Science.gov

Sample records for competitive energy market

  1. Marketing energy services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mykytyn, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    For nearly six decades electrical utilities have operated in a regulated environment established by the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This legislation granted generators exclusive franchise to market electrical power in a given geographical area in return for the company`s commitment to provide safe, reliable and fairly-priced electrical power to all customers within the region. For close to 40 years, this system of regulated monopoly functioned reasonably well to maintain a balance among the varied, and at times competing, interests in the industry. During the 1970s, however, the public argument in favor of competition within the electrical services industry gained momentum. Spiraling energy costs focused the consumer`s attention on the need for conservation and inspired a variety of technological developments as well as experiments in cogeneration. Today, the electrical utility industry is poised for great change. Soon, this industry will follow the natural gas, telecommunications, and transportation industries into the uncharted waters of deregulation. The most pressing consequence of moving from a regulated environment to one that is deregulated - in other words, a competitive environment - is the need to design and implement a completely new form of marketing program. The response among industry marketing managers ranges from confusion and concern to excitement and eager anticipation. Where you fall along this continuum depends on how well you understand competitive marketing practices and the degree to which your company`s management group is willing to initiate competitive strategies and tactics now in preparation for the coming competitive marketplace.

  2. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  3. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  4. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  6. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  7. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Overview of the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market - The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.; Budraja, Vikram; Jaros, Richard; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Hinrichs, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    This overview at the Geothermal Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Technology Advancements to Support Growth in Geothermal Power Sales in a Dynamic Utility Market'' by John E. Mock; ''Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California: Past, Present and Future'' by Vikram Budraja; ''Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market'' by Richard Jaros; ''Recent Developments in Japan's Hot Dry Rock Program'' by Tsutomu Yamaguchi; and ''Options in the Eleventh Year for Interim Standard Offer Number Four Contracts'' by Thomas C. Hinrichs.

  9. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Does market competition explain fairness?

    PubMed

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  11. Competition: a social marketer's friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Wayman, Jennifer J Clay; Beall, Tom; Thackeray, Rosemary; Brown, Kelli R McCormack

    2007-04-01

    In public health social marketing, is there such a thing as "healthy competition," or is the term an oxymoron? The primary focus of this article is on a type of competition that may not often be considered by public health social marketers--competition from other marketing activities that exist in the marketplace in which your intervention is operating. This could also be termed "promotion" competition. The purpose of this article is to briefly review promotion competition and then review competitive factors that can impact a social marketing initiative's success, examine how to conduct a useful competitive analysis, and offer strategies for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative implications of competition on your efforts.

  12. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  13. Wholesale marginal prices in competitive generation markets

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Meseguer, C.

    1997-05-01

    Wholesale marginal electricity prices are being used in several actual competitive generation markets worldwide, both to remunerate generators and to charge consumption. These prices must account not only for energy, but also for guarantee of supply in the long and the short term. This paper: (a) provides a sound conceptual and quantitative foundation for wholesale pricing based on generation services, where any existing restrictions in operation or planning in real power markets are accounted for, (b) clearly establishes the relationship between short term marginal costs, long term marginal costs and optimal wholesale electricity prices, and (c) identifies the reasons for mismatches in cost recovery with marginal generation prices. The theoretical results are verified with a detailed realistic power system model.

  14. Nurse education in competitive markets: the case for relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M

    1998-10-01

    Since the National Health Service reforms of the late 1980s, nurse education has been increasingly subject to market forces. This new competitive environment presents not only threat, but also challenge and opportunity. Providers of nurse education who recognize the need for market orientation and develop responsive marketing strategies will maximize their potential for market retention and growth. Traditional marketing strategies have considerable limitations for public sector services. The new and growing field of relationship marketing offers nurse education an opportunity to retain and develop profitable relationships with both internal and external markets. This paper reviews the marketing arena in nurse education and proposes context-based qualitative research to ascertain definitive constructs of service quality. Such constructs might then be rooted in a theoretical framework of service quality measurement, and be measured within the disconfirmation paradigm of relationship marketing.

  15. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  16. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  17. The role of DSM in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The author appreciates the opportunity to participate in this NARUC conference and to offer some thoughts on the implications for demand side management (DSM) resulting from increased competition in the electricity and gas businesses. The dominant theme of almost every professional conference in both gas and electricity is that the markets are becoming increasingly competitive and furthermore that increased competition benefits customers and affords opportunities to providers of energy services. However, only part of the effects of increased competition occur through utility DSM programs. A competitive marketplace for electricity and gas would indeed have an effect on utility conservation programs and on utility customers. The following are some of the implications of a competitive market. My presentation is an explanation and defense of these five propositions. (1) Economic efficiency will be enhanced - which increases the level of economic well being of customers and increases the productivity of the U. S. economy. (2) Energy efficiency will decrease, which may also increase our level of economic well-being and economic productivity. (3) Some DSM conservation programs will end, because they fail to pass the market test of competition. Those DSM programs that contribute to the efficient use of energy resources will prosper under competition. (4) The economic well-being of lower and middle income customers will be enhanced, first, by abolishing the DSM based subsidies to high income customers and second by pricing separately the reliability of electric services. (5) Policy goals will have to be justified on their merits - which is the worst fear of some, but the best outcome as viewed by others.

  18. Measuring competition in health care markets.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, L C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Measuring competition is increasingly important for analysis of health care markets and policies. Measurement of competition in health care is made complex by the breadth of potential issues under study, by the lack of necessary data, and by rapid changes in health care financing and delivery. This study reviews key issues in the measurement of competition and is designed to familiarize researchers and policymakers interested in competition measurement, but not steeped in its practice, with key concepts, data sources, and ways of adapting measures to fit ongoing changes in health care markets. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Attention to several key issues will strengthen measurement. Important components of successful measurement are: careful identification of the products and market areas for study; selection of Herfindahl-Hirschman or other indices to fit the issues being considered; consideration of econometric problems, like endogeneity, with common measures; and attention to the ways that current marketplace changes, like growth in managed care, affect the performance of classic measures. Data needed for constructing measures are also frequently scarce, insufficient, or both. Measurement could be improved with access to better data. PMID:11327175

  19. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  20. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  1. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  2. Financial methods in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie

    The restructuring of electric power industry has become a global trend. As reforms to the electricity supply industry spread rapidly across countries and states, many political and economical issues arise as a result of people debating over which approach to adopt in restructuring the vertically integrated electricity industry. This dissertation addresses issues of transmission pricing, electricity spot price modeling, as well as risk management and asset valuation in a competitive electricity industry. A major concern in the restructuring of the electricity industries is the design of a transmission pricing scheme that will ensure open-access to the transmission networks. I propose a priority-pricing scheme for zonal access to the electric power grid that is uniform across all buses in each zone. The Independent System Operator (ISO) charges bulk power traders a per unit ex ante transmission access fee based on the expected option value of the generated power with respect to the random zonal spot prices. The zonal access fee depends on the injection zone and a self-selected strike price determining the scheduling priority of the transaction. Inter zonal transactions are charged (or credited) with an additional ex post congestion fee that equals the zonal spot price difference. The unit access fee entitles a bulk power trader to either physical injection of one unit of energy or a compensation payment that equals to the difference between the realized zonal spot price and the selected strike price. The ISO manages congestion so as to minimize net compensation payments and thus, curtailment probabilities corresponding to a particular strike price may vary by bus. The rest of the dissertation deals with the issues of modeling electricity spot prices, pricing electricity financial instruments and the corresponding risk management applications. Modeling the spot prices of electricity is important for the market participants who need to understand the risk factors in

  3. Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy - Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkevics, O.; Ivanova, P.; Balodis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

  4. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  5. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  6. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  7. Competition and quality in home health care markets.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoungrae; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients' homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition.

  8. Competitions hatch butterfly attractors in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yu Ying

    2005-03-01

    Chaos in foreign exchange markets is a common issue of concern in the study of economic dynamics. In this work, we mainly investigate the competition effect on chaos in foreign exchange markets. As one of the main economic structures in the globalization process, competition between two target exchange rates with the same base currency forms a simple competitive exchange rate relation, where each exchange rate follows the chaotic model of De Grauwe (Exchange Rate Theory-Chaotic Models of Foreign Exchange Markets, Blackwell, Oxford, Cambridge, MA, 1993). The main discovery is, while each exchange rate is in its non-chaotic parameter regions, the effect of competition will “hatch” butterfly-like chaotic attractors in the competitive market. The positive Lyapunov exponent in the market explains the reason why chaos occurs.

  9. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  10. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Markets AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... markets administered by Independent System Operators or Regional Transmission Organizations. The... competitiveness of organized wholesale energy markets and thus ensure just and reasonable wholesale rates....

  11. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  12. Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

  13. Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

  14. [Competition and prices in the Mexican pharmaceutical market].

    PubMed

    Molina-Salazar, Raúl E; González-Marín, Eloy; Carbajal-de Nova, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The forms of market competition define prices. The pharmaceutical market contains submarkets with different levels of competition; on the one hand are the innovating products with patents, and on the other, generic products with or without trade names. Innovating medicines generally have monopolistic prices, but when the patents expire prices drop because of competition from therapeutic alternatives. The trade name makes it easier to maintain monopolistic prices. In Mexico, medicine prices in the private market are high--according to aggregated estimates and prices for specific medicines--which reflect the limitations of pharmaceutical market competition and the power of the trade name. The public segment enjoys competitive prices using the WHO strategy for essential medicines on the basis of the Essential List.

  15. Effects of payment reform in more versus less competitive markets.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neeraj; Alpert, Abby; Barnes, Kayleigh; Huckfeldt, Peter; Escarce, José J

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in reducing healthcare costs and inefficiencies through innovative payment strategies. These strategies may have heterogeneous impacts across geographic areas, potentially reducing or exacerbating geographic variation in healthcare spending. In this paper, we exploit a major payment reform for home health care to examine whether reductions in reimbursement lead to differential changes in treatment intensity and provider costs depending on the level of competition in a market. Using Medicare claims, we find that while providers in more competitive markets had higher average costs in the pre-reform period, these markets experienced larger proportional reductions in treatment intensity and costs after the reform relative to less competitive markets. This led to a convergence in spending across geographic areas. We find that much of the reduction in provider costs is driven by greater exit of "high-cost" providers in more competitive markets.

  16. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  17. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  18. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: "Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?"

  19. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  20. Pfizer and its competitive marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Pfizer has been the preeminent global pharmaceutical company in recent years and much of their success can be attributed to their marketing responsiveness and innovation. Pfizer is committed to patients, the community and quality product development. As a model in marketing effectiveness they also show how to lead internal resources efficiently to maximize market place opportunities.

  1. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies. PMID:27442516

  2. Price competition in the Chinese pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard

    2006-06-01

    We study price competition between high-quality global products and low-quality local products in a developing country, i.e., China, Nearly all previous studies on pharmaceutical price competition focused on developed countries with bioequivalent generics. In China, local generic products are not bioequivalent and are deemed of lower quality, while global products in the same class are considered similar in quality and better substitutes. We hypothesize that local generic competition drives down local product price but not global product price. In addition, we hypothesize that therapeutic competition among similar global products lowers global product price. Our empirical results support both hypotheses. Number of local generic competitors has a significantly negative effect on local product price but no effect on global product price, while number of global therapeutic competitors has a significantly negative effect on global product price. Policy changes that encourage bioequivalent local products and accelerate global product approvals will enhance price competition in China.

  3. Energy by the Numbers: Collegiate Wind Competition

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition prepares students from multiple disciplines to enter tomorrow’s wind energy workforce. As part of the competition, undergraduate students build and test a wind turbine, establish a deployment strategy, and develop and deliver a business plan.

  4. Girls in the Education Market: Choice, Competition and Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Gewirtz, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Considers the role of girls' schools in the United Kingdom education market and the positioning and "value" of girls by examining the workings of market forces in education. It reveals that current conditions of competition offer some advantages to girls but that these advantages have to be set against the continuing contradictions and…

  5. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition.

  6. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  7. The transition to fully competitive bulk power markets: Federal regulatory developments in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Portasik, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, traditional electric utilities have become increasingly dependent upon enhanced competitive conditions in the bulk power market to improve efficiency and secure {open_quotes}least-cost{close_quotes} generation for their franchise and wholesale customers. The industry`s growing reliance on competitive wholesale markets both presaged and overtook the new legislation reflected in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). This article describes the new environment, as revealed in recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decisions, and discusses its impact on the services and rates of affected utilities.

  8. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 58293 - Promoting a Competitive Market for Capacity Reassignment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission lifts the price cap for all electric transmission customers reassigning... with sufficient data, staff compared the prices of reassignments to the energy market spread... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  10. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Espino, Francisco; Tian, Tian; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Miller, Mackay

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  11. Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices.

    PubMed

    Sinioris, M E

    1985-01-01

    A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow. Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well. The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy, along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market, and financing.

  12. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  13. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  14. Testing Neoclassical Competitive Theory in Multilateral Decentralized Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Walrasian tatonnement has been a fundamental assumption in economics ever since Walras' general equilibrium theory was introduced in 1874. Nearly a century after its introduction, Vernon Smith relaxed the Walrasian tatonnement assumption by showing that neoclassical competitive market theory explains the equilibrating forces in "double-auction"…

  15. Education and Signaling: Evidence from a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; Wei, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    This paper directly tests for differences in returns to education between the employed and self-employed in Hong Kong. Using a step-function, we find significantly smaller returns for the self-employed, suggesting that in the highly competitive labor market of Hong Kong education plays a signaling role. This pattern persists for both genders, when…

  16. Price regulation and generic competition in the pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Strøm, Steinar; Haabeth, Tonje

    2006-09-01

    In March 2003 the Norwegian government implemented yardstick-based price regulation schemes on a selection of drugs subjected to generic competition. The retail price cap, termed the "index price," on a drug (chemical substance) was set equal to the average of the three lowest producer prices on that drug, plus a fixed wholesale and retail margin. This is supposed to lower barriers of entry for generic drugs and to trigger price competition. Using monthly data over the period 1998-2004 for the six drugs (chemical entities) included in the index price system, we estimate a structural model enabling us to examine the impact of the reform on both demand and market power. Our results suggest that the index price helped to increase the market shares of generic drugs and succeeded in triggering price competition.

  17. Energy efficiency services: What role in a competitive environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-11-01

    If experience from other industries counts, energy services will remain the strategically critical center of the chessboard in a reconfigured electric utility market. Players who can create customized, integrated packages of customer services will be in a strong position to {open_quotes}create value{close_quotes} in a highly fragmented and competitive industry. The initial phase of disintegration is likely to be followed by period of reintegration, in which non-price services become increasing important. An overview is given on how utilities can deliver value to customers through innovative marketing strategies, leveraging existing knowledge, and the maintaining or building of infrastructure.

  18. Understanding Dynamic Competitive Technology Diffusion in Electronic Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Song, Peijian; Xu, Yunjie; Xue, Ling

    The extant literature on information technology (IT) diffusion has largely treated technology diffusion as a generic and independent process. This study, in contrast, examines the diffusion of different IT products with brand differentiation and competition. Drawing upon existing theories of product diffusion, we propose a research model to capture the dynamics of the competitive diffusion of web-based IT products and validate it with longitudinal field data of e-business platforms. Our findings suggest that IT product diffusion can be better predicted by a competitive model than by an independent-diffusion-process model. This research extends IT research to the context of competitive diffusion and provides practitioners an effective model to predict the dissemination of their products. The research also suggests the existence of asymmetric interactions among competing products, prompting scholars and practitioners to pay attention to the influence of competing products when making forecast of their product market.

