and to increase statistical power to detect such signals through meta-analyses. In order to facilitate the simple comparison of GWAS results, we present easyGWAS, a powerful, species-independent online resource for computing, storing, sharing, annotating, and comparing GWAS. The easyGWAS tool supports multiple species, the uploading of private genotype data and summary statistics of existing GWAS, as well as advanced methods for comparing GWAS results across different experiments and data sets in an interactive and user-friendly interface. easyGWAS is also a public data repository for GWAS data and summary statistics and already includes published data and results from several major GWAS. We demonstrate the potential of easyGWAS with a case study of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, using flowering and growth-related traits. PMID:27986896

  16. Using Comparative Genomics for Inquiry-Based Learning to Dissect Virulence of "Escherichia coli" O157:H7 and "Yersinia pestis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumler, David J.; Banta, Lois M.; Hung, Kai F.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Cabot, Eric L.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples…

  17. Using Comparative Genomics for Inquiry-Based Learning to Dissect Virulence of "Escherichia coli" O157:H7 and "Yersinia pestis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumler, David J.; Banta, Lois M.; Hung, Kai F.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Cabot, Eric L.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples…

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of prion genes

    PubMed Central

    Premzl, Marko; Gamulin, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background The homologues of human disease genes are expected to contribute to better understanding of physiological and pathogenic processes. We made use of the present availability of vertebrate genomic sequences, and we have conducted the most comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of the prion protein gene PRNP and its homologues, shadow of prion protein gene SPRN and doppel gene PRND, and prion testis-specific gene PRNT so far. Results While the SPRN and PRNP homologues are present in all vertebrates, PRND is known in tetrapods, and PRNT is present in primates. PRNT could be viewed as a TE-associated gene. Using human as the base sequence for genomic sequence comparisons (VISTA), we annotated numerous potential cis-elements. The conserved regions in SPRNs harbour the potential Sp1 sites in promoters (mammals, birds), C-rich intron splicing enhancers and PTB intron splicing silencers in introns (mammals, birds), and hsa-miR-34a sites in 3'-UTRs (eutherians). We showed the conserved PRNP upstream regions, which may be potential enhancers or silencers (primates, dog). In the PRNP 3'-UTRs, there are conserved cytoplasmic polyadenylation element sites (mammals, birds). The PRND core promoters include highly conserved CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes (mammals). We deduced 42 new protein primary structures, and performed the first phylogenetic analysis of all vertebrate prion genes. Using the protein alignment which included 122 sequences, we constructed the neighbour-joining tree which showed four major clusters, including shadoos, shadoo2s and prion protein-likes (cluster 1), fish prion proteins (cluster 2), tetrapode prion proteins (cluster 3) and doppels (cluster 4). We showed that the entire prion protein conformationally plastic region is well conserved between eutherian prion proteins and shadoos (18–25% identity and 28–34% similarity), and there could be a potential structural compatibility between shadoos and the left-handed parallel beta-helical fold

  19. Comparative genomics of green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Colin; Ussery, David W; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2010-06-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole-genome gene family and single gene sequence comparisons yielded similar phylogenetic trees of the sequenced chromosomes indicating a concerted vertical evolution of large gene sets. Chromosomal synteny of genes is not preserved in the phylum Chlorobi. The accessory genome is characterized by anomalous oligonucleotide usage and endows the strains with individual features for transport, secretion, cell wall, extracellular constituents, and a few elements of the biosynthetic apparatus. Giant genes are a peculiar feature of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris. The predicted proteins have a huge molecular weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment.

  20. Comparative genomic hybridization with single cells after whole genome amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.R.; Baldini, A.; Hughes, M.R.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional karyotype analysis is the ideal way to diagnose chromosomal imbalances. However it requires cell culture and chromosome preparation. There are instances where a very small number of cells are available for cytogenetic evaluation and chromosomes cannot be obtained. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a novel molecular cytogenetic technique that provides information about genetic imbalances affecting the genome. The power of this technique lies in its ability to detect genetic imbalances using total genomic DNA. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of whole genome amplification from single cells for subsequent analysis of multiple genetic loci by PCR. In this present work, we combine whole genome amplification with CGH to detect chromosomal imbalances from small numbers of cells. Both cytogenetically normal and abnormal cells were individually picked by micromanipulation and subjected to whole genome amplification using random oligonucleotide primers. Amplified test and control DNA were differentially labeled by incorporation of digoxigenin or biotin, mixed together and hybridized to normal male metaphase spreads. Hybridization was detected with two fluorochromes, rhodamine-anti-digoxigenin and FITC -Avidin. Ratio of intensities of the two fluorochromes along the target chromosomes was analyzed using locally developed computer imaging software. Using the combination of whole genome amplification and CGH, we were able to detect different chromosomal aneuploidies from 30, 20, and 10 cells. It can also be applied to the analysis of fetal cells sorted from maternal circulation, or to tumor cells obtained from needle biopsies or from different body fluids and effusions. Finally, its successful application to single cells will have a great impact on preimplantation diagnosis.

  1. Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. It belongs to the gigantic order Lamiales, which includes many well-known or economically important species, such as olive (Olea europaea), leonurus (Leonurus japonicus) and lavender (Lavandula spica), many of which have important pharmacological properties. Despite their importance, genetic and genomic analyses on these species have been insufficient due to a lack of reference genome information. The now available S. indicum genome will provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying both S. indicum genetic traits and comparative genomics. To deliver S. indicum genomic information to the worldwide research community, we designed Sinbase, a web-based database with comprehensive sesame genomic, genetic and comparative genomic information. Sinbase includes sequences of assembled sesame pseudomolecular chromosomes, protein-coding genes (27,148), transposable elements (372,167) and non-coding RNAs (1,748). In particular, Sinbase provides unique and valuable information on colinear regions with various plant genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum. Sinbase also provides a useful search function and data mining tools, including a keyword search and local BLAST service. Sinbase will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences, and is freely accessible at http://ocri-genomics.org/Sinbase/.

  2. VISTA - computational tools for comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Pachter, Lior; Poliakov, Alexander; Rubin,Edward M.; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of DNA sequences from different species is a fundamental method for identifying functional elements in genomes. Here we describe the VISTA family of tools created to assist biologists in carrying out this task. Our first VISTA server at http://www-gsd.lbl.gov/VISTA/ was launched in the summer of 2000 and was designed to align long genomic sequences and visualize these alignments with associated functional annotations. Currently the VISTA site includes multiple comparative genomics tools and provides users with rich capabilities to browse pre-computed whole-genome alignments of large vertebrate genomes and other groups of organisms with VISTA Browser, submit their own sequences of interest to several VISTA servers for various types of comparative analysis, and obtain detailed comparative analysis results for a set of cardiovascular genes. We illustrate capabilities of the VISTA site by the analysis of a 180 kilobase (kb) interval on human chromosome 5 that encodes for the kinesin family member3A (KIF3A) protein.

  3. Clinical application of array-based comparative genomic hybridization for the identification of prognostically important genetic alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Russell A; Gunn, Shelly R; Robetorye, Ryan S

    2008-01-01

    Genomic aberrations have increasingly gained attention as prognostic markers in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has improved the detection rate of genomic alterations in CLL from approximately 50% using conventional cytogenetics to greater than 80%. More recently, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has gained popularity as a clinical tool that can be applied to detect genomic gains and losses of prognostic importance in CLL. Array CGH and FISH are particularly useful in CLL because genomic gains and losses are key events with both biologic and prognostic significance, while balanced translocations have limited prognostic value. Although FISH has a higher technical sensitivity, it requires separate, targeted hybridizations for the detection of alterations at genomic loci of interest. Array CGH, on the other hand, has the ability to provide a genome-wide survey of genomic aberrations with a single hybridization reaction. Array CGH is expanding the known genomic regions of importance in CLL and allows these regions to be evaluated in the context of a genome-wide perspective. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the use of genomic aberrations as tools for risk-stratifying patients for therapy, thus increasing the need for reliable and high-yield methods to detect these genomic changes. In this review, we consider the use of array CGH as a clinical tool for the identification of genomic alterations with prognostic significance in CLL, and suggest ways to integrate this test into the clinical molecular diagnostic laboratory work flow.

  4. Gramene 2013: comparative plant genomics resources

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Naithani, Sushma; Wei, Sharon; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Kumari, Sunita; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Youens-Clark, Ken; Thomason, James; Preece, Justin; Pasternak, Shiran; Olson, Andrew; Jiao, Yinping; Lu, Zhenyuan; Bolser, Dan; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Staines, Dan; Walts, Brandon; Wu, Guanming; D’Eustachio, Peter; Haw, Robin; Croft, David; Kersey, Paul J.; Stein, Lincoln; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a curated online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species, currently hosting 27 fully and 10 partially sequenced reference genomes in its build number 38. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework for genome comparison and the use of ontologies to integrate structural and functional annotation data. Whole-genome alignments complemented by phylogenetic gene family trees help infer syntenic and orthologous relationships. Genetic variation data, sequences and genome mappings available for 10 species, including Arabidopsis, rice and maize, help infer putative variant effects on genes and transcripts. The pathways section also hosts 10 species-specific metabolic pathways databases developed in-house or by our collaborators using Pathway Tools software, which facilitates searches for pathway, reaction and metabolite annotations, and allows analyses of user-defined expression datasets. Recently, we released a Plant Reactome portal featuring 133 curated rice pathways. This portal will be expanded for Arabidopsis, maize and other plant species. We continue to provide genetic and QTL maps and marker datasets developed by crop researchers. The project provides a unique community platform to support scientific research in plant genomics including studies in evolution, genetics, plant breeding, molecular biology, biochemistry and systems biology. PMID:24217918

  5. Comparative and demographic analysis of orangutan genomes

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.; Worley, Kim C.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Muzny, Donna M.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D.; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Nelson, Joanne O.; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A.; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H.; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L.; Fowler, Gerald R.; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Eichler, Evan E.; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J.; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Valle, Giuliano Della; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S.; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S.; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A.; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L.; Siepel, Adam; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    “Orangutan” is derived from the Malay term “man of the forest” and aptly describes the Southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orangutan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orangutan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orangutan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orangutan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orangutan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe the first primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orangutan genome structure. Orangutans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal1, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400k years ago (ya), is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orangutan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral Ne after the split, while Bornean Ne declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities

  6. The dog genome: survey sequencing and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, Ewen F; Bafna, Vineet; Halpern, Aaron L; Levy, Samuel; Remington, Karin; Rusch, Douglas B; Delcher, Arthur L; Pop, Mihai; Wang, Wei; Fraser, Claire M; Venter, J Craig

    2003-09-26

    A survey of the dog genome sequence (6.22 million sequence reads; 1.5x coverage) demonstrates the power of sample sequencing for comparative analysis of mammalian genomes and the generation of species-specific resources. More than 650 million base pairs (>25%) of dog sequence align uniquely to the human genome, including fragments of putative orthologs for 18,473 of 24,567 annotated human genes. Mutation rates, conserved synteny, repeat content, and phylogeny can be compared among human, mouse, and dog. A variety of polymorphic elements are identified that will be valuable for mapping the genetic basis of diseases and traits in the dog.

  7. Comparative Genomics of the Campylobacter lari Group

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Chapman, Mary H.; Smith, Timothy P.L.; Bono, James L.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.; Vandamme, Peter; Luong, Khai; Korlach, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The C. lari group is currently composed of five species (C. lari, Campylobacter insulaenigrae, Campylobacter volucris, Campylobacter subantarcticus, and Campylobacter peloridis), as well as a group of strains termed the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and other C. lari-like strains. Here we present the complete genome sequences of 11 C. lari group strains, including the five C. lari group species, four UPTC strains, and a lari-like strain isolated in this study. The genome of C. lari subsp. lari strain RM2100 was described previously. Analysis of the C. lari group genomes indicates that this group is highly related at the genome level. Furthermore, these genomes are strongly syntenic with minor rearrangements occurring only in 4 of the 12 genomes studied. The C. lari group can be bifurcated, based on the flagella and flagellar modification genes. Genomic analysis of the UPTC strains indicated that these organisms are variable but highly similar, closely related to but distinct from C. lari. Additionally, the C. lari group contains multiple genes encoding hemagglutination domain proteins, which are either contingency genes or linked to conserved contingency genes. Many of the features identified in strain RM2100, such as major deficiencies in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, are conserved across all 12 genomes, suggesting that these common features may play a role in the association of the C. lari group with coastal environments and watersheds. PMID:25381664

  8. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  9. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F X; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  10. Comparative genomics of chondrichthyan Hoxa clusters.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Zhong, Ying-Fu; Holland, Peter Wh

    2009-09-02

    The chondrichthyan or cartilaginous fish (chimeras, sharks, skates and rays) occupy an important phylogenetic position as the sister group to all other jawed vertebrates and as an early lineage to diverge from the vertebrate lineage following two whole genome duplication events in vertebrate evolution. There have been few comparative genomic analyses incorporating data from chondrichthyan fish and none comparing genomic information from within the group. We have sequenced the complete Hoxa cluster of the Little Skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and compared to the published Hoxa cluster of the Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci) and to available data from the Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii) genome project. A BAC clone containing the full Little Skate Hoxa cluster was fully sequenced and assembled. Analyses of coding sequences and conserved non-coding elements reveal a strikingly high level of conservation across the cartilaginous fish, with twenty ultraconserved elements (100%,100 bp) found between Skate and Horn Shark, compared to three between human and marsupials. We have also identified novel potential non-coding RNAs in the Skate BAC clone, some of which are conserved to other species. We find that the Little Skate Hoxa cluster is remarkably similar to the previously published Horn Shark Hoxa cluster with respect to sequence identity, gene size and intergenic distance despite over 180 million years of separation between the two lineages. We suggest that the genomes of cartilaginous fish are more highly conserved than those of tetrapods or teleost fish and so are more likely to have retained ancestral non-coding elements. While useful for isolating homologous DNA, this complicates bioinformatic approaches to identify chondrichthyan-specific non-coding DNA elements.

  11. Comparative genomics of chondrichthyan Hoxa clusters

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, John F; Zhong, Ying-Fu; Holland, Peter WH

    2009-01-01

    Background The chondrichthyan or cartilaginous fish (chimeras, sharks, skates and rays) occupy an important phylogenetic position as the sister group to all other jawed vertebrates and as an early lineage to diverge from the vertebrate lineage following two whole genome duplication events in vertebrate evolution. There have been few comparative genomic analyses incorporating data from chondrichthyan fish and none comparing genomic information from within the group. We have sequenced the complete Hoxa cluster of the Little Skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and compared to the published Hoxa cluster of the Horn Shark (Heterodontus francisci) and to available data from the Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii) genome project. Results A BAC clone containing the full Little Skate Hoxa cluster was fully sequenced and assembled. Analyses of coding sequences and conserved non-coding elements reveal a strikingly high level of conservation across the cartilaginous fish, with twenty ultraconserved elements (100%,100 bp) found between Skate and Horn Shark, compared to three between human and marsupials. We have also identified novel potential non-coding RNAs in the Skate BAC clone, some of which are conserved to other species. Conclusion We find that the Little Skate Hoxa cluster is remarkably similar to the previously published Horn Shark Hoxa cluster with respect to sequence identity, gene size and intergenic distance despite over 180 million years of separation between the two lineages. We suggest that the genomes of cartilaginous fish are more highly conserved than those of tetrapods or teleost fish and so are more likely to have retained ancestral non-coding elements. While useful for isolating homologous DNA, this complicates bioinformatic approaches to identify chondrichthyan-specific non-coding DNA elements PMID:19725973

  12. What constitutes an Arabian Helicobacter pylori? Lessons from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Albert, M John; Al Abkal, Hanan; Siddique, Iqbal; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the human gastric pathogen, causes a variety of gastric diseases ranging from mild gastritis to gastric cancer. While the studies on H. pylori are dominated by those based on either East Asian or Western strains, information regarding H. pylori strains prevalent in the Middle East remains scarce. Therefore, we carried out whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of three H. pylori strains isolated from three native Arab, Kuwaiti patients. H. pylori strains were sequenced using Illumina platform. The sequence reads were filtered and draft genomes were assembled and annotated. Various pathogenicity-associated regions and phages present within the genomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the genetic relatedness of Kuwaiti strains to various lineages of H. pylori. The core genome content and virulence-related genes were analyzed to assess the pathogenic potential. The three genomes clustered along with HpEurope strains in the phylogenetic tree comprising various H. pylori lineages. A total of 1187 genes spread among various functional classes were identified in the core genome analysis. The three genomes possessed a complete cagPAI and also retained most of the known outer membrane proteins as well as virulence-related genes. The cagA gene in all three strains consisted of an AB-C type EPIYA motif. The comparative genomic analysis of Kuwaiti H. pylori strains revealed a European ancestry and a high pathogenic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. High-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genome hybridization reveals cryptic chromosome changes in AML and MDS cases with trisomy 8 as the sole cytogenetic aberration.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, K; Heidenblad, M; Strömbeck, B; Staaf, J; Jönsson, G; Borg, A; Fioretos, T; Johansson, B

    2006-05-01

    Although trisomy 8 as the sole chromosome aberration is the most common numerical abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), little is known about its pathogenetic effects. Considering that +8 is a frequent secondary change in AML/MDS, cryptic--possibly primary--genetic aberrations may occur in cases with trisomy 8 as the apparently single anomaly. However, no such hidden anomalies have been reported. We performed a high-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genome hybridization (array CGH) analysis of 10 AML/MDS cases with isolated +8, utilizing a 32K bacterial artificial chromosome array set, providing >98% coverage of the genome with a resolution of 100 kb. Array CGH revealed intrachromosomal imbalances, not corresponding to known genomic copy number polymorphisms, in 4/10 cases, comprising nine duplications and hemizygous deletions ranging in size from 0.5 to 2.2 Mb. A 1.8 Mb deletion at 7p14.1, which had occurred prior to the +8, was identified in MDS transforming to AML. Furthermore, a deletion including ETV6 was present in one case. The remaining seven imbalances involved more than 40 genes. The present results show that cryptic genetic abnormalities are frequent in trisomy 8-positive AML/MDS cases and that +8 as the sole cytogenetic aberration is not always the primary genetic event.

  14. A Comparative Map of the Zebrafish Genome

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Ian G.; Kelly, Peter D.; Chu, Felicia; Ngo-Hazelett, Phuong; Yan, Yi-Lin; Huang, Hui; Postlethwait, John H.; Talbot, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Zebrafish mutations define the functions of hundreds of essential genes in the vertebrate genome. To accelerate the molecular analysis of zebrafish mutations and to facilitate comparisons among the genomes of zebrafish and other vertebrates, we used a homozygous diploid meiotic mapping panel to localize polymorphisms in 691 previously unmapped genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Together with earlier efforts, this work raises the total number of markers scored in the mapping panel to 2119, including 1503 genes and ESTs and 616 previously characterized simple-sequence length polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of zebrafish genes mapped in this study and in prior work identified putative human orthologs for 804 zebrafish genes and ESTs. Map comparisons revealed 139 new conserved syntenies, in which two or more genes are on the same chromosome in zebrafish and human. Although some conserved syntenies are quite large, there were changes in gene order within conserved groups, apparently reflecting the relatively frequent occurrence of inversions and other intrachromosomal rearrangements since the divergence of teleost and tetrapod ancestors. Comparative mapping also shows that there is not a one-to-one correspondence between zebrafish and human chromosomes. Mapping of duplicate gene pairs identified segments of 20 linkage groups that may have arisen during a genome duplication that occurred early in the evolution of teleosts after the divergence of teleost and mammalian ancestors. This comparative map will accelerate the molecular analysis of zebrafish mutations and enhance the understanding of the evolution of the vertebrate genome. PMID:11116086

  15. Comparative genomics tools applied to bioterrorism defence.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Tom; Kuczmarski, Tom; Ott, Linda; Torres, Clinton; Medeiros, Dan; Smith, Jason; Truitt, Brian; Mulakken, Nisha; Lam, Marisa; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Zemla, Adam; Zhou, Carol Ecale; Gardner, Shea

    2003-06-01

    Rapid advances in the genomic sequencing of bacteria and viruses over the past few years have made it possible to consider sequencing the genomes of all pathogens that affect humans and the crops and livestock upon which our lives depend. Recent events make it imperative that full genome sequencing be accomplished as soon as possible for pathogens that could be used as weapons of mass destruction or disruption. This sequence information must be exploited to provide rapid and accurate diagnostics to identify pathogens and distinguish them from harmless near-neighbours and hoaxes. The Chem-Bio Non-Proliferation (CBNP) programme of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a large-scale effort of pathogen detection in early 2000 when it was announced that the DOE would be providing bio-security at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our team at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) was given the task of developing reliable and validated assays for a number of the most likely bioterrorist agents. The short timeline led us to devise a novel system that utilised whole-genome comparison methods to rapidly focus on parts of the pathogen genomes that had a high probability of being unique. Assays developed with this approach have been validated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). They were used at the 2002 Winter Olympics, have entered the public health system, and have been in continual use for non-publicised aspects of homeland defence since autumn 2001. Assays have been developed for all major threat list agents for which adequate genomic sequence is available, as well as for other pathogens requested by various government agencies. Collaborations with comparative genomics algorithm developers have enabled our LLNL team to make major advances in pathogen detection, since many of the existing tools simply did not scale well enough to be of practical use for this application. It is hoped that a discussion of a real-life practical application of

  16. Whole-genome sequencing for comparative genomics and de novo genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Benjak, Andrej; Sala, Claudia; Hartkoorn, Ruben C

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies for whole-genome sequencing of mycobacteria are rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to more traditional sequencing methods. In particular this technology is proving useful for genome-wide identification of mutations in mycobacteria (comparative genomics) as well as for de novo assembly of whole genomes. Next-generation sequencing however generates a vast quantity of data that can only be transformed into a usable and comprehensible form using bioinformatics. Here we describe the methodology one would use to prepare libraries for whole-genome sequencing, and the basic bioinformatics to identify mutations in a genome following Illumina HiSeq or MiSeq sequencing, as well as de novo genome assembly following sequencing using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio).

  17. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  18. An Orthology-Based Analysis of Pathogenic Protozoa Impacting Global Health: An Improved Comparative Genomics Approach with Prokaryotes and Model Eukaryote Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; da Serra Cruz, Sérgio Manuel; Tschoeke, Diogo Antônio; Silva, Edno; Tosta, Frederico; Jucá, Henrique; Jardim, Rodrigo; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Mattoso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A key focus in 21st century integrative biology and drug discovery for neglected tropical and other diseases has been the use of BLAST-based computational methods for identification of orthologous groups in pathogenic organisms to discern orthologs, with a view to evaluate similarities and differences among species, and thus allow the transfer of annotation from known/curated proteins to new/non-annotated ones. We used here a profile-based sensitive methodology to identify distant homologs, coupled to the NCBI's COG (Unicellular orthologs) and KOG (Eukaryote orthologs), permitting us to perform comparative genomics analyses on five protozoan genomes. OrthoSearch was used in five protozoan proteomes showing that 3901 and 7473 orthologs can be identified by comparison with COG and KOG proteomes, respectively. The core protozoa proteome inferred was 418 Protozoa-COG orthologous groups and 704 Protozoa-KOG orthologous groups: (i) 31.58% (132/418) belongs to the category J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), and 9.81% (41/418) to the category O (post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones) using COG; (ii) 21.45% (151/704) belongs to the categories J, and 13.92% (98/704) to the O using KOG. The phylogenomic analysis showed four well-supported clades for Eukarya, discriminating Multicellular [(i) human, fly, plant and worm] and Unicellular [(ii) yeast, (iii) fungi, and (iv) protozoa] species. These encouraging results attest to the usefulness of the profile-based methodology for comparative genomics to accelerate semi-automatic re-annotation, especially of the protozoan proteomes. This approach may also lend itself for applications in global health, for example, in the case of novel drug target discovery against pathogenic organisms previously considered difficult to research with traditional drug discovery tools. PMID:24960463

  19. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Lopes, Mariana R.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Long, Tanya M.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y.; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P.; Hanson, Sara J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lipzen, Anna M.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert P.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Peng, Yi; Rosa, Carlos A.; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A.; Slot, Jason C.; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  20. Using Comparative Genomics for Inquiry-Based Learning to Dissect Virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Baumler, David J.; Banta, Lois M.; Hung, Kai F.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Cabot, Eric L.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples related to bacterial pathogenesis. Students first examine alignments of genomes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from three food-poisoning outbreaks using the multiple-genome alignment tool Mauve. Students investigate conservation of virulence factors using the Mauve viewer and by browsing annotations available at the A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes database. In the second module, students use an alignment of five Yersinia pestis genomes to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms of three genes to classify strains into biovar groups. Students are then given sequences of bacterial DNA amplified from the teeth of corpses from the first and second pandemics of the bubonic plague and asked to classify these new samples. Learning-assessment results reveal student improvement in self-efficacy and content knowledge, as well as students' ability to use BLAST to identify genomic islands and conduct analyses of virulence factors from E. coli O157:H7 or Y. pestis. Each of these educational modules offers educators new ready-to-implement resources for integrating comparative genomic topics into their curricula. PMID:22383620

  1. Using comparative genomics for inquiry-based learning to dissect virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Baumler, David J; Banta, Lois M; Hung, Kai F; Schwarz, Jodi A; Cabot, Eric L; Glasner, Jeremy D; Perna, Nicole T

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples related to bacterial pathogenesis. Students first examine alignments of genomes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from three food-poisoning outbreaks using the multiple-genome alignment tool Mauve. Students investigate conservation of virulence factors using the Mauve viewer and by browsing annotations available at the A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes database. In the second module, students use an alignment of five Yersinia pestis genomes to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms of three genes to classify strains into biovar groups. Students are then given sequences of bacterial DNA amplified from the teeth of corpses from the first and second pandemics of the bubonic plague and asked to classify these new samples. Learning-assessment results reveal student improvement in self-efficacy and content knowledge, as well as students' ability to use BLAST to identify genomic islands and conduct analyses of virulence factors from E. coli O157:H7 or Y. pestis. Each of these educational modules offers educators new ready-to-implement resources for integrating comparative genomic topics into their curricula.

  2. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Roger L; Leeds, Timothy D; Gao, Guangtu; Parsons, James E; Martin, Kyle E; Evenhuis, Jason P; Fragomeni, Breno O; Wiens, Gregory D; Palti, Yniv

    2017-02-01

    Previously, we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative that enables exploitation of within-family genetic variation. We compared three GS models [single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP), and BayesB] to predict genomic-enabled breeding values (GEBV) for BCWD resistance in a commercial rainbow trout population, and compared the accuracy of GEBV to traditional estimates of breeding values (EBV) from a pedigree-based BLUP (P-BLUP) model. We also assessed the impact of sampling design on the accuracy of GEBV predictions. For these comparisons, we used BCWD survival phenotypes recorded on 7893 fish from 102 families, of which 1473 fish from 50 families had genotypes [57 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array]. Naïve siblings of the training fish (n = 930 testing fish) were genotyped to predict their GEBV and mated to produce 138 progeny testing families. In the following generation, 9968 progeny were phenotyped to empirically assess the accuracy of GEBV predictions made on their non-phenotyped parents. The accuracy of GEBV from all tested GS models were substantially higher than the P-BLUP model EBV. The highest increase in accuracy relative to the P-BLUP model was achieved with BayesB (97.2 to 108.8%), followed by wssGBLUP at iteration 2 (94.4 to 97.1%) and 3 (88.9 to 91.2%) and ssGBLUP (83.3 to 85.3%). Reducing the training sample size to n = ~1000 had no negative impact on the accuracy (0.67 to 0.72), but with n = ~500 the accuracy dropped to 0.53 to 0.61 if the training and testing fish were full-sibs, and even substantially lower, to 0.22 to 0.25, when they were not full-sibs. Using progeny performance data, we showed that the accuracy of genomic predictions is substantially higher

  3. Genomic and comparative genomic analyses of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis provide insight into its evolution and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Changsong; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Gong, Wenping; Jiao, Jun; Wen, Bohai

    2014-08-01

    Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, the causative agent of far eastern spotted fever, is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the spotted fever group rickettsiae. To understand the evolution and pathogenesis of R. heilongjiangensis, we analyzed its genome and compared it with other rickettsial genomes available in GenBank. The R. heilongjiangensis chromosome contains 1333 genes, including 1297 protein coding genes and 36 RNA coding genes. The genome also contains 121 pseudogenes, 54 insertion sequences, and 39 tandem repeats. Sixteen genes encoding the major components of the type IV secretion systems were identified in the R. heilongjiangensis genome. In total, 37 β-barrel outer membrane proteins were predicted in the genome, eight of which have been previously confirmed to be outer membrane proteins. In addition, 266 potential virulence factor genes, seven partially deleted antibiotic resistance genes, and a genomic island were identified in the genome. The codon usage in the genome is compatible with its low GC content, and the amino acid usage shows apparent bias. A comparative genomic analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and R. japonica share one unique fragment that may be a target sequence for a diagnostic assay. The orthologs of 37 genes of R. heilongjiangensis were found in pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Sheila Smith but not in non-pathogenic R. rickettsii str. Iowa, which may explain why R. heilongjiangensis is pathogenic. Pan-genome analysis showed that R. heilongjiangensis and 42 other rickettsiae strains share 693 core genes with a pan-genome size of 4837 genes. The pan-genome-based phylogeny showed that R. heilongjiangensis was closely related to R. japonica.

  4. Lactobacillus paracasei comparative genomics: towards species pan-genome definition and exploitation of diversity.

    PubMed

    Smokvina, Tamara; Wels, Michiel; Polka, Justyna; Chervaux, Christian; Brisse, Sylvain; Boekhorst, Jos; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Siezen, Roland J

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei is a member of the normal human and animal gut microbiota and is used extensively in the food industry in starter cultures for dairy products or as probiotics. With the development of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing techniques it has become feasible to sequence many different strains of one species and to determine its "pan-genome". We have sequenced the genomes of 34 different L. paracasei strains, and performed a comparative genomics analysis. We analysed genome synteny and content, focussing on the pan-genome, core genome and variable genome. Each genome was shown to contain around 2800-3100 protein-coding genes, and comparative analysis identified over 4200 ortholog groups that comprise the pan-genome of this species, of which about 1800 ortholog groups make up the conserved core. Several factors previously associated with host-microbe interactions such as pili, cell-envelope proteinase, hydrolases p40 and p75 or the capacity to produce short branched-chain fatty acids (bkd operon) are part of the L. paracasei core genome present in all analysed strains. The variome consists mainly of hypothetical proteins, phages, plasmids, transposon/conjugative elements, and known functions such as sugar metabolism, cell-surface proteins, transporters, CRISPR-associated proteins, and EPS biosynthesis proteins. An enormous variety and variability of sugar utilization gene cassettes were identified, with each strain harbouring between 25-53 cassettes, reflecting the high adaptability of L. paracasei to different niches. A phylogenomic tree was constructed based on total genome contents, and together with an analysis of horizontal gene transfer events we conclude that evolution of these L. paracasei strains is complex and not always related to niche adaptation. The results of this genome content comparison was used, together with high-throughput growth experiments on various carbohydrates, to perform gene-trait matching analysis, in order to link

  5. The MicrobesOnline Web site for comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, Eric J.; Huang, Katherine H.; Price, Morgan N.; Koche,Richard P.; Keller, Keith; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2004-11-05

    At present, hundreds of microbial genomes have been sequenced, and hundreds more are currently in the pipeline. The Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival has developed a publicly available suite of Web-based comparative genomic tools (http://www.microbesonline.org) designed to facilitate multispecies comparison among prokaryotes. Highlights of the Microbes Online Web site include operon and regulon predictions, a multispecies genome browser, a multispecies Gene Ontology browser, a comparative KEGG metabolic pathway viewer, a Bioinformatics Workbench for in-depth sequence analysis, and Gene Carts that allow users to save genes of interest for further study while they browse. In addition, we provide an interface for genome annotation, which like all of the tools reported here, is freely available to the scientific community.

