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Sample records for competition industria brasileira

  1. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  2. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  3. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  4. Academic Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin County Office of Education, San Rafael, CA.

    Descriptions of scholastic competitions for Marin County (California) students are presented. Following a rationale for conducting scholastic competitions, community groups and businesses which lend support are listed along with the type of support given. Participating grade levels, dates of competition during the 1983-84 school year, and a brief…

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  6. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  7. Competitive morality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-02-01

    Baumard et al. argue that partner choice leads to fairness and mutualism, which then form the basis for morality. I comment that mutualism takes us only so far, and I apply the theory of competitive altruism in arguing how strategic investment in behaviours which make one a desirable partner may drive moral conduct.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  9. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  10. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  11. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  12. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  13. Complex competitive systems and competitive thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Klimenko, A Y

    2013-01-13

    This publication reviews the framework of abstract competition, which is aimed at studying complex systems with competition in their generic form. Although the concept of abstract competition has been derived from a specific field--modelling of mixing in turbulent reacting flows--this concept is, generally, not attached to a specific phenomenon or application. Two classes of competition rules, transitive and intransitive, need to be distinguished. Transitive competitions are shown to be consistent (at least qualitatively) with thermodynamic principles, which allows for introduction of special competitive thermodynamics. Competitive systems can thus be characterized by thermodynamic quantities (such as competitive entropy and competitive potential), which determine that the predominant direction of evolution of the system is directed towards higher competitiveness. There is, however, an important difference: while conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. The analogy with conventional thermodynamics weakens as competitive systems become more intransitive, while strongly intransitive competitions can display types of behaviour associated with complexity: competitive cooperation and leaping cycles. Results of simulations demonstrating complex behaviour in abstract competitions are presented in the electronic supplementary material.

  14. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  15. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed.

  16. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  17. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  18. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  19. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  20. Mixing, entropy and competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices.

  1. Strategic planning and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, W.G. )

    1994-02-01

    This article discusses how to formulate a successful strategic plan in the face of competition from other electric utilities. Areas covered include reasons for plan failure, competitive simulations to test strategic plans, intelligence gathering, and cost reduction through reorganization.

  2. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  3. Competition in Courtship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laner, Mary Riege

    1986-01-01

    Explores both positive and negative competition within premarital relationships using a typology of competitive behaviors. Findings compare competitive activities of men and women in serious mate-choice oriented relationships. Implications for both courtship and marital relationships are offered. (Author/BL)

  4. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  5. Gaining the Competitive Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

    Economic competitiveness is today's most critical issue. Keeping the United States competitive in the world marketplace means the difference between a rising standard of living for everyone and the disappearance of what is taken for granted as a way of life. Developing human capital is the route toward successful competition, as some examples…

  6. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  7. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  8. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  9. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  10. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  11. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  12. Competition in Economic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, F.

    1982-01-01

    Considers two alternative views of competition found in the economics literature. The author demonstrates that these alternative views of competition underlie alternative views in other areas of economics, including welfare economics and micro-economic policy. Implications for college students and teachers are examined. (Author/AM)

  13. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  14. Assessing the quality of a scientific journal: the case of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria.

    PubMed

    Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Scientific production in the field of Psychiatry is growing exponentially, as reflected by the number of scientific journals now available. Current strategies to objectively estimate the quality of a specific publication are mostly based on indexation and citation criteria. The concept of impact factor, a measure of the frequency with which an article has been cited in a particular period, is key to understanding the way journals are evaluated. The recent indexation of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria in the two major medical databases has increased the journal's visibility, as indicated by the rising number of citations received over the last years. As researchers' scientific productivity measures are largely associated with citation indices of journals in which manuscripts are published, it is essential that Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria continues to attract high quality, innovative articles, with the ultimate goal of providing state-of-the-art continuing medical education for mental health professionals.

  15. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  16. Justice and competitive markets.

    PubMed

    Brody, B A

    1987-02-01

    This essay challenges the view that the provision of health care must take place within a competitive-free system. The author argues that, presuming that there is a requirement to meet the demands of those who cannot pay for health care, a competitive market provides a good way to deal with injustices within the health care system. The author concludes that the demands for justice are best met when indigent individuals use some portion of the funds they receive from the government to purchase one of the many competing forms of health care. This scheme requires a competitive market in the delivery of health care.

  17. Costing and competition.

    PubMed

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation. PMID:10136091

  18. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  19. Untangling healthcare competition.

    PubMed

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  20. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  1. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  2. Price competition in procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  3. IT product competition Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiu-Lian; Zhou, Lei; Shi, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong-Li; Feng, Ai-Xia; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    Along with the technical development, the IT product competition becomes increasingly fierce in recent years. The factories, which produce the same IT product, have to improve continuously their own product quality for taking a large piece of cake in the product sale market. We suggest using a complex network description for the IT product competition. In the network the factories are defined as nodes, and two nodes are connected by a link if they produce a common IT product. The edge represents the sale competition relationship. 2121 factories and 265 products have been investigated. Some statistical properties, such as the degree distribution, node strength distribution, assortativity, and node degree correlation have been empirically obtained.

  4. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  5. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  6. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  7. Competition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Erv

    1981-01-01

    Argues that teacher use of competition in the classroom may lead to anxiety, aggression, or a decrease in self-concept among students and that learning to compete is not so important in a postindustrial society. Advocates cooperative classroom activities. (SJL)

  8. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  9. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  10. Reed Hundt's Friendly Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents an interview with Reed Hundt, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), who implemented the Education Task Force to coordinate the FCC's role in educational provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. He asserts that writing clear rules for the communications sector will promote competition and ensure educational…

  11. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  12. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  13. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  14. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  15. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  16. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  17. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  19. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  20. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  1. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  2. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  3. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  4. 75 FR 45558 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0754; Directorate Identifier...

  5. 75 FR 53609 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0870; Directorate Identifier...

  6. 75 FR 43049 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... 2, 2009, we issued AD 2009-23-11, Amendment 39-16085 (74 FR 58195; November 12, 2009). That AD... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will... (74 FR 58195; November 12, 2009), and adding the following new AD: 2010-15-09 Empresa Brasileira...

  7. 75 FR 14333 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... 12866; ] 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and Model ERJ 190 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... by adding the following new AD: 2010-07-04 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  8. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  9. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    PubMed

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  10. The two sides of competition: competition-induced effort and affect during intergroup versus interindividual competition.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Marion; Krimmel, Anna; Kohler, Mischa; Hertel, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Competition strongly affects individual effort and performance for both individuals and groups. Especially in work settings, these effort gains might come at the cost of individual well-being. The present study tested whether competition increases both effort (as indicated by task performance) and stress (in terms of cardiovascular reactivity and affective response), and whether this effect is further qualified by the type of competition (interindividual vs. intergroup), using a cognitive computer-based task and a 2 (Group: Yes, No) × 2 (Competition: Yes, No) × 2 (Gender) factorial design (N = 147). All participants either worked as a representative of a group or as an individual, and were offered performance-related incentives distributed in a lottery. In the competition conditions, participants were informed that they competed with someone else, and that only the winning person/team would take part in the lottery. Consistent with expectations, competition increased both individual effort and cardiovascular reactivity compared to non-competitive work. Moreover, for female participants, intergroup competition triggered increased effort and more positive affect than interindividual competition. Aside from documenting costly side-effects of competition in terms of stress, this study provides evidence for a stress-related explanation of effort gains during intergroup competition as compared to interindividual competition.