  19. Compete or Die! How To Increase Enrollment in a Competitive Market: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for increasing the enrollment in child care programs in a competitive market. Discusses ways to investigate the market, including examining the competition, parents' expectations, and the industry; and ways to differentiate a center from its competitors. (KB)

  20. Proceedings: Eleventh forecasting symposium. Forecasting in a competitive electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, T.; Ignelzi, P.

    1998-10-01

    EPRI`s Eleventh Forecasting Symposium: ``Forecasting in a Competitive Electricity Market`` was held in Arlington, Virginia, in November 1997. This proceedings documents the symposium`s wide variety of topics, ranging from very-short-term operations issues to mid-term market planning issues. Speakers described the forecasting practices of other industries, predicted forecasting directions in the electric power industry; related their experiences with new forecasting approaches; and suggested further enhancements to forecasting methods, tools, and data. The objectives of the symposium were to explore the expanding roles of forecasting in a competitive market, to exchange information about forecasting techniques under development, and to discuss the forecasting techniques currently used by the electric power industry in and outside the US and in other industries. The 30 papers are arranged under the following topical sections: restructuring and regulatory issues--implications for forecasting; forecasting experiences in other industries; operations-related forecasting; data warehousing and database marketing; forecasting and risk management; understanding and predicting market prices; forecasting methods for the new environment; predicting customer response; and symposium wrap-up.

  1. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  3. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  4. Competition and quality in a physiotherapy market with fixed prices.

    PubMed

    Pekola, Piia; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Mikkola, Hennamari

    2017-01-01

    Our study focuses on competition and quality in physiotherapy organized and regulated by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela). We first derive a hypothesis with a theoretical model and then perform empirical analyses of the data. Within the physiotherapy market, prices are regulated by Kela, and after registration eligible firms are accepted to join a pool of firms from which patients choose service providers based on their individual preferences. By using 2SLS estimation techniques, we analyzed the relationship among quality, competition and regulated price. According to the results, competition has a statistically significant (yet weak) negative effect (p = 0.019) on quality. The outcome for quality is likely caused by imperfect information. It seems that Kela has provided too little information for patients about the quality of the service.

  5. 75 FR 24828 - Promoting a Competitive Market for Capacity Reassignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission proposes in this Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to lift the price cap... reassignments, and any relationship between resale prices and price differentials in related energy markets. In... with prices comparable to the average spread in energy prices between the regions. These data...

  6. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  7. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  8. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  9. Market competition in health care markets in the Netherlands: some lessons for England?

    PubMed

    den Exter, André P; Guy, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to establish what lessons might be available to the English health care sector following enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 from the Dutch experience of introducing market competition into health care via a mandatory health insurance scheme implemented by for-profit insurance companies. The existence of the Beveridge NHS model in England, and a Bismarckian insurance system in The Netherlands perhaps suggest that a comparison of the two countries is at best limited, and reinforced by the different Enthoven-inspired competitive models each has adopted. However, we contend that there are positive and negative issues arising from introducing competition into health care-, e.g. concerns about equity and benefits of efficiencies-which go beyond national boundaries and different systems and reflect the global paradigm shift towards the use of market forces in previously non-market areas such as health. The article examines the situation in England following the HSCA 2012 and The Netherlands following the 2006 reforms before analysing two areas of common ground: the focus in both countries on competition on quality (as opposed to price) and integrated care, which is assuming ever greater significance. We suggest that our combined insights (as a health lawyer and competition lawyer respectively) coupled with a comparative approach create a novel contribution to current calls for a wider public debate about the real role of markets in health care over and above simple characterisation as a force for good or bad.

  10. Prospect of advanced generation technologies in a competitive market place

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, M.; Singh, A.

    1999-07-01

    The US Electric utility industry is undergoing tremendous changes for meeting the challenge of deregulation and customer demands for a free competitive market. Two major forces are driving this market: the deregulation of the industry and customer demands for achieving the lowest cost for electricity, forcing utility companies to position themselves as the low-cost producers. This paper will briefly discuss the status of various advanced generation technologies with respect to their costs, applicability and limitations, where these technologies are expected to be cost-effective and how they compare with the combined cycle plants. Advanced generation technologies may benefit as the environment regulations are tightened. This paper will examine how, when and where the advanced generation technologies would play a role in penetrating the market on their own merits.

  11. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  12. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  13. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  14. Managed competition in California's small-group insurance market.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, T C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the early experience of the Health Insurance Plan of California (the HIPC), a small-employer purchasing cooperative established in 1993. The plan's experience is consistent with the predictions of advocates of market-oriented health care reform: The program's design has encouraged cost-conscious choice by enrollees, which in turn has generated price competition among plans. Differences across the HIPC's six rating regions conform with the notion that health care competition is less viable is sparsely populated areas. Evidence on risk selection suggests that while the HIPC as a whole has not experienced adverse selection, certain plans within the program have received a disproportionate share of high-cost enrollees.

  15. Spatial competition for quality in the market for hospital care.

    PubMed

    Montefiori, Marcello

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses the market for secondary health care services when patient choice depends on the quality/distance mix that achieves utility maximization. First, the hospital's equilibrium in a Hotelling spatial competition model under simultaneous quality choices is analyzed to define hospitals' strategic behavior. A first equilibrium outcome is provided, the understanding of which is extremely useful for the policy maker wishing to improve social welfare. Second, patients are assumed to be unable, because of asymmetry of information, to observe the true quality provided. Their decisions reflect the perceived quality, which is affected by bias. Using the mean-variance method, the equilibrium previously found is investigated in a stochastic framework.

  16. Market Competition and the Health Composition of Manufactured Food.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen F; Réquillart, Vincent

    2016-12-04

    There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decrease the healthiness of manufactured foods whenever improved consumer health increases the price elasticity of food demand. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Estimating population ecology models for the WWW market: evidence of competitive oligopolies.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Ruth Mateos; Gimeno, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes adapting a particle filtering algorithm to model online Spanish real estate and job search market segments based on the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. For this purpose the authors use data on Internet information searches from Google Trends to proxy for market share. Market share evolution estimations are coherent with those observed in Google Trends. The results show evidence of low website incompatibility in the markets analyzed. Competitive oligopolies are most common in such low-competition markets, instead of the monopolies predicted by theoretical ecology models under strong competition conditions.

  18. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  19. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Kavita; Bennich, Peter; Cockburn, John; Doi, Naoko; Garg, Sandeep; Garnaik, S.P.; Holt, Shane; Walker, Mike; Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth; Lising, Anna; Pantano, Steve; Khare, Amit; Park, Won Young

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  20. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  1. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2011-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  2. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  3. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  4. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact.

  5. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  6. Energy Imbalance Markets (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    The anticipated increase in variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, over the next several years has raised concerns about how system operators will maintain balance between electricity production and demand in the Western Interconnection, especially in its smaller balancing authority areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. Meanwhile, uncertainties about future load growth and challenges siting new transmission and generation resources may add additional stresses on the Western Interconnection of the future. One proposed method of addressing these challenges is an energy imbalance market (EIM). An EIM is a means of supplying and dispatching electricity to balance fluctuations in generation and load. It aggregates the variability of generation and load over multiple balancing areas (BAs).

  7. Quality competition and uncertainty in a horizontally differentiated hospital market.

    PubMed

    Montefiori, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The chapter studies hospital competition in a spatially differentiated market in which patient demand reflects the quality/distance mix that maximizes their utility. Treatment is free at the point of use and patients freely choose the provider which best fits their expectations. Hospitals might have asymmetric objectives and costs, however they are reimbursed using a uniform prospective payment. The chapter provides different equilibrium outcomes, under perfect and asymmetric information. The results show that asymmetric costs, in the case where hospitals are profit maximizers, allow for a social welfare and quality improvement. On the other hand, the presence of a publicly managed hospital which pursues the objective of quality maximization is able to ensure a higher level of quality, patient surplus and welfare. However, the extent of this outcome might be considerably reduced when high levels of public hospital inefficiency are detectable. Finally, the negative consequences caused by the presence of asymmetric information are highlighted in the different scenarios of ownership/objectives and costs. The setting adopted in the model aims at describing the up-coming European market for secondary health care, focusing on hospital behavior and it is intended to help the policy-maker in understanding real world dynamics.

  8. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  9. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  10. "No Change There Then!" (? ): The Onward March of School Markets and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Bernard Barker's claims that "the pendulum is swinging", in relation to school markets and competition. Barker's arguments are complex in this regard. He rejects markets and competition as a means of improving outcomes and equity, but supports some of the system features that are often associated with marketisation,…

  11. Competition and Market Reform in the Australian VET Sector. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Damon

    This report examines current knowledge about the nature, development, and consequences of competition and market reform in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. In the process, the policy context and key aspects of the theory and practice of a competitive training market are analyzed. These other topics related to the…

  12. Competition and equilibria in electricity markets based on two-settlement system: A conjectural variation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, David

    This dissertation studies electricity markets based on two-settlement systems and applies the concept of conjectural variation (CV) as a tool for representing different levels of competitiveness in the market. Some recent theoretical works are addressed to support the use of CV as a solution concept. A notion of consistency is introduced to make the level of competitiveness of the market endogenous, and allows finding consistent CV equilibria and the corresponding conditions for existence of equilibria. First, a case is studied in which firms hold exogenous levels of forward commitments. Then, backward induction and sub-game perfection are used to solve sequentially for the spot and forward market equilibrium. This allows analyzing how firms take positions in the forward market, based on considering their later impact on the spot market. It is concluded that positions taken in the forward market depend largely on firms expectations about the competitiveness of both the spot and the forward market. Forward markets are welfare enhancing even if they are not as competitive as the associated spot market as long as they are not too oligopolistie. The above formulation is used to model a dynamic scenario to analyze market stability, linking this research to Dr. Alvarado's earlier research on market stability. This brings about interesting trade offs between market power and market stability.

  13. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  14. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  15. The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; Veldhuis, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This article puts forward the argument that the measurement of connectivity in hub-and-spoke networks has to take into account the quality and quantity of both direct and indirect connections. The NETSCAN model, which has been applied in this study, quantifies indirect connectivity and scales it into a theoretical direct connection. NETSCAN allows researchers, airports, airlines, alliances and airport regions to analyse their competitive position in an integrated way. Using NETSCAN, the authors analysed the developments on the market between northwest Europe and the United States (US) between May 2003 and May 2005. One of the most striking developments has certainly been the impact of the Air France-KLM merger and the effects of the integration of KLM and Northwest into the SkyTeam alliance on the connectivity of Amsterdam Schiphol. Direct as well as indirect connectivity (via European and North American hubs) from Amsterdam to the US increased substantially. The main reason for this increase is the integration of the former Wings and SkyTeam networks via the respective hub airports. Moreover, the extended SkyTeam alliance raised frequencies between Amsterdam and the SkyTeam hubs (Atlanta, Houston, for example), opened new routes (Cincinnati) and boosted the network between Amsterdam and France. As a result of the new routes and frequencies, Amsterdam took over Heathrow s position as the third best-connected northwest European airport to the US.

  16. The impact of competition on quality and prices in the English care homes market.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien; Allan, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of competition on quality and price in the English care/nursing homes market. Considering the key institutional features, we use a theoretical model to assess the conditions under which further competition could increase or reduce quality. A dataset comprising the population of 10,000 care homes was used. We constructed distance/travel-time weighted competition measures. Instrumental variable estimations, used to account for the endogeneity of competition, showed quality and price were reduced by greater competition. Further analyses suggested that the negative quality effect worked through the effect on price - higher competition reduces revenue which pushes down quality.

  17. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application...

  18. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  19. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price.

  20. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets.

  1. CEO perceptions of competition--and strategic response in hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Burns, L R; Morrisey, M A; Johnson, V

    2001-06-01

    Physician-organization integration (POI) has emerged as a key issue for hospitals and health systems seeking to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of care. Although competition and managed care are often cited as primary market drivers of the adoption of POI strategies, prior research has shown only weak associations between these market attributes and POI. This article argues that the role of key organizational decision makers has not been adequately accounted for in explaining strategic change. The study examines the role of hospital CEO perceptions of competition in predicting the adoption of five different approaches to POI. CEO perceptions of general market competition are explained by a combination of market and organizational attributes. Furthermore, when controlling for objective characteristics of the environment and organization, CEO perceptions of competition have consistent, statistically significant associations with four of five measures of POI examined.

  2. Competition and Markets in Higher Education: A "Glonacal" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Higher education--particularly the research-intensive university, which is the focus of this article--is the subject of global/national/local effects, and is shaped by hierarchy and uneven development on a world scale. The article theorises social competition in higher education, and traces inter-university competition and stratification on the…

  3. Marketing Schools: Consumer Goods and Competitive Incentives for Consumer Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Effective school-choice plans depend on the quality of information available to families. Examining the promotional materials provided by different schools in a highly competitive and diverse urban area tells us not only about the quality of that information but also how schools respond to competitive incentives. This analysis outlines an economic…

  4. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  5. Assessing Competition on the Russian University Market Using a Modified Panzar-Rosse Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergeeva, Vladlena Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews some government policy measures aimed at strengthening competition in the Russian university market and looks at the best international practices in this area. It analyzes the competitive behavior of universities under the current government policy on higher education and research and development and suggests an approach to…

  6. An Industry Analysis of the MBA Market and the Competitive Positioning of the GSBPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION Traditional business schools face threats to their competitive positioning as the educational...MBA market were competition between business schools , buyers of business education including both students and employers, faculty as the key...Representative Core Course Requirement While business schools consider it their mission to educate students for their entire career, they are

  7. Incentives for School Diversification: Competition and Promotional Patterns in Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Reforms using market-style mechanisms of parental choice and competition between schools are intended to leverage change by compelling schools to diversify options and increase effectiveness. Yet, some research challenges those assumptions, suggesting that schools in competitive climates are more likely to focus on image management to attract a…

  8. Building a Marketing Curriculum to Support Courses in Social Entrepreneurship and Social Venture Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Curren, Mary T.; Harich, Katrin R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the implications of the increased popularity of social enterprise programs and social venture competitions for the marketing curriculum. Social enterprise programs and competitions are often offered outside the school of business and target students from a variety of academic backgrounds. Although social enterprises use…

  9. Competitiveness as the Factor of Settlements Terms Forming at the Market of Chocolate Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandrashina, Elena A.; Zotova, Anna S.; Smolina, Ekaterina S.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.; Dneprov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by increasing levels of competition in the industry markets of chocolate producers in Russia and the need to maintain the profitability of the companies' activities in the unstable macroeconomic conditions. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of competitive forces on settlements terms…

  10. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  11. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  12. A Critical Analysis of Concentration and Competition in the Indian Pharmaceutical Market

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aashna; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Selvaraj, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It can be argued that with several players marketing a large number of brands, the pharmaceutical market in India is competitive. However, the pharmaceutical market should not be studied as a single market but, as a sum total of a large number of individual sub-markets. This paper examines the methodological issues with respect to defining the relevant market involved in studying concentration in the pharmaceutical market in India. Further, we have examined whether the Indian pharmaceutical market is competitive. Methods Indian pharmaceutical market was studied using PharmaTrac, the sales audit data from AIOCD-AWACS, that organises formulations into 5 levels of therapeutic classification based on the EphMRA system. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used as the indicator of market concentration. We calculated HHI for the entire pharmaceutical market studied as a single market as well as at the five different levels of therapeutic classification. Results and Discussion Whereas the entire pharmaceutical market taken together as a single market displayed low concentration (HHI = 226.63), it was observed that if each formulation is defined as an individual sub-market, about 69 percent of the total market in terms of market value displayed at least moderate concentration. Market should be defined taking into account the ease of substitutability. Since, patients cannot themselves substitute the formulation prescribed by the doctor with another formulation with the same indication and therapeutic effect, owing to information asymmetry, it is appropriate to study market concentration at the narrower levels of therapeutic classification. PMID:26895269

  13. New England Buildings Score in National Energy Star Building Competition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 5,500 individual buildings across the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico competed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fifth-annual ENERGY STAR Battle of the Buildings Competition: Team Challenge.