  6. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. L.; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94–96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82–96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8–25.8% with LOD: 7.0–13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1–171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  7. Evolutionary and comparative analyses of the soybean genome

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Shoemaker, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean genome assembly has been available since the end of 2008. Significant features of the genome include large, gene-poor, repeat-dense pericentromeric regions, spanning roughly 57% of the genome sequence; a relatively large genome size of ~1.15 billion bases; remnants of a genome duplication that occurred ~13 million years ago (Mya); and fainter remnants of older polyploidies that occurred ~58 Mya and >130 Mya. The genome sequence has been used to identify the genetic basis for numerous traits, including disease resistance, nutritional characteristics, and developmental features. The genome sequence has provided a scaffold for placement of many genomic feature elements, both from within soybean and from related species. These may be accessed at several websites, including http://www.phytozome.net, http://soybase.org, http://comparative-legumes.org, and http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp. The taxonomic position of soybean in the Phaseoleae tribe of the legumes means that there are approximately two dozen other beans and relatives that have undergone independent domestication, and which may have traits that will be useful for transfer to soybean. Methods of translating information between species in the Phaseoleae range from design of markers for marker assisted selection, to transformation with Agrobacterium or with other experimental transformation methods. PMID:23136483

  8. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal a Conserved Core Genome Shared by Estuarine and Oceanic Cyanopodoviruses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijun; Zhang, Si; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Podoviruses are among the major viral groups that infect marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Here, we reported the genome sequences of five Synechococcus podoviruses isolated from the estuarine environment, and performed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses based on a total of 20 cyanopodovirus genomes. The genomes of all the known marine cyanopodoviruses are highly syntenic. A pan-genome of 349 clustered orthologous groups was determined, among which 15 were core genes. These core genes make up nearly half of each genome in length, reflecting the high level of genome conservation among this cyanophage type. The whole genome phylogenies based on concatenated core genes and gene content were highly consistent and confirmed the separation of two discrete marine cyanopodovirus clusters MPP-A and MPP-B. The genomes within cluster MPP-B grouped into subclusters mainly corresponding to Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus host types. Auxiliary metabolic genes tend to occur in a specific phylogenetic group of these cyanopodoviruses. All the MPP-B phages analyzed here encode the photosynthesis gene psbA, which are absent in all the MPP-A genomes thus far. Interestingly, all the MPP-B and two MPP-A Synechococcus podoviruses encode the thymidylate synthase gene thyX, while at the same genome locus all the MPP-B Prochlorococcus podoviruses encode the transaldolase gene talC. Both genes are hypothesized to have the potential to facilitate the biosynthesis of deoxynucleotide for phage replication. Inheritance of specific functional genes could be important to the evolution and ecological fitness of certain cyanophage genotypes. Our analyses demonstrate that cyanopodoviruses of estuarine and oceanic origins share a conserved core genome and suggest that accessory genes may be related to environmental adaptation.

  9. COMPARISON OF COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATIONS TECHNOLOGIES ACROSS MICROARRAY PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) measures DNA copy number differences between a reference genome and a test genome. The DNA samples are differentially labeled and hybridized to an immobilized substrate. In early CGH experiments, the DNA targets were hybridized to metaphase...

  10. COMPARISON OF COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATIONS TECHNOLOGIES ACROSS MICROARRAY PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) measures DNA copy number differences between a reference genome and a test genome. The DNA samples are differentially labeled and hybridized to an immobilized substrate. In early CGH experiments, the DNA targets were hybridized to metaphase...

  11. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources.

    PubMed

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-04

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼ 200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M.; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y. Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. PMID:26553803

  13. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-03-16

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation.

  14. PSAT: A web tool to compare genomic neighborhoods of multiple prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Christine; Rohmer, Laurence; Radey, Matthew; Wasnick, Michael; Brittnacher, Mitchell J

    2008-01-01

    Background The conservation of gene order among prokaryotic genomes can provide valuable insight into gene function, protein interactions, or events by which genomes have evolved. Although some tools are available for visualizing and comparing the order of genes between genomes of study, few support an efficient and organized analysis between large numbers of genomes. The Prokaryotic Sequence homology Analysis Tool (PSAT) is a web tool for comparing gene neighborhoods among multiple prokaryotic genomes. Results PSAT utilizes a database that is preloaded with gene annotation, BLAST hit results, and gene-clustering scores designed to help identify regions of conserved gene order. Researchers use the PSAT web interface to find a gene of interest in a reference genome and efficiently retrieve the sequence homologs found in other bacterial genomes. The tool generates a graphic of the genomic neighborhood surrounding the selected gene and the corresponding regions for its homologs in each comparison genome. Homologs in each region are color coded to assist users with analyzing gene order among various genomes. In contrast to common comparative analysis methods that filter sequence homolog data based on alignment score cutoffs, PSAT leverages gene context information for homologs, including those with weak alignment scores, enabling a more sensitive analysis. Features for constraining or ordering results are designed to help researchers browse results from large numbers of comparison genomes in an organized manner. PSAT has been demonstrated to be useful for helping to identify gene orthologs and potential functional gene clusters, and detecting genome modifications that may result in loss of function. Conclusion PSAT allows researchers to investigate the order of genes within local genomic neighborhoods of multiple genomes. A PSAT web server for public use is available for performing analyses on a growing set of reference genomes through any web browser with no client

  15. Image analysis in comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lundsteen, C.; Maahr, J.; Christensen, B.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new technique by which genomic imbalances can be detected by combining in situ suppression hybridization of whole genomic DNA and image analysis. We have developed software for rapid, quantitative CGH image analysis by a modification and extension of the standard software used for routine karyotyping of G-banded metaphase spreads in the Magiscan chromosome analysis system. The DAPI-counterstained metaphase spread is karyotyped interactively. Corrections for image shifts between the DAPI, FITC, and TRITC images are done manually by moving the three images relative to each other. The fluorescence background is subtracted. A mean filter is applied to smooth the FITC and TRITC images before the fluorescence ratio between the individual FITC and TRITC-stained chromosomes is computed pixel by pixel inside the area of the chromosomes determined by the DAPI boundaries. Fluorescence intensity ratio profiles are generated, and peaks and valleys indicating possible gains and losses of test DNA are marked if they exceed ratios below 0.75 and above 1.25. By combining the analysis of several metaphase spreads, consistent findings of gains and losses in all or almost all spreads indicate chromosomal imbalance. Chromosomal imbalances are detected either by visual inspection of fluorescence ratio (FR) profiles or by a statistical approach that compares FR measurements of the individual case with measurements of normal chromosomes. The complete analysis of one metaphase can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SUPERFAMILY--sophisticated comparative genomics, data mining, visualization and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Derek; Pethica, Ralph; Zhou, Yiduo; Talbot, Charles; Vogel, Christine; Madera, Martin; Chothia, Cyrus; Gough, Julian

    2009-01-01

    SUPERFAMILY provides structural, functional and evolutionary information for proteins from all completely sequenced genomes, and large sequence collections such as UniProt. Protein domain assignments for over 900 genomes are included in the database, which can be accessed at http://supfam.org/. Hidden Markov models based on Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) domain definitions at the superfamily level are used to provide structural annotation. We recently produced a new model library based on SCOP 1.73. Family level assignments are also available. From the web site users can submit sequences for SCOP domain classification; search for keywords such as superfamilies, families, organism names, models and sequence identifiers; find over- and underrepresented families or superfamilies within a genome relative to other genomes or groups of genomes; compare domain architectures across selections of genomes and finally build multiple sequence alignments between Protein Data Bank (PDB), genomic and custom sequences. Recent extensions to the database include InterPro abstracts and Gene Ontology terms for superfamiles, taxonomic visualization of the distribution of families across the tree of life, searches for functionally similar domain architectures and phylogenetic trees. The database, models and associated scripts are available for download from the ftp site.

  17. SUPERFAMILY—sophisticated comparative genomics, data mining, visualization and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Derek; Pethica, Ralph; Zhou, Yiduo; Talbot, Charles; Vogel, Christine; Madera, Martin; Chothia, Cyrus; Gough, Julian

    2009-01-01

    SUPERFAMILY provides structural, functional and evolutionary information for proteins from all completely sequenced genomes, and large sequence collections such as UniProt. Protein domain assignments for over 900 genomes are included in the database, which can be accessed at http://supfam.org/. Hidden Markov models based on Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) domain definitions at the superfamily level are used to provide structural annotation. We recently produced a new model library based on SCOP 1.73. Family level assignments are also available. From the web site users can submit sequences for SCOP domain classification; search for keywords such as superfamilies, families, organism names, models and sequence identifiers; find over- and underrepresented families or superfamilies within a genome relative to other genomes or groups of genomes; compare domain architectures across selections of genomes and finally build multiple sequence alignments between Protein Data Bank (PDB), genomic and custom sequences. Recent extensions to the database include InterPro abstracts and Gene Ontology terms for superfamiles, taxonomic visualization of the distribution of families across the tree of life, searches for functionally similar domain architectures and phylogenetic trees. The database, models and associated scripts are available for download from the ftp site. PMID:19036790

  18. Comparative genome map of human and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas-Toldo, S.; Fries, R.; Lengauer, C.

    1995-06-10

    Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the bovine karyotype have been established by using a new approach termed Zoo-FISH. Labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on cattle chromosomes. All human DNA libraries, except the Y chromosome library, hybridized to one or more cattle chromosomes, identifying and delineating 50 segments of homology, most of them corresponding to the regions of homology as identified by the previous mapping of individual conserved loci. However, Zoo-FISH refines the comparative maps constructed by molecular gene mapping of individual loci by providing information on the boundaries of conserved regions in the absence of obvious cytogenetic homologies of human and bovine chromosomes. It allows study of karyotypic evolution and opens new avenues for genomic analysis by facilitating the extrapolation of results from the human genome initiative. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Comparative proteogenomics: Combining mass spectrometry and comparative genomics to analyze multiple genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Benhamida, Jamal; Bhargava, Vipul; Goodman, Daniel; Kain, Elisabeth; Kerman, Ian; Nguyen, Ngan; Ollikainen, Noah; Rodriguez, Jesse; Wang, Jian; Lipton, Mary S.; Romine, Margaret; Bafna, Vineet; Smith, Richard D.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent proliferation of low-cost DNA sequencing techniques will soon lead to an explosive growth in the number of sequenced genomes and will turn manual annotations into a luxury. Mass spectrometry recently emerged as a valuable technique for proteogenomic annotations that improves on the state-of-the-art in predicting genes and other features. However, previous proteogenomic approaches were limited to a single genome and did not take advantage of analyzing mass spectrometry data from multiple genomes at once. We show that such a comparative proteogenomics approach (like comparative genomics) allows one to address the problems that remained beyond the reach of the traditional “single proteome” approach in mass spectrometry. In particular, we show how comparative proteogenomics addresses the notoriously difficult problem of “one-hit-wonders” in proteomics, improves on the existing gene prediction tools in genomics, and allows identification of rare post-translational modifications. We therefore argue that complementing DNA sequencing projects by comparative proteogenomics projects can be a viable approach to improve both genomic and proteomic annotations. PMID:18426904

  20. Comparative proteogenomics: combining mass spectrometry and comparative genomics to analyze multiple genomes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Benhamida, Jamal; Bhargava, Vipul; Goodman, Daniel; Kain, Elisabeth; Kerman, Ian; Nguyen, Ngan; Ollikainen, Noah; Rodriguez, Jesse; Wang, Jian; Lipton, Mary S; Romine, Margaret; Bafna, Vineet; Smith, Richard D; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2008-07-01

    Recent proliferation of low-cost DNA sequencing techniques will soon lead to an explosive growth in the number of sequenced genomes and will turn manual annotations into a luxury. Mass spectrometry recently emerged as a valuable technique for proteogenomic annotations that improves on the state-of-the-art in predicting genes and other features. However, previous proteogenomic approaches were limited to a single genome and did not take advantage of analyzing mass spectrometry data from multiple genomes at once. We show that such a comparative proteogenomics approach (like comparative genomics) allows one to address the problems that remained beyond the reach of the traditional "single proteome" approach in mass spectrometry. In particular, we show how comparative proteogenomics addresses the notoriously difficult problem of "one-hit-wonders" in proteomics, improves on the existing gene prediction tools in genomics, and allows identification of rare post-translational modifications. We therefore argue that complementing DNA sequencing projects by comparative proteogenomics projects can be a viable approach to improve both genomic and proteomic annotations.

  1. Development of a Rapid Identification Method for the Differentiation of Enterococcus Species Using a Species-Specific Multiplex PCR Based on Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongbin; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Pak, Jae In; Won, Jihyun; Kim, Eun Bae

    2017-04-01

    Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria that are commonly found in food and in animal gut. Since 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, genetic markers for bacterial identification, are similar among several Enterococcus species, it is very difficult to determine the correct species based on only 16 S rRNA sequences. Therefore, we developed a rapid method for the identification of different Enterococcus species using comparative genomics. We compared 38 genomes of 13 Enterococcus species retrieved from the National Center of Biotechnology Information database and identified 25,623 orthologs. Among the orthologs, four genes were specific to four Enterococcus species (Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus durans). We designed species-specific primer sets targeting the genes and developed a multiplex PCR using primer sets that could distinguish the four Enterococcus species among the nine strains of Enterococcus species that were available locally. The multiplex PCR method also distinguished the four species isolated from various environments, such as feces of chicken and cow, meat of chicken, cow, and pigs, and fermented soybeans (Cheonggukjang and Doenjang). These results indicated that our novel multiplex PCR using species-specific primers could identify the four Enterococcus species in a rapid and easy way. This method will be useful to distinguish Enterococcus species in food, feed, and clinical settings.

  2. Comparative genomics of phages and prophages in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Frank; Lucchini, Sacha; Canchaya, Carlos; Ventura, Marco; Brüssow, Harald

    2002-08-01

    Comparative phage genomics has become possible due to the availability of more than 100 complete phage genome sequences and the development of powerful bioinformatics tools. This technology, profiting from classical molecular-biology knowledge, has opened avenues of research for topics, which were difficult to address in the past. Now, it is possible to retrace part of the evolutionary history of phage modules by comparative genomics. The diagnosis of relatedness is hereby not uniquely based on sequence similarity alone, but includes topological considerations of genome organization. Detailed transcription maps have allowed in silico predictions of genome organization to be verified and refined. This comparative knowledge is providing the basis for a new taxonomic classification concept for bacteriophages infecting low G + C-content Gram-positive bacteria based on the genetic organization of the structural gene module. An Sfi21-like and an Sfi11-like genus of Siphoviridae is proposed. The gene maps of many phages show remarkable synteny in their structural genes defining a lambda super-group within Siphoviridae. A hierarchy of relatedness within the lambda super-group suggests elements of vertical evolution in Siphoviridae. Tailed phages are the result of both vertical and horizontal evolution and are thus fascinating objects for the study of molecular evolution. Prophage sequences integrated into the genomes of their bacterial host present theoretical challenges for evolutionary biologists. Prophages represent up to 10% of the genome in some LAB. In pathogenic streptococci prophages confer genes of selective value for the lysogenic cell. The lysogenic conversion genes are located between the lysin gene and the right phage attachment site. Non-attributed genes were found at the same genome position of prophages from lactic streptococci. These genes belong to the few prophage genes transcribed in the lysogen. Prophages from dairy bacteria might therefore also

  3. OGRe: a relational database for comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Daniel; Gibson, Andrew P.; Hudelot, Cendrine; Higgs, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Organellar Genome Retrieval (OGRe) is a relational database of complete mitochondrial genome sequences for over 250 Metazoan species. OGRe provides a resource for the comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes at several levels. At the sequence level, OGRe allows the retrieval of any selected set of mitochondrial genes from any selected set of species. Species are classified using a taxonomic system that allows easy selection of related groups of species. Sequence alignments are also available for some species. At the level of individual nucleotides, the system contains information on base frequencies and codon usage frequencies that can be compared between organisms. At the level of whole genomes, OGRe provides several ways of visualizing information on gene order. Diagrams illustrating the genome arrangement can be generated for any selected set of species automatically from the information in the database. Searches can be done based on gene arrangement to find sets of species that have the same order as one another. Diagrams for pairwise comparison of species can be produced that show the positions of break-points in the gene order and use colour to highlight the sections of the genome that have moved. OGRe is available from http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/ogre. PMID:12519982

  4. Clinical utility of array comparative genomic hybridization: uncovering tumor susceptibility in individuals with developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Justice, April N; Schelley, Susan; Kwan, Andrea; Hudgins, Louanne; Martin, Christa L

    2009-01-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization can determine genome-wide copy number alterations at the kilobase level. We highlight the clinical utility of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in determining tumor susceptibility in 3 patients with dysmorphic features and developmental delay, likely decreasing both morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  5. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  6. Inferring divergence of context-dependent substitution rates in Drosophila genomes with applications to comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Chachick, Ran; Tanay, Amos

    2012-07-01

    Nucleotide substitution is a major evolutionary driving force that can incrementally and stochastically give rise to broad divergence patterns among species. The substitution process at each genomic position is frequently modeled independently of the other positions, although complex interactions between nearby bases are known to significantly affect mutation rates. Here, we study the evolution of 12 fly genomes using new algorithms for accurate inference of parameter-rich substitution models. By comparing models between lineages, we reveal the evolutionary histories of substitution rates at different flanking nucleotide contexts. We demonstrate these driving forces of molecular evolution to be constantly changing, suggesting that neutral drift of mutation rates is an important factor in the evolution of genomes and their sequence composition. This observation is used to develop a scalable approach for parameter-rich comparative genomics. By screening short DNA sequences, we demonstrate how homeoboxes and other transcription factor binding motifs are highly conserved based on our parameter-rich models but not according to standard conservation assays. With the increasing availability of genome sequences, rich substitution models become an attractive and practical approach for evolutionary analysis in general and comparative genomics in particular.

  7. [Sotos syndrome diagnosed by comparative genomic hybridisation].

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Molina-Barrera, Laura Camila; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Sotos Syndrome (SS) is a genetic disease with an autosomal dominant pattern caused by haplo-insufficiency of NSD1 gene secondary to point mutations or microdeletion of the 5q35 locus where the gene is located. It is a rare syndrome, occurring in 7 out of every 100,000 births. The objective of this report is to present the case of a 4 year-old patient with a global developmental delay, as well as specific physical findings suggesting a syndrome of genetic origin. Female patient, 4 years of age, thinning hair, triangular facie, long palpebral fissure, arched palate, prominent jaw, winged scapula and clinodactilia of the fifth finger both hands. The molecular test comparative genomic hybridisation test by microarray was subsequently performed, with the result showing 5q35.2 q35.3 region microdeletion of 2,082 MB, including the NSD1 gene. Finally, this article also proposes the performing of comparative genomic hybridisation as the first diagnostic option in cases where clinical findings are suggestive of SS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative omics-driven genome annotation refinement: application across Yersiniae.

    PubMed

    Schrimpe-Rutledge, Alexandra C; Jones, Marcus B; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O; Sanford, James A; Monroe, Matthew E; Brewer, Heather M; Payne, Samuel H; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C; Smith, Richard D; Peterson, Scott N; Motin, Vladimir L; Adkins, Joshua N

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. The annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion to balance the large number of sequences generated. One possible way of reducing errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from omics measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. Here, the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis Pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 incorrect (i.e., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) protein-coding sequences within the three current genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus the discovery of many translated pseudogenes, including the insertion-ablated argD, underscores a need for functional analyses to investigate hypotheses related to divergence. Refinements included the discovery of a seemingly essential ribosomal protein, several virulence-associated factors, a transcriptional regulator, and many hypothetical proteins that were missed during annotation.

  9. ERCC1: a comparative genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M D; Ruttan, C C; Koop, B F; Glickman, B W

    2001-01-01

    ERCC1 plays an essential role in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA. We compare 37 kb of sequence from the ERCC1 region on human chromosome 19q13.3 to the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 7. In addition to showing the conserved gene structure between ERCC1, ASE-1, and their murine counterparts, this genomic comparison reveals a highly conserved 497 bp segment found 5 kb upstream of ERCC1 exon 1 that contains a CpG island and previously unidentified "classical" promoter elements. Additional putative regulatory elements are also found within a conserved LINE-1 (long interspersed nuclear element) sequence 800 bp upstream of exon 1 in both human and mouse. Expressed sequence tag (EST) assemblies for human ERCC1 identified numerous splice variants involving exons 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9 that could affect DNA repair efficiencies of ERCC1. A previously undescribed transcript that reads through exon 9 and utilizes the polyadenylation signal of a neighboring Alu element accounts for nearly half of the total splice variants identified in the human EST database. This transcript would theoretically translate to a larger ERCC1 protein product containing a novel C-terminal end. Overall, approximately 18% of publicly available ERCC1 cDNA sequences were determined to be splice variants, while no variants were found in the mouse. The ability to assess novel transcripts and identify candidate regulatory regions demonstrates the potential utility for a catalogue archiving comparative analyses for all genes involved in DNA repair. Our comparative genomic analysis of ERCC1 can be viewed at http://web.uvic.ca/-bioweb/laj.html. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis in the Integrated Microbial Genomes(IMG) System

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor M.

    2006-03-01

    Comparative genome analysis is critical for the effectiveexploration of a rapidly growing number of complete and draft sequencesfor microbial genomes. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system(img.jgi.doe.gov) has been developed as a community resource thatprovides support for comparative analysis of microbial genomes in anintegrated context. IMG allows users to navigate the multidimensionalmicrobial genome data space and focus their analysis on a subset ofgenes, genomes, and functions of interest. IMG provides graphicalviewers, summaries and occurrence profile tools for comparing genes,pathways and functions (terms) across specific genomes. Genes can befurther examined using gene neighborhoods and compared with sequencealignment tools.

  11. Comparative Whole-Genome Mapping To Determine Staphylococcus aureus Genome Size, Virulence Motifs, and Clonality

    PubMed Central

    Pantrang, Madhulatha; Stahl, Buffy; Briska, Adam M.; Stemper, Mary E.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Zentz, Emily B.; Callister, Steven M.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Henkhaus, John K.; Dykes, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being a clonal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus continues to acquire virulence and antibiotic-resistant genes located on mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands, prophages, pathogenicity islands, and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) by horizontal gene transfer from other staphylococci. The potential virulence of a S. aureus strain is often determined by comparing its pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or multilocus sequence typing profiles to that of known epidemic or virulent clones and by PCR of the toxin genes. Whole-genome mapping (formerly optical mapping), which is a high-resolution ordered restriction mapping of a bacterial genome, is a relatively new genomic tool that allows comparative analysis across entire bacterial genomes to identify regions of genomic similarities and dissimilarities, including small and large insertions and deletions. We explored whether whole-genome maps (WGMs) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) could be used to predict the presence of methicillin resistance, SCCmec type, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing genes on an S. aureus genome. We determined the WGMs of 47 diverse clinical isolates of S. aureus, including well-characterized reference MRSA strains, and annotated the signature restriction pattern in SCCmec types, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and PVL-carrying prophage, PhiSa2 or PhiSa2-like regions on the genome. WGMs of these isolates accurately characterized them as MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus based on the presence or absence of the SCCmec motif, ACME and the unique signature pattern for the prophage insertion that harbored the PVL genes. Susceptibility to methicillin resistance and the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, and PVL genes were confirmed by PCR. A WGM clustering approach was further able to discriminate isolates within the same PFGE clonal group. These results showed that WGMs could be used not only to genotype S. aureus but also to

  12. Comparative whole-genome mapping to determine Staphylococcus aureus genome size, virulence motifs, and clonality.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanjay K; Pantrangi, Madhulatha; Stahl, Buffy; Briska, Adam M; Stemper, Mary E; Wagner, Trevor K; Zentz, Emily B; Callister, Steven M; Lovrich, Steven D; Henkhaus, John K; Dykes, Colin W

    2012-11-01

    Despite being a clonal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus continues to acquire virulence and antibiotic-resistant genes located on mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands, prophages, pathogenicity islands, and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) by horizontal gene transfer from other staphylococci. The potential virulence of a S. aureus strain is often determined by comparing its pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or multilocus sequence typing profiles to that of known epidemic or virulent clones and by PCR of the toxin genes. Whole-genome mapping (formerly optical mapping), which is a high-resolution ordered restriction mapping of a bacterial genome, is a relatively new genomic tool that allows comparative analysis across entire bacterial genomes to identify regions of genomic similarities and dissimilarities, including small and large insertions and deletions. We explored whether whole-genome maps (WGMs) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) could be used to predict the presence of methicillin resistance, SCCmec type, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing genes on an S. aureus genome. We determined the WGMs of 47 diverse clinical isolates of S. aureus, including well-characterized reference MRSA strains, and annotated the signature restriction pattern in SCCmec types, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and PVL-carrying prophage, PhiSa2 or PhiSa2-like regions on the genome. WGMs of these isolates accurately characterized them as MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus based on the presence or absence of the SCCmec motif, ACME and the unique signature pattern for the prophage insertion that harbored the PVL genes. Susceptibility to methicillin resistance and the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, and PVL genes were confirmed by PCR. A WGM clustering approach was further able to discriminate isolates within the same PFGE clonal group. These results showed that WGMs could be used not only to genotype S. aureus but also to

  13. Comparative mapping combined with homology-based cloning of the rice genome reveals candidate genes for grain zinc and iron concentration in maize.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tiantian; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Guo, Jinjie; Huang, Yaqun

    2015-02-14

    Grain zinc and iron concentration is a complex trait that is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) and is important for maintaining body health. Despite the substantial effort that has been put into identifying QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration, the integration of independent QTL is useful for understanding the genetic foundation of traits. The number of QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration is relatively low in a single species. Therefore, combined analysis of different genomes may help overcome this challenge. As a continuation of our work on maize, meta-analysis of QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration in rice was performed to identify meta-QTL (MQTL). Based on MQTL in rice and maize, comparative mapping combined with homology-based cloning was performed to identify candidate genes for grain zinc and iron concentration in maize. In total, 22 MQTL in rice, 4 syntenic MQTL-related regions, and 3 MQTL-containing candidate genes in maize (ortho-mMQTL) were detected. Two maize orthologs of rice, GRMZM2G366919 and GRMZM2G178190, were characterized as natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) genes and considered to be candidate genes. Phylogenetic analysis of NRAMP genes among maize, rice, and Arabidopsis thaliana further demonstrated that they are likely responsible for the natural variation of maize grain zinc and iron concentration. Syntenic MQTL-related regions and ortho-mMQTL are prime areas for future investigation as well as for marker-assisted selection breeding programs. Furthermore, the combined method using the rice genome that was used in this study can shed light on other species and help direct future quantitative trait research. In conclusion, these results help elucidate the molecular mechanism that underlies grain zinc and iron concentration in maize.

  14. Copy-number variations on the X chromosome in Japanese patients with mental retardation detected by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Shozo; Hayashi, Shin; Imoto, Issei; Toyama, Jun; Okazawa, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Inazawa, Johji

    2010-09-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a common, clinically complex and genetically heterogeneous disease arising from many mutations along the X chromosome. Although research during the past decade has identified >90 XLMR genes, many more remain uncharacterized. In this study, copy-number variations (CNVs) were screened in individuals with MR from 144 families by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using a bacterial artificial chromosome-based X-tiling array. Candidate pathogenic CNVs (pCNVs) were detected in 10 families (6.9%). Five of the families had pCNVs involving known XLMR genes, duplication of Xq28 containing MECP2 in three families, duplication of Xp11.22-p11.23 containing FTSJ1 and PQBP1 in one family, and deletion of Xp11.22 bearing SHROOM4 in one family. New candidate pCNVs were detected in five families as follows: identical complex pCNVs involved in dup(X)(p22.2) and dup(X)(p21.3) containing part of REPS2, NHS and IL1RAPL1 in two unrelated families, duplication of Xp22.2 including part of FRMPD4, duplication of Xq21.1 including HDX and deletion of Xq24 noncoding region in one family, respectively. Both parents and only mother samples were available in six and three families, respectively, and pCNVs were inherited from each of their mothers in those families other than a family of the proband with deletion of SHROOM4. This study should help to identify the novel XLMR genes and mechanisms leading to MR and reveal the clinical conditions and genomic background of XLMR.

  15. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research.

    PubMed

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; DePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-03-30

    The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and functional divergence, and

  16. Investigation of the diagnostic value of chromosome analysis and bacterial artificial chromosome-based array comparative genomic hybridization in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Savli, Hakan; Keskin, Seda Eren; Cine, Naci

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. This study included the chromosome analysis and BAC-based array CGH analysis of 140 amniocentesis samples with prenatal diagnosis indications. Karyotype analysis showed trisomy 21 in 4 patients, trisomy 18 in 5 patients, monosomy X in 1 patient, and other anomalies in 3 patients. The BAC-based array CGH analysis showed 4 patients with trisomy 21, 4 patients with trisomy 18, and 1 patient with monosomy X as a numerical chromosome anomaly, while partial duplication was observed in chromosome 14 in 1 case as a structural anomaly. The array CGH is the most effective method available to complement cases where chromosome analysis, a gold standard in prenatal diagnosis, proves to be insufficient. Considering the inherent limitations of both methods, complementary features should be introduced in order to be able to give the most accurate data at the right time.

  17. Comparative genomics of autism and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Stead, Philip; Elliot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We used data from studies of copy-number variants (CNVs), single-gene associations, growth-signaling pathways, and intermediate phenotypes associated with brain growth to evaluate four alternative hypotheses for the genomic and developmental relationships between autism and schizophrenia: (i) autism subsumed in schizophrenia, (ii) independence, (iii) diametric, and (iv) partial overlap. Data from CNVs provides statistical support for the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia are associated with reciprocal variants, such that at four loci, deletions predispose to one disorder, whereas duplications predispose to the other. Data from single-gene studies are inconsistent with a hypothesis based on independence, in that autism and schizophrenia share associated genes more often than expected by chance. However, differentiation between the partial overlap and diametric hypotheses using these data is precluded by limited overlap in the specific genetic markers analyzed in both autism and schizophrenia. Evidence from the effects of risk variants on growth-signaling pathways shows that autism-spectrum conditions tend to be associated with up-regulation of pathways due to loss of function mutations in negative regulators, whereas schizophrenia is associated with reduced pathway activation. Finally, data from studies of head and brain size phenotypes indicate that autism is commonly associated with developmentally-enhanced brain growth, whereas schizophrenia is characterized, on average, by reduced brain growth. These convergent lines of evidence appear most compatible with the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia represent diametric conditions with regard to their genomic underpinnings, neurodevelopmental bases, and phenotypic manifestations as reflecting under-development versus dysregulated over-development of the human social brain. PMID:19955444

  18. A universal genomic coordinate translator for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Neda; Sundström, Görel; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Höppner, Marc P; Dainat, Jacques; Lantz, Henrik; Haas, Brian J; Grabherr, Manfred G

    2014-06-30

    Genomic duplications constitute major events in the evolution of species, allowing paralogous copies of genes to take on fine-tuned biological roles. Unambiguously identifying the orthology relationship between copies across multiple genomes can be resolved by synteny, i.e. the conserved order of genomic sequences. However, a comprehensive analysis of duplication events and their contributions to evolution would require all-to-all genome alignments, which increases at N2 with the number of available genomes, N. Here, we introduce Kraken, software that omits the all-to-all requirement by recursively traversing a graph of pairwise alignments and dynamically re-computing orthology. Kraken scales linearly with the number of targeted genomes, N, which allows for including large numbers of genomes in analyses. We first evaluated the method on the set of 12 Drosophila genomes, finding that orthologous correspondence computed indirectly through a graph of multiple synteny maps comes at minimal cost in terms of sensitivity, but reduces overall computational runtime by an order of magnitude. We then used the method on three well-annotated mammalian genomes, human, mouse, and rat, and show that up to 93% of protein coding transcripts have unambiguous pairwise orthologous relationships across the genomes. On a nucleotide level, 70 to 83% of exons match exactly at both splice junctions, and up to 97% on at least one junction. We last applied Kraken to an RNA-sequencing dataset from multiple vertebrates and diverse tissues, where we confirmed that brain-specific gene family members, i.e. one-to-many or many-to-many homologs, are more highly correlated across species than single-copy (i.e. one-to-one homologous) genes. Not limited to protein coding genes, Kraken also identifies thousands of newly identified transcribed loci, likely non-coding RNAs that are consistently transcribed in human, chimpanzee and gorilla, and maintain significant correlation of expression levels across

  19. fPoxDB: fungal peroxidase database for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Détry, Nicolas; Kim, Ki-Tae; Asiegbu, Fred O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-05-08

    Peroxidases are a group of oxidoreductases which mediate electron transfer from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxide to various electron acceptors. They possess a broad spectrum of impact on industry and fungal biology. There are numerous industrial applications using peroxidases, such as to catalyse highly reactive pollutants and to breakdown lignin for recycling of carbon sources. Moreover, genes encoding peroxidases play important roles in fungal pathogenicity in both humans and plants. For better understanding of fungal peroxidases at the genome-level, a novel genomics platform is required. To this end, Fungal Peroxidase Database (fPoxDB; http://peroxidase.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/) has been developed to provide such a genomics platform for this important gene family. In order to identify and classify fungal peroxidases, 24 sequence profiles were built and applied on 331 genomes including 216 from fungi and Oomycetes. In addition, NoxR, which is known to regulate NADPH oxidases (NoxA and NoxB) in fungi, was also added to the pipeline. Collectively, 6,113 genes were predicted to encode 25 gene families, presenting well-separated distribution along the taxonomy. For instance, the genes encoding lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase were concentrated in the rot-causing basidiomycetes, reflecting their ligninolytic capability. As a genomics platform, fPoxDB provides diverse analysis resources, such as gene family predictions based on fungal sequence profiles, pre-computed results of eight bioinformatics programs, similarity search tools, a multiple sequence alignment tool, domain analysis functions, and taxonomic distribution summary, some of which are not available in the previously developed peroxidase resource. In addition, fPoxDB is interconnected with other family web systems, providing extended analysis opportunities. fPoxDB is a fungi-oriented genomics platform for peroxidases. The sequence-based prediction and diverse

  20. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  2. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R.; Mullikin, James C.; Meader, Stephen J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E.; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E.; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours1–4, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other. PMID:22722832

  3. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R; Mullikin, James C; Meader, Stephen J; Ponting, Chris P; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-06-28

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other.