  11. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  12. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  13. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  14. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  15. More competitive silicon smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Over the past several years, foreign manufacturers of ferrosilicon and silicon alloys have been making inroads in American markets such as computer chips. To make domestic smelting of these materials more competitive, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded the development of a direct-current plasma-arc-furnace smelting process by the South Carolina Research Authority (SCRA) in North Charleston. This new technology can reduce the energy consumption of the smelting process, saving million of dollars in energy costs per year. Typically, silicon and ferrosilicon alloys are produced in open-top, submerged-arc, alternating-current furnaces. A mixture of quartz ore and reducing agents are fed into the furnace, multiple electrodes are inserted into the material, and the mixture is charged to produce the desired metal. The process consumes high amounts of electrical power relative to the amount of metal recovered.

  16. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  17. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  18. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (p<0.05, respectively). Natural killer cells increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0006), and decreased during recovery. B and T cells increased immediately after the competitions and remained elevated throughout recovery (p<0.05, respectively). CD4/CD8 ratio after the competitions was decreased (p=0.0091) and returned to baseline during recovery. These results suggest that the immunological function of the elite female adolescent athletes could be attenuated after Taekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  19. Spatial Aspects of Interspecific Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, Rick; Levin, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Using several variants of a stochastic spatial model introduced by Silvertown et al., we investigate the effect of spatial distribution of individuals on the outcome of competition. First, we prove rigorously that if one species has a competitive advantage over each of the others, then eventually it takes over all the sites in the system. Second, we examine tradeoffs between competition and dispersal distance in a two-species system. Third, we consider a cyclic competitive relationship between three types. In this case, a nonspatial treatment leads to densities that follow neutrally stable cycles or even unstable spiral solutions, while a spatial model yields a stationary distribution with an interesting spatial structure.

  20. Competitive sports for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Clark, M W

    1980-01-01

    A full life experience for people with and without physical disabilities usually includes some form of recreation or sport. Competition adds to enjoyment of sport for many people and can improve morale. This paper reviews some of the competitive opportunities available for people with a physical disability. These include competition within existing "able-bodied" organizations with or without adaptive devices and competition in separate organizations for those with disabilities. The latter include the National Wheelchair Basketball Association and the National Wheelchair Athletic Association.

  1. Gender differences in competitive stress.

    PubMed

    Madden, C C; Kirkby, R J

    1995-06-01

    Stress experienced in competitive basketball was investigated in a sample of 84 men and 49 women recruited from players engaged in regular, organized, competitive grade basketball. Subjects were administered the Stressful Situations in Basketball Questionnaire which provides measures on 5 types of stress in competitive basketball. Analyses of gender differences showed that men reported more stress than female players on the "Team performance" scale. Research is required to evaluate whether this difference is due to a perception of women that they have less influence over the performance of the team or whether it is due to men having a higher stake in the results of competition.

  2. Student Advertising Competitions: Student Perspectives on the AAF Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.; Avery, James R.

    An exploratory study examined student perspectives and beliefs about involvement in the American Advertising Federation's (AAF) National Student Advertising Competition. Subjects, 34 students from 7 of the 15 winning regional teams in the 1991 AAF competition, completed a single-page, 2-part questionnaire. Multiple correlations were run on…

  3. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  4. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  5. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  6. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  7. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  8. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  9. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  10. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  11. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  12. Competitive Skills Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    Almost 180 (22.5 percent) of BP Chemicals/HITCO, Inc. (BPCHI) employees have participated in the basic skills courses offered through the Competitive Skills Project (CSP) at El Camino College (Torrance, California). Workplace basics provide a solid foundation for Total Quality Management (TQM), enabling workers to be globally competitive. Two main…

  13. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  14. Competition among leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Aflalo, E; Weinstein, Y

    1990-01-01

    We investigated competition among leukemic cells induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoLV) in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the generation of leukemia. We used six leukemic cells lines from Balb/C mice infected with MoLV. Each line had a unique genetic marker which enabled us to trace it in mixtures of cells either in vivo or in vitro. The markers were a unique rearrangement of T-cell receptors, the integration sites of the retrovirus and rearrangements in the Pim-1 oncogene. A mixture of two cell lines (1:1) injected into intact Balb/C mice usually produced a monoclonal tumor originating from one cell line. In most cases, the cell lines that were aggressive in vivo were also dominant in mixing experiments in vitro. In some lines, we could correlate the aggressiveness of the tumor to its superior growth rate and lower requirement for serum factors in vitro. In others, this correlation did not hold, and we assumed that host factors like the immune system contribute to the malignant potential of the leukemic cell.

  15. Mechanics of competition walking.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, G A; Franzetti, P

    1981-06-01

    1. The work done at each step to lift and accelerate the centre of mass of the body has been measured in competition walkers during locomotion from 2 to 20 km/hr. 2. Three distinct phases characterize the mechanics of walking. From 2 to 6 km/hr the vertical displacement during each step, Sv, increases to a maximum (3.5 vs. 6 cm in normal walking) due to an increase in the amplitude of the rotation over the supporting leg. 3. The transfer, R, between potential energy of vertical displacement and kinetic energy of forward motion during this rotation, reaches a maximum at 4-5 km/hr (R = 65%). From 6 to 10 km/hr R decreases more steeply than in normal walking, indicating a smaller utilization of the pendulum-like mechanism characteristic of walking. 4. Above 10 km/hr potential and kinetic energies vary during each step because both are simultaneously taken up and released by the muscles with almost no transfer between them (R = 2-10%). Above 13-14 km/hr an aerial phase (25-60 msec) takes place during the step. 5. Speeds considerably greater than in normal walking are attained thanks to a greater efficiency of doing positive work. This is made possible by a mechanism of locomotion allowing an important storage and recovery of mechanical energy by the muscles.

  16. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  17. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  18. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  19. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  20. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of...

  1. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  2. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  3. Sperm competition and ejaculate economics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2010-11-01

    Sperm competition was identified in 1970 as a pervasive selective force in post-copulatory sexual selection that occurs when the ejaculates of different males compete to fertilise a given set of ova. Since then, sperm competition has been much studied both empirically and theoretically. Because sperm competition often favours large ejaculates, an important challenge has been to understand the evolution of strategies through which males invest in sperm production and economise sperm allocation to maximise reproductive success under competitive conditions. Sperm competition mechanisms vary greatly, depending on many factors including the level of sperm competition, space constraints in the sperm competition arena, male mating roles, and female influences on sperm utilisation. Consequently, theoretical models of ejaculate economics are complex and varied, often with apparently conflicting predictions. The goal of this review is to synthesise the theoretical basis of ejaculate economics under sperm competition, aiming to provide empiricists with categorised model assumptions and predictions. We show that apparent contradictions between older and newer models can often be reconciled and there is considerable consensus in the predictions generated by different models. We also discuss qualitative empirical support for some of these predictions, and detail quantitative matches between predictions and observations that exist in the yellow dung fly. We argue that ejaculate economic theory represents a powerful heuristic to explain the diversity in ejaculate traits at multiple levels: across species, across males and within individual males. Future progress requires greater understanding of sperm competition mechanisms, quantification of trade-offs between ejaculate allocation and numbers of matings gained, further knowledge of mechanisms of female sperm selection and their associated costs, further investigation of non-sperm ejaculate effects, and theoretical integration of

  4. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  5. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  6. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  7. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  8. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    PubMed

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  9. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  10. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  11. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  12. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  13. Interference competition and parasite virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Ruth C.; Buckling, Angus; ffrench-Constant, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Within-host competition between parasites, a consequence of infection by multiple strains, is predicted to favour rapid host exploitation and greater damage to hosts (virulence). However, the inclusion of biological variables can drastically change this relationship. For example, if competing parasite strains produce toxins that kill each other (interference competition), their growth rates and virulence may be reduced relative to single-strain infections. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial toxins produced by bacteria that target closely related strains and species, and to which the producing strain is immune. We investigated competition between bacteriocin-producing, insect-killing bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) and how this competition affected virulence in caterpillars. Where one strain could kill the other, and not vice versa, the non-killing strain was competitively excluded, and insect mortality was the same as that of the killing strain alone. However, when caterpillars were multiply infected by strains that could kill each other, we did not observe competitive exclusion and their virulence was less than single-strain infections. The ubiquity and diversity of bacteriocins among pathogenic bacteria suggest mixed infections will be, on average, less virulent than single infections. PMID:15255095

  14. Competitive Bidding in Medicare: Who Benefits From Competition?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. Study Design and Methods We analyzed 2006–2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. Results A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P <.001) increase in plan bids, with $0.34 (P <.001) going to beneficiaries in the form of extra benefits or lower cost sharing. With preferred provider organization and private fee-for-service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. Conclusions As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition. PMID:23009305

  15. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  16. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity.