  14. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other...

  15. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing... directly with Joseph M. Wolfe, Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation, Kirkwood Office Tower, 919 South...

  16. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...creation of a strong and competitive European defense equipment market out of the 28 fragmented markets of the EU member states remains an important

  17. Market Competition in Upper Secondary Education: Perceived Effects on Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Ulf; Holm, Ann-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    The development and expansion of market solutions is one of the most important changes in Swedish education in the last 30 years. The aim of the article is to describe and analyse how students and staff in upper secondary schools perceive the impact of market competition on teachers' work. Three groups of actors in two Swedish regions were…

  18. Market Competition, Public Good and Institutional Governance: Analyses of Portugal's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the market as a regulatory tool for the public sector and the promotion of competition among institutions are based upon the idea that they promote institutions' responsiveness to society and a more efficient use of public funds. However, autonomous institutions forced to compete under market-like conditions may follow strategies…

  19. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    decoupled and assumed to be fixed during the reactive power dispatch procedures; however, the effect of reactive power on real power is considered in the model by calculating the required reduction in real power output of a generator due to an increase in its reactive power supply. In this case, real power generation is allowed to be rescheduled, within given limits, from the already dispatched levels obtained from the energy market clearing process. The proposed dispatch model achieves the main objective of an ISO in a competitive electricity market, which is to provide the required reactive power support from generators at least cost while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models capture both the technical and economic aspects of power system operation in competitive electricity markets; however, from an optimization point of view, these models represent non-convex mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems due to the presence of binary variables associated with the different regions of reactive power operation in a synchronous generator. Such MINLP optimization problems are difficult to solve, especially for an actual power system. A novel Generator Reactive Power Classification (GRPC) algorithm is proposed in this thesis to address this issue, with the advantage of iteratively solving the optimization models as a series of non-linear programming (NLP) sub-problems. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models are implemented and tested on the CIGRE 32-bus system, with several case studies that represent different practical operating scenarios. The developed models are also compared with other approaches for reactive power provision, and the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The results clearly reveal the main features of the proposed models for optimal provision of reactive power ancillary service, in order to suit the requirements of

  20. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  1. Control & competition square off for primacy in the uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Who dominates? Who competes? How level is the playing field? And how free is the free market? Of more than academic interest, these questions are being thrashed out by a bevy of market participants. But resolution is no dainty game of croquet; it looks more like a rugby scrum. So grab your binoculars and let the games begin.

  2. Determining firms׳ utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka-Volterra models.

    PubMed

    Marasco, A; Picucci, A; Romano, A

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963-2000) and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998-2007). In addition, we estimate monthly data on market shares for both markets. We show how this data can be used to derive firms' utility functions and their competitive roles.

  3. Getting the product right: how competition policy can improve health care markets.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2014-06-01

    As hospital, physician, and health insurance markets consolidate and change in response to health care reform, some commentators have called for vigorous enforcement of the federal antitrust laws to prevent the acquisition and exercise of market power. In health care, however, stricter antitrust enforcement will benefit consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. This article directs policy makers to a neglected dimension of health care competition that has been altered by regulation: the product. Competition may have failed to significantly lower costs, increase access, or improve quality in health care because we have been buying and selling the wrong things. Competition policy makers-meaning both antitrust enforcers and regulators-should force the health care industry to define and market products that can be assembled and warranted to consumers while keeping emerging sectors such as mHealth free from overregulation, wasteful subsidy, and appropriation by established insurer and provider interests.

  4. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  5. Competition and liberalization in European gas markets: Towards a continental European model

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    Many of the long-awaited changes to the European gas market are now imminent. Institutional developments and market forces are combining to produce a transformation. This major study analyzes the developments in a wide range of European countries, including central and eastern Europe. In examining how different institutional traditions and political priorities will affect the gas market, Stern explores the potential for a distinct continental European model of competition and liberalization.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Boosting U.S. Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-14

    Clean energy manufacturing is booming in the United States. U.S. clean energy investment topped $51 billion in 2014 alone, and even more growth is expected in the $250 billion clean energy market worldwide in coming years. America has an important opportunity to continue growing clean energy manufacturing industries, along with the high quality jobs and stronger local economies that come with them.

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Boosting U.S. Competitiveness

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Clean energy manufacturing is booming in the United States. U.S. clean energy investment topped $51 billion in 2014 alone, and even more growth is expected in the $250 billion clean energy market worldwide in coming years. America has an important opportunity to continue growing clean energy manufacturing industries, along with the high quality jobs and stronger local economies that come with them.

  8. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  9. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  10. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  11. Demand responsive programs - an emerging resource for competitive electricity markets?

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson C. Dr.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2001-06-25

    The restructuring of regional electricity markets in the U.S. has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created significant new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators, to control and manage the load patterns of their wholesale or retail end-users. These technologies and business approaches for manipulating end-user load shapes are known as Load Management or, more recently, Demand Responsive programs. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is conducting case studies on innovative demand responsive programs and presents preliminary results for five case studies in this paper. These case studies illustrate the diversity of market participants and range of technologies and business approaches and focus on key program elements such as target markets, market segmentation and participation results; pricing scheme; dispatch and coordination; measurement, verification, and settlement; and operational results where available.

  12. State of competition in gasoline marketing. The effects of refiner operation at retail (a study required by Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.B.; Fenili, R.N.

    1980-05-01

    Title III of the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act requires the Secretary of Energy to report to the Congress on the extent to which producers, refiners, and other suppliers of motor fuel subsidize the sale of such fuel at retail or wholesale with profits obtained from other operations. This is Part I of the report required under that Title. It addresses a number of questions relating to the central issue - the state of competition in the gasoline marketing industry. Part II of the report, to be issued this fall, will discuss the subpoenaed documents of nine integrated companies, and will contain recommendations for action, if deemed necessary. The basic thrust of Part I is an examination of three issues: (1) Are integrated refiners subsidizing their company operated gasoline retail outlets; (2) Are integrated refiners moving gasoline away from their branded dealer network into their own retail outlets; and (3) Are integrated refiners manipulating the allocation system in favor of their own retail outlets to the detriment of other gasoline marketers. At a series of regional hearings, independent marketers charged that integrated refiners were engaging in each of these practices. In essence, integrated refiners were portrayed as using unfair or illegal competitive practices which would ultimately lead to their domination of retail gasoline markets. This report addresses each allegation, after providing a historical and theoretical framework for today's debate.

  13. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  14. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  15. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  16. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric... elsewhere. See e.g., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73...

  17. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, L.J.; Pernisz, U.C.; Fraas, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of {open_quote}{open_quote}moving down the learning curve,{close_quote}{close_quote} growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Leon J.; Pernisz, Udo C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of ``moving down the learning curve,'' growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells.

  19. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  20. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms.

  1. Entropy and Energy, - a Universal Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ingo

    2008-12-01

    When a body approaches equilibrium, energy tends to a minimum and entropy tends to a maximum. Often, or usually, the two tendencies favour different configurations of the body. Thus energy is deterministic in the sense that it favours fixed positions for the atoms, while entropy randomizes the positions. Both may exert considerable forces in the attempt to reach their objectives. Therefore they have to compromise; indeed, under most circumstances it is the available free energy which achieves a minimum. For low temperatures that free energy is energy itself, while for high temperatures it is determined by entropy. Several examples are provided for the roles of energy and entropy as competitors: - Planetary atmospheres; - osmosis; - phase transitions in gases and liquids and in shape memory alloys, and - chemical reactions, viz. the Haber Bosch synthesis of ammonia and photosynthesis. Some historical remarks are strewn through the text to make the reader appreciate the difficulties encountered by the pioneers in understanding the subtlety of the concept of entropy, and in convincing others of the validity and relevance of their arguments.

  2. The selfish brain: Competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Peters, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. Here, I present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism maintains its systemic homeostasis by a "competent brain-pull", i.e., the brain's ability to properly demand glucose from the body, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull." I describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, toward the brain as the final consumer in a "supply chain" model. There is data-based support for the hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is also support for the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation, a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuation of the brain's high energy level. To experimentally determine how the competent brain-pull functions to demand for cerebral energy, healthy young men undergoing psychosocial stress were studied. It was found that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a brain-pull mechanism, which is referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs during stress. This article gives an overview about the recent work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

  3. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets,...

  4. Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the Impacts of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction Practices in Electric Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad

    This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

  5. Market Competitiveness Evaluation of Mechanical Equipment with a Pairwise Comparisons Hierarchical Model

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how market competitiveness evaluations concerning mechanical equipment can be made in the context of multi-criteria decision environments. It is assumed that, when we are evaluating the market competitiveness, there are limited number of candidates with some required qualifications, and the alternatives will be pairwise compared on a ratio scale. The qualifications are depicted as criteria in hierarchical structure. A hierarchical decision model called PCbHDM was used in this study based on an analysis of its desirable traits. Illustration and comparison shows that the PCbHDM provides a convenient and effective tool for evaluating the market competitiveness of mechanical equipment. The researchers and practitioners might use findings of this paper in application of PCbHDM. PMID:26783751

  6. Market Competitiveness Evaluation of Mechanical Equipment with a Pairwise Comparisons Hierarchical Model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how market competitiveness evaluations concerning mechanical equipment can be made in the context of multi-criteria decision environments. It is assumed that, when we are evaluating the market competitiveness, there are limited number of candidates with some required qualifications, and the alternatives will be pairwise compared on a ratio scale. The qualifications are depicted as criteria in hierarchical structure. A hierarchical decision model called PCbHDM was used in this study based on an analysis of its desirable traits. Illustration and comparison shows that the PCbHDM provides a convenient and effective tool for evaluating the market competitiveness of mechanical equipment. The researchers and practitioners might use findings of this paper in application of PCbHDM.

  7. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  8. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  9. Equilibrium transition from centralization to competitive market: Stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, V.; Slastnikov, A.

    1994-12-31

    The paper deals with modelling changes of economic mechanism. Unlike most of the dynamic equilibrium models, both producers and consumers in our model act under budget restrictions. We associate different principles of budgets forming with different economic mechanisms and state a problem of transition from one economic mechanism to another. We focus on the following two mechanisms. The first one assumes the presence of Central Planning Board ({open_quotes}the State{close_quotes}) and may identify with centralized (state controlled) economy. Under the second mechanism, the role of the State is eliminated and its distributive functions are moved to the Market. In the framework of dynamic equilibrium theory we pro pose a model of gradual transition from economy with centralized budgets regulation to market economy. It is assumed that information about possible change of economic mechanism affects essentially on behavior of agents. Duration of transition period is regarded as a random variable. We study conditions when such transition allows firms to adapt their plans to future markets and guarantees the existence of equilibrium paths. The case of Shock (instantaneous transition), which may bring bankruptcy, jump of prices and deficit, is also discussed.

  10. Strategies to enhance price and quality competition in health care: lessons learned from tracking local markets.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Cara S; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2006-06-01

    Drawing on observations from tracking changes in local health care markets over the past ten years, this article critiques two Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recommendations to enhance price and quality competition. First, we take issue with the notion that consumers, acting independently, will drive greater competition in health care markets. Rather we suggest an important role remains for trusted agents who can analyze inherently complex price and quality information and negotiate on consumers' behalf. With aggregated information identifying providers who deliver cost-effective care, consumers would be better positioned to respond to financial incentives about where to seek care and thereby drive more meaningful competition among providers to reduce costs and improve quality. Second, we take issue with the FTC/DOJ recommendation to provide more direct subsidies to prevent distortions in competition. In the current political environment, it is not practical to provide direct subsidies for all of the unfunded care that exists in health care markets today; instead, some interference with competition may be necessary to protect cross subsidies. Barriers can be reduced, though, by revising pricing policies that have resulted in marked disparities in the relative profitability of different services.

  11. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  12. Competitive Incentives and the Education Market: How Charter Schools Define Themselves in Metropolitan Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers often advance charter schools as an education reform model that can offer more diverse educational alternatives for families. Yet, as these schools compete for students, questions arise about how they respond to the competitive incentives in differentiating themselves through marketing distinct options for learners. The way these…

  13. "Every Kid Is Money": Market-Like Competition and School Leader Strategies in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary aims of choice policies is to introduce competition between schools. When parents can choose where to send their children, there is pressure on schools to improve to attract and retain students. However, do school leaders recognize market pressures? What strategies do they use in response? This study examines how choice creates…

  14. Changing Facets of Korean Higher Education: Market Competition and the Role of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunwoong; Lee, Ju-Ho

    2006-01-01

    During the past several decades, the Korean higher education sector has experienced tremendous expansion, while the quality of teaching and research has not improved very much. Despite the fact that higher education had to rely on the private sector for most of its finance and provision, market competition among higher education institutions has,…

  15. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  16. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  17. Evaluate energy at its market value

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.A. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    Two utilities now use the market value of energy in their engineering studies. It is much easier to calculate the value of power with this approach than with conventional methods, and far fewer assumptions are required. The logic of this method should make results much easier to defend to management and before regulatory commissions. Also, since value of power is easier to calculate, it can be updated frequently and the most current value used in studies, thus improving the accuracy of management decisions.

  18. The Influence of Hospital Market Competition on Patient Mortality and Total Performance Score.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron; Hamadi, Hanadi; Xu, Jing; Yeomans, Katelyn

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 launch of Medicare Value-Based Purchasing has become the platform for payment reform. It is a mechanism by which buyers of health care services hold providers accountable for high-quality and cost-effective care. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between quality of hospital care and hospital competition using the quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior. The quality-quantity behavioral model of hospital behavior was used as the conceptual framework for this study. Data from the American Hospital Association database, the Hospital Compare database, and the Area Health Resources Files database were used. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effect of hospital competition on patient mortality. Hospital market competition was significantly and negatively related to the 3 mortality rates. Consistent with the literature, hospitals located in more competitive markets had lower mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The results suggest that hospitals may be more readily to compete on quality of care and patient outcomes. The findings are important because policies that seek to control and negatively influence a competitive hospital environment, such as Certificate of Need legislation, may negatively affect patient mortality rates. Therefore, policymakers should encourage the development of policies that facilitate a more competitive and transparent health care marketplace to potentially and significantly improve patient mortality.

  19. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    . This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

  20. Competitive Electricity Markets and System Reliability: The Case for New England's Proposed Locational Capacity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, John G.; Felder, Frank A.

    2005-10-01

    Clear evidence exists that the existing wholesale markets in New England are failing to provide sufficient incentives to invest. The ISO-NE LICAP proposal is designed to ensure that New England markets attract sufficient generation resources to protect reliability while being mindful of the added cost burden that it will produce.