  4. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  5. A web server for mining Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Ranka, Sanjay; Kahveci, Tamer

    2007-11-01

    Advances in cytogenetics and molecular biology has established that chromosomal alterations are critical in the pathogenesis of human cancer. Recurrent chromosomal alterations provide cytological and molecular markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. They also facilitate the identification of genes that are important in carcinogenesis, which in the future may help in the development of targeted therapy. A large amount of publicly available cancer genetic data is now available and it is growing. There is a need for public domain tools that allow users to analyze their data and visualize the results. This chapter describes a web based software tool that will allow researchers to analyze and visualize Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) datasets. It employs novel data mining methodologies for clustering and classification of CGH datasets as well as algorithms for identifying important markers (small set of genomic intervals with aberrations) that are potentially cancer signatures. The developed software will help in understanding the relationships between genomic aberrations and cancer types.

  6. Streptococcus thermophilus core genome: comparative genome hybridization study of 47 strains.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Morten; Valina, Ondrej; Garrigues, Christel; Johansen, Eric; Pedersen, Martin Bastian

    2008-08-01

    A DNA microarray platform based on 2,200 genes from publicly available sequences was designed for Streptococcus thermophilus. We determined how single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 65- to 75-mer oligonucleotide probe sequences affect the hybridization signals. The microarrays were then used for comparative genome hybridization (CGH) of 47 dairy S. thermophilus strains. An analysis of the exopolysaccharide genes in each strain confirmed previous findings that this class of genes is indeed highly variable. A phylogenetic tree based on the CGH data showed similar distances for most strains, indicating frequent recombination or gene transfer within S. thermophilus. By comparing genome sizes estimated from the microarrays and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the amount of unknown DNA in each strain was estimated. A core genome comprised of 1,271 genes detected in all 47 strains was identified. Likewise, a set of noncore genes detected in only some strains was identified. The concept of an industrial core genome is proposed. This is comprised of the genes in the core genome plus genes that are necessary in an applied industrial context.

  7. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  8. Genome-enabled selection doubles the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to traditional family-based selection in rainbow trout aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have shown previously that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  9. Substantial genome synteny preservation among woody angiosperm species: comparative genomics of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and plant reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Staton, Margaret; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Olukolu, Bode; Fang, Guang Chen; Nelson, Dana; Carlson, John E; Abbott, Albert G

    2015-10-05

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) has emerged as a model species for the Fagaceae family with extensive genomic resources including a physical map, a dense genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chestnut blight resistance. These resources enable comparative genomics analyses relative to model plants. We assessed the degree of conservation between the chestnut genome and other well annotated and assembled plant genomic sequences, focusing on the QTL regions of most interest to the chestnut breeding community. The integrated physical and genetic map of Chinese chestnut has been improved to now include 858 shared sequence-based markers. The utility of the integrated map has also been improved through the addition of 42,970 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequences spanning over 26 million bases of the estimated 800 Mb chestnut genome. Synteny between chestnut and ten model plant species was conducted on a macro-syntenic scale using sequences from both individual probes and BAC end sequences across the chestnut physical map. Blocks of synteny with chestnut were found in all ten reference species, with the percent of the chestnut physical map that could be aligned ranging from 10 to 39 %. The integrated genetic and physical map was utilized to identify BACs that spanned the three previously identified QTL regions conferring blight resistance. The clones were pooled and sequenced, yielding 396 sequence scaffolds covering 13.9 Mbp. Comparative genomic analysis on a microsytenic scale, using the QTL-associated genomic sequence, identified synteny from chestnut to other plant genomes ranging from 5.4 to 12.9 % of the genome sequences aligning. On both the macro- and micro-synteny levels, the peach, grape and poplar genomes were found to be the most structurally conserved with chestnut. Interestingly, these results did not strictly follow the expectation that decreased phylogenetic distance would correspond to increased levels of genome

  10. Update on Comparative Genomics of Legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This year marks the essential completion of the genome sequences of Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus (soybean, barrel medic, and birdsfoot trefoil, respectively). The impact of these assembled, annotated genomes will be enormous. L. japonicus and M. truncatula, both forage crop...

  11. African relapsing Fever borreliae genomospecies revealed by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Elbir, Haitham; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Pontarotti, Pierre; Yoosuf, Niyaz; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae are vector-borne bacteria responsible for febrile infection in humans in North America, Africa, Asia, and in the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Relapsing fever borreliae are phylogenetically closely related, yet they differ in pathogenicity and vectors. Their long-term taxonomy, based on geography and vector grouping, needs to be re-apprised in a genomic context. We therefore embarked into genomic analyses of relapsing fever borreliae, focusing on species found in Africa. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses group Old World Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia hispanica, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis in one clade, and New World Borrelia turicatae and Borrelia hermsii in a second clade. Accordingly, average nucleotide identity is 99% among B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae and 96% between latter borreliae and B. hispanica while the similarity is 86% between Old World and New World borreliae. Comparative genomics indicates that the Old World relapsing fever B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, B. crocidurae, and B. hispanica have a 2,514-gene pan genome and a 933-gene core genome that includes 788 chromosomal and 145 plasmidic genes. Analyzing the role that natural selection has played in the evolution of Old World borreliae species revealed that 55 loci were under positive diversifying selection, including loci coding for membrane, flagellar, and chemotaxis proteins, three categories associated with adaption to specific niches. Genomic analyses led to a reappraisal of the taxonomy of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. These analyses suggest that B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis are ecotypes of a unique genomospecies, while B. hispanica is a distinct species.

  12. African Relapsing Fever Borreliae Genomospecies Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Pontarotti, Pierre; Yoosuf, Niyaz; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relapsing fever borreliae are vector-borne bacteria responsible for febrile infection in humans in North America, Africa, Asia, and in the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Relapsing fever borreliae are phylogenetically closely related, yet they differ in pathogenicity and vectors. Their long-term taxonomy, based on geography and vector grouping, needs to be re-apprised in a genomic context. We therefore embarked into genomic analyses of relapsing fever borreliae, focusing on species found in Africa. Results: Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses group Old World Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia hispanica, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis in one clade, and New World Borrelia turicatae and Borrelia hermsii in a second clade. Accordingly, average nucleotide identity is 99% among B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae and 96% between latter borreliae and B. hispanica while the similarity is 86% between Old World and New World borreliae. Comparative genomics indicates that the Old World relapsing fever B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, B. crocidurae, and B. hispanica have a 2,514-gene pan genome and a 933-gene core genome that includes 788 chromosomal and 145 plasmidic genes. Analyzing the role that natural selection has played in the evolution of Old World borreliae species revealed that 55 loci were under positive diversifying selection, including loci coding for membrane, flagellar, and chemotaxis proteins, three categories associated with adaption to specific niches. Conclusion: Genomic analyses led to a reappraisal of the taxonomy of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. These analyses suggest that B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis are ecotypes of a unique genomospecies, while B. hispanica is a distinct species. PMID:25229054

  13. Comparative Genomics and the Gene Complement of a Minimal Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islas, Sara; Becerra, Arturo; Luisi, P. Luigi; Lazcano, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    The concept of a minimal cell is discussed from the viewpoint of comparative genomics. Analysis of published DNA content values determined for 641 different archaeal and bacterial species by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has lead to a more precise definition of the genome size ranges of free-living and host-associated organisms. DNA content is not an indicator of phylogenetic position. However, the smallest genomes in our sample do not have a random distribution in rRNA-based evolutionary trees, and are found mostly in (a) the basal branches of the tree where thermophiles are located; and (b) in late clades, such as those of Gram positive bacteria. While the smallest-known genome size for an endosymbiont is only 450 kb, no free-living prokaryote has been described to have genomes <1450 kb. Estimates of the size of minimal gene complement can provide important insights in the primary biological functions required for a sustainable, reproducing cell nowadays and throughout evolutionary times, but definitions of the minimum cell is dependent on specific environments.

  14. Comparative analysis of the base compositions of the pre-mRNA 3' cleaved-off region and the mRNA 3' untranslated region relative to the genomic base composition in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3'COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3'UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3'CORs and 3'UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3'COR and 3'UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3'COR and 3'UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3'COR and 3'UTR; 2) the 3'UTR and 3'COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Base Compositions of the Pre-mRNA 3′ Cleaved-Off Region and the mRNA 3′ Untranslated Region Relative to the Genomic Base Composition in Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3′COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3′UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3′CORs and 3′UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3′COR and 3′UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3′COR and 3′UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3′COR and 3′UTR; 2) the 3′UTR and 3′COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition. PMID:24941005

  16. The Whole Genome Assembly and Comparative Genomic Research of Thellungiella parvula (Extremophile Crucifer) Mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Bi, Changwei; Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Suyun; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming; Ye, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of an extremophile species Thellungiella parvula (T. parvula) have been determined with the lengths of 255,773 bp. T. parvula mt genome is a circular sequence and contains 32 protein-coding genes, 19 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes with a 11.5% coding sequence. The base composition of 27.5% A, 27.5% T, 22.7% C, and 22.3% G in descending order shows a slight bias of 55% AT. Fifty-three repeats were identified in the mitochondrial genome of T. parvula, including 24 direct repeats, 28 tandem repeats (TRs), and one palindromic repeat. Furthermore, a total of 199 perfect microsatellites have been mined with a high A/T content (83.1%) through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and they were distributed unevenly within this mitochondrial genome. We also analyzed other plant mitochondrial genomes' evolution in general, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organelles genomes in plants. Comparing with other Brassicaceae species, T. parvula is related to Arabidopsis thaliana whose characters of low temperature resistance have been well documented. This study will provide important genetic tools for other Brassicaceae species research and improve yields of economically important plants. PMID:27148547

  17. Using comparative genome analysis to identify problems in annotated microbial genomes.

    PubMed

    Poptsova, Maria S; Gogarten, J Peter

    2010-07-01

    Genome annotation is a tedious task that is mostly done by automated methods; however, the accuracy of these approaches has been questioned since the beginning of the sequencing era. Genome annotation is a multilevel process, and errors can emerge at different stages: during sequencing, as a result of gene-calling procedures, and in the process of assigning gene functions. Missed or wrongly annotated genes differentially impact different types of analyses. Here we discuss and demonstrate how the methods of comparative genome analysis can refine annotations by locating missing orthologues. We also discuss possible reasons for errors and show that the second-generation annotation systems, which combine multiple gene-calling programs with similarity-based methods, perform much better than the first annotation tools. Since old errors may propagate to the newly sequenced genomes, we emphasize that the problem of continuously updating popular public databases is an urgent and unresolved one. Due to the progress in genome-sequencing technologies, automated annotation techniques will remain the main approach in the future. Researchers need to be aware of the existing errors in the annotation of even well-studied genomes, such as Escherichia coli, and consider additional quality control for their results.

  18. Dissecting Plant Genomes with the PLAZA Comparative Genomics Platform1[W

    PubMed Central

    Van Bel, Michiel; Proost, Sebastian; Wischnitzki, Elisabeth; Movahedi, Sara; Scheerlinck, Christopher; Van de Peer, Yves; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    With the arrival of low-cost, next-generation sequencing, a multitude of new plant genomes are being publicly released, providing unseen opportunities and challenges for comparative genomics studies. Here, we present PLAZA 2.5, a user-friendly online research environment to explore genomic information from different plants. This new release features updates to previous genome annotations and a substantial number of newly available plant genomes as well as various new interactive tools and visualizations. Currently, PLAZA hosts 25 organisms covering a broad taxonomic range, including 13 eudicots, five monocots, one lycopod, one moss, and five algae. The available data consist of structural and functional gene annotations, homologous gene families, multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees, and colinear regions within and between species. A new Integrative Orthology Viewer, combining information from different orthology prediction methodologies, was developed to efficiently investigate complex orthology relationships. Cross-species expression analysis revealed that the integration of complementary data types extended the scope of complex orthology relationships, especially between more distantly related species. Finally, based on phylogenetic profiling, we propose a set of core gene families within the green plant lineage that will be instrumental to assess the gene space of draft or newly sequenced plant genomes during the assembly or annotation phase. PMID:22198273

  19. A Mitochondrial Genome of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and a Comparative Analysis of Related Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Teng; Yang, Jie; Li, Yinwan; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun; Hillis, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhyparochromidae, the largest family of Lygaeoidea, encompasses more than 1,850 described species, but no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced to date. Here we describe the first mitochondrial genome for Rhyparochromidae: a complete mitochondrial genome of Panaorus albomaculatus (Scott, 1874). This mitochondrial genome is comprised of 16,345 bp, and contains the expected 37 genes and control region. The majority of the control region is made up of a large tandem-repeat region, which has a novel pattern not previously observed in other insects. The tandem-repeats region of P. albomaculatus consists of 53 tandem duplications (including one partial repeat), which is the largest number of tandem repeats among all the known insect mitochondrial genomes. Slipped-strand mispairing during replication is likely to have generated this novel pattern of tandem repeats. Comparative analysis of tRNA gene families in sequenced Pentatomomorpha and Lygaeoidea species shows that the pattern of nucleotide conservation is markedly higher on the J-strand. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial genomes suggests that Rhyparochromidae is not the sister group to all the remaining Lygaeoidea, and supports the monophyly of Lygaeoidea. PMID:27756915

  20. Lactobacillus paracasei Comparative Genomics: Towards Species Pan-Genome Definition and Exploitation of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Smokvina, Tamara; Wels, Michiel; Polka, Justyna; Chervaux, Christian; Brisse, Sylvain; Boekhorst, Jos; Vlieg, Johan E. T. van Hylckama; Siezen, Roland J.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei is a member of the normal human and animal gut microbiota and is used extensively in the food industry in starter cultures for dairy products or as probiotics. With the development of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing techniques it has become feasible to sequence many different strains of one species and to determine its “pan-genome”. We have sequenced the genomes of 34 different L. paracasei strains, and performed a comparative genomics analysis. We analysed genome synteny and content, focussing on the pan-genome, core genome and variable genome. Each genome was shown to contain around 2800–3100 protein-coding genes, and comparative analysis identified over 4200 ortholog groups that comprise the pan-genome of this species, of which about 1800 ortholog groups make up the conserved core. Several factors previously associated with host-microbe interactions such as pili, cell-envelope proteinase, hydrolases p40 and p75 or the capacity to produce short branched-chain fatty acids (bkd operon) are part of the L. paracasei core genome present in all analysed strains. The variome consists mainly of hypothetical proteins, phages, plasmids, transposon/conjugative elements, and known functions such as sugar metabolism, cell-surface proteins, transporters, CRISPR-associated proteins, and EPS biosynthesis proteins. An enormous variety and variability of sugar utilization gene cassettes were identified, with each strain harbouring between 25–53 cassettes, reflecting the high adaptability of L. paracasei to different niches. A phylogenomic tree was constructed based on total genome contents, and together with an analysis of horizontal gene transfer events we conclude that evolution of these L. paracasei strains is complex and not always related to niche adaptation. The results of this genome content comparison was used, together with high-throughput growth experiments on various carbohydrates, to perform gene-trait matching analysis, in order to

  1. Comparative genomic hybridization in clinical cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bryndorf, T.; Kirchhoff, M.; Rose, H.

    1995-11-01

    We report the results of applying comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in a cytogenetic service laboratory for (1) determination of the origin of extra and missing chromosomal material in intricate cases of unbalanced aberrations and (2) detection of common prenatal numerical chromosome aberrations. A total of 11 fetal samples were analyzed. Seven cases of complex unbalanced aberrations that could not be identified reliably by conventional cytogenetics were successfully resolved by CGH analysis. CGH results were validated by using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. Four cases representing common prenatal numerical aberrations (trisomy 21, 18, and 13 and monosomy X) were also successfully diagnosed by CGH. We conclude that CGH is a powerful adjunct to traditional cytogenetic techniques that makes it possible to solve clinical cases of intricate unbalanced aberrations in a single hybridization. CGH may also be a useful adjunct to screen for euchromatic involvement in marker chromosomes. Further technical development may render CGH applicable for routine aberration screening. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Modified array-based comparative genomic hybridization detects cryptic and variant PML-RARA rearrangements in acute promyelocytic leukemia lacking classic translocations.

    PubMed

    Gruver, Aaron M; Rogers, Heesun J; Cook, James R; Ballif, Blake C; Schultz, Roger A; Batanian, Jacqueline R; Fesler, Mark J; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2013-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is typically defined at the molecular level by a reciprocal translocation of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and retinoic acid receptor α (RARA) genes. An accurate diagnosis of APL is critical for appropriate choice of therapy and prognostic assessment. Cryptic and variant rearrangements in APL are discoverable by a variety of molecular methods including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, or gene sequencing. Rare reports of FISH-negative APL harboring cryptic rearrangements of PML-RARA detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or sequencing have been described. Here, we describe the detection of cryptic or variant PML-RARA rearrangements by translocation-based comparative genomic hybridization (tCGH), a recently described modification of traditional CGH technology that facilitates the detection of balanced translocations by means of the linear amplification of a potential translocation breakpoint region(s), in 2 unusual cases of APL. One tumor lacked detectable t(15;17) by karyotype and FISH, and the other tumor lacked the typical morphologic and immunophenotypic features of APL and had a variant 3-way translocation involving PML and RARA. PML-RARA translocations were identified by tCGH in both cases providing confirmation of the diagnosis of APL. These data emphasize the benefit of using complementary molecular methods including tCGH for detecting cryptic and variant PML-RARA translocations in unusual cases of APL.

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    DOE PAGES

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; ...

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The speciesmore » P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren John; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam L.; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The species P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but this

  5. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into Their Niche-Associated Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Thompson, Rebecca; Budinich, Mateo F.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is remarkably adaptable to diverse habitats and widely used in the food industry. To reveal the genomic features that contribute to its broad ecological adaptability and examine the evolution of the species, the genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 is analyzed and compared with other sequenced lactobacilli. This analysis reveals that ATCC 334 contains a high number of coding sequences involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation, reflecting its requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. A comparison of the genome sequences of ATCC 334 to L. casei BL23 reveals 12 and 19 genomic islands, respectively. For a broader assessment of the genetic variability within L. casei, gene content of 21 L. casei strains isolated from various habitats (cheeses, n = 7; plant materials, n = 8; and human sources, n = 6) was examined by comparative genome hybridization with an ATCC 334-based microarray. This analysis resulted in identification of 25 hypervariable regions. One of these regions contains an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation and was thus proposed as a lifestyle adaptation island. Differences in L. casei genome inventory reveal both gene gain and gene decay. Gene gain, via acquisition of genomic islands, likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats. Gene decay, that is, loss of unnecessary ancestral traits, is observed in the cheese isolates and likely results in enhanced fitness in the dairy niche. This study gives the first picture of the stable versus variable regions in L. casei and provides valuable insights into evolution, lifestyle adaptation, and metabolic diversity of L. casei. PMID:20333194

  6. Comparative Genomics of Large Mitochondria in Placozoans

    PubMed Central

    Signorovitch, Ana Y; Buss, Leo W; Dellaporta, Stephen L

    2007-01-01

    The first sequenced mitochondrial genome of a placozoan, Trichoplax adhaerens, challenged the conventional wisdom that a compact mitochondrial genome is a common feature among all animals. Three additional placozoan mitochondrial genomes representing highly divergent clades have been sequenced to determine whether the large Trichoplax mtDNA is a shared feature among members of the phylum Placozoa or a uniquely derived condition. All three mitochondrial genomes were found to be very large, 32- to 37-kb, circular molecules, having the typical 12 respiratory chain genes, 24 tRNAs, rnS, and rnL. They share with the Trichoplax mitochondrial genome the absence of atp8, atp9, and all ribosomal protein genes, the presence of several cox1 introns, and a large open reading frame containing an intron group I LAGLIDADG endonuclease domain. The differences in mtDNA size within Placozoa are due to variation in intergenic spacer regions and the presence or absence of long open reading frames of unknown function. Phylogenetic analyses of the 12 respiratory chain genes support the monophyly of Placozoa. The similarities in composition and structure between the three mitochondrial genomes reported here and that of Trichoplax's mtDNA suggest that their uncompacted state is a shared ancestral feature to other nonmetazoans while their gene content is a derived feature shared only among the Metazoa. PMID:17222063

  7. Comparative genome-based identification of a cell wall-anchored protein from Lactobacillus plantarum increases adhesion of Lactococcus lactis to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2015-09-15

    Adhesion to host cells is considered important for Lactobacillus plantarum as well as other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to persist in human gut and thus exert probiotic effects. Here, we sequenced the genome of Lt. plantarum strain NL42 originating from a traditional Chinese dairy product, performed comparative genomic analysis and characterized a novel adhesion factor. The genome of NL42 was highly divergent from its closest neighbors, especially in six large genomic regions. NL42 harbors a total of 42 genes encoding adhesion-associated proteins; among them, cwaA encodes a protein containing multiple domains, including five cell wall surface anchor repeat domains and an LPxTG-like cell wall anchor motif. Expression of cwaA in Lactococcus lactis significantly increased its autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, and conferred the new ability to adhere to human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells by targeting cellular surface proteins, and not carbohydrate moieties, for CwaA adhesion. In addition, the recombinant Lc. lactis inhibited adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to HT-29 cells, mainly by exclusion. We conclude that CwaA is a novel adhesion factor in Lt. plantarum and a potential candidate for improving the adhesion ability of probiotics or other bacteria of interest.

  8. Comparative genomic hybridization: Detection of segmental aneusomies

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, J.E.; Magrane, G.G.; Gray, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been used successfully to detect whole chromosome and segmental aneusomies. However, its sensitivity for detection of segmental aneusomies is still not well known. We present here an analysis of CGH sensitivity with emphasis on detection of abnormalities commonly found during pre-and neo-natal diagnosis. CGH is performed by hybridizing green and red fluorescing test and normal DNA samples, respectively, to normal metaphase spreads and measuring green:red fluorescence ratios along all chromosomes. The ratios are normalized such that 2 copies of a normal chromosome region in the test sample gives a ratio of 1.0. Alterations in test vs. control gene copy number range from 1.5 [trisomy] to 0.5 [monosomy]. Clinical samples analyzed included Wolf Hirschhorn (4p-), Cri du Chat (5p-) and DiGeorge (22q-). In addition, 7 cell lines with chromosome 21 segmental aneusomies were analyzed. These included 3 with terminal duplications, 1 with a terminal deletion, 1 with an interstitial deletion and 2 with interstitial amplifications. The DiGeorge deletion was the only deletion not deleted by CGH. This is not surprising as standard G banding does not routinely detect this 1-2 megabase deletion. The 4p- and 5p- monosomies were detected and breakpoints correctly assigned prospectively. Proximal alterations involving 21q22.11 are unambiguously defined. Specifically, two interstitial aneusomies involving this region are detected. Studies involving late prophase chromosome normal spreads gave identical breakpoints. Thus, analysis of extended chromosomes did not improve the sensitivity of the technique. Taken together, these data suggest that CGH can detect segmental aneusomies greater than 8 megabases in extent. Smaller aneusomies can, at times, be detected. Work is now underway to modify the analysis software to increase sensitivity and to decrease the amount of material needed for analysis.

  9. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster, and genes

  10. Identification of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer by the combined use of tissue microdissection and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    Harada, T; Baril, P; Gangeswaran, R; Kelly, G; Chelala, C; Bhakta, V; Caulee, K; Mahon, P C; Lemoine, N R

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised pathologically by a marked desmoplastic stromal reaction that significantly reduces the sensitivity and specificity of cytogenetic analysis. To identify genetic alterations that reflect the characteristics of the tumour in vivo, we screened a total of 23 microdissected PDAC tissue samples using array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) with 1 Mb resolution. Highly stringent statistical analysis enabled us to define the regions of nonrandom genomic changes. We detected a total of 41 contiguous regions (>3.0 Mb) of copy number changes, such as a genetic gain at 7p22.2–p15.1 (26.0 Mb) and losses at 17p13.3–p11.2 (13.6 Mb), 18q21.2–q22.1 (12.0 Mb), 18q22.3–q23 (7.1 Mb) and 18q12.3–q21.2 (6.9 Mb). To validate our array CGH results, fluorescence in situ hybridisation was performed using four probes from those regions, showing that these genetic alterations were observed in 37–68% of a separate sample set of 19 PDAC cases. In particular, deletion of the SEC11L3 gene (18q21.32) was detected at a very high frequency (13 out of 19 cases; 68%) and in situ RNA hybridisation for this gene demonstrated a significant correlation between deletion and expression levels. It was further confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR that SEC11L3 mRNA was downregulated in 16 out of 16 PDAC tissues (100%). In conclusion, the combination of tissue microdissection and array CGH provided a valid data set that represents in vivo genetic changes in PDAC. Our results raise the possibility that the SEC11L3 gene may play a role as a tumour suppressor in this disease. PMID:17242705

  11. Comparative genomics and genome biology of invasive Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Nilsson, A J E; Ellström, P; Myllykangas, S; Rautelin, H

    2015-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major pathogen in bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and can cause bacteremia in severe cases. C. jejuni is highly structured into clonal lineages of which the ST677CC lineage has been overrepresented among C. jejuni isolates derived from blood. In this study, we characterized the genomes of 31 C. jejuni blood isolates and 24 faecal isolates belonging to ST677CC in order to study the genome biology related to C. jejuni invasiveness. We combined the genome analyses with phenotypical evidence on serum resistance which was associated with phase variation of wcbK; a GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase involved in capsular biosynthesis. We also describe the finding of a Type III restriction-modification system unique to the ST-794 sublineage. However, features previously considered to be related to pathogenesis of C. jejuni were either absent or disrupted among our strains. Our results refine the role of capsule features associated with invasive disease and accentuate the possibility of methylation and restriction enzymes in the potential of C. jejuni to establish invasive infections. Our findings underline the importance of studying clinically relevant well-characterized bacterial strains in order to understand pathogenesis mechanisms important in human infections.

  12. Comparing genomes with duplications: a computational complexity point of view.

    PubMed

    Blin, Guillaume; Chauve, Cedric; Fertin, Guillaume; Rizzi, Romeo; Vialette, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the computational complexity of computing (dis)similarity measures between two genomes when they contain duplicated genes or genomic markers, a problem that happens frequently when comparing whole nuclear genomes. Recently, several methods ( [1], [2]) have been proposed that are based on two steps to compute a given (dis)similarity measure M between two genomes G_1 and G_2: first, one establishes a oneto- one correspondence between genes of G_1 and genes of G_2 ; second, once this correspondence is established, it defines explicitly a permutation and it is then possible to quantify their similarity using classical measures defined for permutations, like the number of breakpoints. Hence these methods rely on two elements: a way to establish a one-to-one correspondence between genes of a pair of genomes, and a (dis)similarity measure for permutations. The problem is then, given a (dis)similarity measure for permutations, to compute a correspondence that defines an optimal permutation for this measure. We are interested here in two models to compute a one-to-one correspondence: the exemplar model, where all but one copy are deleted in both genomes for each gene family, and the matching model, that computes a maximal correspondence for each gene family. We show that for these two models, and for three (dis)similarity measures on permutations, namely the number of common intervals, the maximum adjacency disruption (MAD) number and the summed adjacency disruption (SAD) number, the problem of computing an optimal correspondence is NP-complete, and even APXhard for the MAD number and SAD number.

  13. MGcV: the microbial genomic context viewer for comparative genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conserved gene context is used in many types of comparative genome analyses. It is used to provide leads on gene function, to guide the discovery of regulatory sequences, but also to aid in the reconstruction of metabolic networks. We present the Microbial Genomic context Viewer (MGcV), an interactive, web-based application tailored to strengthen the practice of manual comparative genome context analysis for bacteria. Results MGcV is a versatile, easy-to-use tool that renders a visualization of the genomic context of any set of selected genes, genes within a phylogenetic tree, genomic segments, or regulatory elements. It is tailored to facilitate laborious tasks such as the interactive annotation of gene function, the discovery of regulatory elements, or the sequence-based reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. We illustrate that MGcV can be used in gene function annotation by visually integrating information on prokaryotic genes, like their annotation as available from NCBI with other annotation data such as Pfam domains, sub-cellular location predictions and gene-sequence characteristics such as GC content. We also illustrate the usefulness of the interactive features that allow the graphical selection of genes to facilitate data gathering (e.g. upstream regions, ID’s or annotation), in the analysis and reconstruction of transcription regulation. Moreover, putative regulatory elements and their corresponding scores or data from RNA-seq and microarray experiments can be uploaded, visualized and interpreted in (ranked-) comparative context maps. The ranked maps allow the interpretation of predicted regulatory elements and experimental data in light of each other. Conclusion MGcV advances the manual comparative analysis of genes and regulatory elements by providing fast and flexible integration of gene related data combined with straightforward data retrieval. MGcV is available at http://mgcv.cmbi.ru.nl. PMID:23547764

  14. Comparative Genomics of Cluster O Mycobacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Cresawn, Steven G.; Pope, Welkin H.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Bowman, Charles A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Dedrick, Rebekah M.; Adair, Tamarah; Anders, Kirk R.; Ball, Sarah; Bollivar, David; Breitenberger, Caroline; Burnett, Sandra H.; Butela, Kristen; Byrnes, Deanna; Carzo, Sarah; Cornely, Kathleen A.; Cross, Trevor; Daniels, Richard L.; Dunbar, David; Findley, Ann M.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; Golebiewska, Urszula P.; Hartzog, Grant A.; Hatherill, J. Robert; Hughes, Lee E.; Jalloh, Chernoh S.; De Los Santos, Carla; Ekanem, Kevin; Khambule, Sphindile L.; King, Rodney A.; King-Smith, Christina; Klyczek, Karen; Krukonis, Greg P.; Laing, Christian; Lapin, Jonathan S.; Lopez, A. Javier; Mkhwanazi, Sipho M.; Molloy, Sally D.; Moran, Deborah; Munsamy, Vanisha; Pacey, Eddie; Plymale, Ruth; Poxleitner, Marianne; Reyna, Nathan; Schildbach, Joel F.; Stukey, Joseph; Taylor, Sarah E.; Ware, Vassie C.; Wellmann, Amanda L.; Westholm, Daniel; Wodarski, Donna; Zajko, Michelle; Zikalala, Thabiso S.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteriophages – viruses of mycobacterial hosts – are genetically diverse but morphologically are all classified in the Caudovirales with double-stranded DNA and tails. We describe here a group of five closely related mycobacteriophages – Corndog, Catdawg, Dylan, Firecracker, and YungJamal – designated as Cluster O with long flexible tails but with unusual prolate capsids. Proteomic analysis of phage Corndog particles, Catdawg particles, and Corndog-infected cells confirms expression of half of the predicted gene products and indicates a non-canonical mechanism for translation of the Corndog tape measure protein. Bioinformatic analysis identifies 8–9 strongly predicted SigA promoters and all five Cluster O genomes contain more than 30 copies of a 17 bp repeat sequence with dyad symmetry located throughout the genomes. Comparison of the Cluster O phages provides insights into phage genome evolution including the processes of gene flux by horizontal genetic exchange. PMID:25742016

  15. Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-03-27

    Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus

  16. Comparative genomics of Mortierella elongata and its bacterial endosymbiont Mycoavidus cysteinexigens: Comparative genomics of Mortierella elongata

    DOE PAGES

    Uehling, J.; Gryganskyi, A.; Hameed, K.; ...