  17. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  18. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  19. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special competitions. 22.320 Section 22.320... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some... competed specifically among institutions of higher education. All such special competitions shall...

  20. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  1. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  2. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  3. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  5. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except... agreements, unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The CSREES ADO and...

  6. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  8. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special competitions. 22.320 Section 22.320... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some... competed specifically among institutions of higher education. All such special competitions shall...

  9. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  10. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent..., document the file to explain the lack of competition....

  11. 78 FR 20697 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an addition to the competitive product list... 57 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 57 is a competitive... Priority Mail Contract 57 to Competitive Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) of...

  12. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  13. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  14. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  15. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  16. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  17. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  18. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes.

  19. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  20. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  1. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers. PMID:10230572

  2. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  3. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  4. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  5. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  6. Future survival requires competitive skills

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    The companies that will succeed in the global power business in 25 years will be those that best understand the productivity implications of the current power game. In the competitive free market for electricity, the inefficient will be driven out. This will include the developer that is unable to achieve higher productivity in developing and financing projects, the engineer-constructor that longs for the old risk-free, cost-plus environment and the trading company that fails to enter into new relationships with the most productive companies in the world. Also in jeopardy will be the operator who can`t reduce O and M costs and the manufacturer who is unable to control overhead or labor costs. Succeeding will be all about productivity. Free market competition drives productivity improvement. In a competitive environment, companies must operate at a more efficient level. The US learned this accidentally through the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, getting us a side benefit of free market competition and lower electricity prices. In other countries the practice of socialism and its final bankruptcy forced adjustments to free market policies.

  7. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  8. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  9. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  10. The components of kin competition.

    PubMed

    Van Dyken, J David

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that competition among kin alters the rate and often the direction of evolution in subdivided populations. Yet much remains unclear about the ecological and demographic causes of kin competition, or what role life cycle plays in promoting or ameliorating its effects. Using the multilevel Price equation, I derive a general equation for evolution in structured populations under an arbitrary intensity of kin competition. This equation partitions the effects of selection and demography, and recovers numerous previous models as special cases. I quantify the degree of kin competition, α, which explicitly depends on life cycle. I show how life cycle and demographic assumptions can be incorporated into kin selection models via α, revealing life cycles that are more or less permissive of altruism. As an example, I give closed-form results for Hamilton's rule in a three-stage life cycle. Although results are sensitive to life cycle in general, I identify three demographic conditions that give life cycle invariant results. Under the infinite island model, α is a function of the scale of density regulation and dispersal rate, effectively disentangling these two phenomena. Population viscosity per se does not impede kin selection.

  11. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  12. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  13. Does market competition explain fairness?

    PubMed

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  14. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  15. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  16. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  17. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  18. A Sinking Feeling about Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirasuolo, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive school ambience will further distinguish winners from losers in an increasingly fractured and stratified society. Disadvantaged students have little chance to win the standards game. Educators should examine the gilded age's hypocrisy; what gallantry existed the night the Titanic sank applied only to first-class female passengers.…

  19. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  20. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  1. Competition in a Social Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  2. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  3. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  4. Arizona network improves providers' competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Lipson, E H; McHaney, J E

    1987-01-01

    In the September/October issue of Physician Executive, the Remote Practice Network (RPN) health care delivery system concept was introduced and explained. In this article, the concept is illustrated by a description of Arizona HealthSource (AHS), an RPN developed in Phoenix, Arizona. AHS's design, evolution, and operation demonstrate both the competitive pressures that force hospitals into taking new initiatives and the exciting alternative offered by an RPN. Arizona HealthSource serves the Phoenix, Ariz., region, a highly competitive health care marketplace. The organization was started by St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center in cooperation with Magliaro & McHaney, a consulting firm with offices in Atlanta, Ga., and La Jolla, Calif. AHS is currently managed under contract by Magliaro & McHaney, which develop the RPN concept and which designs, implements, markets, and manages health care delivery system. PMID:10312349

  5. Neanderthal Extinction by Competitive Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Sima, Adriana; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH). Methodology/Principal Findings We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. Conclusions/Significance The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction. PMID:19107186

  6. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  7. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  8. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  9. Microscale Titration in Schools Titration Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the requirements of the National Titration Competition and describes how a team in a local competition used the technique. Compares microscale titration to conventional titration. Outlines the benefits of employing microscale techniques. (DDR)

  10. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable weight to the... 39 CFR Part 3015 Competitive Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review to determine whether...

  11. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  12. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  13. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  14. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  15. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  16. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  17. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  18. Managed competition: the policy context.

    PubMed

    Scotton, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to maintain universal access to medically effective care for all, costs must be contained at both the system-wide and micro levels. The managed competition model offers a framework within which increased efficiency could be pursued without sacrificing the goal of universal access and without impairing health outcomes and social cohesion. It would do this by removing structural impediments to rational decision-making and allocating to markets and governments the functions they perform best. PMID:10558292

  19. Physiological demands of competitive surfing.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E

    2012-07-01

    This study was a performance analysis of surfing athletes during competitive surfing events in an attempt to inform the development of surfing-specific conditioning. Twelve nationally ranked surfers were fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and global positioning system (GPS) units and videoed during the heats of 2 sanctioned competitions. Means and SDs represented the centrality and spread of analyzed data. From the 32 videos analyzed, the greatest amount of time spent during surfing was paddling (54 ± 6.3% of the total time) (% TT). The remaining stationary represented 28 ± 6.9% TT, wave riding, and paddling for a wave represented only 8 ± 2% TT and 4 ± 1.5% TT, respectively. Surfers spent 61 ± 7% of the total paddling bouts and 64 ± 6.8% of total stationary bouts between 1 and 10 seconds. The average speed recorded via the GPS for all the subjects was 3.7 ± 0.6 km·h(-1), with an average maximum speed of 33.4 ± 6.5 km·h(-1) (45 km·h(-1) was the highest speed recorded). The average distance covered was 1,605 ± 313 m. The mean HR during the surf competitions was 139 ± 11 b·min(-1) (64% HRmax), with a (mean) peak of 190 ± 12 b·min(-1) (87% HRmax). Sixty percent TT was spent between 56 and 74% of the age-predicted HR maximum (HRmax), 19% TT >46% HRmax, and approximately 3% TT >83% HRmax. Competitive surfing therefore involves intermittent high-intensity bouts of all out paddling intercalated with relatively short recovery periods and repeated bouts of low-intensity paddling, incorporating intermittent breath holding. Surfing-specific conditioning sessions should attempt to replicate such a profile. PMID:21986691

  20. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  1. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  2. 7 CFR 1738.210 - Competitive analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competitive analysis. 1738.210 Section 1738.210... Competitive analysis. The applicant must submit a competitive market analysis for each service area regardless of projected penetration rates. Each analysis must identify all existing service providers and...

  3. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  5. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  6. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  8. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  9. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  12. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  13. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  14. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  15. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  16. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  17. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  18. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  19. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  20. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  1. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  2. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  3. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  4. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  5. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition...

  6. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition...