  1. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  2. Impact of energy prices on agricultural and energy markets: an integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in biofuel and agricultural markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  3. Nonprice Competition and Quality of Care in Managed Care: The New York SCHIP Market

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hangsheng; Phelps, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of nonprice competition among managed care plans on the quality of care in the New York SCHIP market. Data Sources U.S. Census 2000; 2002 New York State Managed Care Plan Performance Report; and 2001 New York State Managed Care Annual Enrollment Report. Study Design Each market is defined as a county, and competition is measured as the number of plans in a market. Quality of care is measured in percentages using three Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey and three Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set scores. Two-stage least squares is applied to address the endogeneity between competition and the quality of care, using population as an instrument. Principle Findings We find a negative association between competition and quality of care. An additional managed care plan is significantly associated with a decrease of 0.40–2.31 percentage points in four out of six quality measures. After adjusting for production cost, a positive correlation is observed between price and quality measures across different pricing regions. Conclusions It seems likely that pricing policy is a constraint on quality production, although it may not be interpreted as a causal relationship and further study is needed. PMID:18454776

  4. [Market and competitive positioning of specialized practices: competitive advantages through strategic productivity planning].

    PubMed

    Räwer, Henrik; Braun von Reinersdorff, A; Ochotta, T; Rasche, C

    2011-12-01

    The provision of outpatient services will be confronted by increased market concentration. Under these circumstances, individual medical practices are predicted to have a minimal chance for survival since by nature the specialized physician can only accommodate the considerably heterogeneous needs of the patients up to justifiable limits. Due to patients' higher rate of mobility in the elective process, specialty physicians in rural areas are obliged to transform their practices into professional service enterprises. While hospitals are attempting to combat a continuing economization of the health care sector, in part by applying aggressive leadership and management methods, an increasing polarization can be noted in the outpatient setting. Also in the field of urology, patients consider themselves medical treatment clients who are unwilling to be relegated to cases of the often criticized"5-minute medicine."

  5. Managerial implications of corporate board involvement and perceived market competition for quality improvement in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, R; Zinn, J S; Brannon, D

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among corporate board involvement, total quality management (TQM) adoption, perceived market competition, and the perceived effect of quality improvement (QI) activities for a sample of nursing homes in Pennsylvania. The findings of this study have several implications for healthcare managers interested in maximizing the effectiveness of QI efforts. Board involvement in quality improvement was an important predictor of QI outcomes in the areas of finance, resident care, and human resources. However, TQM adoption had a positive effect on human resources outcomes only. These findings suggest that board involvement in any organized form of QI may be more important than the adoption of a formal TQM program in the nursing home industry. TQM's emphasis on employee empowerment may account for its positive influence on human resources. Perceived competition was associated with better financial outcomes. Low-cost leadership can be a key to survival in more competitive markets, requiring a focus on efficiency and productivity issues in QI efforts. By focusing on process improvement, the facilities may achieve cost reductions that can result in an improved financial position. Facilities perceived to be in more competitive environments were also more likely to adopt TQM. This is consistent with the assertion by resource-dependence theorists that organizations facing competition for resources must be responsive to the needs of resource-providing constituencies.

  6. The association of Nursing Home Compare quality measures with market competition and occupancy rates.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G; Liu, Darren; Engberg, John

    2008-01-01

    Since 2002, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have reported quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare Web site. It has been assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these measures. In this study researchers examined nursing homes to see whether they have improved their quality scores, after accounting for regression to the mean. Researchers also examined whether gains varied according to market competition or market occupancy rates. They identified some regression to the mean for the quality measure scores over time; nevertheless, they also determined that some nursing homes had indeed made small improvements in their quality measure scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, the greatest improvements occurred in the most competitive markets and in those with the Lowest average occupancy rates. As policies to promote more competition in Long-term care proceed, further reducing occupancy rates, further, albeit small, quality gains will likely be made in the future.

  7. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  8. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  9. The Influence of Information Acquisition on the Complex Dynamics of Market Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhanbing; Ma, Junhai

    In this paper, we build a dynamical game model with three bounded rational players (firms) to study the influence of information on the complex dynamics of market competition, where useful information is about rival’s real decision. In this dynamical game model, one information-sharing team is composed of two firms, they acquire and share the information about their common competitor, however, they make their own decisions separately, where the amount of information acquired by this information-sharing team will determine the estimation accuracy about the rival’s real decision. Based on this dynamical game model and some creative 3D diagrams, the influence of the amount of information on the complex dynamics of market competition such as local dynamics, global dynamics and profits is studied. These results have significant theoretical and practical values to realize the influence of information.

  10. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  11. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  12. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market.

  13. 75 FR 5314 - Suncor Energy Marketing Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Suncor Energy Marketing Inc.; Notice of Filing January 26, 2010. Take notice that on January 13, 2010, Suncor Energy Marketing Inc. (Petitioner) filed a petition for...

  14. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  15. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, Jenny; Armstrong, Philip; Bird, Lori

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  16. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  17. The impact of competition among health care financing authorities on market yields and issuer interest expenses.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick M; Carpenter, Caryl E; Saunders, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The main source of capital for non-for-profit health care organizations is tax-exempt municipal bonds. The tax-exempt nature of this debt requires that they be issued through financing authorities, which are run by, or affiliated with, state or local government agencies. In some states, all tax-exempt health care bonds must be issued through a single financing authority, but in other states the issuing health care organization has a choice of multiple authorities. Using a Herfindahl index of issuer concentration, prior research has found that greater competition among authorities results in lower interest costs to the issuing health care organization. We pick up where this earlier study left off, examining the links between authority competition, the interest expenses to the issuer, and the yield to the market investor. Although our analysis of all hospital bonds issued between 1994 and 2002 corroborates earlier findings with regard to interest expenses to the issuing health care organization, we also find market yield is lower for statewide authorities where issuer concentration is lower. Thus, authority competition is good from the issuers' point of view, but holds no favor in the investors' eyes. On the other hand, the lower market yield associated with statewide authorities does not make its way down to the issuer in the form of lower interest costs. To help sort through this paradox, we explore our findings through interviews of executives in state issuing authorities.

  18. Consolidation in the Dialysis Industry, Patient Choice, and Local Market Competition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-11-09

    The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (P<0.001). Local markets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to

  19. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite...

  20. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  1. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study.

  2. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Lokey, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  3. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  4. 78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., and 13-32-LNG] Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy... Marketing, LLC, Trunkline LNG Export, LLC, Gasfin Development USA LLC, Louis Dreyfus Energy Services L.P. Fortisbc Energy Inc., Gazprom Marketing & Trading USA, Inc., Liquiline LNG Solutions Corporation, El...

  5. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  6. Toward a competitive electric power industry for the 21. century. Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-12

    This report contains a review of the activities and the recommendations of the Steering Committee of the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System. The topics of the report include a summary of recommendations; federal power marketing; preserving the benefits of low-cost hydropower for the Northwest; Columbia River System governance; reflecting the values and meeting the needs of northwest citizens through conservation, renewable resources and low-income energy services; ensuring the benefits of competition for all by consumer access to the competitive market; open-access power transmission for competion in generation; and the future power system role for a four-state regional body. An appendix contains a dissenting opinion.

  7. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Marketing LLC Covanta Power, LLC; Notice of Filing February 2, 2010. Take notice that, on February 1, 2010, Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta...

  8. Fuzzy inference game approach to uncertainty in business decisions and market competitions.

    PubMed

    Oderanti, Festus Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing challenges and complexity of business environments are making business decisions and operations more difficult for entrepreneurs to predict the outcomes of these processes. Therefore, we developed a decision support scheme that could be used and adapted to various business decision processes. These involve decisions that are made under uncertain situations such as business competition in the market or wage negotiation within a firm. The scheme uses game strategies and fuzzy inference concepts to effectively grasp the variables in these uncertain situations. The games are played between human and fuzzy players. The accuracy of the fuzzy rule base and the game strategies help to mitigate the adverse effects that a business may suffer from these uncertain factors. We also introduced learning which enables the fuzzy player to adapt over time. We tested this scheme in different scenarios and discover that it could be an invaluable tool in the hand of entrepreneurs that are operating under uncertain and competitive business environments.

  9. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover.

  10. Member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence: a new tool for increasing market share and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Cooperman, T

    1995-01-01

    MCOs have begun to realize the impact that consumer satisfaction has on enrollment and pricing. Taking a lesson from auto manufacturers, MCOs are now realizing the additional advantages of obtaining consumer satisfaction information about their competitors. Knowing competitors' members intentions to stay or leave their plans, pin-pointing competitors' strengths and weaknesses, and identifying unmet consumer needs, allow MCOs to more successfully develop tactics and strategies for sales, marketing, and planning. This article describes the use of member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence, what to look for in this information, and sources for obtaining reliable information.

  11. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  12. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix.

  13. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  14. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  15. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P < 0.05) and premium offers (P < 0.001). During programs most popular with children, there were 3.3 non-core food advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  16. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  17. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  18. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-16

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  19. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    PubMed

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  20. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  1. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies’ competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. Conclusion This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets’ needs. PMID:24708770

  2. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  3. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  4. Energy Matters: An Invitation to Chat About Clean Tech Markets

    ScienceCinema

    Kauffman, Richard

    2016-07-12

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can better move renewable energy technologies from labs to the market, to successful full-scale deployment? Richard Kauffman, newly appointed Senior Advisor to Energy Secretary Steven Chu, and former CEO of Good Energies would like to hear them. **LIVE CHAT EXPIRED**

  5. Market shares and individual company data for US energy markets, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Brannan, M.A.; Piccini, R.A.

    1983-11-01

    1982 data is presented on concentration in various US energy markets, and it also provides revised data for previous years where available. The report is intended to be a handy compilation of statistics on concentration in US energy markets with particular emphasis on the petroleum industry. The report contains four parts. First, it summarizes trends in concentration. This summary includes tables giving concentration indexes for the various energy markets for 1982 and several earlier years. Secondly, it discusses methodology and definitions. Thirdly, the report provides annual company-by-company data on market shares in various segments of the petroleum industry. Finally, the report presents similar market share data for coal, uranium, and for all-energy combined. The tables in the report's third and fourth sections provide sources and qualifications as necessary.

  6. 2008 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tremper, C.

    2009-07-01

    This report assesses the market for Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services as it existed in FY 2008. It discusses Federal energy management goal progress in FY 2008, and examines the environment in which agencies implemented energy management projects over the last three years. The report also discusses some recent events that will increase the market for FEMP services, and outlines FEMP's major strategies to address these changes in FY 2009 and beyond.

  7. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Hess Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority... authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. ]...

  8. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate... authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any...

  9. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  10. Relationship marketing of health care plans: retaining corporate customers in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Choong, P

    2000-01-01

    Corporate employers have become major purchasers of health care. They are gatekeepers who decide whether to retain or drop an insurance company from the choice set offered to employees as well as whether to include new insurers into this choice set. If marketers of health maintenance organizations are to maintain their market share in this competitive environment, they need to understand issues considered important to corporate employers. This paper identifies the key drivers of satisfaction among corporate employers and shows the impact these key drivers have on overall satisfaction. More importantly, it demonstrates both theoretically and empirically that the impact of performance attributes on satisfaction is asymmetrical. Positive performances of attributes are shown to have smaller impacts on satisfaction than negative performances. The theoretical underpinnings of these phenomena are shown to lie in prospect theory. Finally, quantitative indicators are computed to aid managerial decision-making. Marketing managers of health insurance companies will optimize returns on their investment by understanding this asymmetric effect and eliminate existing deficiencies.

  11. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico and from the United States to Canada pursuant to section...

  12. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... compliance with the June 25 Order has elapsed. The two companies identified in the June 25 Order...

  13. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  14. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  15. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  16. Coal: Cornerstone of America`s competitive advantage in world markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, M.P.

    1997-12-31

    The United States` competitive position in world markets will be determined by many forces. Two of the fundamental factors are the increased use of new technologies, and the availability of low-cost electricity to operate those technologies. The US currently has an will likely continue to have market dominance in both these critical areas. Both of these factors are intimately related since the primary source of new technologies is electric in nature. And, because low-cost coal now dominates and will continue to dominate the electric supply system, and because the US has both an abundance of coal and the world`s largest fleet of coal-fired power plants, the US will have an expanding base of low-cost electricity that will secure its current competitive advantage for years to come. Electric technologies and, increasingly, computer-based technologies integrated with electric technologies are the primary sources of innovative advancement and economic growth. As a consequence, the growth in electricity, which has historically tracked GNP growth, is expected to continue. And, with the restructuring of the electric utility industry and the emergence of vigorous competition, prices are expected to decline as competition increases. The net effect of these forces will be to dramatically increase the use of electric technologies -- and those sources of electricity that can provide low-cost electricity. The data show that coal, the primary source of new los-cost electricity, will supply between one-half and three-fourths of all new electric supply through 2010, at prices of about 3{cents}/kWh, and can do so without new power plant construction. Since the use of coal is expected to rise by at least 200 to 250 million tons/year over the current consumption of 850 million tons, and could increase as much as 400 million tons/yr, some have raised concerns about the emissions impact from the power plants. This report also shows that the net effect of increased electric use, assuming

  17. Is there value in value-added services: Evidence from competitive markets in England, Wales, and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, A.; Simmonds, K.; Percival, J.

    1996-02-01

    As competition in the electric power industry intensifies, the debate about what customers really want to purchase from electric service providers becomes more significant. Are customers merely buying a commodity at the lowest possible cost, or are they interested in buying a host of customized value-added services that enhances the value of the commodity? This report provides some answers from a sample of large, sophisticated industrial and commercial customers in competitive retail markets in England, Whales, and Norway.

  18. Competition of different methods for recovering energy from waste.

    PubMed

    Friege, Henning; Fendel, Ansgar

    2011-10-01

    Waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities have been established worldwide as a sustainable method for the disposal of residual waste. In the present study the following competing WtE systems were compared: (1) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) with energy recovery; (2) co-incineration of waste in old lignite or coal-fired power plants; (3) substitute [refuse-derived fuel (RDF)] incinerators with energy recovery; and (4) co-incineration of defined waste fractions in cement kilns. In general the municipal solid waste incinerators in Europe are designed for a broad range of municipal and commercial waste without a pre-treatment of the waste. All other WtE processes including the cement kilns require a pre-treatment and are more limited in terms of RDF composition; namely particle size, chlorine content, calorific value. As to Germany, the emission limit values for all facilities are similar. A sensitivity analysis of the economics of boilers using RDF and municipal solid waste leads to the conclusion that the feasibility of RDF incinerators might partially recover if the prices for primary energy increase again. On the other hand, pre-treatment of waste leads to higher costs for RDF. Incineration and recycling capacities are large enough in middle Europe to avoid landfilling of organic waste. The steep decline of gate fees observed in some national spot markets is a clear indicator of an already existing overcapacity. Considering the enormous amount of greenhouse gas emissions saved by WtE facilities in comparison with landfilling, free capacities of WtE installations should be used to incinerate waste from EU member states where waste disposal is still predominantly based on landfilling.

  19. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  20. Determinants of hospital choice of rural hospital patients: the impact of networks, service scopes, and market competition.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Fottler, Myron D

    2008-08-01

    Among 10,384 rural Colorado female patients who received MDC 14 (obstetric services) from 2000 to 2003, 6,615 (63.7%) were admitted to their local rural hospitals; 1,654 (15.9%) were admitted to other rural hospitals; and 2,115 (20.4%) traveled to urban hospitals for inpatient services. This study is to examine how network participation, service scopes, and market competition influences rural women's choice of hospital for their obstetric care. A conditional logistic regression analysis was used. The network participation (p < 0.01), the number of services offered (p < 0.05), and the hospital market competition had a positive and significant relationship with patients' choice to receive obstetric care. That is, rural patients prefer to receive care from a hospital that participates in a network, that provides more number of services, and that has a greater market share (i.e., a lower level of market competition) in their locality. Rural hospitals could actively increase their competitiveness and market share by increasing the number of health care services provided and seeking to network with other hospitals.