    2017-01-01

    Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well-known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. Furthermore, we sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia. The genome of M. elongata strain AG77 features a core set of primarymore » metabolic pathways for degradation of simple carbohydrates and lipid biosynthesis, while the M. cysteinexigens (AG77) genome is reduced in size and function. Experiments using antibiotics to cure the endobacterium from the host demonstrate that the fungal host metabolism is highly modulated by presence/ absence of M. cysteinexigens. In independent comparative phylogenomic analyses of fungal and bacterial genomes we find that they are consistent with an ancient origin for M. elongata M. cysteinexigens symbiosis, most likely over 350 million years ago and concomitant with the terrestrialization of Earth and diversification of land fungi and plants.« less

  17. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  18. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Waterston, Robert H; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R; Brown, Daniel G; Brown, Stephen D; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T; Church, Deanna M; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S; Cook, Lisa L; Copley, Richard R; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M; Eddy, Sean R; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Furey, Terrence S; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A; Green, Eric D; Gregory, Simon; Guigó, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B; Johnson, L Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S; Kulbokas, Edward J; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J P; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; Li, Jia; Li, Ming; Lloyd, Christine; Lucas, Susan; Ma, Bin; Maglott, Donna R; Mardis, Elaine R; Matthews, Lucy; Mauceli, Evan; Mayer, John H; McCarthy, Megan; McCombie, W Richard; McLaren, Stuart; McLay, Kirsten; McPherson, John D; Meldrim, Jim; Meredith, Beverley; Mesirov, Jill P; Miller, Webb; Miner, Tracie L; Mongin, Emmanuel; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Michael; Mott, Richard; Mullikin, James C; Muzny, Donna M; Nash, William E; Nelson, Joanne O; Nhan, Michael N; Nicol, Robert; Ning, Zemin; Nusbaum, Chad; O'Connor, Michael J; Okazaki, Yasushi; Oliver, Karen; Overton-Larty, Emma; Pachter, Lior; Parra, Genís; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Peterson, Jane; Pevzner, Pavel; Plumb, Robert; Pohl, Craig S; Poliakov, Alex; Ponce, Tracy C; Ponting, Chris P; Potter, Simon; Quail, Michael; Reymond, Alexandre; Roe, Bruce A; Roskin, Krishna M; Rubin, Edward M; Rust, Alistair G; Santos, Ralph; Sapojnikov, Victor; Schultz, Brian; Schultz, Jörg; Schwartz, Matthias S; Schwartz, Scott; Scott, Carol; Seaman, Steven; Searle, Steve; Sharpe, Ted; Sheridan, Andrew; Shownkeen, Ratna; Sims, Sarah; Singer, Jonathan B; Slater, Guy; Smit, Arian; Smith, Douglas R; Spencer, Brian; Stabenau, Arne; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Sugnet, Charles; Suyama, Mikita; Tesler, Glenn; Thompson, Johanna; Torrents, David; Trevaskis, Evanne; Tromp, John; Ucla, Catherine; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Vinson, Jade P; Von Niederhausern, Andrew C; Wade, Claire M; Wall, Melanie; Weber, Ryan J; Weiss, Robert B; Wendl, Michael C; West, Anthony P; Wetterstrand, Kris; Wheeler, Raymond; Whelan, Simon; Wierzbowski, Jamey; Willey, David; Williams, Sophie; Wilson, Richard K; Winter, Eitan; Worley, Kim C; Wyman, Dudley; Yang, Shan; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zody, Michael C; Lander, Eric S

    2002-12-05

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  19. Comparative genomics of 9 novel Paenibacillus larvae bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Stamereilers, Casey; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane; Amy, Penny S.; Tsourkas, Philippos K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT American Foulbrood Disease, caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, is one of the most destructive diseases of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Our group recently published the sequences of 9 new phages with the ability to infect and lyse P. larvae. Here, we characterize the genomes of these P. larvae phages, compare them to each other and to other sequenced P. larvae phages, and putatively identify protein function. The phage genomes are 38–45 kb in size and contain 68–86 genes, most of which appear to be unique to P. larvae phages. We classify P. larvae phages into 2 main clusters and one singleton based on nucleotide sequence identity. Three of the new phages show sequence similarity to other sequenced P. larvae phages, while the remaining 6 do not. We identified functions for roughly half of the P. larvae phage proteins, including structural, assembly, host lysis, DNA replication/metabolism, regulatory, and host-related functions. Structural and assembly proteins are highly conserved among our phages and are located at the start of the genome. DNA replication/metabolism, regulatory, and host-related proteins are located in the middle and end of the genome, and are not conserved, with many of these genes found in some of our phages but not others. All nine phages code for a conserved N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. Comparative analysis showed the phages use the “cohesive ends with 3′ overhang” DNA packaging strategy. This work is the first in-depth study of P. larvae phage genomics, and serves as a marker for future work in this area. PMID:27738559

  20. Comparative Analysis of Acinetobacters: Three Genomes for Three Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Vallenet, David; Nordmann, Patrice; Barbe, Valérie; Poirel, Laurent; Mangenot, Sophie; Bataille, Elodie; Dossat, Carole; Gas, Shahinaz; Kreimeyer, Annett; Lenoble, Patricia; Oztas, Sophie; Poulain, Julie; Segurens, Béatrice; Robert, Catherine; Abergel, Chantal; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Médigue, Claudine; Weissenbach, Jean; Cruveiller, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i) whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss); ii) strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii) several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors) were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS). Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment), louse, soil. PMID:18350144

  1. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence.

    PubMed

    Wilming, Laurens G; Hart, Elizabeth A; Coggill, Penny C; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G R; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC.

  2. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Hart, Elizabeth A.; Coggill, Penny C.; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G. R.; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC. PMID:23589541

  3. Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms

  4. The Genome Sequence of Caenorhabditis briggsae: A Platform for Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhirong; Blasiar, Darin; Blumenthal, Thomas; Brent, Michael R; Chen, Nansheng; Chinwalla, Asif; Clarke, Laura; Clee, Chris; Coghlan, Avril; Coulson, Alan; D'Eustachio, Peter; Fitch, David H. A; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Harris, Todd W; Hillier, LaDeana W; Kamath, Ravi; Kuwabara, Patricia E; Mardis, Elaine R; Marra, Marco A; Miner, Tracie L; Minx, Patrick; Mullikin, James C; Plumb, Robert W; Rogers, Jane; Schein, Jacqueline E; Sohrmann, Marc; Spieth, John; Stajich, Jason E; Wei, Chaochun; Willey, David; Wilson, Richard K; Durbin, Richard; Waterston, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    The soil nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis elegans diverged from a common ancestor roughly 100 million years ago and yet are almost indistinguishable by eye. They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. To explore the basis for this striking conservation of structure and function, we have sequenced the C. briggsae genome to a high-quality draft stage and compared it to the finished C. elegans sequence. We predict approximately 19,500 protein-coding genes in the C. briggsae genome, roughly the same as in C. elegans. Of these, 12,200 have clear C. elegans orthologs, a further 6,500 have one or more clearly detectable C. elegans homologs, and approximately 800 C. briggsae genes have no detectable matches in C. elegans. Almost all of the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) known are shared between the two species. The two genomes exhibit extensive colinearity, and the rate of divergence appears to be higher in the chromosomal arms than in the centers. Operons, a distinctive feature of C. elegans, are highly conserved in C. briggsae, with the arrangement of genes being preserved in 96% of cases. The difference in size between the C. briggsae (estimated at approximately 104 Mbp) and C. elegans (100.3 Mbp) genomes is almost entirely due to repetitive sequence, which accounts for 22.4% of the C. briggsae genome in contrast to 16.5% of the C. elegans genome. Few, if any, repeat families are shared, suggesting that most were acquired after the two species diverged or are undergoing rapid evolution. Coclustering the C. elegans and C. briggsae proteins reveals 2,169 protein families of two or more members. Most of these are shared between the two species, but some appear to be expanding or contracting, and there seem to be as many as several hundred novel C. briggsae gene families. The C. briggsae draft sequence will greatly improve the annotation of the C. elegans genome. Based on similarity to C. briggsae, we found

  5. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  6. A process for analysis of microarray comparative genomics hybridisation studies for bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ben; Wu, Guanghui; Woodward, Martin J; Anjum, Muna F

    2008-01-01

    Background Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) experiments have been used to study numerous biological problems including understanding genome plasticity in pathogenic bacteria. Typically such experiments produce large data sets that are difficult for biologists to handle. Although there are some programmes available for interpretation of bacterial transcriptomics data and CGH microarray data for looking at genetic stability in oncogenes, there are none specifically to understand the mosaic nature of bacterial genomes. Consequently a bottle neck still persists in accurate processing and mathematical analysis of these data. To address this shortfall we have produced a simple and robust CGH microarray data analysis process that may be automated in the future to understand bacterial genomic diversity. Results The process involves five steps: cleaning, normalisation, estimating gene presence and absence or divergence, validation, and analysis of data from test against three reference strains simultaneously. Each stage of the process is described and we have compared a number of methods available for characterising bacterial genomic diversity, for calculating the cut-off between gene presence and absence or divergence, and shown that a simple dynamic approach using a kernel density estimator performed better than both established, as well as a more sophisticated mixture modelling technique. We have also shown that current methods commonly used for CGH microarray analysis in tumour and cancer cell lines are not appropriate for analysing our data. Conclusion After carrying out the analysis and validation for three sequenced Escherichia coli strains, CGH microarray data from 19 E. coli O157 pathogenic test strains were used to demonstrate the benefits of applying this simple and robust process to CGH microarray studies using bacterial genomes. PMID:18230148

  7. fPoxDB: fungal peroxidase database for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peroxidases are a group of oxidoreductases which mediate electron transfer from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxide to various electron acceptors. They possess a broad spectrum of impact on industry and fungal biology. There are numerous industrial applications using peroxidases, such as to catalyse highly reactive pollutants and to breakdown lignin for recycling of carbon sources. Moreover, genes encoding peroxidases play important roles in fungal pathogenicity in both humans and plants. For better understanding of fungal peroxidases at the genome-level, a novel genomics platform is required. To this end, Fungal Peroxidase Database (fPoxDB; http://peroxidase.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/) has been developed to provide such a genomics platform for this important gene family. Description In order to identify and classify fungal peroxidases, 24 sequence profiles were built and applied on 331 genomes including 216 from fungi and Oomycetes. In addition, NoxR, which is known to regulate NADPH oxidases (NoxA and NoxB) in fungi, was also added to the pipeline. Collectively, 6,113 genes were predicted to encode 25 gene families, presenting well-separated distribution along the taxonomy. For instance, the genes encoding lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase were concentrated in the rot-causing basidiomycetes, reflecting their ligninolytic capability. As a genomics platform, fPoxDB provides diverse analysis resources, such as gene family predictions based on fungal sequence profiles, pre-computed results of eight bioinformatics programs, similarity search tools, a multiple sequence alignment tool, domain analysis functions, and taxonomic distribution summary, some of which are not available in the previously developed peroxidase resource. In addition, fPoxDB is interconnected with other family web systems, providing extended analysis opportunities. Conclusions fPoxDB is a fungi-oriented genomics platform for peroxidases. The sequence-based

  8. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Martha B; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Wortman, Jennifer R; Sherlock, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring the data. All of these data are freely available at http://www.aspgd.org. We welcome feedback from users and the research community at aspergillus-curator@genome.stanford.edu.

  9. Analysis of the allohexaploid bread wheat genome (Triticum aestivum) using comparative whole genome shotgun sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The large 17 Gb allopolyploid genome of bread wheat is a major challenge for genome analysis because it is composed of three closely- related and independently maintained genomes, with genes dispersed as small “islands” separated by vast tracts of repetitive DNA. We used a novel comparative genomi...

  10. Human-mouse comparative genomics: successes and failures to reveal functional regions of the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Baroukh, Nadine; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-05-15

    Deciphering the genetic code embedded within the human genome remains a significant challenge despite the human genome consortium's recent success at defining its linear sequence (Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001). While useful strategies exist to identify a large percentage of protein encoding regions, efforts to accurately define functional sequences in the remaining {approx}97 percent of the genome lag. Our primary interest has been to utilize the evolutionary relationship and the universal nature of genomic sequence information in vertebrates to reveal functional elements in the human genome. This has been achieved through the combined use of vertebrate comparative genomics to pinpoint highly conserved sequences as candidates for biological activity and transgenic mouse studies to address the functionality of defined human DNA fragments. Accordingly, we describe strategies and insights into functional sequences in the human genome through the use of comparative genomics coupled wit h functional studies in the mouse.

  11. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  12. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  13. Comparative genomics of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Najib M; Myler, Peter J; Blandin, Gaëlle; Berriman, Matthew; Crabtree, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Gautam; Caler, Elisabet; Renauld, Hubert; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Ghedin, Elodie; Peacock, Christopher; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Haas, Brian J; Tran, Anh-Nhi; Wortman, Jennifer R; Alsmark, U Cecilia M; Angiuoli, Samuel; Anupama, Atashi; Badger, Jonathan; Bringaud, Frederic; Cadag, Eithon; Carlton, Jane M; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Creasy, Todd; Delcher, Arthur L; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Embley, T Martin; Hauser, Christopher; Ivens, Alasdair C; Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Nilsson, Daniel; Peterson, Jeremy; Salzberg, Steven L; Shallom, Joshua; Silva, Joana C; Sundaram, Jaideep; Westenberger, Scott; White, Owen; Melville, Sara E; Donelson, John E; Andersson, Björn; Stuart, Kenneth D; Hall, Neil

    2005-07-15

    A comparison of gene content and genome architecture of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major, three related pathogens with different life cycles and disease pathology, revealed a conserved core proteome of about 6200 genes in large syntenic polycistronic gene clusters. Many species-specific genes, especially large surface antigen families, occur at nonsyntenic chromosome-internal and subtelomeric regions. Retroelements, structural RNAs, and gene family expansion are often associated with syntenic discontinuities that-along with gene divergence, acquisition and loss, and rearrangement within the syntenic regions-have shaped the genomes of each parasite. Contrary to recent reports, our analyses reveal no evidence that these species are descended from an ancestor that contained a photosynthetic endosymbiont.

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reveals a wide spectrum of endophytic lifestyles based on interaction strategies with host plants.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Birgit; Petric, Alexandra; Shin, Maria W; Chain, Patrick S G; Hauberg-Lotte, Lena; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Nowak, Jerzy; Sessitsch, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a naturally occurring plant-associated bacterial endophyte that effectively colonizes a wide range of plants and stimulates their growth and vitality. Here we analyze whole genomes, of PsJN and of eight other endophytic bacteria. This study illustrates that a wide spectrum of endophytic life styles exists. Although we postulate the existence of typical endophytic traits, no unique gene cluster could be exclusively linked to the endophytic lifestyle. Furthermore, our study revealed a high genetic diversity among bacterial endophytes as reflected in their genotypic and phenotypic features. B. phytofirmans PsJN is in many aspects outstanding among the selected endophytes. It has the biggest genome consisting of two chromosomes and one plasmid, well-equipped with genes for the degradation of complex organic compounds and detoxification, e.g., 24 glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes. Furthermore, strain PsJN has a high number of cell surface signaling and secretion systems and harbors the 3-OH-PAME quorum-sensing system that coordinates the switch of free-living to the symbiotic lifestyle in the plant-pathogen R. solanacearum. The ability of B. phytofirmans PsJN to successfully colonize such a wide variety of plant species might be based on its large genome harboring a broad range of physiological functions.

  15. New Target Regions for Human Hypertension via Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Monika; Kwitek-Black, Anne E.; Cowley, Allen W.; Harris, Eugenie L.; Harrap, Stephen B.; Krieger, José E.; Printz, Morton P.; Provoost, Abraham P.; Sassard, Jean; Jacob, Howard J.

    2000-01-01

    Models of human disease have long been used to understand the basic pathophysiology of disease and to facilitate the discovery of new therapeutics. However, as long as models have been used there have been debates about the utility of these models and their ability to mimic clinical disease at the phenotypic level. The application of genetic studies to both humans and model systems allows for a new paradigm, whereby a novel comparative genomics strategy combined with phenotypic correlates can be used to bridge between clinical relevance and model utility. This study presents a comparative genomic map for “candidate hypertension loci in humans” based on translating QTLs between rat and human, predicting 26 chromosomal regions in the human genome that are very likely to harbor hypertension genes. The predictive power appears robust, as several of these regions have also been implicated in mouse, suggesting that these regions represent primary targets for the development of SNPs for linkage disequilibrium testing in humans and/or provide a means to select specific models for additional functional studies and the development of new therapeutics. PMID:10779487

  16. Comparative genetics and genomics of nematodes: genome structure, development, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; Streit, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are found in virtually all habitats on earth. Many of them are parasites of plants and animals, including humans. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, is one of the genetically best-studied model organisms and was the first metazoan whose genome was fully sequenced. In recent years, the draft genome sequences of another six nematodes representing four of the five major clades of nematodes were published. Compared to mammalian genomes, all these genomes are very small. Nevertheless, they contain almost the same number of genes as the human genome. Nematodes are therefore a very attractive system for comparative genetic and genomic studies, with C. elegans as an excellent baseline. Here, we review the efforts that were made to extend genetic analysis to nematodes other than C. elegans, and we compare the seven available nematode genomes. One of the most striking findings is the unexpectedly high incidence of gene acquisition through horizontal gene transfer (HGT).

  17. A New System for Comparative Functional Genomics of Saccharomyces Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Amy A.; Guan, Yuanfang; Jia, Yue; Hansen, Christina; DeSevo, Chris; Hayes, Alicia P.; Agee, Joy; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Arellano, Hugo; Barrett, Daniel; Bauerle, Cynthia; Bisaria, Namita; Bradley, Patrick H.; Breunig, J. Scott; Bush, Erin; Cappel, David; Capra, Emily; Chen, Walter; Clore, John; Combs, Peter A.; Doucette, Christopher; Demuren, Olukunle; Fellowes, Peter; Freeman, Sam; Frenkel, Evgeni; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Gawande, Richa; Glass, David; Grossberg, Samuel; Gupta, Anita; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Hoisos, Aaron; Hsi, Jenny; Hsu, Yu-Han Huang; Inukai, Sachi; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Ke, Xiaobo; Kojima, Mina; Leachman, Samuel; Lieber, Danny; Liebowitz, Anna; Liu, Julia; Liu, Yufei; Martin, Trevor; Mena, Jose; Mendoza, Rosa; Myhrvold, Cameron; Millian, Christian; Pfau, Sarah; Raj, Sandeep; Rich, Matt; Rokicki, Joe; Rounds, William; Salazar, Michael; Salesi, Matthew; Sharma, Rajani; Silverman, Sanford; Singer, Cara; Sinha, Sandhya; Staller, Max; Stern, Philip; Tang, Hanlin; Weeks, Sharon; Weidmann, Maxwell; Wolf, Ashley; Young, Carmen; Yuan, Jie; Crutchfield, Christopher; McClean, Megan; Murphy, Coleen T.; Llinás, Manuel; Botstein, David; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Dunham, Maitreya J.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, particularly in fungi, has progressed at a tremendous rate. More difficult, however, is experimental testing of the inferences about gene function that can be drawn from comparative sequence analysis alone. We present a genome-wide functional characterization of a sequenced but experimentally understudied budding yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum (henceforth referred to as S. bayanus), allowing us to map changes over the 20 million years that separate this organism from S. cerevisiae. We first created a suite of genetic tools to facilitate work in S. bayanus. Next, we measured the gene-expression response of S. bayanus to a diverse set of perturbations optimized using a computational approach to cover a diverse array of functionally relevant biological responses. The resulting data set reveals that gene-expression patterns are largely conserved, but significant changes may exist in regulatory networks such as carbohydrate utilization and meiosis. In addition to regulatory changes, our approach identified gene functions that have diverged. The functions of genes in core pathways are highly conserved, but we observed many changes in which genes are involved in osmotic stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and autophagy. A surprising number of genes specific to S. bayanus respond to oxidative stress, suggesting the organism may have evolved under different selection pressures than S. cerevisiae. This work expands the scope of genome-scale evolutionary studies from sequence-based analysis to rapid experimental characterization and could be adopted for functional mapping in any lineage of interest. Furthermore, our detailed characterization of S. bayanus provides a valuable resource for comparative functional genomics studies in yeast. PMID:23852385

  18. A new system for comparative functional genomics of Saccharomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Caudy, Amy A; Guan, Yuanfang; Jia, Yue; Hansen, Christina; DeSevo, Chris; Hayes, Alicia P; Agee, Joy; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Arellano, Hugo; Barrett, Daniel; Bauerle, Cynthia; Bisaria, Namita; Bradley, Patrick H; Breunig, J Scott; Bush, Erin; Cappel, David; Capra, Emily; Chen, Walter; Clore, John; Combs, Peter A; Doucette, Christopher; Demuren, Olukunle; Fellowes, Peter; Freeman, Sam; Frenkel, Evgeni; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Gawande, Richa; Glass, David; Grossberg, Samuel; Gupta, Anita; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Hoisos, Aaron; Hsi, Jenny; Hsu, Yu-Han Huang; Inukai, Sachi; Karczewski, Konrad J; Ke, Xiaobo; Kojima, Mina; Leachman, Samuel; Lieber, Danny; Liebowitz, Anna; Liu, Julia; Liu, Yufei; Martin, Trevor; Mena, Jose; Mendoza, Rosa; Myhrvold, Cameron; Millian, Christian; Pfau, Sarah; Raj, Sandeep; Rich, Matt; Rokicki, Joe; Rounds, William; Salazar, Michael; Salesi, Matthew; Sharma, Rajani; Silverman, Sanford; Singer, Cara; Sinha, Sandhya; Staller, Max; Stern, Philip; Tang, Hanlin; Weeks, Sharon; Weidmann, Maxwell; Wolf, Ashley; Young, Carmen; Yuan, Jie; Crutchfield, Christopher; McClean, Megan; Murphy, Coleen T; Llinás, Manuel; Botstein, David; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2013-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, particularly in fungi, has progressed at a tremendous rate. More difficult, however, is experimental testing of the inferences about gene function that can be drawn from comparative sequence analysis alone. We present a genome-wide functional characterization of a sequenced but experimentally understudied budding yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum (henceforth referred to as S. bayanus), allowing us to map changes over the 20 million years that separate this organism from S. cerevisiae. We first created a suite of genetic tools to facilitate work in S. bayanus. Next, we measured the gene-expression response of S. bayanus to a diverse set of perturbations optimized using a computational approach to cover a diverse array of functionally relevant biological responses. The resulting data set reveals that gene-expression patterns are largely conserved, but significant changes may exist in regulatory networks such as carbohydrate utilization and meiosis. In addition to regulatory changes, our approach identified gene functions that have diverged. The functions of genes in core pathways are highly conserved, but we observed many changes in which genes are involved in osmotic stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and autophagy. A surprising number of genes specific to S. bayanus respond to oxidative stress, suggesting the organism may have evolved under different selection pressures than S. cerevisiae. This work expands the scope of genome-scale evolutionary studies from sequence-based analysis to rapid experimental characterization and could be adopted for functional mapping in any lineage of interest. Furthermore, our detailed characterization of S. bayanus provides a valuable resource for comparative functional genomics studies in yeast.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Serratia spp.: Two Paths towards Endosymbiotic Life

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Lamelas, Araceli; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Symbiosis is a widespread phenomenon in nature, in which insects show a great number of these associations. Buchnera aphidicola, the obligate endosymbiont of aphids, coexists in some species with another intracellular bacterium, Serratia symbiotica. Of particular interest is the case of the cedar aphid Cinara cedri, where B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc need each other to fulfil their symbiotic role with the insect. Moreover, various features seem to indicate that S. symbiotica SCc is closer to an obligate endosymbiont than to other facultative S. symbiotica, such as the one described for the aphid Acirthosyphon pisum (S. symbiotica SAp). This work is based on the comparative genomics of five strains of Serratia, three free-living and two endosymbiotic ones (one facultative and one obligate) which should allow us to dissect the genome reduction taking place in the adaptive process to an intracellular life-style. Using a pan-genome approach, we have identified shared and strain-specific genes from both endosymbiotic strains and gained insight into the different genetic reduction both S. symbiotica have undergone. We have identified both retained and reduced functional categories in S. symbiotica compared to the Free-Living Serratia (FLS) that seem to be related with its endosymbiotic role in their specific host-symbiont systems. By means of a phylogenomic reconstruction we have solved the position of both endosymbionts with confidence, established the probable insect-pathogen origin of the symbiotic clade as well as the high amino-acid substitution rate in S. symbiotica SCc. Finally, we were able to quantify the minimal number of rearrangements suffered in the endosymbiotic lineages and reconstruct a minimal rearrangement phylogeny. All these findings provide important evidence for the existence of at least two distinctive S. symbiotica lineages that are characterized by different rearrangements, gene content, genome size and branch lengths. PMID:23077583

  20. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences, and draft genome sequences. Application of such genome resources should allow comparative analysis at the genome scale with several other model fish species. Results In this study, we conducted whole genome comparative analysis between channel catfish and four model fish species with fully sequenced genomes, zebrafish, medaka, stickleback and Tetraodon. A total of 517 Mb draft genome sequences of catfish were anchored to its genetic linkage map, which accounted for 62% of the total draft genome sequences. Based on the location of homologous genes, homologous chromosomes were determined among catfish and the four model fish species. A large number of conserved syntenic blocks were identified. Analysis of the syntenic relationships between catfish and the four model fishes supported that the catfish genome is most similar to the genome of zebrafish. Conclusion The organization of the catfish genome is similar to that of the four teleost species, zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon such that homologous chromosomes can be identified. Within each chromosome, extended syntenic blocks were evident, but the conserved syntenies at the chromosome level involve extensive inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal rearrangements. This whole genome comparative map should facilitate the whole genome assembly and annotation in catfish, and will be useful for genomic studies of various other fish species. PMID:24215161

  1. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Raj; Lockwood, William W.; Lam, Wan L.

    2006-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development. PMID:17992253

  2. Industrial Acetogenic Biocatalysts: A Comparative Metabolic and Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Poehlein, Anja; Linder, Sonja; Erz, Catarina; Hummel, Tim; Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Daniel, Rolf; Dürre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains (Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. autoethanogenum, C. ragsdalei, and C. coskatii) are acetic acid and ethanol. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol. Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type (WT) strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. ragsdalei and C. coskatii were sequenced and the genome sequences of all four biocatalytic strains analyzed in comparative manner. Growth and product spectra (acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol) of C. autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei were rather similar. In contrast, C. coskatii produced significantly less ethanol and its genome sequence lacks two genes encoding aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (AOR). Comparative genome sequence analysis of the four WT strains revealed high average nucleotide identity (ANI) of C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum (99.3%) and C. coskatii (98.3%). In contrast, C. ljungdahlii WT and C. ragsdalei WT showed an ANI-based similarity of only 95.8%. Additionally, recombinant C. ljungdahlii strains were constructed that harbor an artificial acetone synthesis operon (ASO) consisting of the following genes: adc, ctfA, ctfB, and thlA (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase, acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase subunits A and B, and thiolase) under the control of thlA promoter (PthlA) from C. acetobutylicum or native pta-ack promoter (Ppta-ack) from C. ljungdahlii. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2

  3. Comparative Genomics of an Emerging Amphibian Virus

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Brendan; Storfer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Ranaviruses, a genus of the Iridoviridae, are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect cold-blooded vertebrates worldwide. Ranaviruses have caused severe epizootics in commercial frog and fish populations, and are currently classified as notifiable pathogens in international trade. Previous work shows that a ranavirus that infects tiger salamanders throughout Western North America (Ambystoma tigrinum virus, or ATV) is in high prevalence among salamanders in the fishing bait trade. Bait ATV strains have elevated virulence and are transported long distances by humans, providing widespread opportunities for pathogen pollution. We sequenced the genomes of 15 strains of ATV collected from tiger salamanders across western North America and performed phylogenetic and population genomic analyses and tests for recombination. We find that ATV forms a monophyletic clade within the rest of the Ranaviruses and that it likely emerged within the last several thousand years, before human activities influenced its spread. We also identify several genes under strong positive selection, some of which appear to be involved in viral virulence and/or host immune evasion. In addition, we provide support for the pathogen pollution hypothesis with evidence of recombination among ATV strains, and potential bait-endemic strain recombination. PMID:26530419

  4. Comparative Genomics of an Emerging Amphibian Virus.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Brendan; Storfer, Andrew

    2015-11-03

    Ranaviruses, a genus of the Iridoviridae, are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect cold-blooded vertebrates worldwide. Ranaviruses have caused severe epizootics in commercial frog and fish populations, and are currently classified as notifiable pathogens in international trade. Previous work shows that a ranavirus that infects tiger salamanders throughout Western North America (Ambystoma tigrinum virus, or ATV) is in high prevalence among salamanders in the fishing bait trade. Bait ATV strains have elevated virulence and are transported long distances by humans, providing widespread opportunities for pathogen pollution. We sequenced the genomes of 15 strains of ATV collected from tiger salamanders across western North America and performed phylogenetic and population genomic analyses and tests for recombination. We find that ATV forms a monophyletic clade within the rest of the Ranaviruses and that it likely emerged within the last several thousand years, before human activities influenced its spread. We also identify several genes under strong positive selection, some of which appear to be involved in viral virulence and/or host immune evasion. In addition, we provide support for the pathogen pollution hypothesis with evidence of recombination among ATV strains, and potential bait-endemic strain recombination.

  5. GPAC-genome presence/absence compiler: a web application to comparatively visualize multiple genome-level changes.

    PubMed

    Noll, Angela; Grundmann, Norbert; Churakov, Gennady; Brosius, Jürgen; Makałowski, Wojciech; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of genome-wide and comparative sequence information has been broadened considerably by the databases available from the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Bioinformatics Department. In particular, the identification and visualization of genomic sequences, present in some species but absent in others, led to fundamental insights into gene and genome evolution. However, the UCSC tools currently enable one to visualize orthologous genomic loci for a range of species in only a single locus. For large-scale comparative analyses of such presence/absence patterns a multilocus view would be more desirable. Such a tool would enable us to compare thousands of relevant loci simultaneously and to resolve many different questions about, for example, phylogeny, specific aspects of genome and gene evolution, such as the gain or loss of exons and introns, the emergence of novel transposed elements, nonprotein-coding RNAs, and viral genomic particles. Here, we present the first tool to facilitate the parallel analysis of thousands of genomic loci for cross-species presence/absence patterns based on multiway genome alignments. This genome presence/absence compiler uses annotated or other compilations of coordinates of genomic locations and compiles all presence/absence patterns in a flexible, color-coded table linked to the individual UCSC Genome Browser alignments. We provide examples of the versatile information content of such a screening system especially for 7SL-derived transposed elements, nuclear mitochondrial DNA, DNA transposons, and miRNAs in primates (http://www.bioinformatics.uni-muenster.de/tools/gpac, last accessed October 1, 2014).