  7. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  8. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  9. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  10. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  12. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  13. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  14. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  15. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  16. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  17. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  19. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  20. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  1. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  2. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition...

  3. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  4. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  5. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  6. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  7. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  8. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  9. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  10. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  11. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  12. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  13. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  14. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  15. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  17. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  18. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  19. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  20. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  1. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  2. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  3. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  4. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  5. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  6. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  8. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  10. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  11. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  12. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  13. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  14. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  16. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  17. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  18. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  19. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  1. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  2. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  3. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  4. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  5. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  6. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  7. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  8. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  9. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  10. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  11. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  12. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  13. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  14. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  15. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition...

  16. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  17. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  18. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  19. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  1. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  2. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  3. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  4. 14 CFR § 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. § 1274.504 Section § 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  5. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  6. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  7. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  8. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  10. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  11. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  14. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  15. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  16. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  17. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  18. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  19. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  20. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  1. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  2. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  3. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  4. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  5. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  6. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  7. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  8. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  9. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition...

  10. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing…

  11. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  13. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  14. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  15. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  17. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  18. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  19. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  1. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless you use the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6 apply to acquisition...

  2. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  3. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  4. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  5. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  6. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  7. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  8. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  9. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  10. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the applicable... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8...

  11. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  12. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  13. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  14. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  15. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  17. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.40 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competitive sales. 3602.40 Section 3602.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.40 Competitive sales. In addition to the following sections, §§ 3602.41 through...

  19. Machiavellianism and Spontaneous Cheating in Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sloan; Peterson, Christopher

    1980-01-01

    Assigned undergraduates to groups defined by combination of factors: opportunity to cheat, type of competition, subject Machiavellianism (Mach). Cheating occurred in opportunity to cheat, impersonal competition, high Mach group and in opportunity to cheat, personal competition, low Mach group. Extends research to situations where subjects cheated…

  20. 78 FR 20360 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment... Priority Mail Contract 56 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail... States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 56 to Competitive Product List and Notice of...

  1. 78 FR 26404 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... Return Service Contract 4 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Parcel... the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Return Service Contract 4 to Competitive Product...

  2. Report on the 2006 AAPT Apparatus Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarend, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Each year at the AAPT summer meeting there is an apparatus competition in which members of the physics community can share ideas for new or improved apparatus to aid in the teaching of physics. The 2006 competition at the summer meeting in Syracuse, NY, was the largest competition in quite a while and continued an upward trend in the number of…

  3. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  4. Comparing and Contrasting: Stories of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizza, Mary G.; Reis, Sally M.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated how 11 successful high school female students described the impact of competition on their academic and social lives. Competition was viewed by participants as a negative behavior. When faced with situations of competition, students preferred to concentrate on prosocial behaviors that promoted interpersonal relationships.…

  5. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  6. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  7. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  8. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.362 Section 35... 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance....

  9. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8 Section... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the...

  10. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  11. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  12. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  14. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  15. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  16. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  17. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  18. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  19. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  1. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  2. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  4. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  5. Competitions for Showcasing Innovative and Creative Talents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    Competitions are recommended for identifying and providing for the exceptional talents of young people. Competitions have been a cornerstone of gifted education, putting talents to the test by enabling gifted students to showcase their abilities and receive acknowledgement and recognition for their talents. Competitions have been noted as "a…

  6. "Wanna Race?": Primary Student Preference for Competitive or Non-Competitive Singing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study compared primary student preference for competitive and non-competitive singing games. Students in three intact classes of second graders (n = 65) and three classes of fourth graders (n = 67) at one school in the USA served as subjects. After playing a pair of games, one competitive and one non-competitive, over the course of five…

  7. [Dialogues between Clio and Asclepius: Ivolino de Vasconcellos and the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina].

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian Institute for the History of Medicine was founded on 1945 by the physician Ivolino de Vasconcellos. Because the movement intended to be of national scope, the Federação Nacional de História da Medicina e Ciências Afins was also created (National Federation for the History of Medicine and Related Sciences). The latter group had a humanistic understanding of medicine, wherein the history of medicine played a central role; since this subject honored great names and achievements in medicine, members of the federation felt it was a prime tool in the ethical and humanistic training of healthcare professionals. Thus was born the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which fostered scientific and academic production and events in the field of history of medicine and also registered the Federation's activities and scientific output.

  8. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-02-16

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.

  9. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.

  10. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative.

  11. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative. PMID:3047695

  12. Competitive bidding debate goes national

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1987-10-01

    Several states have either adopted or are considering proposal for competitive bidding among prospective cogenerators wishing to supply electric power to a utility. A survey of independent power producers found that an early issue to emerge was whether utilities, themselves, would have to compete for the right to expand. Another issue is access to transmission services. Arguments that this was not the intent of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act forget that diversifying energy sources was a major goal. Congress will continue hearings on the debate this fall on several issues.

  13. Principal components analysis competitive learning.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato, Juan Miguel; Muñoz-Pérez, José; Gómez-Ruiz, José Antonio

    2004-11-01

    We present a new neural model that extends the classical competitive learning by performing a principal components analysis (PCA) at each neuron. This model represents an improvement with respect to known local PCA methods, because it is not needed to present the entire data set to the network on each computing step. This allows a fast execution while retaining the dimensionality-reduction properties of the PCA. Furthermore, every neuron is able to modify its behavior to adapt to the local dimensionality of the input distribution. Hence, our model has a dimensionality estimation capability. The experimental results we present show the dimensionality-reduction capabilities of the model with multisensor images.

  14. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  15. Presentation at Innoventure Annual Competition

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the components of the workshop presented at the recent annual competition for the Innoventure program. The goal of the workshop was to focus on the delivery of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) concepts in a hands-on experiential learning format to increase interest in national security careers at NNSA, most of which are in the STEM fields. This work is a part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant.

  16. Benchmarking for the competitive marketplace.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R W; Sucher, T O

    1999-07-01

    One would get little argument these days regarding the importance of performance measurement in the health care industry. The traditional approach has been the straightforward use of measurable units such as financial comparisons and clinical indicators (e.g., length of stay). Also we in the health care industry have traditionally benchmarked our performance and strategies against those most like ourselves. Today's competitive market demands a more customer-focused set of performance measures that go beyond traditional approaches such as customer service. The most important task in today's environment is to study the customers' emerging priorities and adjust our business to meet those priorities. PMID:11184882

  17. The Developmental Aspects and Origins of Competitive Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Charles W.

    The literature on competitive behavior in children is examined. Sections of the review concern the socializing process of competitiveness, evolutionary foundations, early developmental processes, the relationship between competition and aggression, gender differences, competition and cooperation, anthropological perspectives, effects of…

  18. The Why, Where, When and How of Ad Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the pedagogical benefits of advertising competitions, and describes five national competitions available to students, including Nissan Student Advertising Contest, Philip Morris Marketing Communications Competition for Students, Direct Marketing Collegiate Echo Competition, and American Advertising Federation National Student Advertising…

  19. Competitive learning with pairwise constraints.

    PubMed

    Covões, Thiago F; Hruschka, Eduardo R; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2013-01-01

    Constrained clustering has been an active research topic since the last decade. Most studies focus on batch-mode algorithms. This brief introduces two algorithms for on-line constrained learning, named on-line linear constrained vector quantization error (O-LCVQE) and constrained rival penalized competitive learning (C-RPCL). The former is a variant of the LCVQE algorithm for on-line settings, whereas the latter is an adaptation of the (on-line) RPCL algorithm to deal with constrained clustering. The accuracy results--in terms of the normalized mutual information (NMI)--from experiments with nine datasets show that the partitions induced by O-LCVQE are competitive with those found by the (batch-mode) LCVQE. Compared with this formidable baseline algorithm, it is surprising that C-RPCL can provide better partitions (in terms of the NMI) for most of the datasets. Also, experiments on a large dataset show that on-line algorithms for constrained clustering can significantly reduce the computational time.