  1. How Specialised Are Specialists? Generalisation Properties of Entries from the 2008 and 2009 TAC Market Design Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Edward; McBurney, Peter; Yao, Xin

    Unlike the classic Trading Agent competition (TAC), where participants enter trading strategies into a market, the TAC Market Design Competition (CAT) allows participants to create rules for their own double auction market and set fees for traders, which they embody in agents known as specialists. Although the generalisation properties of traders when the specialist (i.e., the market mechanism) is fixed have been assessed, generalisation properties of specialists have not. It is unclear whether and how a specialist might (intentionally or unintentionally) favour certain trading strategies. We present an empirical analysis of specialists' generalisation abilities in various trading environments. Our results show that specialists can be sensitive to a number of factors, including the other trading and specialist strategies in the environment.

  2. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonubi, A.; Arcagni, A.; Stefani, S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  3. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity.

    PubMed

    Sonubi, A; Arcagni, A; Stefani, S; Ausloos, M

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  4. How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline.

  5. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  6. The association of market competition with hospital charges, length of stay, and quality outcomes for patients with joint diseases: a longitudinal study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Kwon, Jeoung A; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the association of market competition with hospital charges, length of stay, and quality outcomes. A total of 279,847 patients from 851 hospitals were analyzed. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index was used as a measure of hospital market competition level. Our results suggest that hospitals in less competitive markets charged more on charge per admission, possibly by increasing the length of stays, however, hospitals in more competitive markets charged more for daily services by providing more intensive services while reducing the length of stays, thereby reducing the overall charge per admission. Quality outcomes measured by mortality within 30 days of admission and readmission within 30 days of discharge were better for surgical procedures within competitive areas. Continued government monitoring of hospital response to market competition level is recommended in order to determine whether changes in hospitals' strategies influence the long-term outcomes of services performance and health care spending.

  7. Why the ninth circuit court's decision on contracts signed during the western markets crisis is a call for FERC to enhance its oversight of market competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, Sara D.; Bidstrup, W. Richard; Morrissey, Jennifer A.

    2007-03-15

    Current complaints about problems in the nascent wholesale energy markets should not allow buyers to escape their contractual obligations. It would throw out the baby with the bathwater if the December 2006 decisions provide an excuse for buyers to renege on contractual commitments because today's energy markets are imperfect. (author)

  8. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  12. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  13. Competitive advantage for multiple-memory strategies in an artificial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitman, Kurt E.; Choe, Sehyo C.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2005-05-01

    We consider a simple binary market model containing N competitive agents. The novel feature of our model is that it incorporates the tendency shown by traders to look for patterns in past price movements over multiple time scales, i.e. multiple memory-lengths. In the regime where these memory-lengths are all small, the average winnings per agent exceed those obtained for either (1) a pure population where all agents have equal memory-length, or (2) a mixed population comprising sub-populations of equal-memory agents with each sub-population having a different memory-length. Agents who consistently play strategies of a given memory-length, are found to win more on average -- switching between strategies with different memory lengths incurs an effective penalty, while switching between strategies of equal memory does not. Agents employing short-memory strategies can outperform agents using long-memory strategies, even in the regime where an equal-memory system would have favored the use of long-memory strategies. Using the many-body 'Crowd-Anticrowd' theory, we obtain analytic expressions which are in good agreement with the observed numerical results. In the context of financial markets, our results suggest that multiple-memory agents have a better chance of identifying price patterns of unknown length and hence will typically have higher winnings.

  14. The effects of increased market competition on hospital services in Shandong and Henan Provinces.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ian; Hindle, Don; Degeling, Pieter; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lingzhong; Meng, Qingyue; Wang, Jian

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese government began a major reform of the hospital sector in the early 1980s. The main aim was to increase productivity by phasing out prospective global budgets from the government, and encouraging between-hospital competition for the business of user-pay and insured patients. This goal was to be achieved without unreasonable prejudice to the financial sustainability of hospitals or to the fairness of access and service provision. We explored the effects of these changes by analysing data for four levels of hospital in two of the most populous provinces between 1985 and 1999. We used data envelope analysis, and found that the majority of hospitals experienced a decline in productivity. Social efficiency (measured by the level of provision of unnecessary services) also declined, especially in the largest hospitals that could easily increase the use of expensive technologies. Most hospitals increased their economic sustainability, measured as the ratio between revenue and expenditures. However, the lowest-level hospitals experienced stable or reduced sustainability due to their inability to compete with marketing by higher-level hospitals. We conclude that, although there were many benefits, the overall impact of the introduction of market forces may have been negative. An important factor was that not all aspects (such as supplier-induced demand) were adequately controlled by government agencies. We suggest ways of alleviating the most problematic elements of current arrangements.

  15. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-000] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference AGENCY.... \\1\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed...

  16. 78 FR 44556 - Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. (CEMI...

  17. Interaction between renewable energy markets and carbon markets: Optimal policies to meet societal goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Ghita Levenstein

    The problem this dissertation addresses is that separate and evolving public policy debates are currently shaping renewable markets and carbon markets without attention to how each market affects the other, yet the markets have overlapping goals with respect to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Without a better understanding of the roles, limitations, and interactions of these two markets, the larger environmental and economic societal goals that they are meant to achieve may not be fully realized. This research focuses on the electricity sector in the United States because federal regulations do not exist for renewable or carbon markets and thus the rules concerning the interaction between these markets have yet to be defined. The methodology for developing final recommendations consisted of an extensive review of relevant literature and analysis of case studies in which these markets overlap. The methodology also included the use of economic reasoning and analysis to aide in evaluating assumptions and projections about the effect a greenhouse gas ("GHG") cap and trade market may have on renewable energy markets. Finally, tools and concepts from the Policy Sciences tradition were used throughout the dissertation to frame and organize the discussion. Findings are generally that while a GHG cap and trade program will reduce emissions below what would have occurred otherwise, the design of the program will determine the extent to which overall emissions reductions can take place. Furthermore, renewable energy markets could be negatively affected by a GHG cap and trade program if generation from renewables does not reduce emissions below a cap. This dissertation concludes with recommendations for policymakers, so policies defining these markets can accurately reflect intended goals including: decreasing emissions, increasing renewables, and keeping electricity costs low.

  18. International Energy Outlook 1991: A post-war review of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The report is provided, as are other EIA reports, as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts and not as a government energy plan. Current United States Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010. The Persian Gulf war has a profound impact on world energy markets during the last several months and will continue to influence these markets to some degree in the future, particularly the world oil market. This report pays particular attention to post-war prospects for world oil markets and, as a result, contains domestic energy projections and world oil price projections that differ somewhat from those published in the Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO). These differences are discussed in this report. 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. The Power of Positional Competition and Market Mechanism: A Case Study of Recent Parental Choice Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    The positional competition reflected in the current parental choice fever in China is highlighted by the introduction of market mechanisms: buying houses near preferred schools, paying choice fees or co-founding fees, giving donations and spending money on spare time training classes, etc. All of these work effectively together with the…

  20. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  1. Goldratt's Thinking Process Applied to the Problems Associated with Trained Employee Retention in a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lloyd J., III; Poyner, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the problem of trained employee retention in a highly competitive labor market for a manufacturing facility in the oilfields of West Texas. Design/methodology/approach: This article examines how one manufacturing facility should be able to retain their trained employees by using the logic of Eliyahu M.…

  2. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  3. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  4. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  5. Entry, concentration and market efficiency: A simulation of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvill, Terry

    The rapid and substantial expansion of the PJM energy market during 2004 and 2005 provides a unique opportunity to test the theory of market concentration and its effect on market efficiency. With ten years of operational experience, the PJM energy market is uniquely suited to test the theories of market concentration and efficiency in a natural experiment. This research tests the hypothesis that, for a given number of generating units in the industry, system marginal price will be a decreasing function of the number of owners or generators controlling the units (i.e., the industry concentration ratio). Market simulations are utilized to assess price-cost markups in the PJM energy market during three distinct periods of expansion: (1) pre-Commonwealth Edison integration, (2) pre-American Electric Power (AEP), Dayton Power and Light (DPL), Duquesne Light (Duquesne), and Dominion Virginia Power (Dominion) integration, and (3) post-AFT, DPL. Duquesne, and Dominion Integration. The results of the market simulations for the May 1 to August 31 periods for 2003, 2004, and 2005, indicate that the performance of the market improved with the addition of new market participants in 2004 and 2005. The results of the simulation indicate that the load-weighted Lerner index decreased to -3.70 percent in 2005 from 0.92 percent in 2003. Clearly, the addition of Commonwealth Edison in 2004 significantly increased constraints within the PJM energy market and likely impacted the observed prices in PJM during 2004 due to the lack of a significant link to the other PJM market participants. This deficiency was address in 2005 with the addition of American Electric Power. The market simulations also highlight the prevalence of computed negative markups in the simulation results. Many of the off-peak periods in particular are characterized by negative markups where the expected marginal cost exceeds the observed price. Unit commitment constraints are believed to largely account for these

  6. An R and D Agenda to enhance electricity system reliability by increasing customer participation in emerging competitive markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Marnay, C.; Goldman, C.; Kueck, J.; Kirby, B.; Dagle, J.; Alvarado, F.; Mount, T.; Oren, S.; Martinez, C.

    2000-10-01

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. We submit that dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility is sorely needed. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market (Kirby and Kueck 1999). Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. In effect, today's markets are incomplete; they represent only half of what a truly competitive market requires. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. We submit that increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. Toward this end, this paper outlines an agenda for public-interest R&D in support of this objective.

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures

    SciTech Connect

    James Sweeney

    2010-02-04

    Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

  9. Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures

    ScienceCinema

    James Sweeney

    2016-07-12

    Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

  10. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  11. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  12. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  13. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future.

  14. U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market. Proceedings of a Research Conference (Washington, D.C., June 17-18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings contain presentations and summaries of papers presented at a Wheat Competitiveness Conference. They begin with two presentations--"The Wheat Prototype Study within an Overall Conceptual Framework of Competitiveness" (James Langley) and "U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market: A Prototype Study" (Jerry…

  15. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  16. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  17. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Barry; Bird, Lori; Barbose, Galen

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  18. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects...

  19. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  20. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  1. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  2. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  3. Blades of Glory: An Energy.gov Mini-Doc – The 2016 Collegiate Wind Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose; Newcomb, Charles

    2016-06-06

    In this short documentary, we follow three collegiate teams who are participating in this year’s U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition in New Orleans. Learn about their experiences and why the competition is important for America’s clean energy future. The competition provides undergraduates with real-world skills they need to enter tomorrow’s clean energy workforce by challenging them to develop and deliver a business plan, establish a deployment strategy, and build and test a wind turbine.

  4. Energy disclosure, market behavior, and the building data ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kontokosta, Constantine E

    2013-08-01

    Energy disclosure laws represent one of the most promising public policy tools to accelerate market transformation around building energy efficiency. For this type of information to have an impact on market behavior, it must be collected, analyzed, and disseminated to support the decision-making processes of each end user and influence both the producers and consumers of building performance data. This paper explores the significance of energy disclosure requirements and outlines a framework for utilizing these new sources of transparent, publicly available information. It presents the mechanisms by which information can alter market behavior in the commercial real estate sector and develops a wiring diagram for the flows of information through the building data ecosystem. It concludes with a discussion of the motivations, metrics, and constraints faced by the various stakeholders in the ecosystem and how these factors influence investment decision models.

  5. Competition Experiments as a Means of Evaluating Linear Free Energy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Richard J.; Vedernikov, Andrei; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    The use of competition experiments as a means of evaluating linear free energy relationship in the undergraduate teaching laboratory is reported. The use of competition experiments proved to be a reliable method for the construction of Hammett plots with good correlation providing great flexibility with regard to the compounds and reactions that…

  6. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The state government

  7. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  8. Redefining Competition Constructively: The Challenges of Privatisation, Competition and Market-Based State Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, the relationship between state governments and public colleges and universities is being redefined with new notions of autonomy and accountability, and with funding policies that are highly market-driven (often referred to as "privatisation") as the centrepieces. Situations and institutional strategies unthinkable…

  9. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  10. Literature review of market studies of thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of market studies of thermal energy storage (TES). This project was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). PNL staff reviewed and consolidated the findings of existing TES market studies conducted in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. The purpose of this project was to review and assess previous work and to use the information obtained to help provide direction for future technology transfer planning activities and to identify additional economic research needed within those three sectors. 37 refs.

  11. Three strikes and you`re out! An exploration of the 22 immutable laws of marketing and their implications for retail competition

    SciTech Connect

    Henneberger, T.

    1994-11-01

    The article highlights a speech on how utilities can avoid costly marketing mistakes by following the `22 Immutable Laws of Marketing` postulated by Al Ries and Jack Trout. U.S. utilities currently offer a variety of products and services that all look alike. Utilities must distinguish themselves with consumers as retail competition enters the electric power industry. The laws apply to markets with leadership, category, and resources categories; they also apply to customers with mind, perception, and focus categories. These laws do not always follow traditional marketing principles, but represent a common sense approach to successfully introduce new products and services in highly competitive markets.

  12. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and...

  13. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is designed to determine

  14. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  15. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  16. The relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and mortality for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Joint Commission's ORYX initiative and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file from 2003 to 2006, this study employed a fixed-effects approach to examine the relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and short-term mortality at seven days, 30 days, 90 days, and one year for patients with chronic heart failure. We found that, on average, higher adherence with most of the Joint Commission's heart failure performance measures was not associated with lower mortality; the level of market competition also was not associated with any differences in mortality. However, higher adherence with the discharge instructions and left ventricular function assessment indicators at the 80th and 90th percentiles of the mortality distribution was associated with incrementally lower mortality rates. These findings suggest that targeting evidence-based processes of care might have a stronger impact in improving patient outcomes.

  17. SunShot: Making Solar Energy Cost-Competitive Throughout the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is designed to re-establish American technological leadership, strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race, and help America obtain a secure energy future. This fact sheet highlights the achievements of the initiative since 2010.

  18. Market shares and individual company data for US energy markets: 1950-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Brannan, M.; Dougher, R.

    1985-01-01

    Revised and updated data summarize trends in concentration in US energy markets. In addition, the report discusses methodology and definitions, provides company-by-company data for 1984 and several earlier years on market shares in various segments of the petroleum industry, and similar market share data for coal, uranium, and all-energy combined. Most measures of concentration in 1984 increased because of oil company mergers, but ratios are still below the level of a decade ago. While domestic oil production concentration rose in 1984, only the 8-firm concentration ratio showed a significant increase. Oil reserve ownership is more concentrated than production. An increasing concentration in refining capacity and refinery runs reflects large-company mergers and shutdowns by small refiners. 101 tables.

  19. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  20. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  1. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-06

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  2. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  3. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  4. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  5. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc... Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies,...

  6. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the efficiency gap or energy paradox. The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of contextdependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to lossaverse consumers.

  7. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  8. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  9. Changing competition in health care marketing: a method for analysis and strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B; Brockman, B K

    1993-01-01

    As the cost and importance of healthcare continue to increase, competition in the medical industry is taking new forms and becoming more intense. The driving trends behind this competition are analyzed in the framework of Porter's Five Forces of Competition Model. The authors then discuss how the widely accepted strategies of cost, differentiation, focus, and domestication can be utilized to counter the implications of these trends and how to capitalize on opportunities in medical practice in the 1990's.