  6. Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vivian S; Shida, Cláudio S; Rodrigues, Fabiana B; Ribeiro, Diógenes CD; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; Nunes, Luiz R; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

    2007-01-01

    Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH), identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly identified ORFs, obtained by

  7. A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics.

    PubMed

    Waddell, P J; Kishino, H; Ota, R

    2001-01-01

    A major effort is being undertaken to sequence an array of mammalian genomes. Coincidentally, the evolutionary relationships of the 18 presently recognized orders of placental mammals are only just being resolved. In this work we construct and analyse the largest alignments of amino acid sequence data to date. Our findings allow us to set up a series of superordinal groups (clades) to act as prior hypotheses for further testing. Important findings include strong evidence for a clade of Euarchonta+Glires (=Supraprimates) comprised of primates, flying lemurs, tree shrews, lagomorphs and rodents. In addition, there is good evidence for a clade of all placental mammals except Xenarthra and Afrotheria (=Boreotheria) and for the previously recognised clades Laurasiatheria, Scrotifera, Fereuungulata, Ferae, Afrotheria, Euarchonta, Glires, and Eulipotyphla. Accordingly, a revised classification of the placental mammals is put forward. Using this and molecular divergence-time methods, the ages of the superordinal splits are estimated. While results are strongly consistent with the earliest superordinal divergences all being >65 mybp (Cretaceous period), they suffer from greater uncertainty than presently appreciated. The early primate split of tarsiers from the anthropoid lineage at ~55 mybp is seen to be an especially informative fossil calibration point. A statistical framework for testing clades using SINE data is presented and reveals significant support for the tarsier/anthropoid clade, as well as the clades Cetruminantia and Whippomorpha. Results also underline our thesis that while sequence analysis can help set up hypothesised clades, SINEs obtainable from sequencing 1-2 MB regions of placental genomes are essential to testing them. In contrast, derivations suggest that empirical Bayesian methods for sequence data may not be robust estimators of clades. Our findings, including the study of genes such as TP53, make a good case for the tree shrew as a closer relative

  8. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Elodea canadensis and comparative analyses with other monocot plastid genomes.

    PubMed

    Huotari, Tea; Korpelainen, Helena

    2012-10-15

    Elodea canadensis is an aquatic angiosperm native to North America. It has attracted great attention due to its invasive nature when transported to new areas in its non-native range. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of Elodea. Taxonomically Elodea is a basal monocot, and only few monocot cp genomes representing early lineages of monocots have been sequenced so far. The genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule 156,700 bp in length, and has a typical structure with large (LSC 86,194 bp) and small (SSC 17,810 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 26,348 bp each). The Elodea cp genome contains 113 unique genes and 16 duplicated genes in the IR regions. A comparative analysis showed that the gene order and organization of the Elodea cp genome is almost identical to that of Amborella trichopoda, a basal angiosperm. The structure of IRs in Elodea is unique among monocot species with the whole cp genome sequenced. In Elodea and another monocot Lemna minor the borders between IRs and LSC are located upstream of rps 19 gene and downstream of trnH-GUG gene, while in most monocots, IR has extended to include both trnH and rps 19 genes. A phylogenetic analysis conducted using Bayesian method, based on the DNA sequences of 81 chloroplast genes from 17 monocot taxa provided support for the placement of Elodea together with Lemna as a basal monocot and the next diverging lineage of monocots after Acorales. In comparison with other monocots, the Elodea cp genome has gone through only few rearrangements or gene losses. IR of Elodea has a unique structure among the monocot species studied so far as its structure is similar to that of a basal angiosperm Amborella. This result together with phylogenetic analyses supports the placement of Elodea as a basal monocot to the next diverging lineage of monocots after Acorales. So far, only few cp genomes representing early lineages of monocots have been

  9. Whole genome comparative analysis of four Georgian grape cultivars.

    PubMed

    Tabidze, V; Pipia, I; Gogniashvili, M; Kunelauri, N; Ujmajuridze, L; Pirtskhalava, M; Vishnepolsky, B; Hernandez, A G; Fields, C J; Beridze, Tengiz

    2017-08-07

    Grapevine is the one of the most important fruit species in the world. Comparative genome sequencing of grape cultivars is very important for the interpretation of the grape genome and understanding its evolution. The genomes of four Georgian grape cultivars-Chkhaveri, Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli, belonging to different haplogroups, were resequenced. The shotgun genomic libraries of grape cultivars were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Pinot Noir nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA were used as reference. Mitochondrial DNA of Chkhaveri closely matches that of the reference Pinot noir mitochondrial DNA, with the exception of 16 SNPs found in the Chkhaveri mitochondrial DNA. The number of SNPs in mitochondrial DNA from Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli was 764, 702, and 822, respectively. Nuclear DNA differs from the reference by 1,800,675 nt in Chkhaveri, 1,063,063 nt in Meskhetian green, 2,174,995 in Saperavi, and 5,011,513 in Rkatsiteli. Unlike mtDNA Pinot noir, chromosomal DNA is closer to the Meskhetian green than to other cultivars. Substantial differences in the number of SNPs in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of Chkhaveri and Pinot noir cultivars are explained by backcrossing or introgression of their wild predecessors before or during the process of domestication. Annotation of chromosomal DNA of Georgian grape cultivars by MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system, shows 66,745 predicted genes (Chkhaveri-17,409; Saperavi-17,021; Meskhetian green-18,355; and Rkatsiteli-13,960). Among them, 106 predicted genes and 43 pseudogenes of terpene synthase genes were found in chromosomes 12, 18 random (18R), and 19. Four novel TPS genes not present in reference Pinot noir DNA were detected. Two of them-germacrene A synthase (Chromosome 18R) and (-) germacrene D synthase (Chromosome 19) can be identified as putatively full-length proteins. This work performs the first attempt of the comparative whole genome analysis of different haplogroups

  10. Comparative population genomics: power and principles for the inference of functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lawrie, David S.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of sequenced genomes from multiple related organisms allows the detection and localization of functional genomic elements based on the idea that such elements evolve more slowly than neutral sequences. Although such comparative genomics methods have proven useful in discovering functional elements and ascertaining levels of functional constraint in the genome as a whole, here we outline limitations intrinsic to this approach that cannot be overcome by sequencing more species. We argue that it is essential to supplement comparative genomics with ultra-deep sampling of populations from closely related species to enable substantially more powerful genomic scans for functional elements. The convergence of sequencing technology and population genetics theory has made such projects feasible and has exciting implications for functional genomics. PMID:24656563

  11. Comparative population genomics: power and principles for the inference of functionality.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, David S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2014-04-01

    The availability of sequenced genomes from multiple related organisms allows the detection and localization of functional genomic elements based on the idea that such elements evolve more slowly than neutral sequences. Although such comparative genomics methods have proven useful in discovering functional elements and ascertaining levels of functional constraint in the genome as a whole, here we outline limitations intrinsic to this approach that cannot be overcome by sequencing more species. We argue that it is essential to supplement comparative genomics with ultra-deep sampling of populations from closely related species to enable substantially more powerful genomic scans for functional elements. The convergence of sequencing technology and population genetics theory has made such projects feasible and has exciting implications for functional genomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the data...

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of two Burkholderia glumae strains from different geographic origins reveals a high degree of plasticity in genome structure associated with genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Francis, Felix; Kim, Joohyun; Ramaraj, Thiru; Farmer, Andrew; Rush, Milton C; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the major causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice, a growing disease problem in global rice production. To better understand its genome-scale characteristics, the genome of the highly virulent B. glumae strain 336gr-1 isolated from Louisiana, USA was sequenced using the Illumina Genome Analyser II system. De novo assembled 336gr-1 contigs were aligned and compared with the previously sequenced genome of B. glumae strain BGR1, which was isolated from an infected rice plant in South Korea. Comparative analysis of the whole genomes of B. glumae 336gr-1 and B. glumae BGR1 revealed numerous unique genomic regions present only in one of the two strains. These unique regions contained accessory genes including mobile elements and phage-related genes, and some of the unique regions in B. glumae BGR1 corresponded to predicted genomic islands. In contrast, little variation was observed in known and potential virulence genes between the two genomes. The considerable amount of plasticity largely based on accessory genes and genome islands observed from the comparison of the genomes of these two strains of B. glumae may explain the versatility of this bacterial species in various environmental conditions and geographic locations.

  14. Phytozome: a comparative platform for green plant genomics.

    PubMed

    Goodstein, David M; Shu, Shengqiang; Howson, Russell; Neupane, Rochak; Hayes, Richard D; Fazo, Joni; Mitros, Therese; Dirks, William; Hellsten, Uffe; Putnam, Nicholas; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    The number of sequenced plant genomes and associated genomic resources is growing rapidly with the advent of both an increased focus on plant genomics from funding agencies, and the application of inexpensive next generation sequencing. To interact with this increasing body of data, we have developed Phytozome (http://www.phytozome.net), a comparative hub for plant genome and gene family data and analysis. Phytozome provides a view of the evolutionary history of every plant gene at the level of sequence, gene structure, gene family and genome organization, while at the same time providing access to the sequences and functional annotations of a growing number (currently 25) of complete plant genomes, including all the land plants and selected algae sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute, as well as selected species sequenced elsewhere. Through a comprehensive plant genome database and web portal, these data and analyses are available to the broader plant science research community, providing powerful comparative genomics tools that help to link model systems with other plants of economic and ecological importance.

  15. High frequency of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis detected by a combined approach of microsatellite segregation analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array-based comparative genome hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Jehee, F S; Krepischi-Santos, A C V; Rocha, K M; Cavalcanti, D P; Kim, C A; Bertola, D R; Alonso, L G; D'Angelo, C S; Mazzeu, J F; Froyen, G; Lugtenberg, D; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Rosenberg, C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    2008-07-01

    We present the first comprehensive study, to our knowledge, on genomic chromosomal analysis in syndromic craniosynostosis. In total, 45 patients with craniosynostotic disorders were screened with a variety of methods including conventional karyotype, microsatellite segregation analysis, subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and whole-genome array-based comparative genome hybridisation. Causative abnormalities were present in 42.2% (19/45) of the samples, and 27.8% (10/36) of the patients with normal conventional karyotype carried submicroscopic imbalances. Our results include a wide variety of imbalances and point to novel chromosomal regions associated with craniosynostosis. The high incidence of pure duplications or trisomies suggests that these are important mechanisms in craniosynostosis, particularly in cases involving the metopic suture.

  16. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper: Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species. PMID:23184232

  17. Reference-Free Comparative Genomics of 174 Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Kua, Chai-Shian; Ruan, Jue; Harting, John; Ye, Cheng-Xi; Helmus, Matthew R.; Yu, Jun; Cannon, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Direct analysis of unassembled genomic data could greatly increase the power of short read DNA sequencing technologies and allow comparative genomics of organisms without a completed reference available. Here, we compare 174 chloroplasts by analyzing the taxanomic distribution of short kmers across genomes [1]. We then assemble de novo contigs centered on informative variation. The localized de novo contigs can be separated into two major classes: tip = unique to a single genome and group = shared by a subset of genomes. Prior to assembly, we found that ∼18% of the chloroplast was duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR) region across a four-fold difference in genome sizes, from a highly reduced parasitic orchid [2] to a massive algal chloroplast [3], including gnetophytes [4] and cycads [5]. The conservation of this ratio between single copy and duplicated sequence was basal among green plants, independent of photosynthesis and mechanism of genome size change, and different in gymnosperms and lower plants. Major lineages in the angiosperm clade differed in the pattern of shared kmers and de novo contigs. For example, parasitic plants demonstrated an expected accelerated overall rate of evolution, while the hemi-parasitic genomes contained a great deal more novel sequence than holo-parasitic plants, suggesting different mechanisms at different stages of genomic contraction. Additionally, the legumes are diverging more quickly and in different ways than other major families. Small duplicated fragments of the rrn23 genes were deeply conserved among seed plants, including among several species without the IR regions, indicating a crucial functional role of this duplication. Localized de novo assembly of informative kmers greatly reduces the complexity of large comparative analyses by confining the analysis to a small partition of data and genomes relevant to the specific question, allowing direct analysis of next-gen sequence data from previously unstudied

  18. Comparative Genomics and Extensive Recombinations in Phage Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Guylaine; Belcaid, Mahdi; Bergeron, Anne

    Comparing the genomes of two closely related viruses often produces mosaics where nearly identical sequences alternate with sequences that are unique to each genome. When several closely related genomes are compared, the unique sequences are likely to be shared with third genomes, leading to virus mosaic communities. Here we present comparative analysis of sets of Staphylococcus aureus phages that share large identical sequences with up to three other genomes, and with different partners along their genomes. We introduce mosaic graphs to represent these complex recombination events, and use them to illustrate the breath and depth of sequence sharing: some genomes are almost completely made up of shared sequences, while genomes that share very large identical sequences can adopt alternate functional modules. Mosaic graphs also allow us to identify breakpoints that could eventually be used for the construction of recombination networks. These findings have several implications on phage metagenomics assembly, on the horizontal gene transfer paradigm, and more generally on the understanding of the composition and evolutionary dynamics of virus communities.

  19. Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis Reveals Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations Associated with Clinical Outcome in Canine Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin, Silvia; Marconato, Laura; Comazzi, Stefano; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Aresu, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Canine Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (cDLBCL) is an aggressive cancer with variable clinical response. Despite recent attempts by gene expression profiling to identify the dog as a potential animal model for human DLBCL, this tumor remains biologically heterogeneous with no prognostic biomarkers to predict prognosis. The aim of this work was to identify copy number aberrations (CNAs) by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 12 dogs with newly diagnosed DLBCL. In a subset of these dogs, the genetic profiles at the end of therapy and at relapse were also assessed. In primary DLBCLs, 90 different genomic imbalances were counted, consisting of 46 gains and 44 losses. Two gains in chr13 were significantly correlated with clinical stage. In addition, specific regions of gains and losses were significantly associated to duration of remission. In primary DLBCLs, individual variability was found, however 14 recurrent CNAs (>30%) were identified. Losses involving IGK, IGL and IGH were always found, and gains along the length of chr13 and chr31 were often observed (>41%). In these segments, MYC, LDHB, HSF1, KIT and PDGFRα are annotated. At the end of therapy, dogs in remission showed four new CNAs, whereas three new CNAs were observed in dogs at relapse compared with the previous profiles. One ex novo CNA, involving TCR, was present in dogs in remission after therapy, possibly induced by the autologous vaccine. Overall, aCGH identified small CNAs associated with outcome, which, along with future expression studies, may reveal target genes relevant to cDLBCL. PMID:25372838

  20. Dyneins Across Eukaryotes: A Comparative Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wickstead, Bill; Gull, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Dyneins are large minus-end-directed microtubule motors. Each dynein contains at least one dynein heavy chain (DHC) and a variable number of intermediate chains (IC), light intermediate chains (LIC) and light chains (LC). Here, we used genome sequence data from 24 diverse eukaryotes to assess the distribution of DHCs, ICs, LICs and LCs across Eukaryota. Phylogenetic inference identified nine DHC families (two cytoplasmic and seven axonemal) and six IC families (one cytoplasmic). We confirm that dyneins have been lost from higher plants and show that this is most likely because of a single loss of cytoplasmic dynein 1 from the ancestor of Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae, followed by lineage-specific losses of other families. Independent losses in Entamoeba mean that at least three extant eukaryotic lineages are entirely devoid of dyneins. Cytoplasmic dynein 2 is associated with intraflagellar transport (IFT), but in two chromalveolate organisms, we find an IFT footprint without the retrograde motor. The distribution of one family of outer-arm dyneins accounts for 2-headed or 3-headed outer-arm ultrastructures observed in different organisms. One diatom species builds motile axonemes without any inner-arm dyneins (IAD), and the unexpected conservation of IAD I1 in non-flagellate algae and LC8 (DYNLL1/2) in all lineages reveals a surprising fluidity to dynein function. PMID:17897317

  1. Comparative genomics meets topology: a novel view on genome median and halving problems.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Nikita; Avdeyev, Pavel; Alekseyev, Max A

    2016-11-11

    Genome median and genome halving are combinatorial optimization problems that aim at reconstruction of ancestral genomes by minimizing the number of evolutionary events between them and genomes of the extant species. While these problems have been widely studied in past decades, their solutions are often either not efficient or not biologically adequate. These shortcomings have been recently addressed by restricting the problems solution space. We show that the restricted variants of genome median and halving problems are, in fact, closely related. We demonstrate that these problems have a neat topological interpretation in terms of embedded graphs and polygon gluings. We illustrate how such interpretation can lead to solutions to these problems in particular cases. This study provides an unexpected link between comparative genomics and topology, and demonstrates advantages of solving genome median and halving problems within the topological framework.

  2. Whole Genome Amplification of Labeled Viable Single Cells Suited for Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kroneis, Thomas; El-Heliebi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding details of a complex biological system makes it necessary to dismantle it down to its components. Immunostaining techniques allow identification of several distinct cell types thereby giving an inside view of intercellular heterogeneity. Often staining reveals that the most remarkable cells are the rarest. To further characterize the target cells on a molecular level, single cell techniques are necessary. Here, we describe the immunostaining, micromanipulation, and whole genome amplification of single cells for the purpose of genomic characterization. First, we exemplify the preparation of cell suspensions from cultured cells as well as the isolation of peripheral mononucleated cells from blood. The target cell population is then subjected to immunostaining. After cytocentrifugation target cells are isolated by micromanipulation and forwarded to whole genome amplification. For whole genome amplification, we use GenomePlex(®) technology allowing downstream genomic analysis such as array-comparative genomic hybridization.

  3. Comparative Genomics of Ethanolamine Utilization▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Tsoy, Olga; Ravcheev, Dmitry; Mushegian, Arcady

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between the metabolism of ethanolamine itself and the ethanolamine-ammonia lyase cofactor adenosylcobalamin. We used computational analysis of sequences, structures, genome contexts, and phylogenies of ethanolamine-ammonia lyases to address these questions and to evaluate recent data-mining studies that have suggested an association between bacterial food poisoning and the diol utilization pathways. We found that EutBC evolution included recruitment of a TIM barrel and a Rossmann fold domain and their fusion to N-terminal α-helical domains to give EutB and EutC, respectively. This fusion was followed by recruitment and occasional loss of auxiliary ethanolamine utilization genes in Firmicutes and by several horizontal transfers, most notably from the firmicute stem to the Enterobacteriaceae and from Alphaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria. We identified a conserved DNA motif that likely represents the EutR-binding site and is shared by the ethanolamine and cobalamin operons in several enterobacterial species, suggesting a mechanism for coupling the biosyntheses of apoenzyme and cofactor in these species. Finally, we found that the food poisoning phenotype is associated with the structural components of metabolosome more strongly than with ethanolamine utilization genes or with paralogous propanediol utilization genes per se. PMID:19783625

  4. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Richard L; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; García-López, Marina; Mukherjee, Supratim; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved.

  5. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; García-López, Marina; Mukherjee, Supratim; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved. PMID:28066339

  6. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; García-López, Marina; Mukherjee, Supratim; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2016-12-20

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved.

  7. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes

    DOE PAGES

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; García-López, Marina; ...

    2016-12-20

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogeneticmore » analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved.« less

  8. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Core and Accessory Genomes of Streptomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Yeonbum; Jeong, Yujin; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Byung-Gee; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2015-10-01

    The development of rapid and efficient genome sequencing methods has enabled us to study the evolutionary background of bacterial genetic information. Here, we present comparative genomic analysis of 17 Streptomyces species, for which the genome has been completely sequenced, using the pan-genome approach. The analysis revealed that 34,592 ortholog clusters constituted the pan-genome of these Streptomyces species, including 2,018 in the core genome, 11,743 in the dispensable genome, and 20,831 in the unique genome. The core genome was converged to a smaller number of genes than reported previously, with 3,096 gene families. Functional enrichment analysis showed that genes involved in transcription were most abundant in the Streptomyces pan-genome. Finally, we investigated core genes for the sigma factors, mycothiol biosynthesis pathway, and secondary metabolism pathways; our data showed that many genes involved in stress response and morphological differentiation were commonly expressed in Streptomyces species. Elucidation of the core genome offers a basis for understanding the functional evolution of Streptomyces species and provides insights into target selection for the construction of industrial strains.

  9. Comparative genomic paleontology across plant kingdom reveals the dynamics of TE-driven genome evolution.

    PubMed

    El Baidouri, Moaine; Panaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants.

  10. IMGD: an integrated platform supporting comparative genomics and phylogenetics of insect mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhoon; Park, Jongsun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Park, Bongsoo; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Jaeyoung; Ahn, Kyohun; Song, Wonho; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Seunghwan

    2009-01-01

    Background Sequences and organization of the mitochondrial genome have been used as markers to investigate evolutionary history and relationships in many taxonomic groups. The rapidly increasing mitochondrial genome sequences from diverse insects provide ample opportunities to explore various global evolutionary questions in the superclass Hexapoda. To adequately support such questions, it is imperative to establish an informatics platform that facilitates the retrieval and utilization of available mitochondrial genome sequence data. Results The Insect Mitochondrial Genome Database (IMGD) is a new integrated platform that archives the mitochondrial genome sequences from 25,747 hexapod species, including 112 completely sequenced and 20 nearly completed genomes and 113,985 partially sequenced mitochondrial genomes. The Species-driven User Interface (SUI) of IMGD supports data retrieval and diverse analyses at multi-taxon levels. The Phyloviewer implemented in IMGD provides three methods for drawing phylogenetic trees and displays the resulting trees on the web. The SNP database incorporated to IMGD presents the distribution of SNPs and INDELs in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple isolates within eight species. A newly developed comparative SNU Genome Browser supports the graphical presentation and interactive interface for the identified SNPs/INDELs. Conclusion The IMGD provides a solid foundation for the comparative mitochondrial genomics and phylogenetics of insects. All data and functions described here are available at the web site . PMID:19351385

  11. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Faustoviruses: Comparative Genomics of New Megavirales Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Benamar, Samia; Reteno, Dorine G. I.; Bandaly, Victor; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An emerging interest for the giant virus discovery process, genome sequencing and analysis has allowed an expansion of the number of known Megavirales members. Using the protist Vermamoeba sp. as cell support, a new giant virus named Faustovirus has been isolated. In this study, we describe the genome sequences of nine Faustoviruses and build a genomic comparison in order to have a comprehensive overview of genomic composition and diversity among this new virus family. The average sequence length of these viruses is 467,592.44 bp (ranging from 455,803 to 491,024 bp), making them the fourth largest Megavirales genome after Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum. Faustovirus genomes displayed an average G+C content of 37.14 % (ranging from 36.22 to 39.59%) which is close to the G+C content range of the Asfarviridae genomes (38%). The proportion of best matches and the phylogenetic analysis suggest a shared origin with Asfarviridae without belonging to the same family. The core-gene-based phylogeny of Faustoviruses study has identified four lineages. These results were confirmed by the analysis of amino acids and COGs category distribution. The diversity of the gene composition of these lineages is mainly explained by gene deletion or acquisition and some exceptions for gene duplications. The high proportion of best matches from Bacteria and Phycodnaviridae on the pan-genome and unique genes may be explained by an interaction occurring after the separation of the lineages. The Faustovirus core-genome appears to consolidate the surrounding of 207 genes whereas the pan-genome is described as an open pan-genome, its enrichment via the discovery of new Faustoviruses is required to better seize all the genomic diversity of this family. PMID:26903952

  13. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization detects copy number variations with prognostic relevance in 80% of ALL with normal karyotype or failed chromosome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, V; Haferlach, T; Kern, W; Zenger, M; Schnittger, S; Haferlach, C

    2016-02-01

    Pretreatment cytogenetics is an important parameter for risk stratification and therapy approach in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, in up to 30% of cases, chromosome banding analysis (CBA) fails or reveals a normal karyotype. To characterize the subset of ALL with normal karyotype or failed CBA, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or PCR for BCR-ABL1 and MLL rearrangements as well as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 186 adult patients. We further carried out FISH for MYC in cases with Burkitt leukemia phenotype. FISH or PCR revealed one of the respective rearrangements in 22% of patients. In 80% of cases, copy number variations (CNV) were identified by aCGH. In 22% of cases, all CNV were below the resolution of CBA. On the basis of results of FISH, RT-PCR and aCGH, patients were categorized into three groups. The novel subset of patients with submicroscopic CNV only showed an overall survival at 3 years of 84% compared with 64% for patients classified as adverse abnormalities and 77% for cases with other aberrations (P=0.046). Thus, ALL with non-informative CBA can be further classified by FISH and aCGH providing prognostic information, which may be useful for a more individualized therapy.

  14. SUPFAM—a database of potential protein superfamily relationships derived by comparing sequence-based and structure-based families: implications for structural genomics and function annotation in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Shashi B.; Gosar, Dilip; Abhiman, S.; Sujatha, S.; Dixit, Sayali S.; Mhatre, Natasha S.; Sowdhamini, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Members of a superfamily of proteins could result from divergent evolution of homologues with insignificant similarity in the amino acid sequences. A superfamily relationship is detected commonly after the three-dimensional structures of the proteins are determined using X-ray analysis or NMR. The SUPFAM database described here relates two homologous protein families in a multiple sequence alignment database of either known or unknown structure. The present release (1.1), which is the first version of the SUPFAM database, has been derived by analysing Pfam, which is one of the commonly used databases of multiple sequence alignments of homologous proteins. The first step in establishing SUPFAM is to relate Pfam families with the families in PALI, which is an alignment database of homologous proteins of known structure that is derived largely from SCOP. The second step involves relating Pfam families which could not be associated reliably with a protein superfamily of known structure. The profile matching procedure, IMPALA, has been used in these steps. The first step resulted in identification of 1280 Pfam families (out of 2697, i.e. 47%) which are related, either by close homologous connection to a SCOP family or by distant relationship to a SCOP family, potentially forming new superfamily connections. Using the profiles of 1417 Pfam families with apparently no structural information, an all-against-all comparison involving a sequence-profile match using IMPALA resulted in clustering of 67 homologous protein families of Pfam into 28 potential new superfamilies. Expansion of groups of related proteins of yet unknown structural information, as proposed in SUPFAM, should help in identifying ‘priority proteins’ for structure determination in structural genomics initiatives to expand the coverage of structural information in the protein sequence space. For example, we could assign 858 distinct Pfam domains in 2203 of the gene products in the genome of Mycobacterium

  15. SUPFAM--a database of potential protein superfamily relationships derived by comparing sequence-based and structure-based families: implications for structural genomics and function annotation in genomes.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shashi B; Gosar, Dilip; Abhiman, S; Sujatha, S; Dixit, Sayali S; Mhatre, Natasha S; Sowdhamini, R; Srinivasan, N

    2002-01-01

    Members of a superfamily of proteins could result from divergent evolution of homologues with insignificant similarity in the amino acid sequences. A superfamily relationship is detected commonly after the three-dimensional structures of the proteins are determined using X-ray analysis or NMR. The SUPFAM database described here relates two homologous protein families in a multiple sequence alignment database of either known or unknown structure. The present release (1.1), which is the first version of the SUPFAM database, has been derived by analysing Pfam, which is one of the commonly used databases of multiple sequence alignments of homologous proteins. The first step in establishing SUPFAM is to relate Pfam families with the families in PALI, which is an alignment database of homologous proteins of known structure that is derived largely from SCOP. The second step involves relating Pfam families which could not be associated reliably with a protein superfamily of known structure. The profile matching procedure, IMPALA, has been used in these steps. The first step resulted in identification of 1280 Pfam families (out of 2697, i.e. 47%) which are related, either by close homologous connection to a SCOP family or by distant relationship to a SCOP family, potentially forming new superfamily connections. Using the profiles of 1417 Pfam families with apparently no structural information, an all-against-all comparison involving a sequence-profile match using IMPALA resulted in clustering of 67 homologous protein families of Pfam into 28 potential new superfamilies. Expansion of groups of related proteins of yet unknown structural information, as proposed in SUPFAM, should help in identifying 'priority proteins' for structure determination in structural genomics initiatives to expand the coverage of structural information in the protein sequence space. For example, we could assign 858 distinct Pfam domains in 2203 of the gene products in the genome of Mycobacterium

  16. A De-Novo Genome Analysis Pipeline (DeNoGAP) for large-scale comparative prokaryotic genomics studies.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shalabh; Guttman, David S

    2016-06-30

    Comparative analysis of whole genome sequence data from closely related prokaryotic species or strains is becoming an increasingly important and accessible approach for addressing both fundamental and applied biological questions. While there are number of excellent tools developed for performing this task, most scale poorly when faced with hundreds of genome sequences, and many require extensive manual curation. We have developed a de-novo genome analysis pipeline (DeNoGAP) for the automated, iterative and high-throughput analysis of data from comparative genomics projects involving hundreds of whole genome sequences. The pipeline is designed to perform reference-assisted and de novo gene prediction, homolog protein family assignment, ortholog prediction, functional annotation, and pan-genome analysis using a range of proven tools and databases. While most existing methods scale quadratically with the number of genomes since they rely on pairwise comparisons among predicted protein sequences, DeNoGAP scales linearly since the homology assignment is based on iteratively refined hidden Markov models. This iterative clustering strategy enables DeNoGAP to handle a very large number of genomes using minimal computational resources. Moreover, the modular structure of the pipeline permits easy updates as new analysis programs become available. DeNoGAP integrates bioinformatics tools and databases for comparative analysis of a large number of genomes. The pipeline offers tools and algorithms for annotation and analysis of completed and draft genome sequences. The pipeline is developed using Perl, BioPerl and SQLite on Ubuntu Linux version 12.04 LTS. Currently, the software package accompanies script for automated installation of necessary external programs on Ubuntu Linux; however, the pipeline should be also compatible with other Linux and Unix systems after necessary external programs are installed. DeNoGAP is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/denogap/ .

  17. Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis⋆

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology. PMID:16551550

  18. Comparative genomics of Eucalyptus and Corymbia reveals low rates of genome structural rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Butler, J B; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M; Lee, D J; King, G J; Baten, A; Shepherd, M; Freeman, J S

    2017-05-22

    Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and Corymbia torelliana) which were used to compare genome structure between both species and Eucalyptus grandis. Genome structure was highly conserved between the Corymbia species. However, the comparison of Corymbia and E. grandis suggests large (from 1-13 MB) intra-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred on seven of the 11 chromosomes. Most rearrangements were supported through comparisons of the three independent Corymbia maps to the E. grandis genome sequence, and to other independently constructed Eucalyptus linkage maps. These are the first large scale chromosomal rearrangements discovered between eucalypts. Nonetheless, in the general context of plants, the genomic structure of the two genera was remarkably conserved; adding to a growing body of evidence that conservation of genome structure is common amongst woody angiosperms.

  19. Comparing Vertebrate Whole-Genome Shotgun Reads to the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Bouck, John B.; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Multi-species sequence comparisons are a very efficient way to reveal conserved genes. Because sequence finishing is expensive and time consuming, many genome sequences are likely to stay incomplete. A challenge is to use these fragmented data for understanding the human genome. Methods for using cross-species whole-genome shotgun sequence (WGS) for genome annotation are described in this paper. About one-half million high-quality rat WGS reads (covering 7.5% of the rat genome) generated at the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center were compared with the human genome. Using computer-generated random reads as a negative control, a set of parameters was determined for reliable interpretation of BLAST search results. About 10% of the rat reads contain regions that are conserved in the human genomic sequence and about one-third of these include known gene-coding regions. Mapping the conserved regions to human chromosomes showed a 23-fold enrichment for coding regions compared with noncoding regions. This approach can also be applied to other mammalian genomes for gene finding. These data predicted ∼42,500 genes in the human, slightly more than reported previously. PMID:11691844

  20. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments. PMID:19055818

  1. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Amelia R. I.; Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre) infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum. The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. PMID:27194801

  2. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian interferon-γ-inducible GTPases.

    PubMed

    Premzl, Marko

    2012-11-01

    The interferon-γ-inducible GTPases, IFGGs, are intracellular proteins involved in immune response against pathogens. A comprehensive comparative genomic review and analysis of eutherian IFGGs was carried out using public genomic sequences. The 64 eutherian IFGG genes were examined in detail and annotated. The eutherian IFGG promoter types were first catalogued followed by a phylogenetic analysis of eutherian IFGGs, which described five major IFGG clusters. The patterns of differential gene expansions and protein regions that may regulate IFGG catalytic features suggested a new classification of eutherian IFGGs. This mini-review has also provided new tests of reliability of public genomic sequences as well as tests of protein molecular evolution.

  4. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  5. Comparative genomics of first available bovine Anaplasma phagocytophilum genome obtained with targeted sequence capture.