  20. Physiological demands of competitive basketball.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, K; Berg, K; Stergiou, N; Chen, B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.

  1. Picking battles wisely: plant behaviour under competition.

    PubMed

    Novoplansky, Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Plants are limited in their ability to choose their neighbours, but they are able to orchestrate a wide spectrum of rational competitive behaviours that increase their prospects to prevail under various ecological settings. Through the perception of neighbours, plants are able to anticipate probable competitive interactions and modify their competitive behaviours to maximize their long-term gains. Specifically, plants can minimize competitive encounters by avoiding their neighbours; maximize their competitive effects by aggressively confronting their neighbours; or tolerate the competitive effects of their neighbours. However, the adaptive values of these non-mutually exclusive options are expected to depend strongly on the plants' evolutionary background and to change dynamically according to their past development, and relative sizes and vigour. Additionally, the magnitude of competitive responsiveness is expected to be positively correlated with the reliability of the environmental information regarding the expected competitive interactions and the expected time left for further plastic modifications. Concurrent competition over external and internal resources and morphogenetic signals may enable some plants to increase their efficiency and external competitive performance by discriminately allocating limited resources to their more promising organs at the expense of failing or less successful organs.

  2. The Janus face of Darwinian competition

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  3. The Janus face of Darwinian competition.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-09-10

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating.

  4. The Janus face of Darwinian competition.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  5. Competitive displacement among insects and arachnids.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Stuart R; Trumble, John T

    2002-01-01

    Competitive displacement is the most severe outcome of interspecific competition. For the purposes of this review, we define this type of displacement as the removal of a formerly established species from a habitat as a result of direct or indirect competitive interactions with another species. We reviewed the literature for recent putative cases of competitive displacement among insects and arachnids and assessed the evidence for the role of interspecific competition in these displacements. We found evidence for mechanisms of both exploitation and interference competition operating in these cases of competitive displacement. Many of the cases that we identified involve the operation of more than one competitive mechanism, and many cases were mediated by other noncompetitive factors. Most, but not all, of these displacements occurred between closely related species. In the majority of cases, exotic species displaced native species or previously established exotic species, often in anthropogenically-altered habitats. The cases that we identified have occurred across a broad range of taxa and environments. Therefore we suggest that competitive displacement has the potential to be a widespread phenomenon, and the frequency of these displacement events may increase, given the ever-increasing degree of anthropogenic changes to the environment. A greater awareness of competitive displacement events should lead to more studies documenting the relative importance of key factors and developing hypotheses that explain observed patterns.

  6. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  7. Process for Administering Distributed Academic Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Feibush, Eliot

    2010-02-04

    Currently, academic-type competitions are scored using a combination of timer clocks, entries on paper, and individual computers to consolidate individual entries. Such a system is unwieldy, time-consuming, and depends on the individual computer skills that might be present amount the competition administrators. The new Academic Competition Software combines digital clocks, along with a scoring system that permits different point values for different types of questions. Bonus or ‚Âœtoss-up‚ questions can be monitored during the competition, using a subtimer system. All data is consolidated on the fly and the system can be operated by a single person. Results from different sites (rooms) can be added in as well. As such, the software is extremely flexible. It is anticipated that this new software will be useful for‚Science or Science Olympiad type competitions held in many high schools and colleges, as well as for preparation and training for such competitions.

  8. On a Competitive Model of Laplacian Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutsenko, Igor; Yermolayeva, Oksana; Zinsmeister, Michel

    2011-11-01

    We introduce a competitive model of Laplacian growth in both stochastic and deterministic versions. This defines two different aggregation laws with probabilities λ and 1- λ. The parameter λ varying from 0 to 1 is used to weight a ratio between the inner and outer harmonic measures that leads to a competition between the Eden-like process and the DLA solved with site-sticking conditions. We perform numerical and qualitative analysis of the competitive growth.

  9. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.

  10. Competition, retail pricing and service design

    SciTech Connect

    Caves, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation covered major approaches to a competitive industry and competitive prices. Major pricing approaches addressed service differentiation, non-linear structures and market based levels. Highly differentiated competitive prices were illustrated by an Airline Industry pricing schedule for one flight on a given day. The major utilities involved in Real Time Pricing (RTP) programs with the number of customers are identified, along with the status of the RTP for each utility.

  11. A global competitive neural network.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J G; Alavi, F N

    1995-01-01

    A study is presented of a set of coupled nets proposed to function as a global competitive network. One net, of hidden nodes, is composed solely of inhibitory neurons and is excitatorily driven and feeds back in a disinhibitory manner to an input net which itself feeds excitatorily to a (cortical) output net. The manner in which the former input and hidden inhibitory net function so as to enhance outputs as compared with inputs, and the further enhancements when the cortical net is added, are explored both mathematically and by simulation. This is extended to learning on cortical afferent and lateral connections. A global wave structure, arising on the inhibitory net in a similar manner to that of pattern formation in a negative laplacian net, is seen to be important to all of these activities. Simulations are only performed in one dimension, although the global nature of the activity is expected to extend to higher dimensions. Possible implications are briefly discussed.

  12. Oil muddle: control vs. competition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    An economist addresses the continuing oil crisis in non-technical terms. In the larger framework of the US economy, he deals with central economic concepts such as the market, profits, and competition. DOE figures show that the average real price of a gallon of leaded regular gasoline increased only about two cents between 1941 and 1980. The author concludes that market forces are more effective than government regulation in curbing the power of OPEC, maintaining an adequate supply of oil for civilian and military use, and keeping oil prices at a realistic level. He concludes that we do not need a DOE to supplant the normal workings of the market. 24 references, 20 figures, 18 tables.

  13. Spatial competition and price formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Kai; Shubik, Martin; Paczuski, Maya; Bak, Per

    2000-12-01

    We look at price formation in a retail setting, that is, companies set prices, and consumers either accept prices or go someplace else. In contrast to most other models in this context, we use a two-dimensional spatial structure for information transmission, that is, consumers can only learn from nearest neighbors. Many aspects of this can be understood in terms of generalized evolutionary dynamics. In consequence, we first look at spatial competition and cluster formation without price. This leads to establishement size distributions, which we compare to reality. After some theoretical considerations, which at least heuristically explain our simulation results, we finally return to price formation, where we demonstrate that our simple model with nearly no organized planning or rationality on the part of any of the agents indeed leads to an economically plausible price.

  14. The shoulder in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Richardson, A B; Jobe, F W; Collins, H R

    1980-01-01

    Shoulder pain is the most common orthopaedic problem in competitive swimming. In a group of 137 of this country's best swimmers, 58 had had symptoms of "swimmer's shoulder." Population characteristics of this group indicated that symptoms increased with the caliber of the athlete, were slightly more common in men, and were related to sprint rather than distance swimming. The use of hand-paddle training exacerbated symptoms, which were more common during the early and middle season. Consideration of shoulder mechanics in swimming reveals that freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke require similar motions; a swimmer using any of these strokes is susceptible to developing shoulder pain. Swimmer's shoulder represents chronic irritation of the humeral head and rotator cuff on the coracoacromial arch during abduction of the shoulder, the so-called impingement syndrome. Treatment included stretching, rest, ice therapy, oral antiinflammatory agents, judicious use of injectable steroids, and surgery as a last resort. PMID:7377446

  15. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  16. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. Purpose: To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. Results: A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Conclusion: Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport. PMID:26535280

  17. Competition asymmetry with taxon divergence.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A

    2003-03-22

    Most organisms experience competition for resources, probably most of the time. As the structure and requirements of closely related species are generally liable to be more similar than in distantly linked species, Darwin suggested that the potential for competition was greater in the former. Since that time, studies have concentrated on interactions of either conspecifics or congeneric species. Shared critical resources, which organisms compete for, are generally mates, food and space (for access to the former). Whilst mates are valued only within species, in that the definition of a species requires it so, both food and space have the potential to be shared by very different organisms. It is now clear that vertebrates may compete with remotely related species: e.g. with squid for krill and with insects for nectar or seeds. Diamond suggested that (i) mutual aggression, (ii) displacement and (iii) evolutionary change in morphology would be increasingly asymmetric with competitor dissimilarity. Thus, with increasing taxonomic distance between two competitors (A and B), increasing aggression is exhibited between them and, increasingly, one consistently displaces the other. Here, Darwin's suggestion and Diamond's first two theories are tested across a taxonomic spectrum for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The proportion of spatial competitors in two different marine invertebrate groups demonstrating mutual aggression and displacement increases with taxon divergence (Nei's genetic identity). Congenerics were twice as likely to fight as conspecifics, and confamilial competitors were three times as likely to fight as conspecifics. This relationship seems robust to taxonomic and environmental variability. Competitors do not need to be as distant as birds and bees for complete asymmetry, a different family seems sufficient.