  10. Market competition, ownership, payment systems and the performance of health care providers - a panel study among Finnish occupational health services providers.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Many health care reforms rely on competition although health care differs in many respects from the assumptions of perfect competition. Finnish occupational health services provide an opportunity to study empirically competition, ownership and payment systems and the performance of providers. In these markets employers (purchasers) choose the provider and prices are market determined. The price regulation of public providers was abolished in 1995. We had data on providers from 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004. The unbalanced panel consisted of 1145 providers and 4059 observations. Our results show that in more competitive markets providers in general offered a higher share of medical care compared to preventive services. The association between unit prices and revenues and market environment varied according to the provider type. For-profit providers had lower prices and revenues in markets with numerous providers. The public providers in more competitive regions were more sensitive to react to the abolishment of their price regulation by raising their prices. Employer governed providers had weaker association between unit prices or revenues and competition. The market share of for-profit providers was negatively associated with productivity, which was the only sign of market spillovers we found in our study.

  11. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  12. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  13. New energy efficient torchieres ready for hot torchiere market

    SciTech Connect

    Page, E.; Mills, E.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-11-01

    The extraordinary market growth of the high power halogen torchiere (halogen uplighter) presents significant global energy savings opportunities for energy efficient alternatives. Extensive developed of prototype designs of energy efficient torchiere systems using compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) has lead directly to the production and commercialization of CFL torchieres. This paper analyzes the current global market for torchieres and compares the electrical and photometric characteristics of one of the new CFL torchieres to standard tungsten halogen torchieres. Power assessments and photometric data indicate that the new CFL torchiere provides significant energy savings over the standard tungsten halogen torchiere while producing more luminous flux. The energy savings is jointly due to the high source efficacy of the CFLs and the poor performance of many cheaply made halogen lamps. Laboratory and in-situ experiments indicate that the CFL torchieres use 65 Watts to produce 25% more light than the 300 W tungsten halogen torchieres they are designed to replace. Additionally, the CFL torchieres have the benefit of a cooler lamp operating temperature, making them safer luminaires (Brooks, 1997; New York Times, 1997). This safety benefit, coupled with the potential for significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, has prompted the insurance industry to form a unique alliance with energy conservation groups to promote energy efficient torchieres.

  14. Black Housing Patterns in a Southern Metropolis: Competition for Housing in a Shrinking Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Robert D.; Pierce, Odessa L.

    Although the United States has been described as a nation of homeowners, homeownership is not uniformly distributed across population groups. The migration of individuals to Houston, Texas, has intensified the competition for decent housing in that city. The rapid population growth has also accelerated the competition between lower and…

  15. School Choice and Competitive Incentives: Mapping the Distribution of Educational Opportunities across Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Gulosino, Charisse; Weitzel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Competition sparked by school choice is expected to generate greater educational opportunities, particularly for disadvantaged students. The premise is that competitive incentives will change the organizational behavior of schools (and districts, dioceses, etc.) in ways that will lead to more equitable access for students across varied and often…

  16. Public Schools in Marketized Environments: Shifting Incentives and Unintended Consequences of Competition-Based Educational Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    By opening the system to competition, popular school choice reforms seek to remake public education into a more consumer-oriented endeavor. While the underlying theory holds that competitive pressures will induce change and improvement in educational processes, research indicates that organizations often respond instead by developing promotional…

  17. Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-04-18

    06/03/2013 By Senator Wyden from Committee on Energy and Natural Resources filed written report. Report No. 113-37. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  19. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  20. Markets for rice husk-to-energy systems and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Velupillai, L.; Mahin, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    A worldwide study of markets for U.S. equipment and systems for the production of energy from rice husks was conducted in 1995-96 by a team based at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Agricultural Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The project was carried out in cooperation with Agrilectric Power Inc. and Riceland Foods, Inc., and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study included: (a) a global overview of the rice industry, rice husk availability and utilization, and husk-to-energy technologies, and (b) case studies of husk utilization and potential markets for husk-to-energy systems and equipment in five countries - the United States, Italy, China, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. The case studies in Italy, China, and Thailand were based in each case on a field trip to the country by a member of the project team. The study covered the following husk-to-energy technologies: furnace and boiler systems, steam engine systems, steam turbine systems, and gasifier/engine systems.

  1. Transmission access and pricing with multiple separate energy forward markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, P.R.; Angelidis, G.A.; Kovacs, R.R.

    1999-08-01

    California`s congestion management protocols provide comparable access and prices to all users of the transmission system (power exchange and bilateral contract parties). The users implicitly bid for capacity on major transmission paths between zones. The Independent System Operator (ISO) allocates the available transmission capacity on these paths so that it maximizes the value of this capacity as measured by the users` bids. Everyone scheduling flow on a congested path is charged the marginal-cost-based price for using the path. The ISO keeps each party`s portfolio of generation and load individually in balance when adjusting schedules to relieve congestion on interzonal paths. By keeping the portfolios of the different parties separate, the ISO clears its transmission market without arranging energy trades between parties. Parties are responsible for arranging their own trades. The ISO does not become involved in the energy forward markets.

  2. AUSTRALIAN COMPETITION AND CONSUMER COMMISSION v PFIZER: EVERGREENING AND MARKET POWER AS A BLOCKBUSTER DRUG GOES OFF PATENT.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Pfizer Australia Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 113, the ACCC alleged that Pfizer's "Project LEAP" involved a scheme to lock pharmacists into substituting its generic version of the high sales volume anti-cholesterol drug, patent-expired atorvastatin (Lipitor), which took advantage of a substantial degree of market power for a purpose proscribed by s 46(1)(c) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). The ACCC also claimed that Pfizer's actions constituted a course of exclusive dealing pursuant to s 47(1)(d) and (e) for the proscribed purpose of lessening competition. Flick J in the Federal Court of Australia, in a judgment heavy with quotations but sparse in reasoning, dismissed the ACCC's Amended Originating Application alleging abuse of market power and ordered the ACCC to pay Pfizer's costs. The ACCC has now appealed the decision. This column explores this case in the context of Pfizer's broader strategies to preserve its income globally from this high sales volume drug in the period following its patent expiration.

  3. Toward a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy: residential/commercial buildings market sector workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Taul, Jr., J. W.; de Jong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook contains preliminary data and assumptions used during the preparation of inputs to a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy (NPAC). The workbook indicates the market potential, competitive position, market penetration, and technological characteristics of solar technologies for this market sector over the next twenty years. The workbook also presents projections of the mix of solar technologies by US Census Regions. In some cases, data have been aggregated to the national level. Emphasis of the workbook is on a mid-price fuel scenario, Option II, that meets about a 20% solar goal by the year 2000. The energy demand for the mid-price scenario is projected at 115 quads in the year 2000. The workbook, prepared in April 1979, represents government policies and programs anticipated at that time.

  4. Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

  5. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  6. Alternative Fueled Vehicles Competitiveness and Energy Security Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-06-26

    06/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5270-5272) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  8. 76 FR 23583 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), will apply the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power Marketing Initiative (PMI), as modified in this notice,...

  9. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  10. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic structure in the energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababa, Hajar

    This research assesses the dynamic structure of the energy sector of the aggregate economy in the context of nonlinear mechanisms. Earlier studies have focused mainly on the price of the energy products when detecting nonlinearities in time series data of the energy market, and there is little mention of the production side of the market. Moreover, there is a lack of exploration about the implication of high dimensionality and time aggregation when analyzing the market's fundamentals. This research will address these gaps by including the quantity side of the market in addition to the price and by systematically incorporating various frequencies for sample sizes in three essays. The goal of this research is to provide an inclusive and exhaustive examination of the dynamics in the energy markets. The first essay begins with the application of statistical techniques, and it incorporates the most well-known univariate tests for nonlinearity with distinct power functions over alternatives and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature. They demonstrate apparent evidence of general nonlinear serial dependence in each individual series, as well as nonlinearity in the first, second, and third moments of the series. The second essay examines the underlying mechanism of crude oil production and identifies the nonlinear structure of the production market by utilizing various monthly time series observations of crude oil production: the U.S. field, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), non-OPEC, and the world production of crude oil. The finding implies that the time series data of the U.S. field, OPEC, and the world production of crude oil exhibit deep nonlinearity in their structure and are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. However, the dynamics of the non

  11. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  12. US energy policy in a changing market environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1986-09-01

    The drop in oil prices has brought energy policy issues back into discussion. The diversity of policy proposals suggests that clearly defined objectives are needed to avoid quick-fix solutions. The analysis traces the history of policies affecting the US oil industry, then focuses on recent changes in the policy environment. The author weighs recent proposals against those policy objectives he considers appropriate for the US. The three objectives of national security, efficient extraction of energy resources, and economic stability provide a common frame of reference for this purpose. Policymakers should only intervene in the energy market when they can improve the allocation of resources in accordance with these objectives. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Market for new coal powerplant technologies in the US: 1997 annual energy outlook results

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzler, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Over the next 20 years, the combination of slow growth in the demand for electricity, even slower growth in the need for new capacity, especially baseload capacity, and the competitiveness of new gas-fired technologies limits the market for new coal technologies in the US. In the later years of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook projections, post-2005, when a significant amount of new capacity is needed to replace retiring plants and meet growing demand, some new coal-fired plants are expected to be built, but new gas-fired plants are expected to remain the most economical choice for most needs. The largest market for clean coal technologies in the United States may be in retrofitting or repowering existing plants to meet stricter environmental standards, especially over the next 10 years. Key uncertainties include the rate of growth in the demand for electricity and the level of competing fuel prices, particularly natural gas. Higher than expected growth in the demand for electricity and/or relatively higher natural gas prices would increase the market for new coal technologies.

  14. The Impact of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs on the U.S. Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Young Sun; Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) programs on the grid and the consequent level of production. Changes in demand caused by EE and DR programs affect not only the dispatch of existing plants and new generation technologies, the retirements of old plants, and the finances of the market. To find the new equilibrium in the market, we use the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model (ORCED) developed to simulate the operations and costs of regional power markets depending on various factors including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices. In ORCED, over 19,000 plant units in the nation are aggregated into up to 200 plant groups per region. Then, ORCED dispatches the power plant groups in each region to meet the electricity demands for a given year up to 2035. In our analysis, we show various demand, supply, and dispatch patterns affected by EE and DR programs across regions.

  15. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Power Generation Corporation, has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the... Generation Corporation, to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for... Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New Brunswick...

  16. 75 FR 70741 - Innovative Energy Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Innovative Energy Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Innovative Energy Systems, LLC's application for...

  17. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application...

  18. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application...

  19. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for...

  20. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for...

  1. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  2. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  3. Switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets: A conceptual framework and empirical evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; Mosca, Ilaria; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2015-05-01

    Competitive health insurance markets will only enhance cost-containment, efficiency, quality, and consumer responsiveness if all consumers feel free to easily switch insurer. Consumers will switch insurer if their perceived switching benefits outweigh their perceived switching costs. We developed a conceptual framework with potential switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets. Moreover, we used a questionnaire among Dutch consumers (1091 respondents) to empirically examine the relevance of the different switching benefits and costs in consumers' decision to (not) switch insurer. Price, insurers' service quality, insurers' contracted provider network, the benefits of supplementary insurance, and welcome gifts are potential switching benefits. Transaction costs, learning costs, 'benefit loss' costs, uncertainty costs, the costs of (not) switching provider, and sunk costs are potential switching costs. In 2013 most Dutch consumers switched insurer because of (1) price and (2) benefits of supplementary insurance. Nearly half of the non-switchers - and particularly unhealthy consumers - mentioned one of the switching costs as their main reason for not switching. Because unhealthy consumers feel not free to easily switch insurer, insurers have reduced incentives to invest in high-quality care for them. Therefore, policymakers should develop strategies to increase consumer choice.

  4. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  5. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  6. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  7. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  8. The search for consumer content in energy marketing and retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, V.K.

    1996-09-15

    The gas and electric industries in the United STates control about $900 billion in assets (production, logistical, merchant). They employ these assets to serve about 150 million customers (counted separately for gas and electric), but they manage to offer only two rudimentary products-molecules and electrons-and at only two levels of service: firm and interruptible. Such a poverty of consumer content stands without precedent in the history of U.S. business. That this game is coming to an end should elicit no surprise. True retail competition in the gas and electric industries will become a transforming and quotidian reality within five years, creating great shifts in revenue and capital: (1) a $50-billion drip in annual consumer energy spending; (2) from $200 to $300 billion extinguished over seven to 10 years in noncash book value in the pipes and wires and energy production industries; (3) tens of billions of dollars in new investments, particularly gas-fired merchant and distributed generation plants, and computing and communications systems; and (4) many more billions in new enterprise value for efficient and innovative firms. The old business model emphasized industrial technology and quantitative increases in consumption of energy commodities. The new model, supplanting the old, will accentuate information technology and qualitative increases in consumption of energy services.

  9. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  10. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... directly with Eugene J. Becker, Vice President, Cargill Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS...

  11. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  12. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  13. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  14. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  15. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  16. 77 FR 71585 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of... of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), Brookfield Energy Marketing LP...

  17. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp....

  18. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability to treat the heating

  19. School Choice and Competition: A Public-Market in Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, the UK Economic and Social Research Council funded the Parental and School Choice Interaction (PACSI) Study into the marketisation of education, conducted by the author along with Philip Woods and Ron Glatter of the Open University. The findings from the PACSI study highlighted the localised and complex nature of markets in education and…

  20. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  1. A Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides a framework/next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential, shows how to conduct a market potential study, and distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies.

  2. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  3. Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

  4. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  5. Pharmaceutical pricing in emerging markets: effects of income, competition, and procurement.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia M; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Towse, Adrian K

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of ex-manufacturer prices for originator and generic drugs across countries. We focus on drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in middle and low-income countries (MLICs), with robustness checks to other therapeutic categories and the full income range of countries. We examine the effects of per capita income, income dispersion, competition from originator and generic substitutes, and whether the drugs are sold to retail pharmacies versus tendered procurement by non-government organizations. The cross-national income elasticity of prices is 0.27 across the full income range of countries but is 0.0-0.10 between MLICs, implying that drugs are least affordable relative to income in the lowest income countries. Within-country income inequality contributes to relatively high prices in MLICs. Although generics are priced roughly 30% lower than originators on average, the variance is large. Additional generic competitors only weakly affect prices, plausibly because generic quality uncertainty leads to competition on brand rather than price. Tendered procurement that imposes quality standards attracts multinational generic suppliers and significantly reduces prices of originator and generic drugs, compared with their respective prices to retail pharmacies.

  6. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  7. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P < 0.05), and pace at sprint velocity (4.6 ± 3.3 vs. 6.1 ± 3.4 m/min, P < 0.05). However, the energy drink did not affect maximal running speed during the repeated sprint test (25.0 ± 1.5 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 km/h). The ingestion of the energy drink resulted in a higher post-competition urine caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P < 0.05). In summary, 3 mg/kg of caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  8. Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels in glyoxal.

    PubMed

    Parmenter, C S; Clegg, S M; Krajnovich, D J; Lu, S

    1997-08-05

    The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K' = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1-S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role.

  9. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  10. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  11. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  12. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  13. 1994 U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan: Fueling a Competitive Economy

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a rich heritage of meeting important national goals in the areas of energy, national security, science, and technology. The end of the Cold War, and the election of President Clinton, have given us a new national agenda. Through a comprehensive strategic planning process, we have determined that the Department must now unleash its extraordinary scientific and technical talent and resources on new and more sharply focused goals: fueling a competitive economy, improving the environment through waste management and pollution prevention, and reducing the nuclear danger.

  14. Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

  15. Relationships among Energy Price Shocks, Stock Market, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market “underreacting.” The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  16. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market.