    PubMed

    Dugat, Thibaud; Loux, Valentin; Marthey, Sylvain; Moroldo, Marco; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia; Maillard, Renaud

    2014-11-17

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic and obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In domestic ruminants, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, which causes significant economic losses in Europe. As A. phagocytophilum is difficult to isolate and cultivate, only nine genome sequences have been published to date, none of which originate from a bovine strain.Our goals were to; 1/ develop a sequencing methodology which efficiently circumvents the difficulties associated with A. phagocytophilum isolation and culture; 2/ describe the first genome of a bovine strain; and 3/ compare it with available genomes, in order to both explore key genomic features at the species level, and to identify candidate genes that could be specific to bovine strains. DNA was extracted from a bovine blood sample infected by A. phagocytophilum. Following a whole genome capture approach, A. phagocytophilum DNA was enriched 197-fold in the sample and then sequenced using Illumina technology. In total, 58.9% of obtained reads corresponded to the A. phagocytophilum genome, covering 85.3% of the HZ genome. Then by performing comparisons with nine previously-sequenced A. phagocytophilum genomes, we determined the core genome of these ten strains. Following analysis, 1281 coding DNA sequences, including 1001 complete sequences, were detected in the A. phagocytophilum bovine genome, of which four appeared to be unique to the bovine isolate. These four coding DNA sequences coded for "hypothetical proteins of unknown function" and require further analysis. We also identified nine proteins common to both European domestic ruminants tested. Using a whole genome capture approach, we have sequenced the first A. phagocytophilum genome isolated from a cow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this method has been used to selectively enrich pathogenic bacterial DNA from samples also containing host DNA. The four proteins unique to the A. phagocytophilum bovine

  6. Sputnik: a database platform for comparative plant genomics.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Stephen; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2003-01-01

    Two million plant ESTs, from 20 different plant species, and totalling more than one 1000 Mbp of DNA sequence, represents a formidable transcriptomic resource. Sputnik uses the potential of this sequence resource to fill some of the information gap in the un-sequenced plant genomes and to serve as the foundation for in silicio comparative plant genomics. The complexity of the individual EST collections has been reduced using optimised EST clustering techniques. Annotation of cluster sequences is performed by exploiting and transferring information from the comprehensive knowledgebase already produced for the completed model plant genome (Arabidopsis thaliana) and by performing additional state of-the-art sequence analyses relevant to today's plant biologist. Functional predictions, comparative analyses and associative annotations for 500 000 plant EST derived peptides make Sputnik (http://mips.gsf.de/proj/sputnik/) a valid platform for contemporary plant genomics.

  7. Comparative Genomics via Wavelet Analysis for Closely Related Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiuzhou; Ware, Tony; Liu, Shu-Lin; Surette, M.

    2004-12-01

    Comparative genomics has been a valuable method for extracting and extrapolating genome information among closely related bacteria. The efficiency of the traditional methods is extremely influenced by the software method used. To overcome the problem here, we propose using wavelet analysis to perform comparative genomics. First, global comparison using wavelet analysis gives the difference at a quantitative level. Then local comparison using keto-excess or purine-excess plots shows precise positions of inversions, translocations, and horizontally transferred DNA fragments. We firstly found that the level of energy spectra difference is related to the similarity of bacteria strains; it could be a quantitative index to describe the similarities of genomes. The strategy is described in detail by comparisons of closely related strains: S.typhi CT18, S.typhi Ty2, S.typhimurium LT2, H.pylori 26695, and H.pylori J99.

  8. Comparative genomics of transcriptional regulation of methionine metabolism in Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leyn, Semen A; Suvorova, Inna A; Kholina, Tatiana D; Sherstneva, Sofia S; Novichkov, Pavel S; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2014-01-01

    Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ∼ 200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific and genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria.

  9. Sputnik: a database platform for comparative plant genomics

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Stephen; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2003-01-01

    Two million plant ESTs, from 20 different plant species, and totalling more than one 1000 Mbp of DNA sequence, represents a formidable transcriptomic resource. Sputnik uses the potential of this sequence resource to fill some of the information gap in the un-sequenced plant genomes and to serve as the foundation for in silicio comparative plant genomics. The complexity of the individual EST collections has been reduced using optimised EST clustering techniques. Annotation of cluster sequences is performed by exploiting and transferring information from the comprehensive knowledgebase already produced for the completed model plant genome (Arabidopsis thaliana) and by performing additional state of-the-art sequence analyses relevant to today's plant biologist. Functional predictions, comparative analyses and associative annotations for 500 000 plant EST derived peptides make Sputnik (http://mips.gsf.de/proj/sputnik/) a valid platform for contemporary plant genomics. PMID:12519965

  10. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  11. Alfresco—A Workbench for Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jareborg, Niclas; Durbin, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genomic sequences provides a powerful tool for identifying regions of potential biologic function; by comparing corresponding regions of genomes from suitable species, protein coding or regulatory regions can be identified by their homology. This requires the use of several specific types of computational analysis tools. Many programs exist for these types of analysis; not many exist for overall view/control of the results, which is necessary for large-scale genomic sequence analysis. Using Java, we have developed a new visualization tool that allows effective comparative genome sequence analysis. The program handles a pair of sequences from putatively homologous regions in different species. Results from various different existing external analysis programs, such as database searching, gene prediction, repeat masking, and alignment programs, are visualized and used to find corresponding functional sequence domains in the two sequences. The user interacts with the program through a graphic display of the genome regions, in which an independently scrollable and zoomable symbolic representation of the sequences is shown. As an example, the analysis of two unannotated orthologous genomic sequences from human and mouse containing parts of the UTY locus is presented. PMID:10958633

  12. The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD): recent developments in comprehensive multispecies curation, comparative genomics and community resources.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Martha B; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Inglis, Diane O; Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Chibucos, Marcus C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Howarth, Clinton; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2012-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; http://www.aspgd.org) is a freely available, web-based resource for researchers studying fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which includes organisms of clinical, agricultural and industrial importance. AspGD curators have now completed comprehensive review of the entire published literature about Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus, and this annotation is provided with streamlined, ortholog-based navigation of the multispecies information. AspGD facilitates comparative genomics by providing a full-featured genomics viewer, as well as matched and standardized sets of genomic information for the sequenced aspergilli. AspGD also provides resources to foster interaction and dissemination of community information and resources. We welcome and encourage feedback at aspergillus-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  13. Comparative proteogenomics: combining mass spectrometry and comparative genomics to analyze multiple genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nitin; Benhamida, Jamal; Bhargava, Vipul; Goodman, Daniel; Kain , Elisabeth; Kerman, Ian; Nguyen , Ngan; Ollikainen, Noah; Rodriguez, Jesse; Wang, J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Romine, Margaret F.; Bafna, Vineet; Smith, Richard D.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2008-07-30

    While bacterial genome annotations have significantly improved in recent years, techniques for bacterial proteome annotation (including post-translational chemical modifications, signal peptides, proteolytic events, etc.) are still in their infancy. At the same time, the number of sequenced bacterial genomes is rising sharply, far outpacing our ability to validate the predicted genes, let alone annotate bacterial proteomes. In this study, we use tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to annotate the proteome of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an important microbe for bioremediation. In particular, we provide the first comprehensive map of post-translational modifications in a bacterial genome, including a large number of chemical modifications, signal peptide cleavages and cleavage of N-terminal methionine residues. We also detect multiple genes that were missed or assigned incorrect start positions by gene prediction programs and suggest corrections to improve the gene annotation. This study demonstrates that complementing every genome sequencing project by an MS/MS project would significantly improve both genome and proteome annotations for a reasonable cost.

  14. Mammalian Comparative Genomics Reveals Genetic and Epigenetic Features Associated with Genome Reshuffling in Rodentia

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Laia; Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa Ana; Farré, Marta; Paytuví-Gallart, Andreu; Malinverni, Roberto; Ventura, Jacint; Larkin, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how mammalian genomes have been reshuffled through structural changes is fundamental to the dynamics of its composition, evolutionary relationships between species and, in the long run, speciation. In this work, we reveal the evolutionary genomic landscape in Rodentia, the most diverse and speciose mammalian order, by whole-genome comparisons of six rodent species and six representative outgroup mammalian species. The reconstruction of the evolutionary breakpoint regions across rodent phylogeny shows an increased rate of genome reshuffling that is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than in other mammalian species here considered. We identified novel lineage and clade-specific breakpoint regions within Rodentia and analyzed their gene content, recombination rates and their relationship with constitutive lamina genomic associated domains, DNase I hypersensitivity sites and chromatin modifications. We detected an accumulation of protein-coding genes in evolutionary breakpoint regions, especially genes implicated in reproduction and pheromone detection and mating. Moreover, we found an association of the evolutionary breakpoint regions with active chromatin state landscapes, most probably related to gene enrichment. Our results have two important implications for understanding the mechanisms that govern and constrain mammalian genome evolution. The first is that the presence of genes related to species-specific phenotypes in evolutionary breakpoint regions reinforces the adaptive value of genome reshuffling. Second, that chromatin conformation, an aspect that has been often overlooked in comparative genomic studies, might play a role in modeling the genomic distribution of evolutionary breakpoints. PMID:28175287

  15. RNA-seq-Based Gene Annotation and Comparative Genomics of Four Fungal Grass Pathogens in the Genus Zymoseptoria Identify Novel Orphan Genes and Species-Specific Invasions of Transposable Elements.

    PubMed

    Grandaubert, Jonathan; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2015-04-27

    The fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola) is a prominent pathogen of wheat. The reference genome of the isolate IPO323 is one of the best-assembled eukaryotic genomes and encodes more than 10,000 predicted genes. However, a large proportion of the previously annotated gene models are incomplete, with either no start or no stop codons. The availability of RNA-seq data allows better predictions of gene structure. We here used two different RNA-seq datasets, de novo transcriptome assemblies, homology-based comparisons, and trained ab initio gene callers to generate a new gene annotation of Z. tritici IPO323. The annotation pipeline was also applied to re-sequenced genomes of three closely related species of Z. tritici: Z. pseudotritici, Z. ardabiliae, and Z. brevis. Comparative analyses of the predicted gene models using the four Zymoseptoria species revealed sets of species-specific orphan genes enriched with putative pathogenicity-related genes encoding small secreted proteins that may play essential roles in virulence and host specificity. De novo repeat identification allowed us to show that few families of transposable elements are shared between Zymoseptoria species while we observe many species-specific invasions and expansions. The annotation data presented here provide a high-quality resource for future studies of Z. tritici and its sister species and provide detailed insight into gene and genome evolution of fungal plant pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Grandaubert et al.

  16. Improved criteria and comparative genomics tool provide new insights into grass paleogenomics.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jerome; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Quraishi, Umar Masood; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-11-01

    In the past decade, a number of bioinformatics tools have been developed to perform comparative genomics studies in plants and animals. However, most of the publicly available and user friendly tools lack common standards for the identification of robust orthologous relationships between genomes leading non-specialists to often over interpret the results of large scale comparative sequence analyses. Recently, we have established a number of improved parameters and tools to define significant relationships between genomes as a basis to develop paleogenomics studies in grasses. Here, we describe our approaches and propose the development of community-based standards that can be used in comparative genomic studies to (i) identify robust sets of orthologous gene pairs, (ii) derive complete sets of chromosome to chromosome relationships within and between genomes and (iii) model common paleo-ancestor genome structures. The rice and sorghum genome sequences are used to exemplify step-by-step a methodology that should allow users to perform accurate comparative genome analyses in their favourite species. Finally, we describe two applications for accurate gene annotation and synteny-based cloning of agronomically important traits.

  17. Piggy-BACing the human genome I: constructing a porcine BAC physical map through comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Chen, Kefei; Larkin, Denis M; Meyers, Stacey N; Marron, Brandy M; He, Weisong; Schook, Lawrence B; Beever, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    Availability of the human genome sequence and high similarity between humans and pigs at the molecular level provides an opportunity to use a comparative mapping approach to piggy-BAC the human genome. In order to advance the pig genome sequencing initiative, sequence similarity between large-scale porcine BAC-end sequences (BESs) and human genome sequence was used to construct a comparatively-anchored porcine physical map that is a first step towards sequencing the pig genome. A total of 50,300 porcine BAC clones were end-sequenced, yielding 76,906 BESs after trimming with an average read length of 538 bp. To anchor the porcine BACs on the human genome, these BESs were subjected to BLAST analysis using the human draft sequence, revealing 31.5% significant hits (E < e(-5)). Both genic and non-genic regions of homology contributed to the alignments between the human and porcine genomes. Porcine BESs with unique homology matches within the human genome provided a source of markers spaced approximately 70 to 300 kb along each human chromosome. In order to evaluate the utility of piggy-BACing human genome sequences, and confirm predictions of orthology, 193 evenly spaced BESs with similarity to HSA3 and HSA21 were selected and then utilized for developing a high-resolution (1.22 Mb) comparative radiation hybrid map of SSC13 that represents a fusion of HSA3 and HSA21. Resulting RH mapping of SSC13 covers 99% and 97% of HSA3 and HSA21, respectively. Seven evolutionary conserved blocks were identified including six on HSA3 and a single syntenic block corresponding to HSA21. The strategy of piggy-BACing the human genome described in this study demonstrates that through a directed, targeted comparative genomics approach construction of a high-resolution anchored physical map of the pig genome can be achieved. This map supports the selection of BACs to construct a minimal tiling path for genome sequencing and targeted gap filling. Moreover, this approach is highly relevant

  18. Characterization of Mycobacterium chelonae-Like Strains by Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Christiane L; de Almeida, Luiz G P; Menendez, Maria C; Garcia, Maria J; Digiampietri, Luciano A; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan C; Portaels, Françoise; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia C

    2017-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus complex are subdivided into four clusters (CHI to CHIV) in the INNO-LiPA® Mycobacterium spp DNA strip assay. A considerable phenotypic variability was observed among isolates of the CHII cluster. In this study, we examined the diversity of 26 CHII cluster isolates by phenotypic analysis, drug susceptibility testing, whole genome sequencing and single-gene analysis. Pairwise genome comparisons were performed using several approaches, including average nucleotide identity (ANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) among others. Based on ANI and GGD the isolates were identified as M. chelonae (14 isolates), M. franklinii (2 isolates) and M. salmoniphium (1 isolate). The remaining 9 isolates were subdivided into three novel putative genomospecies. Phenotypic analyses including drug susceptibility testing, as well as whole genome comparison by TETRA and delta differences, were not helpful in separating the groups revealed by ANI and GGD. The analysis of standard four conserved genomic regions showed that rpoB alone and the concatenated sequences clearly distinguished the taxonomic groups delimited by whole genome analyses. In conclusion, the CHII INNO-LiPa is not a homogeneous cluster; on the contrary, it is composed of closely related different species belonging to the M. chelonae-M. abscessus complex and also several unidentified isolates. The detection of these isolates, putatively novel species, indicates a wider inner variability than the presently known in this complex.

  19. Characterization of Mycobacterium chelonae-Like Strains by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Christiane L.; de Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Menendez, Maria C.; Garcia, Maria J.; Digiampietri, Luciano A.; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan C.; Portaels, Françoise; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia C.

    2017-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus complex are subdivided into four clusters (CHI to CHIV) in the INNO-LiPA® Mycobacterium spp DNA strip assay. A considerable phenotypic variability was observed among isolates of the CHII cluster. In this study, we examined the diversity of 26 CHII cluster isolates by phenotypic analysis, drug susceptibility testing, whole genome sequencing and single-gene analysis. Pairwise genome comparisons were performed using several approaches, including average nucleotide identity (ANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) among others. Based on ANI and GGD the isolates were identified as M. chelonae (14 isolates), M. franklinii (2 isolates) and M. salmoniphium (1 isolate). The remaining 9 isolates were subdivided into three novel putative genomospecies. Phenotypic analyses including drug susceptibility testing, as well as whole genome comparison by TETRA and delta differences, were not helpful in separating the groups revealed by ANI and GGD. The analysis of standard four conserved genomic regions showed that rpoB alone and the concatenated sequences clearly distinguished the taxonomic groups delimited by whole genome analyses. In conclusion, the CHII INNO-LiPa is not a homogeneous cluster; on the contrary, it is composed of closely related different species belonging to the M. chelonae-M. abscessus complex and also several unidentified isolates. The detection of these isolates, putatively novel species, indicates a wider inner variability than the presently known in this complex. PMID:28533767

  20. DCODE.ORG Anthology of Comparative Genomic Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G G; Ovcharenko, I

    2005-01-11

    Comparative genomics provides the means to demarcate functional regions in anonymous DNA sequences. The successful application of this method to identifying novel genes is currently shifting to deciphering the noncoding encryption of gene regulation across genomes. To facilitate the use of comparative genomics to practical applications in genetics and genomics we have developed several analytical and visualization tools for the analysis of arbitrary sequences and whole genomes. These tools include two alignment tools: zPicture and Mulan; a phylogenetic shadowing tool: eShadow for identifying lineage- and species-specific functional elements; two evolutionary conserved transcription factor analysis tools: rVista and multiTF; a tool for extracting cis-regulatory modules governing the expression of co-regulated genes, CREME; and a dynamic portal to multiple vertebrate and invertebrate genome alignments, the ECR Browser. Here we briefly describe each one of these tools and provide specific examples on their practical applications. All the tools are publicly available at the http://www.dcode.org/ web site.

  1. Phytozome: a Tool for Green Plant Comparative Genomics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Phytozome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst green plants. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of release v4.0, Phytozome provides access to nine sequenced and annotated green plant genomes, eight of which have been clustered into gene families at six evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, TAIR, JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. [Copied from the Overview at http://www.phytozome.net/Phytozome_info.php

  2. Comparative Bacterial Proteomics: Analysis of the Core Genome Concept

    PubMed Central

    Callister, Stephen J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Turse, Joshua E.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2008-01-01

    While comparative bacterial genomic studies commonly predict a set of genes indicative of common ancestry, experimental validation of the existence of this core genome requires extensive measurement and is typically not undertaken. Enabled by an extensive proteome database developed over six years, we have experimentally verified the expression of proteins predicted from genomic ortholog comparisons among 17 environmental and pathogenic bacteria. More exclusive relationships were observed among the expressed protein content of phenotypically related bacteria, which is indicative of the specific lifestyles associated with these organisms. Although genomic studies can establish relative orthologous relationships among a set of bacteria and propose a set of ancestral genes, our proteomics study establishes expressed lifestyle differences among conserved genes and proposes a set of expressed ancestral traits. PMID:18253490

  3. Comparative Bacterial Proteomics: Analysis of the Core Genome Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Turse, Josh E.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2008-02-06

    Comparative bacterial genomic studies commonly predict a set of genes indicative of common ancestry. Experimental validation of the existence of this core genome requires extensive measurement and is not typically undertaken. Enabled by an extensive proteome database development over a six year period, we experimentally verified the expression of proteins predicted from genomic ortholog comparisons among 17 environmental and pathogenic bacteria. More exclusive relationships were observed among the expressed protein content of phenotypically related bacteria, which is indicative of the specific lifestyles associated with these organisms. While genomic studies establish relative orthologous relationships among a set of bacteria and propose a set of ancestral genes, our proteomics study establishes expressed lifestyle differences among conserved genes and proposes a set of expressed ancestral traits.

  4. FLAGdb(++): A Bioinformatic Environment to Study and Compare Plant Genomes.

    PubMed

    Tamby, Jean Philippe; Brunaud, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Today, the growing knowledge and data accumulation on plant genomes do not solve in a simple way the task of gene function inference. Because data of different types are coming from various sources, we need to integrate and analyze them to help biologists in this task. We created FLAGdb(++) ( http://tools.ips2.u-psud.fr/FLAGdb ) to take up this challenge for a selection of plant genomes. In order to enrich gene function predictions, structural and functional annotations of the genomes are explored to generate meta-data and to compare them. Since data are numerous and complex, we focused on accessibility and visualization with an original and user-friendly interface. In this chapter we present the main tools of FLAGdb(++) and a use-case to explore a gene family: structural and functional properties of this family and research of orthologous genes in the other plant genomes.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Mycobacteria: Some Answers, Yet More New Questions

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies permit a genus-level perspective on the distinction between environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as a species-level assessment of genetic variability within M. tuberculosis. Both of these strata of evolutionary analysis serve to generate hypotheses regarding the genomic basis of M. tuberculosis virulence. In contrasting lessons from macroevolutionary study and microevolutionary study, one can form predictions about which segments of the genome are likely to be essential for or dispensable for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Although some of these predictions have been experimentally verified, notable exceptions challenge the direct link between these virulence factors and the capacity of M. tuberculosis to successfully cause disease and propagate between human hosts. These unexpected findings serve as the stimulus for further studies, using genomic comparisons and other approaches, to better define the remarkable success of this recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:25395374

  6. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in chloroplast genomes of lower and higher plants.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Bhatt, Bhavin S; Awasthi, Mayur; George, Binu; Singh, Achuit K

    2015-11-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), contain repetitive DNA sequence where tandem repeats of one to six base pairs are present number of times. Chloroplast genome sequences have been  shown to possess extensive variations in the length, number and distribution of SSRs. However, a comparative analysis of chloroplast microsatellites is not available. Considering their potential importance in generating genomic diversity, we have systematically analysed the abundance and distribution of simple and compound microsatellites in 164 sequenced chloroplast genomes from wide range of plants. The key findings of these studies are (1) a large number of mononucleotide repeats as compared to SSR(2-6)(di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexanucleotide repeats) are present in all chloroplast genomes investigated, (2) lower plants such as algae show wide variation in relative abundance, density and distribution of microsatellite repeats as compared to flowering plants, (3) longer SSRs are excluded from coding regions of most chloroplast genomes, (4) GC content has a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide as well as SSR(2-6). However, GC content strongly showed negative correlation with relative density (R (2) = 0.5, P < 0.05) and relative abundance (R (2) = 0.6, P < 0.05) of cSSRs. In summary, our comparative studies of chloroplast genomes illustrate the variable distribution of microsatellites and revealed that chloroplast genome of smaller plants possesses relatively more genomic diversity compared to higher plants.

  7. BrucellaBase: Genome information resource.

    PubMed

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Khader, L K M Abdul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-09-01

    Brucella sp. causes a major zoonotic disease, brucellosis. Brucella belongs to the family Brucellaceae under the order Rhizobiales of Alphaproteobacteria. We present BrucellaBase, a web-based platform, providing features of a genome database together with unique analysis tools. We have developed a web version of the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Whatmore et al., 2007) and phylogenetic analysis of Brucella spp. BrucellaBase currently contains genome data of 510 Brucella strains along with the user interfaces for BLAST, VFDB, CARD, pairwise genome alignment and MLST typing. Availability of these tools will enable the researchers interested in Brucella to get meaningful information from Brucella genome sequences. BrucellaBase will regularly be updated with new genome sequences, new features along with improvements in genome annotations. BrucellaBase is available online at http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellabase.html or http://59.99.226.203/brucellabase/homepage.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Malignant canine mammary tumours: Preliminary genomic insights using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; Dias-Pereira, Patrícia; Williams, Christina; Lopes, Carlos; Breen, Matthew

    2017-03-28

    Neoplastic mammary disease in female dogs represents a major health concern for dog owners and veterinarians, but the genomic basis of the disease is poorly understood. In this study, we performed high resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridisation (oaCGH) to assess genome wide DNA copy number changes in 10 malignant canine mammary tumours from seven female dogs, including multiple tumours collected at one time from each of three female dogs. In all but two tumours, genomic imbalances were detected, with losses being more common than gains. Canine chromosomes 9, 22, 26, 27, 34 and X were most frequently affected. Dissimilar oaCGH ratio profiles were observed in multiple tumours from the same dogs, providing preliminary evidence for probable independent pathogenesis. Analysis of adjacent samples of one tumour revealed regional differences in the number of genomic imbalances, suggesting heterogeneity within tumours.

  9. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-Uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species.

  10. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A.; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M.; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D.; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species. PMID:24045858

  11. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  12. Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Liu, Jian; Ban, Rongjun; Tang, Wei; Deng, Lin; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (Actinidiaceae). KIR serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. KIR also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. Current developments include the updated genome structure of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, gene expression, physical markers of genetic traits as well as relevant publications based on the latest genome assembly. Nine thousand five hundred and forty-seven new transcripts are detected and 21 132 old transcripts are changed. At the present release, the next-generation transcriptome sequencing data has been incorporated into gene models and splice variants. Protein–protein interactions are also identified based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions. Furthermore, the experimental results reported in peer-reviewed literature are manually extracted and integrated within a well-developed query page. In total, 122 identifications are currently associated, including commonly used gene names and symbols. All KIR datasets are helpful to facilitate a broad range of kiwifruit research topics and freely available to the research community. Database URL: http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/kir/index.html. PMID:26656885

  13. Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics.

    PubMed

    Yue, Junyang; Liu, Jian; Ban, Rongjun; Tang, Wei; Deng, Lin; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (Actinidiaceae). KIR serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. KIR also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. Current developments include the updated genome structure of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, gene expression, physical markers of genetic traits as well as relevant publications based on the latest genome assembly. Nine thousand five hundred and forty-seven new transcripts are detected and 21 132 old transcripts are changed. At the present release, the next-generation transcriptome sequencing data has been incorporated into gene models and splice variants. Protein-protein interactions are also identified based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions. Furthermore, the experimental results reported in peer-reviewed literature are manually extracted and integrated within a well-developed query page. In total, 122 identifications are currently associated, including commonly used gene names and symbols. All KIR datasets are helpful to facilitate a broad range of kiwifruit research topics and freely available to the research community. Database URL: http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/kir/index.html.

  14. Low-pass sequencing for microbial comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young Ah; Roach, Jared; Glusman, Gustavo; Baliga, Nitin S; Deutsch, Kerry; Pan, Min; Kennedy, Sean; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Victor Ng, Wailap; Hood, Leroy

    2004-01-01

    Background We studied four extremely halophilic archaea by low-pass shotgun sequencing: (1) the metabolically versatile Haloarcula marismortui; (2) the non-pigmented Natrialba asiatica; (3) the psychrophile Halorubrum lacusprofundi and (4) the Dead Sea isolate Halobaculum gomorrense. Approximately one thousand single pass genomic sequences per genome were obtained. The data were analyzed by comparative genomic analyses using the completed Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome as a reference. Low-pass shotgun sequencing is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid approach that can readily be performed on any cultured microbe. Results As expected, the four archaeal halophiles analyzed exhibit both bacterial and eukaryotic characteristics as well as uniquely archaeal traits. All five halophiles exhibit greater than sixty percent GC content and low isoelectric points (pI) for their predicted proteins. Multiple insertion sequence (IS) elements, often involved in genome rearrangements, were identified in H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui. The core biological functions that govern cellular and genetic mechanisms of H. sp. NRC-1 appear to be conserved in these four other halophiles. Multiple TATA box binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor IIB (TFB) homologs were identified from most of the four shotgunned halophiles. The reconstructed molecular tree of all five halophiles shows a large divergence between these species, but with the closest relationship being between H. sp. NRC-1 and H. lacusprofundi. Conclusion Despite the diverse habitats of these species, all five halophiles share (1) high GC content and (2) low protein isoelectric points, which are characteristics associated with environmental exposure to UV radiation and hypersalinity, respectively. Identification of multiple IS elements in the genome of H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui suggest that genome structure and dynamic genome reorganization might be similar to that previously observed in the IS-element rich

  15. Low-pass sequencing for microbial comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young Ah; Roach, Jared; Glusman, Gustavo; Baliga, Nitin S; Deutsch, Kerry; Pan, Min; Kennedy, Sean; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Ng, Wailap Victor; Hood, Leroy

    2004-01-12

    We studied four extremely halophilic archaea by low-pass shotgun sequencing: (1) the metabolically versatile Haloarcula marismortui; (2) the non-pigmented Natrialba asiatica; (3) the psychrophile Halorubrum lacusprofundi and (4) the Dead Sea isolate Halobaculum gomorrense. Approximately one thousand single pass genomic sequences per genome were obtained. The data were analyzed by comparative genomic analyses using the completed Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome as a reference. Low-pass shotgun sequencing is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid approach that can readily be performed on any cultured microbe. As expected, the four archaeal halophiles analyzed exhibit both bacterial and eukaryotic characteristics as well as uniquely archaeal traits. All five halophiles exhibit greater than sixty percent GC content and low isoelectric points (pI) for their predicted proteins. Multiple insertion sequence (IS) elements, often involved in genome rearrangements, were identified in H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui. The core biological functions that govern cellular and genetic mechanisms of H. sp. NRC-1 appear to be conserved in these four other halophiles. Multiple TATA box binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor IIB (TFB) homologs were identified from most of the four shotgunned halophiles. The reconstructed molecular tree of all five halophiles shows a large divergence between these species, but with the closest relationship being between H. sp. NRC-1 and H. lacusprofundi. Despite the diverse habitats of these species, all five halophiles share (1) high GC content and (2) low protein isoelectric points, which are characteristics associated with environmental exposure to UV radiation and hypersalinity, respectively. Identification of multiple IS elements in the genome of H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui suggest that genome structure and dynamic genome reorganization might be similar to that previously observed in the IS-element rich genome of H. sp. NRC-1

  16. Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontius, Joan U.; Mullikin, James C.; Smith, Douglas R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Gnerre, Sante; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean; Stephens, Robert; Neelam, Beena; Volfovsky, Natalia; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Narfström, Kristina; Murphy, William J.; Giger, Urs; Roca, Alfred L.; Antunes, Agostinho; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Yuhki, Naoya; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Johnson, Warren E.; Bourque, Guillaume; Tesler, Glenn; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms (DIPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs), suitable for linkage or association studies were characterized in the context of long stretches of chromosome homozygosity. In spite of the light coverage capturing ∼65% of euchromatin sequence from the cat genome, these comparative insights shed new light on the tempo and mode of gene/genome evolution in mammals, promise several research applications for the cat, and also illustrate that a comparative approach using more deeply covered mammals provides an informative, preliminary annotation of a light (1.9-fold) coverage mammal genome sequence. PMID:17975172

  17. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Soumya; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.

  18. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens. PMID:28846714

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of two brucellaphages of distant origins.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor; López-Merino, Ahidé; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Guarneros, Gabriel

    2012-04-01

    Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of brucellaphage Tbilisi (Tb) and compared it with that of Pr, a broad host-range brucellaphage recently isolated in Mexico. The genomes consist of 41,148 bp (Tb) and 38,253 bp (Pr), they differ mainly in the region encoding structural proteins, in which the genome of Tb shows two major insertions. Both genomes share 99.87% nucleotide identity, a high percentage of identity among phages isolated at so globally distant locations and temporally different occasions. Sequence analysis revealed 57 conserved ORFs, three transcriptional terminators and four putative transcriptional promoters. The co-occurrence of an ORF encoding a putative DnaA-like protein and a putative oriC-like origin of replication was found in both brucellaphages genomes, a feature not described in any other phage genome. These elements suggest that DNA replication in brucellaphages differs from other phages, and might resemble that of bacterial chromosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequencing and comparative analyses of the genomes of zoysiagrasses

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kosugi, Shunichi; Nakayama, Shinobu; Ono, Akiko; Watanabe, Akiko; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Gondo, Takahiro; Ishigaki, Genki; Muguerza, Melody; Shimizu, Katsuya; Sawamura, Noriko; Inoue, Takayasu; Shigeki, Yuichi; Ohno, Naoki; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Sato, Shusei

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia is a warm-season turfgrass, which comprises 11 allotetraploid species (2n = 4x = 40), each possessing different morphological and physiological traits. To characterize the genetic systems of Zoysia plants and to analyse their structural and functional differences in individual species and accessions, we sequenced the genomes of Zoysia species using HiSeq and MiSeq platforms. As a reference sequence of Zoysia species, we generated a high-quality draft sequence of the genome of Z. japonica accession ‘Nagirizaki’ (334 Mb) in which 59,271 protein-coding genes were predicted. In parallel, draft genome sequences of Z. matrella ‘Wakaba’ and Z. pacifica ‘Zanpa’ were also generated for comparative analyses. To investigate the genetic diversity among the Zoysia species, genome sequence reads of three additional accessions, Z. japonica ‘Kyoto’, Z. japonica ‘Miyagi’ and Z. matrella ‘Chiba Fair Green’, were accumulated, and aligned against the reference genome of ‘Nagirizaki’ along with those from ‘Wakaba’ and ‘Zanpa’. As a result, we detected 7,424,163 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 852,488 short indels among these species. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for basic studies on zoysiagrass evolution and genetics as well as for the breeding of zoysiagrasses, and is made available in the ‘Zoysia Genome Database’ at http://zoysia.kazusa.or.jp. PMID:26975196

  1. Comparative analysis of rosaceous genomes and the reconstruction of a putative ancestral genome for the family

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparative genome mapping studies in Rosaceae have been conducted until now by aligning genetic maps within the same genus, or closely related genera and using a limited number of common markers. The growing body of genomics resources and sequence data for both Prunus and Fragaria permits detailed comparisons between these genera and the recently released Malus × domestica genome sequence. Results We generated a comparative analysis using 806 molecular markers that are anchored genetically to the Prunus and/or Fragaria reference maps, and physically to the Malus genome sequence. Markers in common for Malus and Prunus, and Malus and Fragaria, respectively were 784 and 148. The correspondence between marker positions was high and conserved syntenic blocks were identified among the three genera in the Rosaceae. We reconstructed a proposed ancestral genome for the Rosaceae. Conclusions A genome containing nine chromosomes is the most likely candidate for the ancestral Rosaceae progenitor. The number of chromosomal translocations observed between the three genera investigated was low. However, the number of inversions identified among Malus and Prunus was much higher than any reported genome comparisons in plants, suggesting that small inversions have played an important role in the evolution of these two genera or of the Rosaceae. PMID:21226921

  2. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes.