  18. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  19. Blood metabolites during basketball competitions.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; El Fazaa, Saloua; Tabka, Zouhaier; El Ati, Jalila

    2009-05-01

    This study examined basketball game blood hormonal and metabolite responses in 38 (8 guards, 18 forwards, and 12 centers) male national elite-junior players (age, 18.2 +/- 0.5 years; height, 1.89 +/- 0.1 m; body mass, 80.3 +/- 6.7 kg; body fat, 8.2 +/- 5.6%; maximum oxygen uptake Vo2max], 52.8 +/- 2.4 mlxkgxmin). At the moment of the investigation, players had 8 +/- 1.6 years of competitive experience. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, at halftime, and at fulltime of 6 junior competitive games (Tunisian under 19 basketball championship). Game intensity was assessed monitoring heart rates (HR). During the game, players attained 93 +/- 2% of maximal HR. Triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations significantly increased during the game, most markedly so in the second half. Postgame TG and FFA concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower for guards (1.48 +/- 0.22 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 mmolxL, respectively) than for centers (1.88 +/- 0.30 and 1.08 +/- 0.09 mmolxL, respectively). Plasma glucose significantly increased at halftime (from 4.05 +/- 1.27 to 5.98 +/- 0.88 mmolxL; p < 0.001) but decreased in the second half. Serum insulin (INS) progressively decreased for all players during the game, whereas serum cortisol increased at the end of the first half (from 333 +/- 129 to 487 +/- 209 nmolxL; p < 0.001) to remain increased throughout the second half.Basketball game demands seem to induce significant metabolic-hormonal changes on players. Higher values of HR and glycemia were observed in the first half, but a more important increase of lipolytic variables was recorded in the second half. Changes in metabolic markers are role-dependent.

  20. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  1. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement...

  2. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement...

  3. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement...

  4. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement...

  5. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to ensure objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft grant applications, or contract specifications, requirements, statements of...

  6. The learning curves of competitive programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Jose R.; Aguirre, Vanessa E.

    2014-10-01

    Universities around the world have implemented competitive programming as an approach to teach computer science courses. They have empirically validated this approach as a successful pedagogical tool. However, there are no conclusive results that describe the degree in which competitive programming affects the learning process of the students. In this paper, we report on the learning curves obtained from analyzing ten years of TopCoder algorithm competitions. We discuss on how these learning curves apply to university courses and can help us explain the influence of competitive programming in a class.

  7. Selection for restraint in competitive ability in spatial competition systems.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Craig R; Seinen, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    The absence of 'super competitors' in nature is usually attributed to organisms facing trade-offs in resource allocation. Here we identify another mechanism, dependent on indirect interactions among species and non-random spatial organization, in which selection favours restraint in competitive ability. In simple spatial models of a three-species intransitive network, indirect interactions favour slower growth and selection limits the difference in growth rate among species. The mechanism involves a trade-off between selection at the individual level, which selects for increased growth rate, and at the community level, which acts to limit growth rate to less than the maximum possible. If the difference in growth rates among species becomes too large, then the community becomes unstable and collapses to a monoculture of the slowest growing species. The mechanism requires both the intransitive network structure and self-organized spatial structure in the system. Similar behaviours arise in more complex systems of more than three species, and where there are reversals in interaction outcomes between species pairs. The work suggests that spatial self-structuring, indirect interactions and selection acting on community properties can be important in evolution. It provides a partial explanation of the high level of species coexistence and apparent restraint in interspecific interactions evident in some assemblages of sessile marine colonial organisms. PMID:11934355

  8. Preschoolers' Perceptions of Performance and Satisfaction under Competitive and Non-Competitive Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiakara, Angeliki A.; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore preschool children's perceptions of their performance under competitive and non-competitive conditions (NCC) and their satisfaction. Eighty preschool children (40 boys, 40 girls) aged 4-6 years (M age?=?5.48, SD?=?0.57) took part in this study. Preschool children built a tower under competitive and NCC and…

  9. Performance under Competitive and Self-Competitive Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone, competitive…

  10. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  11. Substitutive Competition: Virtual Pets as Competitive Buffers to Alleviate Possible Negative Influence on Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Biswas, Gautam; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Although competition is regarded as a powerful motivator in game-based learning, it might have a negative influence, such as damage to confidence, on students who lose the competition. In this paper, we propose an indirect approach, substitutive competition, to alleviate such negative influences. The approach is used to develop a My-Pet v3 system,…

  12. Competition within Physical Education: Using Sport Education and Other Recommendations to Create a Productive, Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Sport Education by physical education teachers to implement developmentally appropriate competitive activities is explored. The potential positive and negative consequences of competitive activities are discussed along with suggestions for teachers on how they can foster an appropriate competitive environment in physical education.

  13. Robotics Competitions: An Overview of First© Events and VEX© Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotics competitions generate excitement and raise the profile of a robotics program. This article provides an overview of robotics competitions, concentrating on those sponsored by FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) and RECF (Robotics Education and Competition Foundation). FIRST® LEGO® League and VEX® robotics…

  14. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  15. Using Classroom Competitions to Prepare Students for the Competitive Business World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Fay Y.; Kincade, Doris H.; Frasier, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a university, collaborating with industry, integrated research with active learning (e.g., collaboration in teams and competitions) for fashion majors. The redesigned introductory course uses two strategies: team competitions and a genius bar to guide students, give ongoing feedback, and judge final competitions. Active…

  16. Gender verification in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E

    1993-11-01

    The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All

  17. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  18. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  19. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world.

    PubMed

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Feldman, Rebecca A; Quarles, Luke F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2016-09-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  20. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503 Section 105-72.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503 Section 105-72.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  2. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  3. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  4. 48 CFR 235.006-71 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 235.006-71 Section 235.006-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Competition. See 234.005-1 for limitations on the use of contract line items or contract options for...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  6. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  7. 48 CFR 235.006-71 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 235.006-71 Section 235.006-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Competition. See 234.005-1 for limitations on the use of contract line items or contract options for...

  8. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  9. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  11. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  12. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  13. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  14. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  15. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  16. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  17. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  18. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  20. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  1. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  2. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  3. 48 CFR 235.006-71 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 235.006-71 Section 235.006-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Competition. See 234.005-1 for limitations on the use of contract line items or contract options for...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  5. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  6. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  7. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  8. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  9. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  10. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  11. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  12. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  13. 48 CFR 235.006-71 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 235.006-71 Section 235.006-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Competition. See 234.005-1 for limitations on the use of contract line items or contract options for...

  14. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  15. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  16. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  17. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  18. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  20. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  1. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  2. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  3. Cell competition in vertebrate organ size regulation.