  17. Blades of Glory: An Energy.gov Mini-Doc – The 2016 Collegiate Wind Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Zayas, Jose; Newcomb, Charles

    2016-08-17

    In this short documentary, we follow three collegiate teams who are participating in this year’s U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition in New Orleans. Learn about their experiences and why the competition is important for America’s clean energy future. The competition provides undergraduates with real-world skills they need to enter tomorrow’s clean energy workforce by challenging them to develop and deliver a business plan, establish a deployment strategy, and build and test a wind turbine.

  18. Can We Reasonably Assess "Productivity of Market-Based Educational Reforms"?: Comment on Anna Egalite's "Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2013-01-01

    "Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review" by Ann G. Egalite (p443-464, this issue) concludes that, "overwhelming [U.S.] evidence supports the development of market-based schooling policies as a means to increase student achievement in traditional public schools." Here, John Merrifield…

  19. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  20. Specifying energy to stimulate the market - the Canadian Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, I.

    1995-12-01

    Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) is the equivalent to the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). The Central Procurement Agency purchases all goods and services for the federal public sector-$1.5 billion per annum expenditure for information technology. The personal computer (PC) group buys about 300 million PCs per annum. All requirements are fulfilled through a competitive process, which involves a Request for Proposal. The lowest compliant bidder always wins. All requirements are computed under GATT and NAFTA. PWGSC and GSA purchase the same office technology. PWGSC has a standing offer method of supply, much like a GSA schedule. Only the least expensive vendors are allowed on the standing offer after a Request for Standing Offer. The price is determined by a mean plus one standard deviation, so 68% of the bidders make it on to the standing offer. Multiple vendors offer multiple platforms, and a wide variety are from the United States and the Canadian Pacific Rim. New PC technology introduced through categories is where the `green` issue comes in. Those categories reflect new PC technology, usually models with Intel CPUs. A green PC category was created in parallel with other nongreen categories. All the testing - not necessarily green testing - was done by the Philadelphia based National Software Testing Laboratory. Again, the lowest compliant bidder is always used. This laboratory does a good job of performance, usability, and compatibility studies. The green category, one category out of a possible six, specifies Energy Star. All the suppliers to the Canadian Government also supply to the U.S. Government. Canadian PC manufacturers essentially repackage Taiwanese or U.S. components, and through the insight of GSA, it is very easy for a vendor to become an Energy Star partner. An in-house test methodology with a watt meter was developed.

  1. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    SciTech Connect

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-07-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  2. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country.

  3. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  4. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  5. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes a request for...

  6. How to Launch an Energy Star Energy Efficiency Competition for K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utebay Kudret; McArthur, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been forced by rising costs and shrinking budgets to stretch their resources further than ever before in order to meet the educational needs of today's students. EPA's ENERGY STAR program helps K-12 schools and districts improve energy efficiency, reduce operating costs and redirect critical resources into the…

  7. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... applicant to submit a right-of-way (ROW) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on... solicitations of interest and ROW applications within two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes...

  8. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  9. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkin, Thomas; Beiter, Philipp; Margolis, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  10. Gold nanoparticles-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer for competitive immunoassay of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Lu, Xin; Tian, Jianniao

    2012-12-21

    A novel platform for competitive immunoassay of biomolecules was designed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The antigen was first labeled with FITC, and the FITC labeled antigen was then reacted with AuNPs functionalized with a relative antibody to obtain the nanometer-sized sensor. The FRET between FITC and AuNPs led to the fluorescent quenching of FITC. Upon the recognition of the target antigen, the FICT labeled antigen was released from the AuNPs surface because of competitive immunoreaction, the distance between the FITC and AuNPs increased, and the interaction between FITC and AuNPs became weaker, which significantly hindered the FRET and, thus, increased the fluorescence of FITC. The change in fluorescence intensity produced a novel method for detection of the target. By using immunoglobulin M (IgM) as a model analyte, the competitive immunoassay had a limit of detection of 42 pM. The present method was applied for the determination of IgM in human serum with satisfactory results. The proposed method exhibits several advantages such as high quenching efficiency and sensitivity, and good specificity toward target versus other analogues. Moreover, this strategy could be conveniently extended for the detection of other biomolecules by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies.

  11. Diode-pumped solid-state-laser drivers and the competitiveness of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    1993-12-01

    Based on five technical advances at LLNL and a new systems-analysis code that we have written, we present conceptual designs for diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants. Such designs are based on detailed physics calculations for the drive, and on generic scaling relationships for the reactor and balance of plant (BOP). We describe the performance and economics of such power plants, show how sensitive these results are to changes in the major parameters, and indicate how technological improvements can make DPSSL-driven IFE plants more competitive.

  12. Overview of the wind energy market and renewable energy policy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Gillich, N.; Hatiegan, C.; Spunei, E.

    2017-01-01

    The modern, developed society becomes aware of the necessity to conserve and protect the environment, increasing the gained benefits from a rational use of the natural resources. The pollution and the limitation of the fossil fuels, associated with the political situation worldwide that affects direct the energy strategies, have opened opportunities in the area of operation renewable energy sources. The development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources is directly linked to the energy politic, which, in terms of Romania, has the focus to integrate into the European Union energy strategy. The year 2014 brought in Romania many legislative changes to the renewable support scheme, that proves, once again, the legislative unpredictability and limitations introduced by the legislator ”during the game” that overthrew all economic profitability calculation of the existent and planned investments in this sector. The actual stage of the wind energy across Europe and the particular situation in Romania are highlighted; also a 2020 forecast for Romania tries to evaluate the perspective for the wind, and general, renewable energy market. The actual Romanian renewable energy support scheme, mainly regulated by “Law 220/2008” ends December 2016. The so-called “ready to build” projects especially wind- or hydropower, can’t be finalized until this deadline, being unable to qualify to the existing, mainly to inoperable, support scheme. Another legislation that has to clarify how investments in renewable energy will be supported is still not in place, blocking any project development, implementation and economical benefit of the producer. The paper presents in this respect an updated overview of the Romanian renewable energy sector and its perspective.

  13. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    PubMed

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  14. Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels in glyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Parmenter, Charles S.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Krajnovich, Douglas J.; Lu, Shao-ping

    1997-01-01

    The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K′ = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1–S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role. PMID:11038560

  15. 78 FR 7773 - Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. NV Energy, Inc., Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cargill Power Markets, LLC v. NV Energy, Inc., Notice of Complaint Take notice that on January 18, 2013, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  16. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application...

  17. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application...

  18. Fluorescence energy transfer monitored competitive equilibria of nucleic acids: applications in thermodynamics and screening.

    PubMed

    Plum, G E; Breslauer, K J

    Precise thermodynamic characterization of nucleic acid complex stability is required to understand a variety of biologically significant events as well as to exploit the specific recognition capabilities of nucleic acids in biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The development of a database of nucleic acid thermodynamics with sufficient precision to foster further developments in these areas requires new and improved measurement techniques. The combination of a competitive equilibrium titration with fluorescence energy transfer based detection provides a method for precise measurement of differences in free energy values for nucleic acid duplexes that far exceeds in precision those accessible via conventional methods. The method can be applied to detect and to characterize any deviation in a nucleic acid that alters duplex stability. Such deviations include, but are not limited to, mismatches; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); chemically modified nucleotide bases, sugars or phosphates; and conformational anomalies or folding motifs, such as, loops or hairpins.

  19. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkin, Thomas; Beiter, Philipp; Margolis, Robert

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may remain in

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  1. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  2. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 was signed into law on November 17, 1988. This Act, Public Law 100-680, has the following purposes: (1) to increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{hor ellipsis}''; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Public Law 100-680 requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare and submit annually to Congress a report of the activities carried out under that Act during each fiscal year. During FY 1991 research and development activities were continued on the following projects: (1) superplastic steel processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) spray-forming of steel at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology; (3) direct steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; and (4) wettable cathodes for alumina reduction cells with the Reynolds Metals Company. Activities relating to these four projects and the value of the industrial cost-sharing for each project are presented in this annual report. Also included are the appropriations history, the actual obligation of funds through FY 1991, and the anticipated obligation of funds necessary to continue these and the other projects initiated in FY 1991. In accordance with the requirements of the Act for FY 1991, a summary of activities under the management and research plans, plus an analysis of the extent to which these activities have succeeded in accomplishing the purposes of the Act, has been included.

  3. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Annual report, Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 was signed into law on November 17, 1988. This Act, Public Law 100-680, has the following purposes: (1) to ``increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{hor_ellipsis}``; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Public Law 100-680 requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare and submit annually to Congress a report of the activities carried out under that Act during each fiscal year. During FY 1991 research and development activities were continued on the following projects: (1) superplastic steel processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) spray-forming of steel at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology; (3) direct steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; and (4) wettable cathodes for alumina reduction cells with the Reynolds Metals Company. Activities relating to these four projects and the value of the industrial cost-sharing for each project are presented in this annual report. Also included are the appropriations history, the actual obligation of funds through FY 1991, and the anticipated obligation of funds necessary to continue these and the other projects initiated in FY 1991. In accordance with the requirements of the Act for FY 1991, a summary of activities under the management and research plans, plus an analysis of the extent to which these activities have succeeded in accomplishing the purposes of the Act, has been included.

  4. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  5. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  6. 75 FR 19643 - West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...-000] West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of West Oaks Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 75 FR 19644 - West Oaks Energy NY/NE, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...] West Oaks Energy NY/NE, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of West Oaks Energy NY/NE LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  9. Homogeneous competitive hybridization assay based on two-photon excitation fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingzhi; Dong, Xiaohu; Lian, Wenlong; Peng, Xiaoniu; Liu, Zhihong; He, Zhike; Wang, Ququan

    2010-02-15

    Recently, we have successfully developed a two-photon excitation fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TPE-FRET)-based homogeneous immunoassay using two-photon excitable small organic molecule as the energy donor. In the present work, the newly emerging TPE-FRET technique was extended to the determination of oligonucleotide. A new TPE molecule with favorable two-photon action cross section was synthesized [2-(2,5-bis(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid, abbreviated as TP-COOH], with the tagged reactive carboxyl group allowing facile conjugation with streptavidin (SA). Employing the TP-COOH molecule as energy donor and black hole quencher 1 (BHQ-1) as acceptor, a TPE-FRET-based homogeneous competitive hybridization model was constructed via a biotin-streptavidin bridge. Through the hybridization between a biotinylated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and a BHQ-1-linked ssDNA, and the subsequent capture of the as-formed hybrid by TP-COOH labeled SA, the donor fluorescence was quenched due to the FRET between TP-COOH and BHQ-1. Upon the competition between a target ssDNA and the quencher-linked ssDNA toward the biotinylated oligonucleotide, the donor fluorescence was recovered in a target-dependent manner. Good linearity was obtained with the target oligonucleotide ranging from 0.08 to 1.52 microM. The method was applied to spiked serum and urine samples with satisfying recoveries obtained. The results of this work verified the applicability of TPE-FRET technique in hybridization assay and confirmed the advantages of TPE-FRET in complicated matrix.

  10. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties: Cogeneration powers up cost-competitive energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Cities and counties build many multi-million dollar facilities, and supplying energy to run these facilities is a long-term obligation for a community. Cogeneration offers local governments an opportunity to reduce the cost of providing electricity, heating, and cooling to their buildings. Sometimes cogeneration is combined with district heating and cooling systems. This kind of cogeneration results in system efficiencies as high as 70%--about twice the efficiency of a conventional power plant that produces only electricity! The article describes cogeneration combined with district cooling in Trenton, NJ, and cogeneration on a small scale in San Jose, California.

  11. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  12. Wood as Energy--Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…

  13. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  14. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  15. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  16. GPP Webinar: The Solar Roadmap—Navigating the Evolving Solar Energy Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPP and State & Local Climate and Energy Branch webinar on the Solar Roadmap and the evolving solar energy market. This webinar discussed local and state government’s success stories and opportunities for progress in renewable energy goals using the Solar

  17. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202..., 2011, DOE received an application from CPM for authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  18. 77 FR 30521 - Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of...

  19. 18 CFR 375.307 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation. 375.307 Section 375.307 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Delegations § 375.307 Delegations to...

  20. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  1. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Noether, M

    1988-09-01

    The traditional view of hospital competition has posited that hospitals compete primarily along 'quality' dimensions, in the form of fancy equipment to attract admitting physicians and pleasant surroundings to entice patients. Price competition among hospitals is thought to be non-existent. This paper estimates the effects of various hospital market characteristics on hospital prices and expenses in an attempt to determine the form of hospital competition. The results suggest that both price and quality competition are greater in markets that are less concentrated, although the net effect of the two on prices is insignificant. It appears, therefore, that, despite important distortions, hospital markets are not immune to standard competitive forces.

  2. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  3. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  4. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  5. Industrial market and energy management guide. Standard Industrial Classification 22, textile mill products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Purpose of this guide is twofold: First, to provide an overview of the industrial market for consulting engineers in the textile mill products industry by providing an overall description of the market, its size, and attitudes toward more energy efficient operations. Second, to present sources of information to help consulting engineers locate these industries on a local and national level, and further assess their market opportunities. The facts and figures that describe the various elements of this industrial sector are presented along with its national distribution of plant locations, and resources where more detailed information can be found. Process flow diagrams, process step descriptions, and energy efficient ideas are presented.

  6. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  7. Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A.

    2011-08-11

    The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

  8. Nonlinear structure analysis of carbon and energy markets with MFDCCA based on maximum overlap wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear structure between carbon and energy markets by employing the maximum overlap wavelet transform (MODWT) as well as the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis based on maximum overlap wavelet transform (MFDCCA-MODWT). Based on the MODWT multiresolution analysis and the statistic Qcc(m) significance, relatively significant cross-correlations are obtained between carbon and energy future markets either on different time scales or on the whole. The result of the Granger causality test indicates bidirectional Granger causality between carbon and electricity future markets, although the Granger causality relationship between the carbon and oil price is not evident. The existence of multifractality for the returns between carbon and energy markets is proven with the MFDCCA-MODWT algorithm. In addition, results of investigating the origin of multifractality demonstrate that both long-range correlations and fat-tailed distributions play important roles in the contributions of multifractality.

  9. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  10. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  11. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  12. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  13. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the opportunity cost of

  14. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  15. The Why, Where, When and How of Ad Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the pedagogical benefits of advertising competitions, and describes five national competitions available to students, including Nissan Student Advertising Contest, Philip Morris Marketing Communications Competition for Students, Direct Marketing Collegiate Echo Competition, and American Advertising Federation National Student Advertising…

  16. Using the market to regulate health care price: why heart hospitals will have a competitive advantage in the world of post-diagnostic related group pricing.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the federal government has reimbursed hospital services by administrating pricing. Simply put, under such a system the government dictated the prices of medical services. Not only has administrative pricing failed to control medical inflation, but such failure could have been predicted from a review of basic economics. Accordingly, to eliminate the deleterious effects of administrative pricing, it is not surprising that the government is gathering information on hospital quality and cost in anticipation of a return to a system in which the price for hospital services is determined by the market. For some hospitals, this will be good news because they will be able to negotiate a more favorable rate of reimbursement. Unfortunately, for some hospitals a market system will be bad news because the government is not going to negotiate a provider contract with every hospital. In short, when the government returns to a market system for pricing of hospital services, competition among hospitals is going to become even more competitive.

  17. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  18. 75 FR 35018 - GenConn Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GenConn Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of GenConn Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  19. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 78 FR 28833 - Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based...

  1. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Stream Energy New York, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy Maryland, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Stream Energy Columbia, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  5. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  6. 77 FR 67642 - EBC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EBC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of EBC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. 75 FR 70743 - Seneca Energy, II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Energy, II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding Seneca Energy, II LLC's application for market-based...