    PubMed

    Locke, Devin P; Hillier, LaDeana W; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Nazareth, Lynne V; Muzny, Donna M; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Nelson, Joanne O; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L; Fowler, Gerald R; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Eichler, Evan E; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Della Valle, Giuliano; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A; Smit, Arian F A; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L; Siepel, Adam; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H; Ryder, Oliver A; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Weinstock, George M; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R; Gibbs, Richard A; Wilson, Richard K

    2011-01-27

    'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new

  3. Comparative Analysis of Six Lagerstroemia Complete Chloroplast Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Li, Wenqing; Lu, Yizeng; Xie, Xiaoman; Jin, Xiaobai; Shi, Jipu; He, Kaihong; Suo, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    Crape myrtles are economically important ornamental trees of the genus Lagerstroemia L. (Lythraceae), with a distribution from tropical to northern temperate zones. They are positioned phylogenetically to a large subclade of rosids (in the eudicots) which contain more than 25% of all the angiosperms. They commonly bloom from summer till fall and are of significant value in city landscape and environmental protection. Morphological traits are shared inter-specifically among plants of Lagerstroemia to certain extent and are also influenced by environmental conditions and different developmental stages. Thus, classification of plants in Lagerstroemia at species and cultivar levels is still a challenging task. Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences have been proven to be an informative and valuable source of cp DNA markers for genetic diversity evaluation. In this study, the complete cp genomes of three Lagerstroemia species were newly sequenced, and three other published cp genome sequences of Lagerstroemia were retrieved for comparative analyses in order to obtain an upgraded understanding of the application value of genetic information from the cp genomes. The six cp genomes ranged from 152,049 bp (L. subcostata) to 152,526 bp (L. speciosa) in length. We analyzed nucleotide substitutions, insertions/deletions, and simple sequence repeats in the cp genomes, and discovered 12 relatively highly variable regions that will potentially provide plastid markers for further taxonomic, phylogenetic, and population genetics studies in Lagerstroemia. The phylogenetic relationships of the Lagerstroemia taxa inferred from the datasets from the cp genomes obtained high support, indicating that cp genome data may be useful in resolving relationships in this genus. PMID:28154574

  4. Evolution of cancer suppression as revealed by mammalian comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Tollis, Marc; Schiffman, Joshua D; Boddy, Amy M

    2017-02-02

    Cancer suppression is an important feature in the evolution of large and long-lived animals. While some tumor suppression pathways are conserved among all multicellular organisms, others mechanisms of cancer resistance are uniquely lineage specific. Comparative genomics has become a powerful tool to discover these unique and shared molecular adaptations in respect to cancer suppression. These findings may one day be translated to human patients through evolutionary medicine. Here, we will review theory and methods of comparative cancer genomics and highlight major findings of cancer suppression across mammals. Our current knowledge of cancer genomics suggests that more efficient DNA repair and higher sensitivity to DNA damage may be the key to tumor suppression in large or long-lived mammals.

  5. Genome Properties: a system for the investigation of prokaryotic genetic content for microbiology, genome annotation and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Haft, Daniel H; Selengut, Jeremy D; Brinkac, Lauren M; Zafar, Nikhat; White, Owen

    2005-02-01

    The presence or absence of metabolic pathways and structures provide a context that makes protein annotation far more reliable. Compiling such information across microbial genomes improves the functional classification of proteins and provides a valuable resource for comparative genomics. We have created a Genome Properties system to present key aspects of prokaryotic biology using standardized computational methods and controlled vocabularies. Properties reflect gene content, phenotype, phylogeny and computational analyses. The results of searches using hidden Markov models allow many properties to be deduced automatically, especially for families of proteins (equivalogs) conserved in function since their last common ancestor. Additional properties are derived from curation, published reports and other forms of evidence. Genome Properties system was applied to 156 complete prokaryotic genomes, and is easily mined to find differences between species, correlations between metabolic features and families of uncharacterized proteins, or relationships among properties. Genome Properties can be found at http://www.tigr.org/Genome_Properties http://www.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/CMR2/genome_properties_references.spl.

  6. Genome informatics and vaccine targets in Corynebacterium urealyticum using two whole genomes, comparative genomics, and reverse vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luis; Soares, Siomar; Trost, Eva; Blom, Jochen; Ramos, Rommel; Silva, Artur; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium urealyticum is an opportunistic pathogen that normally lives on skin and mucous membranes in humans. This high Gram-positive bacteria can cause acute or encrusted cystitis, encrusted pyelitis, and pyelonephritis in immunocompromised patients. The bacteria is multi-drug resistant, and knowledge about the genes that contribute to its virulence is very limited. Two complete genome sequences were used in this comparative genomic study: C. urealyticum DSM 7109 and C. urealyticum DSM 7111. We used comparative genomics strategies to compare the two strains, DSM 7109 and DSM 7111, and to analyze their metabolic pathways, genome plasticity, and to predict putative antigenic targets. The genomes of these two strains together encode 2,115 non-redundant coding sequences, 1,823 of which are common to both genomes. We identified 188 strain-specific genes in DSM 7109 and 104 strain-specific genes in DSM 7111. The high number of strain-specific genes may be a result of horizontal gene transfer triggered by the large number of transposons in the genomes of these two strains. Screening for virulence factors revealed the presence of the spaDEF operon that encodes pili forming proteins. Therefore, spaDEF may play a pivotal role in facilitating the adhesion of the pathogen to the host tissue. Application of the reverse vaccinology method revealed 19 putative antigenic proteins that may be used in future studies as candidate drug or vaccine targets. The genome features and the presence of virulence factors in genomic islands in the two strains of C. urealyticum provide insights in the lifestyle of this opportunistic pathogen and may be useful in developing future therapeutic strategies.

  7. Whole genomic DNA sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Arthrospira platensis: high genome plasticity and genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Teng; Qin, Song; Hu, Yongwu; Song, Zhijian; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Peizhen; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Fangqing; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies. PMID:27330141

  8. Genome wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in watermelon genome and their application in comparative mapping and genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huayu; Song, Pengyao; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Guo, Luqin; Li, Yanman; Sun, Shouru; Weng, Yiqun; Yang, Luming

    2016-08-05

    Microsatellite markers are one of the most informative and versatile DNA-based markers used in plant genetic research, but their development has traditionally been difficult and costly. The whole genome sequencing with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides large amounts of sequence data to develop numerous microsatellite markers at whole genome scale. SSR markers have great advantage in cross-species comparisons and allow investigation of karyotype and genome evolution through highly efficient computation approaches such as in silico PCR. Here we described genome wide development and characterization of SSR markers in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) genome, which were then use in comparative analysis with two other important crop species in the Cucurbitaceae family: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.). We further applied these markers in evaluating the genetic diversity and population structure in watermelon germplasm collections. A total of 39,523 microsatellite loci were identified from the watermelon draft genome with an overall density of 111 SSRs/Mbp, and 32,869 SSR primers were designed with suitable flanking sequences. The dinucleotide SSRs were the most common type representing 34.09 % of the total SSR loci and the AT-rich motifs were the most abundant in all nucleotide repeat types. In silico PCR analysis identified 832 and 925 SSR markers with each having a single amplicon in the cucumber and melon draft genome, respectively. Comparative analysis with these cross-species SSR markers revealed complicated mosaic patterns of syntenic blocks among the genomes of three species. In addition, genetic diversity analysis of 134 watermelon accessions with 32 highly informative SSR loci placed these lines into two groups with all accessions of C.lanatus var. citorides and three accessions of C. colocynthis clustered in one group and all accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus and the remaining accessions of C. colocynthis

  9. Comparative genomics of wild type yeast strains unveils important genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Carreto, Laura; Eiriz, Maria F; Gomes, Ana C; Pereira, Patrícia M; Schuller, Dorit; Santos, Manuel AS

    2008-01-01

    Background Genome variability generates phenotypic heterogeneity and is of relevance for adaptation to environmental change, but the extent of such variability in natural populations is still poorly understood. For example, selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are variable at the ploidy level, have gene amplifications, changes in chromosome copy number, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. This suggests that genome plasticity provides important genetic diversity upon which natural selection mechanisms can operate. Results In this study, we have used wild-type S. cerevisiae (yeast) strains to investigate genome variation in natural and artificial environments. We have used comparative genome hybridization on array (aCGH) to characterize the genome variability of 16 yeast strains, of laboratory and commercial origin, isolated from vineyards and wine cellars, and from opportunistic human infections. Interestingly, sub-telomeric instability was associated with the clinical phenotype, while Ty element insertion regions determined genomic differences of natural wine fermentation strains. Copy number depletion of ASP3 and YRF1 genes was found in all wild-type strains. Other gene families involved in transmembrane transport, sugar and alcohol metabolism or drug resistance had copy number changes, which also distinguished wine from clinical isolates. Conclusion We have isolated and genotyped more than 1000 yeast strains from natural environments and carried out an aCGH analysis of 16 strains representative of distinct genotype clusters. Important genomic variability was identified between these strains, in particular in sub-telomeric regions and in Ty-element insertion sites, suggesting that this type of genome variability is the main source of genetic diversity in natural populations of yeast. The data highlights the usefulness of yeast as a model system to unravel intraspecific natural genome diversity and to elucidate how natural selection shapes the yeast genome

  10. Whole genome annotation and comparative genomic analyses of bio-control fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pushplata; Varshney, Deepti; Adholeya, Alok

    2015-11-25

    The fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum is widely known as a biological control agent against plant parasitic nematodes. This research article consists of genomic annotation of the first draft of whole genome sequence of P. lilacinum. The study aims to decipher the putative genetic components of the fungus involved in nematode pathogenesis by performing comparative genomic analysis with nine closely related fungal species in Hypocreales. de novo genomic assembly was done and a total of 301 scaffolds were constructed for P. lilacinum genomic DNA. By employing structural genome prediction models, 13, 266 genes coding for proteins were predicted in the genome. Approximately 73% of the predicted genes were functionally annotated using Blastp, InterProScan and Gene Ontology. A 14.7% fraction of the predicted genes shared significant homology with genes in the Pathogen Host Interactions (PHI) database. The phylogenomic analysis carried out using maximum likelihood RAxML algorithm provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of P. lilacinum. In congruence with other closely related species in the Hypocreales namely, Metarhizium spp., Pochonia chlamydosporia, Cordyceps militaris, Trichoderma reesei and Fusarium spp., P. lilacinum has large gene sets coding for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteases, glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases that are required for degradation of nematode-egg shell components. Screening of the genome by Antibiotics & Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell (AntiSMASH) pipeline indicated that the genome potentially codes for a variety of secondary metabolites, possibly required for adaptation to heterogeneous lifestyles reported for P. lilacinum. Significant up-regulation of subtilisin-like serine protease genes in presence of nematode eggs in quantitative real-time analyses suggested potential role of serine proteases in nematode pathogenesis. The data offer a better understanding of Purpureocillium lilacinum genome and will

  11. Using comparative genomics to drive new discoveries in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Haft, Daniel H

    2015-02-01

    Bioinformatics looks to many microbiologists like a service industry. In this view, annotation starts with what is known from experiments in the lab, makes reasonable inferences of which genes match other genes in function, builds databases to make all that we know accessible, but creates nothing truly new. Experiments lead, then biocuration and computational biology follow. But the astounding success of genome sequencing is changing the annotation paradigm. Every genome sequenced is an intercepted coded message from the microbial world, and as all cryptographers know, it is easier to decode a thousand messages than a single message. Some biology is best discovered not by phenomenology, but by decoding genome content, forming hypotheses, and doing the first few rounds of validation computationally. Through such reasoning, a role and function may be assigned to a protein with no sequence similarity to any protein yet studied. Experimentation can follow after the discovery to cement and to extend the findings. Unfortunately, this approach remains so unfamiliar to most bench scientists that lab work and comparative genomics typically segregate to different teams working on unconnected projects. This review will discuss several themes in comparative genomics as a discovery method, including highly derived data, use of patterns of design to reason by analogy, and in silico testing of computationally generated hypotheses.

  12. Comparative genomics and evolution of transcriptional regulons in Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Stepanova, Vita V.; Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches are broadly used for analysis of transcriptional regulation in bacterial genomes. In this work, we identified binding sites and reconstructed regulons for 33 orthologous groups of transcription factors (TFs) in 196 reference genomes from 21 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. Overall, we predict over 10 600 TF binding sites and identified more than 15 600 target genes for 1896 TFs constituting the studied orthologous groups of regulators. These include a set of orthologues for 21 metabolism-associated TFs from Escherichia coli and/or Shewanella that are conserved in five or more taxonomic groups and several additional TFs that represent non-orthologous substitutions of the metabolic regulators in some lineages of Proteobacteria. By comparing gene contents of the reconstructed regulons, we identified the core, taxonomy-specific and genome-specific TF regulon members and classified them by their metabolic functions. Detailed analysis of ArgR, TyrR, TrpR, HutC, HypR and other amino-acid-specific regulons demonstrated remarkable differences in regulatory strategies used by various lineages of Proteobacteria. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed TF regulons contains a large number of new regulatory interactions that await future experimental validation. The collection provides a framework for future evolutionary studies of transcriptional regulatory networks in Bacteria. It can be also used for functional annotation of putative metabolic transporters and enzymes that are abundant in the reconstructed regulons. PMID:28348857

  13. Comparative genomics and evolution of transcriptional regulons in Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leyn, Semen A; Suvorova, Inna A; Kazakov, Alexey E; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Stepanova, Vita V; Novichkov, Pavel S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2016-07-01

    Comparative genomics approaches are broadly used for analysis of transcriptional regulation in bacterial genomes. In this work, we identified binding sites and reconstructed regulons for 33 orthologous groups of transcription factors (TFs) in 196 reference genomes from 21 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. Overall, we predict over 10 600 TF binding sites and identified more than 15 600 target genes for 1896 TFs constituting the studied orthologous groups of regulators. These include a set of orthologues for 21 metabolism-associated TFs from Escherichia coli and/or Shewanella that are conserved in five or more taxonomic groups and several additional TFs that represent non-orthologous substitutions of the metabolic regulators in some lineages of Proteobacteria. By comparing gene contents of the reconstructed regulons, we identified the core, taxonomy-specific and genome-specific TF regulon members and classified them by their metabolic functions. Detailed analysis of ArgR, TyrR, TrpR, HutC, HypR and other amino-acid-specific regulons demonstrated remarkable differences in regulatory strategies used by various lineages of Proteobacteria. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed TF regulons contains a large number of new regulatory interactions that await future experimental validation. The collection provides a framework for future evolutionary studies of transcriptional regulatory networks in Bacteria. It can be also used for functional annotation of putative metabolic transporters and enzymes that are abundant in the reconstructed regulons.

  14. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea's genetic data sources.

  15. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea’s genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  16. Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation

    PubMed Central

    Rasko, David A.; Worsham, Patricia L.; Abshire, Terry G.; Stanley, Scott T.; Bannan, Jason D.; Wilson, Mark R.; Langham, Richard J.; Decker, R. Scott; Jiang, Lingxia; Read, Timothy D.; Phillippy, Adam M.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Pop, Mihai; Van Ert, Matthew N.; Kenefic, Leo J.; Keim, Paul S.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Before the anthrax letter attacks of 2001, the developing field of microbial forensics relied on microbial genotyping schemes based on a small portion of a genome sequence. Amerithrax, the investigation into the anthrax letter attacks, applied high-resolution whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics to identify key genetic features of the letters’ Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. During systematic microbiological analysis of the spore material from the letters, we identified a number of morphological variants based on phenotypic characteristics and the ability to sporulate. The genomes of these morphological variants were sequenced and compared with that of the B. anthracis Ames ancestor, the progenitor of all B. anthracis Ames strains. Through comparative genomics, we identified four distinct loci with verifiable genetic mutations. Three of the four mutations could be directly linked to sporulation pathways in B. anthracis and more specifically to the regulation of the phosphorylation state of Spo0F, a key regulatory protein in the initiation of the sporulation cascade, thus linking phenotype to genotype. None of these variant genotypes were identified in single-colony environmental B. anthracis Ames isolates associated with the investigation. These genotypes were identified only in B. anthracis morphotypes isolated from the letters, indicating that the variants were not prevalent in the environment, not even the environments associated with the investigation. This study demonstrates the forensic value of systematic microbiological analysis combined with whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics. PMID:21383169

  17. Comparing thousands of circular genomes using the CGView Comparison Tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Continued sequencing efforts coupled with advances in sequencing technology will lead to the completion of a vast number of small genomes. Whole-genome comparisons represent an important part of the analysis of any new genome sequence, as they can provide a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the source organism. Visualization of the results is important, as it allows information from a variety of sources to be integrated and interpreted. However, existing graphical comparison tools lack features needed for efficiently comparing a new genome to hundreds or thousands of existing sequences. Moreover, existing tools are limited in terms of the types of comparisons that can be performed, the extent to which the output can be customized, and the ease with which the entire process can be automated. Results The CGView Comparison Tool (CCT) is a package for visually comparing bacterial, plasmid, chloroplast, or mitochondrial sequences of interest to existing genomes or sequence collections. The comparisons are conducted using BLAST, and the BLAST results are presented in the form of graphical maps that can also show sequence features, gene and protein names, COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins) category assignments, and sequence composition characteristics. CCT can generate maps in a variety of sizes, including 400 Megapixel maps suitable for posters. Comparisons can be conducted within a particular species or genus, or all available genomes can be used. The entire map creation process, from downloading sequences to redrawing zoomed maps, can be completed easily using scripts included with the CCT. User-defined features or analysis results can be included on maps, and maps can be extensively customized. To simplify program setup, a CCT virtual machine that includes all dependencies preinstalled is available. Detailed tutorials illustrating the use of CCT are included with the CCT documentation. Conclusion CCT can be used to visually

  18. Variation block-based genomics method for crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for the screening of target loci for agricultural traits. Results We propose the variation block method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybean and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color. Conclusions We suggest that the variation block method is an efficient genomics method for the recombination block-level comparison of crop genomes. We expect that this method will facilitate the development of crop genomics by bringing genomics technologies to the field of crop breeding. PMID:24929792

  19. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics of closely related Fusarium Head Blight fungi: Fusarium graminearum, F. meridionale and F. asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Walkowiak, Sean; Rowland, Owen; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

    2016-12-09

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex is composed of many distinct fungal species that cause several diseases in economically important crops, including Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. Despite being closely related, these species and individuals within species have distinct phenotypic differences in toxin production and pathogenicity, with some isolates reported as non-pathogenic on certain hosts. In this report, we compare genomes and gene content of six new isolates from the species complex, including the first available genomes of F. asiaticum and F. meridionale, with four other genomes reported in previous studies. A comparison of genome structure and gene content revealed a 93-99% overlap across all ten genomes. We identified more than 700 k base pairs (kb) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions (indels) within common regions of the genome, which validated the species and genetic populations reported within species. We constructed a non-redundant pan gene list containing 15,297 genes from the ten genomes and among them 1827 genes or 12% were absent in at least one genome. These genes were co-localized in telomeric regions and select regions within chromosomes with a corresponding increase in SNPs and indels. Many are also predicted to encode for proteins involved in secondary metabolism and other functions associated with disease. Genes that were common between isolates contained high levels of nucleotide variation and may be pseudogenes, allelic, or under diversifying selection. The genomic resources we have contributed will be useful for the identification of genes that contribute to the phenotypic variation and niche specialization that have been reported among members of the F. graminearum species complex.

  20. SynTView — an interactive multi-view genome browser for next-generation comparative microorganism genomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic visualisation interfaces are required to explore the multiple microbial genome data now available, especially those obtained by high-throughput sequencing — a.k.a. “Next-Generation Sequencing” (NGS) — technologies; they would also be useful for “standard” annotated genomes whose chromosome organizations may be compared. Although various software systems are available, few offer an optimal combination of feature-rich capabilities, non-static user interfaces and multi-genome data handling. Results We developed SynTView, a comparative and interactive viewer for microbial genomes, designed to run as either a web-based tool (Flash technology) or a desktop application (AIR environment). The basis of the program is a generic genome browser with sub-maps holding information about genomic objects (annotations). The software is characterised by the presentation of syntenic organisations of microbial genomes and the visualisation of polymorphism data (typically Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms — SNPs) along these genomes; these features are accessible to the user in an integrated way. A variety of specialised views are available and are all dynamically inter-connected (including linear and circular multi-genome representations, dot plots, phylogenetic profiles, SNP density maps, and more). SynTView is not linked to any particular database, allowing the user to plug his own data into the system seamlessly, and use external web services for added functionalities. SynTView has now been used in several genome sequencing projects to help biologists make sense out of huge data sets. Conclusions The most important assets of SynTView are: (i) the interactivity due to the Flash technology; (ii) the capabilities for dynamic interaction between many specialised views; and (iii) the flexibility allowing various user data sets to be integrated. It can thus be used to investigate massive amounts of information efficiently at the chromosome level. This

  1. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; Alvise, Paul D.; Xu, Ruiqi; Zhang, Faxing; Middelboe, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences of a collection of V. anguillarum strains and compared them to virulence of the strains as determined in larval challenge assays. Previously identified virulence factors were globally distributed among the strains, with some genetic diversity. However, the pan-genome revealed that six out of nine high-virulence strains possessed a unique accessory genome that was attributed to pathogenic genomic islands, prophage-like elements, virulence factors, and a new set of gene clusters involved in biosynthesis, modification, and transport of polysaccharides. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had a high degree of genomic homogeneity. Finally, we found that a phylogeny based on the core genomes clustered the strains with moderate to no virulence, while six out of nine high-virulence strains represented phylogenetically separate clusters. Hence, we suggest a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. IMPORTANCE Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can be a powerful tool to discover acquisition of mobile genetic elements related to virulence. Here, we compared 28 V. anguillarum strains that differed in virulence in fish larval models. By pan-genome analyses, we found that six of nine highly virulent strains had a unique core and accessory genome. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had low genomic diversity. Integration of genomic and phenotypic features provides

  2. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Alvise, Paul D; Xu, Ruiqi; Zhang, Faxing; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences of a collection of V. anguillarum strains and compared them to virulence of the strains as determined in larval challenge assays. Previously identified virulence factors were globally distributed among the strains, with some genetic diversity. However, the pan-genome revealed that six out of nine high-virulence strains possessed a unique accessory genome that was attributed to pathogenic genomic islands, prophage-like elements, virulence factors, and a new set of gene clusters involved in biosynthesis, modification, and transport of polysaccharides. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had a high degree of genomic homogeneity. Finally, we found that a phylogeny based on the core genomes clustered the strains with moderate to no virulence, while six out of nine high-virulence strains represented phylogenetically separate clusters. Hence, we suggest a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. IMPORTANCE Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can be a powerful tool to discover acquisition of mobile genetic elements related to virulence. Here, we compared 28 V. anguillarum strains that differed in virulence in fish larval models. By pan-genome analyses, we found that six of nine highly virulent strains had a unique core and accessory genome. In contrast, V. anguillarum strains that were medium to nonvirulent had low genomic diversity. Integration of genomic and phenotypic features provides insights

  3. CyanoClust: comparative genome resources of cyanobacteria and plastids.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Naobumi V; Sato, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, which perform oxygen-evolving photosynthesis as do chloroplasts of plants and algae, are one of the best-studied prokaryotic phyla and one from which many representative genomes have been sequenced. Lack of a suitable comparative genomic database has been a problem in cyanobacterial genomics because many proteins involved in physiological functions such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation are not catalogued in commonly used databases, such as Clusters of Orthologous Proteins (COG). CyanoClust is a database of homolog groups in cyanobacteria and plastids that are produced by the program Gclust. We have developed a web-server system for the protein homology database featuring cyanobacteria and plastids. Database URL: http://cyanoclust.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

  4. Comparative genomics of Neisseria meningitidis: core genome, islands of horizontal transfer and pathogen-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Grifantini, Renata; Kumar, Nikhil; Tzeng, Yih Ling; Fouts, Derrick; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Draghi, Monia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Rappuoli, Rino; Stephens, David S; Grandi, Guido; Tettelin, Hervé

    2006-12-01

    To better understand Neisseria meningitidis genomes and virulence, microarray comparative genome hybridization (mCGH) data were collected from one Neisseria cinerea, two Neisseria lactamica, two Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 48 Neisseria meningitidis isolates. For N. meningitidis, these isolates are from diverse clonal complexes, invasive and carriage strains, and all major serogroups. The microarray platform represented N. meningitidis strains MC58, Z2491 and FAM18, and N. gonorrhoeae FA1090. By comparing hybridization data to genome sequences, the core N. meningitidis genome and insertions/deletions (e.g. capsule locus, type I secretion system) related to pathogenicity were identified, including further characterization of the capsule locus, bioinformatics analysis of a type I secretion system, and identification of some metabolic pathways associated with intracellular survival in pathogens. Hybridization data clustered meningococcal isolates from similar clonal complexes that were distinguished by the differential presence of six distinct islands of horizontal transfer. Several of these islands contained prophage or other mobile elements, including a novel prophage and a transposon carrying portions of a type I secretion system. Acquisition of some genetic islands appears to have occurred in multiple lineages, including transfer between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. However, island acquisition occurs infrequently, such that the genomic-level relationship is not obscured within clonal complexes. The N. meningitidis genome is characterized by the horizontal acquisition of multiple genetic islands; the study of these islands reveals important sets of genes varying between isolates and likely to be related to pathogenicity.

  5. Allelic genome structural variations in maize detected by array comparative genome hybridization.

    PubMed

    Beló, André; Beatty, Mary K; Hondred, David; Fengler, Kevin A; Li, Bailin; Rafalski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms such as insertion/deletions and duplications affecting genome segments larger than 1 kb are known as copy-number variations (CNVs) or structural variations (SVs). They have been recently studied in animals and humans by using array-comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), and have been associated with several human diseases. Their presence and phenotypic effects in plants have not been investigated on a genomic scale, although individual structural variations affecting traits have been described. We used aCGH to investigate the presence of CNVs in maize by comparing the genome of 13 maize inbred lines to B73. Analysis of hybridization signal ratios of 60,472 60-mer oligonucleotide probes between inbreds in relation to their location in the reference genome (B73) allowed us to identify clusters of probes that deviated from the ratio expected for equal copy-numbers. We found CNVs distributed along the maize genome in all chromosome arms. They occur with appreciable frequency in different germplasm subgroups, suggesting ancient origin. Validation of several CNV regions showed both insertion/deletions and copy-number differences. The nature of CNVs detected suggests CNVs might have a considerable impact on plant phenotypes, including disease response and heterosis.

  6. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    PubMed

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Liu, Tze-Tze; Teng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Hui-Lun; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I) and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2). The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92%) and 1607 (86%) of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS) and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  8. Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus Subspecies: Genome Plasticity, Adaptation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Hui-Lun; Liu, Yen-Ming; Wu, Keh-Ming; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I) and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2). The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92%) and 1607 (86%) of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS) and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops. PMID:21633709

  9. Cost-effective cloud computing: a case study using the comparative genomics tool, roundup.

    PubMed

    Kudtarkar, Parul; Deluca, Todd F; Fusaro, Vincent A; Tonellato, Peter J; Wall, Dennis P

    2010-12-22

    Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource-Roundup-using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon's computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing infrastructure.

  10. Cost-Effective Cloud Computing: A Case Study Using the Comparative Genomics Tool, Roundup

    PubMed Central

    Kudtarkar, Parul; DeLuca, Todd F.; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Wall, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource—Roundup—using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Methods Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. Results We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon’s computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing

  11. Comparative Analysis of Genome Sequences Covering the Seven Cronobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Craig A.; Shih, Rita; Degoricija, Lovorka; Rico, Alain; Brzoska, Pius; Hamby, Stephen E.; Masood, Naqash; Hariri, Sumyya; Sonbol, Hana; Chuzhanova, Nadia; McClelland, Michael; Furtado, Manohar R.; Forsythe, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Species of Cronobacter are widespread in the environment and are occasional food-borne pathogens associated with serious neonatal diseases, including bacteraemia, meningitis, and necrotising enterocolitis. The genus is composed of seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. dublinensis, C. muytjensii, C. universalis, and C. condimenti. Clinical cases are associated with three species, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis and, in particular, with C. sakazakii multilocus sequence type 4. Thus, it is plausible that virulence determinants have evolved in certain lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated high quality sequence drafts for eleven Cronobacter genomes representing the seven Cronobacter species, including an ST4 strain of C. sakazakii. Comparative analysis of these genomes together with the two publicly available genomes revealed Cronobacter has over 6,000 genes in one or more strains and over 2,000 genes shared by all Cronobacter. Considerable variation in the presence of traits such as type six secretion systems, metal resistance (tellurite, copper and silver), and adhesins were found. C. sakazakii is unique in the Cronobacter genus in encoding genes enabling the utilization of exogenous sialic acid which may have clinical significance. The C. sakazakii ST4 strain 701 contained additional genes as compared to other C. sakazakii but none of them were known specific virulence-related genes. Conclusions/Significance Genome comparison revealed that pair-wise DNA sequence identity varies between 89 and 97% in the seven Cronobacter species, and also suggested various degrees of divergence. Sets of universal core genes and accessory genes unique to each strain were identified. These gene sequences can be used for designing genus/species specific detection assays. Genes encoding adhesins, T6SS, and metal resistance genes as well as prophages are found in only subsets of genomes and have contributed considerably to the variation of

  12. Genomic Species Are Ecological Species as Revealed by Comparative Genomics in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Campillo, Tony; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Costechareyre, Denis; Chapulliot, David; Shams, Malek; Abrouk, Danis; Lavire, Céline; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hommais, Florence; Guéguen, Laurent; Daubin, Vincent; Muller, Daniel; Nesme, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The definition of bacterial species is based on genomic similarities, giving rise to the operational concept of genomic species, but the reasons of the occurrence of differentiated genomic species remain largely unknown. We used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex and particularly the genomic species presently called genomovar G8, which includes the sequenced strain C58, to test the hypothesis of genomic species having specific ecological adaptations possibly involved in the speciation process. We analyzed the gene repertoire specific to G8 to identify potential adaptive genes. By hybridizing 25 strains of A. tumefaciens on DNA microarrays spanning the C58 genome, we highlighted the presence and absence of genes homologous to C58 in the taxon. We found 196 genes specific to genomovar G8 that were mostly clustered into seven genomic islands on the C58 genome—one on the circular chromosome and six on the linear chromosome—suggesting higher plasticity and a major adaptive role of the latter. Clusters encoded putative functional units, four of which had been verified experimentally. The combination of G8-specific functions defines a hypothetical species primary niche for G8 related to commensal interaction with a host plant. This supports that the G8 ancestor was able to exploit a new ecological niche, maybe initiating ecological isolation and thus speciation. Searching genomic data for synapomorphic traits is a powerful way to describe bacterial species. This procedure allowed us to find such phenotypic traits specific to genomovar G8 and thus propose a Latin binomial, Agrobacterium fabrum, for this bona fide genomic species. PMID:21795751

  13. Comparative Genomics of 12 Strains of Erwinia amylovora Identifies a Pan-Genome with a Large Conserved Core

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Rachel A.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E.; Plummer, Kim M.; Beer, Steven V.; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains. PMID:23409014

  14. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rachel A; Smits, Theo H M; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea) and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  15. Inference of self-regulated transcriptional networks by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Joseph P; Matthews, Fialelei; Thomas, Julien R; Erill, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The assumption of basic properties, like self-regulation, in simple transcriptional regulatory networks can be exploited to infer regulatory motifs from the growing amounts of genomic and meta-genomic data. These motifs can in principle be used to elucidate the nature and scope of transcriptional networks through comparative genomics. Here we assess the feasibility of this approach using the SOS regulatory network of Gram-positive bacteria as a test case. Using experimentally validated data, we show that the known regulatory motif can be inferred through the assumption of self-regulation. Furthermore, the inferred motif provides a more robust search pattern for comparative genomics than the experimental motifs defined in reference organisms. We take advantage of this robustness to generate a functional map of the SOS response in Gram-positive bacteria. Our results reveal definite differences in the composition of the LexA regulon between Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and confirm that regulation of cell-division inhibition is a widespread characteristic of this network among Gram-positive bacteria.