    PubMed

    Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo I; Stanger, Ben Z

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal organ size determination has provided evidence of the existence of organ-intrinsic mechanisms that 'sense' and adjust organ growth. Cell competition, a form of cell interaction that equalizes cell population growth, has been proposed to play a role in organ size regulation. Cell competition involves a cell-context dependent response triggered by perceived differences in cell growth and/or proliferation rates, resulting in apoptosis in growth-disadvantaged cells and compensatory expansion of the more 'fit' cells. The mechanisms that allow cells to compare growth are not yet understood, but a number of genes and pathways have been implicated in cell competition. These include Myc, the members of the Hippo, JAK/STAT and WNT signaling pathways, and the Dlg/Lgl/Scrib and the Crb/Std/PatJ membrane protein complexes. Cell competition was initially characterized in the Drosophila imaginal disc, but several recent studies have shown that cell competition occurs in mouse embryonic stem cells and in the embryonic epiblast, where it plays a role in the regulation of early embryo size. In addition, competition-like behavior has been described in the adult mouse liver and the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. These data indicate that cell competition plays a more universal role in organ size regulation. In addition, as some authors have suggested that similar types of competitive behavior may operate in during tumorigenesis, there may be additional practical reasons for understanding this fundamental process of intercellular communication.

  4. Case studies in electric utility competition litigation

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

  5. Exciting Students through VEX Robotic Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Trevor P.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic competitions continue to gain popularity in the educational community as a way to engage students in hands-on learning that can raise a student's interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In 1992, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST) held its first competition and presented a style of…

  6. Validation of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, T.; Rosentswieg, J.

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen female varsity softball coaches were administered the Sport Competition Anxiety Test prior to competition. Their heart rates, continuously monitored by tilemetry, did not relate significantly to the anxiety test data. The test does not appear to be a valid measure of trait anxiety for women softball coaches. (Author/PN)

  7. The STEEL/ICI Eureka! Physics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the organization of a school's physics competition for middle school students sponsored by Physics Section of STEEL (Science, Technology and Engineering Education in Lancaster) and an industry group. Presents one typical problem, marking, and prizes for the competition. A suggested marking scheme is appended. (YP)

  8. The Case for Architectural-Design Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    A well-publicized design competition is especially beneficial for universities. It allows them to enhance fund raising and stimulate design consciousness among students, the faculty, and even members of the surrounding community. Yet universities rarely conduct competitions, and instead select architects for major projects through a multistep,…

  9. 40 CFR 35.138 - Competitive grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance Partnership Grant. If this is done, the work plan commitments that would have been included in the competitive grant must be included in the Performance Partnership Grant work plan. After the funds have been... competitive grant work plan commitments added to a Performance Partnership Grant is after the end of...

  10. Shaking up Public Schools with Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsen, David D.; Ni, Yongmei

    2011-01-01

    The proposition that competition will spur public schools to perform better is now familiar to most Americans and self-evident to many. It is a compelling idea. While much attention has focused on student performance in charter schools, a distinct and important policy question relates to how increased competition from charter schools affects the…

  11. Below ground competition among invading detritivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna. However, competition frequently has been suggested as an important communi...

  12. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for... over 25,000 cubic yards. Mineral material sales offered by competitive bidding and which exceed 25,000...) Advertising smaller sales. Advertisement of mineral materials amounting to 25,000 cubic yards in volume...

  13. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-02-16

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners. PMID:26831083

  14. Competition, gatekeeping, and health care access.

    PubMed

    Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-to Albert

    2015-01-01

    We study gatekeeping physicians' referrals of patients to specialty care. We derive theoretical results when competition in the physician market intensifies. First, due to competitive pressure, physicians refer patients to specialty care more often. Second, physicians earn more by treating patients themselves, so refer patients to specialty care less often. We assess empirically the overall effect of competition with data from a 2008-2009 Norwegian survey, National Health Insurance Administration, and Statistics Norway. From the data we construct three measures of competition: the number of open primary physician practices with and without population adjustment, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. The empirical results suggest that competition has negligible or small positive effects on referrals overall. Our results do not support the policy claim that increasing the number of primary care physicians reduces secondary care. PMID:25544400

  15. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners. PMID:26831083

  16. Review of the BCI Competition IV

    PubMed Central

    Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Aertsen, Ad; Birbaumer, Niels; Braun, Christoph; Brunner, Clemens; Leeb, Robert; Mehring, Carsten; Miller, Kai J.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Nolte, Guido; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Preissl, Hubert; Schalk, Gerwin; Schlögl, Alois; Vidaurre, Carmen; Waldert, Stephan; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include high specialists as well as students. The goals of all BCI competitions have always been to challenge with respect to novel paradigms and complex data. We report on the following challenges: (1) asynchronous data, (2) synthetic, (3) multi-class continuous data, (4) session-to-session transfer, (5) directionally modulated MEG, (6) finger movements recorded by ECoG. As after past competitions, our hope is that winning entries may enhance the analysis methods of future BCIs. PMID:22811657

  17. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes.

    PubMed

    D'Ercole, Simonetta; Tieri, Marco; Martinelli, Diego; Tripodi, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA) concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1), 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Plaque Index (PlI), and Gingival Index (GI). At T1 and after training sessions (T2), stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029). Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI) was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p<0.05). S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05). The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  18. Mixed Strategies in cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Physicists have been using evolutionary game theory to model and simulate cyclically competing species, with applications to lizard mating strategies and competing bacterial strains. However these models assume that each agent plays the same strategy, which is called a pure strategy in game theory, until they are beaten by a better strategy which they immediately adopt. We relax this constraint of an agent playing a single strategy by instead letting the agent pick its strategy randomly from a probability distribution, which is called a mixed strategy in game theory. This scheme is very similar to multiple occupancy models seen in the literature, the major difference being that interactions happen between sites rather than within them. Choosing strategies out of a distribution also has applications to economic/social systems such as the public goods game. We simulate a model of mixed strategy and cylic competition on a one-dimensional lattice with three and four strategies and find interesting spatial and stability properties depending on how discretized the choice of strategy is for the agents. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  19. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  20. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-04-28

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions[close quote]. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard.

  1. Quantifying Competitive Exclusion and Competitive Release in Ecological Communities: A Conceptual Framework and a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Segre, Hila; DeMalach, Niv; Henkin, Zalmen; Kadmon, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental notion in community ecology is that local species diversity reflects some balance between the contrasting forces of competitive exclusion and competitive release. Quantifying this balance is not trivial, and requires data on the magnitude of both processes in the same system, as well as appropriate methodology to integrate and interpret such data. Here we present a novel framework for empirical studies of the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release and demonstrate its applicability using data from a Mediterranean annual grassland where grazing is a major mechanism of competitive release. Empirical data on the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release are crucial for understanding observed patterns of variation in local species diversity and the proposed approach provides a simple framework for the collection, interpretation, and synthesis of such data.