  16. Comparative genomics of transcriptional regulation of methionine metabolism in proteobacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Leyn, Semen A.; Suvorova, Inna A.; Kholina, Tatiana D.; ...

    2014-11-20

    Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ~200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific andmore » genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria.« less

  17. Comparative genomics of transcriptional regulation of methionine metabolism in proteobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Leyn, Semen A.; Suvorova, Inna A.; Kholina, Tatiana D.; Sherstneva, Sofia S.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2014-11-20

    Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ~200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific and genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria.

  18. Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Regulation of Methionine Metabolism in Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Leyn, Semen A.; Suvorova, Inna A.; Kholina, Tatiana D.; Sherstneva, Sofia S.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ∼200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific and genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria. PMID:25411846

  19. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  20. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus and proposal of the new genus Parasynechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Felipe; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Thompson, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Synechococcus is among the most important contributors to global primary productivity. The genomes of several strains of this taxon have been previously sequenced in an effort to understand the physiology and ecology of these highly diverse microorganisms. Here we present a comparative study of Synechococcus genomes. For that end, we developed GenTaxo, a program written in Perl to perform genomic taxonomy based on average nucleotide identity, average amino acid identity and dinucleotide signatures, which revealed that the analyzed strains are drastically distinct regarding their genomic content. Phylogenomic reconstruction indicated a division of Synechococcus in two clades (i.e. Synechococcus and the new genus Parasynechococcus), corroborating evidences that this is in fact a polyphyletic group. By clustering protein encoding genes into homologue groups we were able to trace the Pangenome and core genome of both marine and freshwater Synechococcus and determine the genotypic traits that differentiate these lineages. PMID:26839740

  1. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus and proposal of the new genus Parasynechococcus.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Felipe; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Thompson, Fabiano; Thompson, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Synechococcus is among the most important contributors to global primary productivity. The genomes of several strains of this taxon have been previously sequenced in an effort to understand the physiology and ecology of these highly diverse microorganisms. Here we present a comparative study of Synechococcus genomes. For that end, we developed GenTaxo, a program written in Perl to perform genomic taxonomy based on average nucleotide identity, average amino acid identity and dinucleotide signatures, which revealed that the analyzed strains are drastically distinct regarding their genomic content. Phylogenomic reconstruction indicated a division of Synechococcus in two clades (i.e. Synechococcus and the new genus Parasynechococcus), corroborating evidences that this is in fact a polyphyletic group. By clustering protein encoding genes into homologue groups we were able to trace the Pangenome and core genome of both marine and freshwater Synechococcus and determine the genotypic traits that differentiate these lineages.

  2. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined. PMID:28071691

  3. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of trait-gene association

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Order Rickettsiales includes important tick-borne pathogens, from Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to Anaplasma marginale, the most prevalent vector-borne pathogen of cattle. Although most pathogens in this Order are transmitted by arthropod vectors, little is known about the microbial determinants of transmission. A. marginale provides unique tools for studying the determinants of transmission, with multiple strain sequences available that display distinct and reproducible transmission phenotypes. The closed core A. marginale genome suggests that any phenotypic differences are due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined DNA/RNA comparative genomic approaches using strains with different tick transmission phenotypes and identified genes that segregate with transmissibility. Results Comparison of seven strains with different transmission phenotypes generated a list of SNPs affecting 18 genes and nine promoters. Transcriptional analysis found two candidate genes downstream from promoter SNPs that were differentially transcribed. To corroborate the comparative genomics approach we used three RNA-seq platforms to analyze the transcriptomes from two A. marginale strains with different transmission phenotypes. RNA-seq analysis confirmed the comparative genomics data and found 10 additional genes whose transcription between strains with distinct transmission efficiencies was significantly different. Six regions of the genome that contained no annotation were found to be transcriptionally active, and two of these newly identified transcripts were differentially transcribed. Conclusions This approach identified 30 genes and two novel transcripts potentially involved in tick transmission. We describe the transcriptome of an obligate intracellular bacterium in depth, while employing massive parallel sequencing to dissect an important trait in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23181781

  4. Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) detects submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications in patients with learning disability/mental retardation and dysmorphic features

    PubMed Central

    Shaw-Smith, C; Redon, R; Rickman, L; Rio, M; Willatt, L; Fiegler, H; Firth, H; Sanlaville, D; Winter, R; Colleaux, L; Bobrow, M; Carter, N

    2004-01-01

    The underlying causes of learning disability and dysmorphic features in many patients remain unidentified despite extensive investigation. Routine karyotype analysis is not sensitive enough to detect subtle chromosome rearrangements (less than 5 Mb). The presence of subtle DNA copy number changes was investigated by array-CGH in 50 patients with learning disability and dysmorphism, employing a DNA microarray constructed from large insert clones spaced at approximately 1 Mb intervals across the genome. Twelve copy number abnormalities were identified in 12 patients (24% of the total): seven deletions (six apparently de novo and one inherited from a phenotypically normal parent) and five duplications (one de novo and four inherited from phenotypically normal parents). Altered segments ranged in size from those involving a single clone to regions as large as 14 Mb. No recurrent deletion or duplication was identified within this cohort of patients. On the basis of these results, we anticipate that array-CGH will become a routine method of genome-wide screening for imbalanced rearrangements in children with learning disability. PMID:15060094

  5. Comparative Physical Mapping Between Oryza sativa (AA Genome Type) and O. punctata (BB Genome Type)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HyeRan; Miguel, Phillip San; Nelson, William; Collura, Kristi; Wissotski, Marina; Walling, Jason G.; Kim, Jun Pyo; Jackson, Scott A.; Soderlund, Carol; Wing, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative physical map of the AA genome (Oryza sativa) and the BB genome (O. punctata) was constructed by aligning a physical map of O. punctata, deduced from 63,942 BAC end sequences (BESs) and 34,224 fingerprints, onto the O. sativa genome sequence. The level of conservation of each chromosome between the two species was determined by calculating a ratio of BES alignments. The alignment result suggests more divergence of intergenic and repeat regions in comparison to gene-rich regions. Further, this characteristic enabled localization of heterochromatic and euchromatic regions for each chromosome of both species. The alignment identified 16 locations containing expansions, contractions, inversions, and transpositions. By aligning 40% of the punctata BES on the map, 87% of the punctata FPC map covered 98% of the O. sativa genome sequence. The genome size of O. punctata was estimated to be 8% larger than that of O. sativa with individual chromosome differences of 1.5–16.5%. The sum of expansions and contractions observed in regions >500 kb were similar, suggesting that most of the contractions/expansions contributing to the genome size difference between the two species are small, thus preserving the macro-collinearity between these species, which diverged ∼2 million years ago. PMID:17339227

  6. Assessing the impact of comparative genomic sequence data on the functional annotation of the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Casey M; Pfeiffer, Barret D; Rincón-Limas, Diego E; Hoskins, Roger A; Gnirke, Andreas; Mungall, Chris J; Wang, Adrienne M; Kronmiller, Brent; Pacleb, Joanne; Park, Soo; Stapleton, Mark; Wan, Kenneth; George, Reed A; de Jong, Pieter J; Botas, Juan; Rubin, Gerald M; Celniker, Susan E

    2002-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that comparative sequence data can aid the functional annotation of genome sequences; however, the most informative species and features of genome evolution for comparison remain to be determined. Results We analyzed conservation in eight genomic regions (apterous, even-skipped, fushi tarazu, twist, and Rhodopsins 1, 2, 3 and 4) from four Drosophila species (D. erecta, D. pseudoobscura, D. willistoni, and D. littoralis) covering more than 500 kb of the D. melanogaster genome. All D. melanogaster genes (and 78-82% of coding exons) identified in divergent species such as D. pseudoobscura show evidence of functional constraint. Addition of a third species can reveal functional constraint in otherwise non-significant pairwise exon comparisons. Microsynteny is largely conserved, with rearrangement breakpoints, novel transposable element insertions, and gene transpositions occurring in similar numbers. Rates of amino-acid substitution are higher in uncharacterized genes relative to genes that have previously been studied. Conserved non-coding sequences (CNCSs) tend to be spatially clustered with conserved spacing between CNCSs, and clusters of CNCSs can be used to predict enhancer sequences. Conclusions Our results provide the basis for choosing species whose genome sequences would be most useful in aiding the functional annotation of coding and cis-regulatory sequences in Drosophila. Furthermore, this work shows how decoding the spatial organization of conserved sequences, such as the clustering of CNCSs, can complement efforts to annotate eukaryotic genomes on the basis of sequence conservation alone. PMID:12537575

  7. Elucidating the triplicated ancestral genome structure of radish based on chromosome-level comparison with the Brassica genomes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Namshin; Ahn, Byung Ohg; Oh, Mijin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Chung, Hee; Jeong, Seongmun; Lim, Ki-Byung; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Goon-Bo; Baek, Seunghoon; Choi, Sang-Bong; Hyung, Dae-Jin; Lee, Seung-Won; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Jin, Mina; Seol, Young-Joo; Chae, Won Byoung; Choi, Keun Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish that is assembled into nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. A comprehensive comparative genome analysis with the Brassica genomes provides genomic evidences on the evolution of the mesohexaploid radish genome. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an agronomically important root vegetable crop and its origin and phylogenetic position in the tribe Brassiceae is controversial. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the radish genome based on the chromosome sequences of R. sativus cv. WK10039. The radish genome was sequenced and assembled into 426.2 Mb spanning >98 % of the gene space, of which 344.0 Mb were integrated into nine chromosome pseudomolecules. Approximately 36 % of the genome was repetitive sequences and 46,514 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated. Comparative mapping of the tPCK-like ancestral genome revealed that the radish genome has intermediate characteristics between the Brassica A/C and B genomes in the triplicated segments, suggesting an internal origin from the genus Brassica. The evolutionary characteristics shared between radish and other Brassica species provided genomic evidences that the current form of nine chromosomes in radish was rearranged from the chromosomes of hexaploid progenitor. Overall, this study provides a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish as well as novel insight into evolution of the mesohexaploid genomes in the tribe Brassiceae.

  8. Genomic characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum KF-25

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Penicillium chrysogenum has been used in producing penicillin and derived β-lactam antibiotics for many years. Although the genome of the mutant strain P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 has already been sequenced, the versatility and genetic diversity of this species still needs to be intensively studied. In this study, the genome of the wild-type P. chrysogenum strain KF-25, which has high activity against Ustilaginoidea virens, was sequenced and characterized. Results The genome of KF-25 was about 29.9 Mb in size and contained 9,804 putative open reading frames (orfs). Thirteen genes were predicted to encode two-component system proteins, of which six were putatively involved in osmolarity adaption. There were 33 putative secondary metabolism pathways and numerous genes that were essential in metabolite biosynthesis. Several P. chrysogenum virus untranslated region sequences were found in the KF-25 genome, suggesting that there might be a relationship between the virus and P. chrysogenum in evolution. Comparative genome analysis showed that the genomes of KF-25 and Wisconsin 54-1255 were highly similar, except that KF-25 was 2.3 Mb smaller. Three hundred and fifty-five KF-25 specific genes were found and the biological functions of the proteins encoded by these genes were mainly unknown (232, representing 65%), except for some orfs encoding proteins with predicted functions in transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. Numerous KF-25-specific genes were found to be associated with the pathogenicity and virulence of the strains, which were identical to those of wild-type P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951. Conclusion Genome sequencing and comparative analysis are helpful in further understanding the biology, evolution, and environment adaption of P. chrysogenum, and provide a new tool for identifying further functional metabolites. PMID:24555742

  9. Genomic characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum KF-25.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qin; Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Chen, Xupeng; Liu, Biao; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan; Wu, Dandan

    2014-02-21

    Penicillium chrysogenum has been used in producing penicillin and derived β-lactam antibiotics for many years. Although the genome of the mutant strain P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 has already been sequenced, the versatility and genetic diversity of this species still needs to be intensively studied. In this study, the genome of the wild-type P. chrysogenum strain KF-25, which has high activity against Ustilaginoidea virens, was sequenced and characterized. The genome of KF-25 was about 29.9 Mb in size and contained 9,804 putative open reading frames (orfs). Thirteen genes were predicted to encode two-component system proteins, of which six were putatively involved in osmolarity adaption. There were 33 putative secondary metabolism pathways and numerous genes that were essential in metabolite biosynthesis. Several P. chrysogenum virus untranslated region sequences were found in the KF-25 genome, suggesting that there might be a relationship between the virus and P. chrysogenum in evolution. Comparative genome analysis showed that the genomes of KF-25 and Wisconsin 54-1255 were highly similar, except that KF-25 was 2.3 Mb smaller. Three hundred and fifty-five KF-25 specific genes were found and the biological functions of the proteins encoded by these genes were mainly unknown (232, representing 65%), except for some orfs encoding proteins with predicted functions in transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. Numerous KF-25-specific genes were found to be associated with the pathogenicity and virulence of the strains, which were identical to those of wild-type P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951. Genome sequencing and comparative analysis are helpful in further understanding the biology, evolution, and environment adaption of P. chrysogenum, and provide a new tool for identifying further functional metabolites.

  10. Array-comparative genomic hybridization profiling of immunohistochemical subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma shows distinct genomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ying; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Miyata, Tomoko; Ohshima, Koichi; Seto, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) displays striking heterogeneity at the clinical, genetic and molecular levels. Subtypes include germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, according to microarray analysis, and germinal center type or non-germinal center type by immunohistochemistry. Although some reports have described genomic aberrations based upon microarray classification system, genomic aberrations based upon immunohistochemical classifications have rarely been reported. The present study aimed to ascertain the relationship between genomic aberrations and subtypes identified by immunohistochemistry, and to study the pathogenetic character of Chinese DLBCL. We conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 in 59 samples of DLBCL from Chinese patients, and then performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization for each case. Characteristic genomic differences were found between GCB and non-GCB DLBCL from the array data. The GCB type was characterized by more gains at 7q (7q22.1, P < 0.05) and losses at 16q (P ≤ 0.05), while the non-GCB type was characterized by gains at 11q24.3 and 3q13.2 (P < 0.05). We found completely different mutations in BCL6+ and BCL6− non-GCB type DLBCL, whereby the BCL6− group had a higher number of gains at 1q and a loss at 14q32.13 (P ≤ 0.005), while the BCL6+ group showed a higher number of gains at 14q23.1 (P = 0.15) and losses at 6q (P = 0.07). The BCL6− group had a higher frequency of genomic imbalances compared to the BCL6+ group. In conclusion, the BCL6+ and BCL6− non-GCB type of DLBCL appear to have different mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:24843885

  11. Array-comparative genomic hybridization profiling of immunohistochemical subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma shows distinct genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Miyata, Tomoko; Ohshima, Koichi; Seto, Masao

    2014-04-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) displays striking heterogeneity at the clinical, genetic and molecular levels. Subtypes include germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, according to microarray analysis, and germinal center type or non-germinal center type by immunohistochemistry. Although some reports have described genomic aberrations based upon microarray classification system, genomic aberrations based upon immunohistochemical classifications have rarely been reported. The present study aimed to ascertain the relationship between genomic aberrations and subtypes identified by immunohistochemistry, and to study the pathogenetic character of Chinese DLBCL. We conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 in 59 samples of DLBCL from Chinese patients, and then performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization for each case. Characteristic genomic differences were found between GCB and non-GCB DLBCL from the array data. The GCB type was characterized by more gains at 7q (7q22.1, P < 0.05) and losses at 16q (P ≤ 0.05), while the non-GCB type was characterized by gains at 11q24.3 and 3q13.2 (P < 0.05). We found completely different mutations in BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type DLBCL, whereby the BCL6- group had a higher number of gains at 1q and a loss at 14q32.13 (P ≤ 0.005), while the BCL6+ group showed a higher number of gains at 14q23.1 (P = 0.15) and losses at 6q (P = 0.07). The BCL6- group had a higher frequency of genomic imbalances compared to the BCL6+ group. In conclusion, the BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type of DLBCL appear to have different mechanisms of pathogenesis.

  12. Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Oleg; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Cornette, Richard; Kawashima, Takeshi; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Hatanaka, Rie; Kikuta, Shingo; Shimura, Sachiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Alexeev, Dmitry; Govorun, Vadim; Wisecaver, Jennifer; Mikheyev, Alexander; Koyanagi, Ryo; Fujie, Manabu; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Shigenobu, Shuji; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Golygina, Veronika; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Okuda, Takashi; Satoh, Nori; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis represents an extreme example of tolerance adaptation to water loss, where an organism can survive in an ametabolic state until water returns. Here we report the first comparative analysis examining the genomic background of extreme desiccation tolerance, which is exclusively found in larvae of the only anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. We compare the genomes of P. vanderplanki and a congeneric desiccation-sensitive midge P. nubifer. We determine that the genome of the anhydrobiotic species specifically contains clusters of multi-copy genes with products that act as molecular shields. In addition, the genome possesses several groups of genes with high similarity to known protective proteins. However, these genes are located in distinct paralogous clusters in the genome apart from the classical orthologues of the corresponding genes shared by both chironomids and other insects. The transcripts of these clustered paralogues contribute to a large majority of the mRNA pool in the desiccating larvae and most likely define successful anhydrobiosis. Comparison of expression patterns of orthologues between two chironomid species provides evidence for the existence of desiccation-specific gene expression systems in P. vanderplanki. PMID:25216354

  13. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation. PMID:20929575

  14. Decoding the molecular evolution of human cognition using comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Usui, Noriyoshi; Co, Marissa; Konopka, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genetic and molecular factors responsible for the specialized cognitive abilities of humans is expected to provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for disorders of cognition such as autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we discuss the use of comparative genomics for identifying salient genes and gene networks that may underlie cognition. We focus on the comparison of human and non-human primate brain gene expression and the utility of building gene coexpression networks for prioritizing hundreds of genes that differ in expression among the species queried. We also discuss the importance of and methods for functional studies of the individual genes identified. Together, this integration of comparative genomics with cellular and animal models should provide improved systems for developing effective therapeutics for disorders of cognition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Decoding the molecular evolution of human cognition using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Noriyoshi; Co, Marissa; Konopka, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genetic and molecular factors responsible for the specialized cognitive abilities of humans is expected to provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for disorders of cognition such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we discuss the use of comparative genomics for identifying salient genes and gene networks that may underlie cognition. We focus on the comparison of human and non-human primate brain gene expression and the utility of building gene co-expression networks for prioritizing hundreds of genes that differ in expression among the species queried. We also discuss the importance and methods for functional studies of individual genes identified. Together, this integration of comparative genomics with cellular and animal models should provide improved systems for developing effective therapeutics for disorders of cognition. PMID:25247723

  16. Draft Genomes, Phylogenetic Reconstruction, and Comparative Genomics of Two Novel Cohabiting Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Facey, Paul D.; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Pachebat, Justin A.; Hegarty, Matt J.; Chen, Xiaorui; Morgan, Laura V.A.; Hoeppner, James E.; Whitten, Miranda M.A.; Kirk, William D.J.; Dyson, Paul J.; Sheppard, Sam K.; Sol, Ricardo Del

    2015-01-01

    Obligate bacterial symbionts are widespread in many invertebrates, where they are often confined to specialized host cells and are transmitted directly from mother to progeny. Increasing numbers of these bacteria are being characterized but questions remain about their population structure and evolution. Here we take a comparative genomics approach to investigate two prominent bacterial symbionts (BFo1 and BFo2) isolated from geographically separated populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Our multifaceted approach to classifying these symbionts includes concatenated multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogenies, ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), construction of whole-genome phylogenies, and in-depth genomic comparisons. We showed that the BFo1 genome clusters more closely to species in the genus Erwinia, and is a putative close relative to Erwinia aphidicola. BFo1 is also likely to have shared a common ancestor with Erwinia pyrifoliae/Erwinia amylovora and the nonpathogenic Erwinia tasmaniensis and genetic traits similar to Erwinia billingiae. The BFo1 genome contained virulence factors found in the genus Erwinia but represented a divergent lineage. In contrast, we showed that BFo2 belongs within the Enterobacteriales but does not group closely with any currently known bacterial species. Concatenated MLSA phylogenies indicate that it may have shared a common ancestor to the Erwinia and Pantoea genera, and based on the clustering of rMLST genes, it was most closely related to Pantoea ananatis but represented a divergent lineage. We reconstructed a core genome of a putative common ancestor of Erwinia and Pantoea and compared this with the genomes of BFo bacteria. BFo2 possessed none of the virulence determinants that were omnipresent in the Erwinia and Pantoea genera. Taken together, these data are consistent with BFo2 representing a highly novel species that maybe related to known Pantoea. PMID:26185096

  17. Whole-genome sequence of the Tibetan frog Nanorana parkeri and the comparative evolution of tetrapod genomes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Bo; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Xiang, Xue-Yan; Liu, Shi-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Tu, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Yang, Min-Min; Chen, Hong-Man; Li, Fang; Zhou, Long; Feng, Shao-Hong; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Guo-Jie; Irwin, David; Hillis, David M; Murphy, Robert W; Yang, Huan-Ming; Che, Jing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-03-17

    The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this group. This dearth of amphibian genomes greatly restricts genomic studies of amphibians and, more generally, our understanding of tetrapod genome evolution. To fill this gap, we provide the de novo genome of a Tibetan Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri, and compare it to that of X. tropicalis and other vertebrates. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, a number similar to that of Xenopus. Although the genome size of Nanorana is considerably larger than that of Xenopus (2.3 vs. 1.5 Gb), most of the difference is due to the respective number of transposable elements in the two genomes. The two frogs exhibit considerable conserved whole-genome synteny despite having diverged approximately 266 Ma, indicating a slow rate of DNA structural evolution in anurans. Multigenome synteny blocks further show that amphibians have fewer interchromosomal rearrangements than mammals but have a comparable rate of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis also identifies 11 Mb of anuran-specific highly conserved elements that will be useful for comparative genomic analyses of frogs. The Nanorana genome offers an improved understanding of evolution of tetrapod genomes and also provides a genomic reference for other evolutionary studies.

  18. Unlocking Holocentric Chromosomes: New Perspectives from Comparative and Functional Genomics?

    PubMed Central

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chromosomes with diffuse centromeres (holocentric chromosomes) has been reported in several taxa since more than fifty years, but a full understanding of their origin is still lacking. Comparative and functional genomics are nowadays furnishing new data to better understand holocentric chromosome evolution thus opening new perspectives to analyse karyotype rearrangements in species with holocentric chromosomes in particular evidencing unusual common features, such as the uniform GC content and gene distribution along chromosomes. PMID:23372420

  19. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1–120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:28018419

  20. Ecology of marine Bacteroidetes: a comparative genomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Richter, Michael; Schüler, Margarete; Pinhassi, Jarone; Acinas, Silvia G; González, José M; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Bacteroidetes are commonly assumed to be specialized in degrading high molecular weight (HMW) compounds and to have a preference for growth attached to particles, surfaces or algal cells. The first sequenced genomes of marine Bacteroidetes seemed to confirm this assumption. Many more genomes have been sequenced recently. Here, a comparative analysis of marine Bacteroidetes genomes revealed a life strategy different from those of other important phyla of marine bacterioplankton such as Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes have many adaptations to grow attached to particles, have the capacity to degrade polymers, including a large number of peptidases, glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyl transferases, adhesion proteins, as well as the genes for gliding motility. Several of the polymer degradation genes are located in close association with genes for TonB-dependent receptors and transducers, suggesting an integrated regulation of adhesion and degradation of polymers. This confirmed the role of this abundant group of marine bacteria as degraders of particulate matter. Marine Bacteroidetes had a significantly larger number of proteases than GHs, while non-marine Bacteroidetes had equal numbers of both. Proteorhodopsin containing Bacteroidetes shared two characteristics: small genome size and a higher number of genes involved in CO2 fixation per Mb. The latter may be important in order to survive when floating freely in the illuminated, but nutrient-poor, ocean surface. PMID:23303374

  1. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of the compound Brassica napus Rf locus.

    PubMed

    Gaborieau, Lydiane; Brown, Gregory G

    2016-10-26

    The plant trait of cytoplasmically-inherited male sterility (CMS) and its suppression by nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can be viewed as a genetic arms race between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Most nuclear Rf genes have been shown to encode P-type pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs). Phylogenetic analysis of P-class PPRs from sequenced plants genomes has shown that Rf-proteins cluster in a distinct clade of P-class PPRs, RFL-PPRs, that display hallmarks of positive evolutionary selection. Genes encoding RFL-PPRs (RFLs) within a given plant genome tend to be closely related both in sequence and position, but a detailed understanding of how such species-specific expansion occurs is lacking. In the canola, (oilseed rape) species Brassica napus, previous work has indicated the nuclear restorer genes for the two native forms of CMS, Rfn (for nap CMS) and Rfp (pol CMS), represent alternate haplotypes, or alleles, of a single nuclear locus. Fine genetic mapping indicates that Rfn does indeed localize to the same genomic region as Rfp. We find this region is enriched in RFL genes, three of which, based on their position and expression, represent potential candidates for Rfn; one of these genes, designated PPR4, is a preferred candidate in that it is not expressed in the nap CMS line. Comparison of the corresponding regions of the genomes of B. rapa, B. oleracea, Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata provides insight into the expansion of this group of RFL genes in different lines of evolutionary descent. Unlike other nuclear restorer loci containing multiple RFL genes, the RFL genes in the Rf region of B. napus are not present in tandem arrays but rather are dispersed in genomic location. The genes do not share similar flanking non-coding regions and do not contain introns, indicating that they have duplicated primarily through a retrotransposition-mediated process. In contrast, segmental duplication has been responsible for the distribution of the

  3. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher J

    2007-06-30

    Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the beta2, gamma1, gamma3, epsilon, theta and pi subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the alpha1, beta2, gamma2 and alpha6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the alpha1 and beta2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs). The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the alpha1 and beta2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the alpha6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.

  4. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains. PMID:27548157

  6. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-19

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains.

  7. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  8. Comparative whole genome analysis of three consecutive Salmonella diarizonae isolates.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Roman G; Walter, Steffi; McClelland, Michael; Schmidt, Christiane; Steglich, Matthias; Prager, Rita; Bender, Jennifer K; Fuchs, Stephan; Schoerner, Christoph; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Lang, Werner; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2017-09-05

    Infections of very young children or immunocompromised people with Salmonella of higher subspecies are a well-known phenomenon often associated with contact to cold-blooded animals. We describe the molecular characterization of three S. enterica subsp. diarizonae strains, isolated consecutively over a period of several months from a hospital patient suffering from diarrhea and sepsis with fatal outcome. With the initial isolate the first complete genome sequence of a member of subsp. diarizonae is provided and based on this reference we revealed the genomic differences between the three isolates by use of next-generation sequencing and confirmed by phenotypical tests. Genome comparisons revealed mutations within gpt, hfq and purK in the first isolate as a sign of clonal variation rather than host-directed evolution. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that S. enterica subsp. diarizonae possess, besides a conserved set of known Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands, a variable portfolio of additional genomic islands of unknown function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes.

  10. Comparative genomics of two ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter' clades performing biological phosphorus removal

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Jason J; He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tringe, Susannah G; Hugenholtz, Philip; McMahon, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are important in many wastewater treatment systems performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The Accumulibacter lineage can be subdivided phylogenetically into multiple clades, and previous work showed that these clades are ecologically distinct. The complete genome of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis strain UW-1, a member of Clade IIA, was previously sequenced. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Candidatus Accumulibacter spp. strain UW-2, a member of Clade IA, assembled following shotgun metagenomic sequencing of laboratory-scale bioreactor sludge. We estimate the genome to be 80–90% complete. Although the two clades share 16S rRNA sequence identity of >98.0%, we observed a remarkable lack of synteny between the two genomes. We identified 2317 genes shared between the two genomes, with an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 78.3%, and accounting for 49% of genes in the UW-1 genome. Unlike UW-1, the UW-2 genome seemed to lack genes for nitrogen fixation and carbon fixation. Despite these differences, metabolic genes essential for denitrification and EBPR, including carbon storage polymer and polyphosphate metabolism, were conserved in both genomes. The ANI from genes associated with EBPR was statistically higher than that from genes not associated with EBPR, indicating a high selective pressure in EBPR systems. Further, we identified genomic islands of foreign origins including a near-complete lysogenic phage in the Clade IA genome. Interestingly, Clade IA appeared to be more phage susceptible based on it containing only a single Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus as compared with the two found in Clade IIA. Overall, the comparative analysis provided a genetic basis to understand physiological differences and ecological niches of Accumulibacter populations, and highlights the importance of diversity in maintaining system functional resilience. PMID:23887171

  11. Comparative genomics of two 'Candidatus Accumulibacter' clades performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Jason J; He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tringe, Susannah G; Hugenholtz, Philip; McMahon, Katherine D

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are important in many wastewater treatment systems performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The Accumulibacter lineage can be subdivided phylogenetically into multiple clades, and previous work showed that these clades are ecologically distinct. The complete genome of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis strain UW-1, a member of Clade IIA, was previously sequenced. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Candidatus Accumulibacter spp. strain UW-2, a member of Clade IA, assembled following shotgun metagenomic sequencing of laboratory-scale bioreactor sludge. We estimate the genome to be 80-90% complete. Although the two clades share 16S rRNA sequence identity of >98.0%, we observed a remarkable lack of synteny between the two genomes. We identified 2317 genes shared between the two genomes, with an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 78.3%, and accounting for 49% of genes in the UW-1 genome. Unlike UW-1, the UW-2 genome seemed to lack genes for nitrogen fixation and carbon fixation. Despite these differences, metabolic genes essential for denitrification and EBPR, including carbon storage polymer and polyphosphate metabolism, were conserved in both genomes. The ANI from genes associated with EBPR was statistically higher than that from genes not associated with EBPR, indicating a high selective pressure in EBPR systems. Further, we identified genomic islands of foreign origins including a near-complete lysogenic phage in the Clade IA genome. Interestingly, Clade IA appeared to be more phage susceptible based on it containing only a single Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus as compared with the two found in Clade IIA. Overall, the comparative analysis provided a genetic basis to understand physiological differences and ecological niches of Accumulibacter populations, and highlights the importance of diversity in maintaining system functional resilience.

  12. The Genome of Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Evolution within the Nosema/Vairimorpha Clade.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinshan; He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Li, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Bettina A; Zhou, Zeyang; Vossbrinck, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian parasite designated here as Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr was isolated from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae collected in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing and compared to those of two related members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade, Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. Based upon assembly statistics, the Nosema sp. YNPr genome is 3.36 x 106bp with a G+C content of 23.18% and 2,075 protein coding sequences. An "ACCCTT" motif is present approximately 50-bp upstream of the start codon, as reported from other members of the clade and from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a sister taxon. Comparative small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) analysis as well as genome-wide phylogenetic analysis confirms a closer relationship between N. ceranae and Nosema sp. YNPr than between the two honeybee parasites N. ceranae and N. apis. The more closely related N. ceranae and Nosema sp. YNPr show similarities in a number of structural characteristics such as gene synteny, gene length, gene number, transposon composition and gene reduction. Based on transposable element content of the assemblies, the transposon content of Nosema sp. YNPr is 4.8%, that of N. ceranae is 3.7%, and that of N. apis is 2.5%, with large differences in the types of transposons present among these 3 species. Gene function annotation indicates that the number of genes participating in most metabolic activities is similar in all three species. However, the number of genes in the transcription, general function, and cysteine protease categories is greater in N. apis than in the other two species. Our studies further characterize the evolution of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade of microsporidia. These organisms maintain variable but very reduced genome