  2. Quantifying Competitive Exclusion and Competitive Release in Ecological Communities: A Conceptual Framework and a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Segre, Hila; DeMalach, Niv; Henkin, Zalmen; Kadmon, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental notion in community ecology is that local species diversity reflects some balance between the contrasting forces of competitive exclusion and competitive release. Quantifying this balance is not trivial, and requires data on the magnitude of both processes in the same system, as well as appropriate methodology to integrate and interpret such data. Here we present a novel framework for empirical studies of the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release and demonstrate its applicability using data from a Mediterranean annual grassland where grazing is a major mechanism of competitive release. Empirical data on the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release are crucial for understanding observed patterns of variation in local species diversity and the proposed approach provides a simple framework for the collection, interpretation, and synthesis of such data. PMID:27536943

  3. Quantifying Competitive Exclusion and Competitive Release in Ecological Communities: A Conceptual Framework and a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Zalmen; Kadmon, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental notion in community ecology is that local species diversity reflects some balance between the contrasting forces of competitive exclusion and competitive release. Quantifying this balance is not trivial, and requires data on the magnitude of both processes in the same system, as well as appropriate methodology to integrate and interpret such data. Here we present a novel framework for empirical studies of the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release and demonstrate its applicability using data from a Mediterranean annual grassland where grazing is a major mechanism of competitive release. Empirical data on the balance between competitive exclusion and competitive release are crucial for understanding observed patterns of variation in local species diversity and the proposed approach provides a simple framework for the collection, interpretation, and synthesis of such data. PMID:27536943

  4. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition. PMID:26230025

  5. Disentangling decision models: from independence to competition.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Usher, Marius

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of models have been proposed to account for the neural mechanism of value integration and decision making in speeded decision tasks. While most of these models account for existing data, they largely disagree on a fundamental characteristic of the choice mechanism: independent versus different types of competitive processing. Five models, an independent race model, 2 types of input competition models (normalized race and feed-forward inhibition [FFI]) and 2 types of response competition models (max-minus-next [MMN] diffusion and leaky competing accumulators [LCA]) were compared in 3 combined computational and experimental studies. In each study, difficulty was manipulated in a way that produced qualitatively distinct predictions from the different classes of models. When parameters were constrained by the experimental conditions to avoid mimicking, simulations demonstrated that independent models predict speedups in response time with increased difficulty, while response competition models predict the opposite. Predictions of input-competition models vary between specific models and experimental conditions. Taken together, the combined computational and empirical findings provide support for the notion that decisional processes are intrinsically competitive and that this competition is likely to kick in at a late (response), rather than early (input), processing stage.

  6. Increased competition may promote species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Vandermeer, J; Evans, M A; Foster, P; Höök, T; Reiskind, M; Wund, M

    2002-06-25

    It is a mainstay of community ecology that local exclusion of species will result if competitive pressures become too large. The pattern of exclusion may be complicated, but the qualitative orthodoxy has changed little since the pioneering work of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause--no two species can occupy the same niche. Stated in a more precise form, the higher the intensity of interspecific competition in an assemblage of species, the fewer the number of species that can coexist in perpetuity. We suggest that this orthodoxy results from "linear" thinking, and that if the classical equations are formulated more realistically with attendant nonlinearities, the orthodoxy breaks down and higher levels of competition may actually increase the likelihood that species will avoid competitive exclusion. Furthermore, this increased probability of coexistence at higher levels of competition is accompanied by characteristic dynamic patterns: (i) at lower levels of competition, after all extinction events have occurred, remaining species follow irregular chaotic patterns; (ii) at higher levels of competition, when most species coexist, all species are entrained in a single large limit cycle; (iii) the transient behavior appears to correspond to a special case of chaos, uniform phase chaotic amplitude.

  7. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity. PMID:10187248

  8. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  9. Designing the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The project assigned this summer involves designing a lunar regolith mining robotics competition. This process involves consulting several assets available at the Kennedy Space Center. The process involves several steps. The first step is to determine the requirements for the competition. Once these requirements are determined, the dimensions of the playing field are drawn up, first by hand, and then using computer models. After these drawings are tentatively decided upon, the cost of materials must be determined, so as to fit within the allotted budget for the project. The materials are to then be ordered, assembled, broken down, and stored throughout the duration of the competition. We must also design the advertisements and logos for the competition. This is to market and publicize the competition to college level teams. We must also determine the rules for the competition so as to have uniform requirements for all teams. Once these processes are completed, the competition can be finalized and publicized for the public. The contributing parties are Greg Galloway, Robert Mueller, Susan Sawyer, Gloria Murphy, Julia Nething, and Cassandra Liles.

  10. Competitive personality attitudes and forgiveness of others.

    PubMed

    Collier, Shawn A; Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted a survey to determine whether competitive attitudes are differentially associated with forgiveness or lack of forgiveness of others. The results showed that hypercompetitiveness was associated with a lack of forgiveness, whereas personal development competitiveness was associated positively with forgiveness. Discussion centers on the need to discourage socialization practices that foster the adoption of a self-contained individualism that is associated with a maladaptive hypercompetitiveness. Instead, parents should promote an ensembled individualism that is associated with a psychologically healthy personal development competitive orientation.

  11. Ontology-Based Model Of Firm Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyska, Boryana; Stoenchev, Nikolay

    2010-10-01

    Competitiveness is important characteristics of each business organization (firm, company, corporation etc). It is of great significance for the organization existence and defines evaluation criteria of business success at microeconomical level. Each criterium comprises set of indicators with specific weight coefficients. In the work an ontology-based model of firm competitiveness is presented as a set of several mutually connected ontologies. It would be useful for knowledge structuring, standardization and sharing among experts and software engineers who develop application in the domain. Then the assessment of the competitiveness of various business organizations could be generated more effectively.

  12. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  13. 24 CFR 574.200 - Amounts available for competitive grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Grants § 574.200 Amounts available for competitive grants. (a) The Department will set aside 10 percent... competitive grants to fund other projects. (d) If HUD makes a procedural error in a funding competition...

  14. 24 CFR 574.200 - Amounts available for competitive grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Grants § 574.200 Amounts available for competitive grants. (a) The Department will set aside 10 percent... competitive grants to fund other projects. (d) If HUD makes a procedural error in a funding competition...

  15. Comparative evolutionary psychology of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2006-05-01

    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for individuals across many species. The authors first describe mechanisms of sperm competition in insects and in birds. They suggest that the adaptive problems and evolved solutions in these species provide insight into human anatomy, physiology, psychology, and behavior. The authors then review recent theoretical and empirical arguments for the existence of sperm competition in humans and discuss proposed adaptations in humans that have analogs in insects or birds. The authors conclude by highlighting the heuristic value of a comparative evolutionary psychological approach in this field.

  16. Competition between weak localization and ballistic transport.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chushun

    2009-06-19

    High-frequency transport in perfect periodic dielectric cylinder arrays is studied. We analytically calculate the diffusive-ballistic transport crossover, which displays the competition between weak localization and ballistic transport. PMID:19659008

  17. Sports drinks, exercise training, and competition.

    PubMed

    von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  18. Teaching Imperfect Competition at the Principles Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William V.; Highfill, Jannett K.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that, although most economics textbooks' explanations of imperfect competition may involve three to five models, the concept can be taught using a single, simple model. Uses several business/economic examples as illustrations. (DB)

  19. Building Student Interest Through Optics Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Peruta, C.; Ubach, C.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Hands-On Optics program at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) has developed a competition called Hit the Target. This competition has been used in a variety of settings ranging from a middle school science fair to a statewide competition. Students must learn how light reflects off of mirrors and accurately measure angles to get the laser beam to hit a designated target. It has been used with students from 4th grade through high school around Tucson. We will outline the development of the competition and how it has been used in different settings. Hands-On Optics funded by the National Science Foundation and is a joint partnership with the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the International Society of Optical Engineering, and the Optical Society of America.

  20. Stochastic competitive learning in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Christiano; Zhao, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Competitive learning is an important machine learning approach which is widely employed in artificial neural networks. In this paper, we present a rigorous definition of a new type of competitive learning scheme realized on large-scale networks. The model consists of several particles walking within the network and competing with each other to occupy as many nodes as possible, while attempting to reject intruder particles. The particle's walking rule is composed of a stochastic combination of random and preferential movements. The model has been applied to solve community detection and data clustering problems. Computer simulations reveal that the proposed technique presents high precision of community and cluster detections, as well as low computational complexity. Moreover, we have developed an efficient method for estimating the most likely number of clusters by using an evaluator index that monitors the information generated by the competition process itself. We hope this paper will provide an alternative way to the study of competitive learning..