  8. 75 FR 11532 - El Cajon Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Cajon Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of El Cajon Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  9. 76 FR 35211 - El Segundo Energy Center LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Segundo Energy Center LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of El Segundo Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 78 FR 60270 - Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Platinum Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  12. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy Management, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy NY LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy NY LLC's application for market-based...

  15. 78 FR 7774 - SmartEnergy Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SmartEnergy Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of SmartEnergy Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  16. 75 FR 61470 - Smart One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Smart One Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  17. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based...

  18. 77 FR 27767 - Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Galaxy Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Star Energy Partners LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  1. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  3. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  4. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  8. 75 FR 41854 - SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC's application for market-based...

  9. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 75 FR 48665 - White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of White Oak Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  11. 75 FR 42743 - Ally Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ally Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of Ally Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 78 FR 27219 - Osprey Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Osprey Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Osprey Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 78 FR 27218 - CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 78 FR 73858 - FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 78 FR 69409 - Elgin Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Elgin Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Elgin Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 78 FR 27219 - Westbrook Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Westbrook Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Westbrook Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based...

  17. 78 FR 16495 - Switch Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Switch Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Switch Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 77 FR 20380 - Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Iron Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 77 FR 35373 - Duke Energy Dicks Creek, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Dicks Creek, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Duke Energy Dicks Creek, LLC's application for market-based...

  20. 77 FR 47624 - Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Escanaba Green Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  1. 76 FR 52326 - Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Green Mountain Energy Company's application for market-based...

  2. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 75 FR 70742 - E-T Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission E-T Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of E-T Global Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  4. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. More Colleges Lock in Energy Rates to Avoid Volatile Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In July, when energy prices were sky-high and some pundits were predicting a continued rise, Charles Riordan, facilities director at Loyola College of Maryland, and his colleagues locked in a chunk of their electricity prices--about a quarter of the college's consumption--to cover the next two years. Now that energy prices have fallen, the…

  6. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  7. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  8. Opportunities for public water utilities in the market of energy from water.

    PubMed

    Mol, S S M; Kornman, J M; Kerpershoek, A J; van der Helm, A W C

    2011-01-01

    An inventory is made of the possibilities to recover sustainable energy from the water cycle by identifying different water flows in a municipal environment as a sustainable energy source. It is discussed what role public water utilities should play in the market of energy from water. This is done for Waternet, the public water utility of Amsterdam, by describing experiences on two practical applications for aquifer thermal energy storage and energy recovery from drinking water. The main conclusion is that public water utilities can substantially contribute to the production of sustainable energy, especially by making use of heat and cold from the water cycle. Public water utilities have the opportunity to both regulate and enter the market for energy from water.

  9. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  10. Two North Carolina Sears Stores Among Top Finishers in EPA's Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Sears Stores in Asheville and Hickory, N.C. were recognized this week by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a top finishing team in the agency's fifth-annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition. These sto

  11. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  12. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  13. System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets - Vol. I, Model Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of projections for the International Energy Outlook. The first volume of this report describes the System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets (SAGE) methodology and provides an in-depth explanation of the equations of the model.

  14. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power.

  15. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  16. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

  17. Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy technologies identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but a recent report by Berkeley Lab evaluates one such benefit in detail: by displacing gas-fired electricity generation, RE reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE. The Berkeley Lab report summarizes recent modeling studies that have evaluated the impact of RE deployment on gas prices, reviews the reasonableness of the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model.

  18. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    PubMed

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective.

  19. Marketing passive solar energy to the building industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, P.

    1981-01-01

    The first national marketing effort of the passive solar design concept which was conducted in 1980-1981 is examined. The prime audiences for this program were builders, remodelers, building material distributors and dealers, architects and the home buying public. To effectively implement this publicity campaign, four steps were necessary: 1. catch the audience's attention; 2. convey a direct and clear message; 3. reinforce the message; and 4. motivate the audience to action. While there are many different avenues to approach any target audience, SRA chose its proven methods of reaching the building community. Trade press, direct mail, industry events, conferences, editorial supplements and newspaper services were used to implement this highly successful program. How each strategy was chosen and implemented will be discussed. The results of the program will be displayed and examined.

  20. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  2. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  3. Establishing a Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings: Time to Move the Market

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kent; Torcellini, Paul; Taylor, Cody; Grant, Roger

    2016-08-26

    To change the current paradigm from buildings being consumers of energy to producers of energy requires a common language to facilitate market transformation. Common definitions help create market movement by sharing concepts across market actors. While the term 'zero energy buildings' has been in the marketplace for over 20 years, no common definition had been established. US DOE, last year, embarked on a process to evaluate current definitions and solicit industry input to formulate a common definition and nomenclature for zero energy buildings. This definition uses commonly available site measurements and national conversion factors to define zero energy buildings on a source energy basis for a variety of boundary conditions including building, portfolio, campus, and community. Issues addressed include multiple fuel types, cogeneration, and renewable energy certificates. This paper describes the process used to arrive at the definition, looks at methods of calculating site to source energy conversions, and how boundary decisions affect a robust and stable definition that can be used to direct programs and policies for many years to come. This stability is critical to move building investments towards buildings that produce as much energy as they consume.

  4. Market feasibility study of utility battery applications: Penetration of battery energy storage into regulated electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Kraft, S.; Symons, P.C.

    1997-12-01

    Although recent studies indicate there could be significant opportunities for battery systems in electric utility applications, markets for this and other dispersed energy storage technologies have been slow to develop. Prior analyses had suggested that the slow market development has resulted from reluctance to make the necessary investments on the part of both suppliers and customers. In order to confirm this and other concerns over the utility energy storage market, an assessment has been performed to estimate the potential penetration of batteries into regulated electric utilities. The estimates thus obtained confirm that the possible market for batteries on the utility side of the meter, approximately $280 million annually in 2010, is indeed smaller than indicated by the assessment of potential opportunities had suggested it might be. On the other hand, the estimates for possible market penetration on the customer side of the meter are greater than on the utility-side, particularly in the nearer-term. Of more importance than the numeric results, however, are the comments given by potential customers of utility battery energy storage, and the conclusions regarding ways to increase the attractiveness of utility battery energy storage that result from analyses of these comments.

  5. What Goes on behind Closed Doors? How College Dormitory Residents Change to Save Energy during a Competition-Based Energy Reduction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sintov, Nicole; Dux, Ellen; Tran, Agassi; Orosz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of a competition-based intervention combining high-resolution electricity feedback, incentives, information and prompts on college dormitory residents' energy consumption and participation in demand response events. The authors also investigated changes in individual-level…

  6. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Chairman Henry Waxman and Chairman Edward Markey for an analysis of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACESA). ACESA, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009, is a complex bill that regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

  7. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  8. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  9. 76 FR 70439 - Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Global Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or...

  10. 75 FR 25235 - Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Mint Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 77 FR 24941 - Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and Providing Direction on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and... analysis filed by Vantage Wind Energy LLC (Vantage Wind). As discussed below, the Commission concludes that Vantage Wind continues to satisfy the Commission's standards for market-based rate authority. Vantage...

  12. The welfare effects of integrating renewable energy into electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    The challenges of deploying more renewable energy sources on an electric grid are caused largely by their inherent variability. In this context, energy storage can help make the electric delivery system more reliable by mitigating this variability. This thesis analyzes a series of models for procuring electricity and ancillary services for both individuals and social planners with high penetrations of stochastic wind energy. The results obtained for an individual decision maker using stochastic optimization are ambiguous, with closed form solutions dependent on technological parameters, and no consideration of the system reliability. The social planner models correctly reflect the effect of system reliability, and in the case of a Stochastic, Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (S-SC-OPF or SuperOPF), determine reserve capacity endogenously so that system reliability is maintained. A single-period SuperOPF shows that including ramping costs in the objective function leads to more wind spilling and increased capacity requirements for reliability. However, this model does not reflect the inter temporal tradeoffs of using Energy Storage Systems (ESS) to improve reliability and mitigate wind variability. The results with the multiperiod SuperOPF determine the optimum use of storage for a typical day, and compare the effects of collocating ESS at wind sites with the same amount of storage (deferrable demand) located at demand centers. The collocated ESS has slightly lower operating costs and spills less wind generation compared to deferrable demand, but the total amount of conventional generating capacity needed for system adequacy is higher. In terms of the total system costs, that include the capital cost of conventional generating capacity, the costs with deferrable demand is substantially lower because the daily demand profile is flattened and less conventional generation capacity is then needed for reliability purposes. The analysis also demonstrates that the

  13. Trends in the energy market after World War II (WW II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, K.

    1992-01-01

    After WW II, trends developed in the energy markets that continued virtually unbroken till 1972. The main trend was the strong growth of oil as a percentage of total energy consumed. Not only did oil monopolise the rapidly growing transportation market but it also penetrated rapidly into the stationary energy market. In the second half of the sixties, after the discovery of the Groningen Gas field, pipeline natural gas took a sizable share of the domestic and commercial energy market in Western Europe. This market was mainly fed by gas from Groningen, the North Sea and Russia. Another trend was the steady growth of electricity as a percentage of the stationary market partly based on nuclear energy. Coal was the loser. This rather steady development was upset by the first oil crisis in 1972. This crisis was a political crisis which had little to do with the physical availability of crude oil. Between 1972 and the present, periods of reasonable price stability were interrupted by violent swings in the price of oil and gas. Moreover, during this period the environmental movement became a major influence in the energy field. Notwithstanding the generally unstable market, some new trends developed after 1972 and some old ones continued. Will these trends continue long enough to be useful for making a scenario for the future? The forecaster should not assume that the development of energy consumption in the USA, Western Europe and Japan will continue to be of overwhelming importance. Developments in South East Asia and Eastern Europe should be watched very carefully. There are reasons to believe that at a certain stage in economic development, transportation demand shoots up much faster than economic growth, leading to a rapid demand growth for distillate oil. Of importance is also how will the rapidly developing countries generate their increasing demand for electricity and how will they fuel their industry? There can be little doubt that in the rich countries

  14. Interplay Between Energy-Market Dynamics and Physical Stability of a Smart Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Sergio; Mammoli, Andrea; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    A smart power grid is being envisioned for the future which, among other features, should enable users to play the dual role of consumers as well as producers and traders of energy, thanks to emerging renewable energy production and energy storage technologies. As a complex dynamical system, any power grid is subject to physical instabilities. With existing grids, such instabilities tend to be caused by natural disasters, human errors, or weather-related peaks in demand. In this work we analyze the impact, upon the stability of a smart grid, of the energy-market dynamics arising from users' ability to buy from and sell energy to other users. The stability analysis of the resulting dynamical system is performed assuming different proposed models for this market of the future, and the corresponding stability regions in parameter space are identified. We test our theoretical findings by comparing them with data collected from some existing prototype systems.

  15. What goes on behind closed doors? How college dormitory residents change to save energy during a competition-based energy reduction intervention

    DOE PAGES

    Sintov, Nicole; Dux, Ellen; Tran, Agassi; ...

    2016-07-04

    Here, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of a competition-based intervention combining high resolution electricity feedback, incentives, information, and prompts on college dormitory residents’ energy consumption and participation in demand response (DR) events. We also investigated changes in individual-level pro-environmental behaviors and examined psycho-social correlates of behavior change. Residents of 39 suites in a freshman residence hall competed against one another to reduce energy consumption and win prizes as part of a 3-week competition. Feedback was provided in near real time at the suite-level via an interactive touch-screen kiosk. Participants also completed baseline and followup surveys.more » Findings have indicated that electricity use among all suites was approximately 6.4% lower during the competition period compared to baseline, a significant reduction. Additionally, participants reported engaging in various pro-environmental behaviors significantly more frequently during the competition relative to baseline. Changes in pro-environmental behavior were associated with changes in level of group identification and perceived social norms. In three weeks, dormitory residents saved 3, 158 kWh of electricity compared to baseline – the equivalent of more than 3, 470 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions. Our findings provide evidence that real-time feedback, combined with incentives, information, and prompts, can motivate on-campus residents to reduce energy consumption. We contribute to a limited body of evidence supporting the effectiveness of dorm energy competitions in motivating college students to save energy. In addition, we identified individual-level behavioral and psycho-social changes made during such an intervention. University residential life planners may also use the results of this research to inform student programming.« less

  16. What goes on behind closed doors? How college dormitory residents change to save energy during a competition-based energy reduction intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Sintov, Nicole; Dux, Ellen; Tran, Agassi; Orosz, Michael; Filho, Walter Leal; Zint, Michaela

    2016-07-04

    Here, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of a competition-based intervention combining high resolution electricity feedback, incentives, information, and prompts on college dormitory residents’ energy consumption and participation in demand response (DR) events. We also investigated changes in individual-level pro-environmental behaviors and examined psycho-social correlates of behavior change. Residents of 39 suites in a freshman residence hall competed against one another to reduce energy consumption and win prizes as part of a 3-week competition. Feedback was provided in near real time at the suite-level via an interactive touch-screen kiosk. Participants also completed baseline and followup surveys. Findings have indicated that electricity use among all suites was approximately 6.4% lower during the competition period compared to baseline, a significant reduction. Additionally, participants reported engaging in various pro-environmental behaviors significantly more frequently during the competition relative to baseline. Changes in pro-environmental behavior were associated with changes in level of group identification and perceived social norms. In three weeks, dormitory residents saved 3, 158 kWh of electricity compared to baseline – the equivalent of more than 3, 470 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions. Our findings provide evidence that real-time feedback, combined with incentives, information, and prompts, can motivate on-campus residents to reduce energy consumption. We contribute to a limited body of evidence supporting the effectiveness of dorm energy competitions in motivating college students to save energy. In addition, we identified individual-level behavioral and psycho-social changes made during such an intervention. University residential life planners may also use the results of this research to inform student programming.

  17. The impossible dream? How Nuclear Electric, Ltd. pulled itself out of the ashes of government ownership and became highly competitive in a privatized and deregulating British power market

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, P.

    1998-12-31

    The day was dark for Nuclear Electric plc. when the British government decided it would privatize and deregulate the electric utility industry. For years, Nuclear Electric and other UK-based fossil power producers had been operating in a regulated market where the state set and guaranteed the price of electricity. All that was changing in Britain as the government introduced competition and as customers looked forward to purchasing power from the lowest bidder. Essentially the situation in England was much the same as it is now in the US: there was major momentum toward deregulation. The reality of competition in Britain came as good news to many power producers--in particular those who kept the lights on cost effectively. Others, However, weren`t so optimistic, especially nuclear plants that traditionally bear higher safety and maintenance costs than their fossil counterparts. Taking its cues from the City (Britain`s Wall Street), the British government simply considered nuclear generators to be unreliable, high cost, unprofitable organizations incapable of surviving in a privatized environment. It therefore left its nuclear power plants off the docket when selling (privatizing) its generating capacity. This paper describes how Nuclear Electric Ltd. became competitive in a deregulated environment.

  18. Energy efficiency programs for niche markets: The Labs21 program as an exemplar

    SciTech Connect

    Wirdzek, Phillip; Lintner, William; Mathew, Paul; Carlisle, Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Most federal programs that promote energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the building industry focus on the larger market segments such as offices, residential buildings, etc. Niche markets such as laboratories are often overlooked and beyond the scope of such programs, for at least two reasons: (a) by definition, niche markets are a relatively small ''wedge'' of the overall energy consumption ''pie''; and (b) laboratories have health and safety concerns, complex flexibility requirements and are perceived to be less amenable to broadly applicable strategies. Nevertheless, laboratories and other ''high-tech'' buildings demand the attention of the energy efficiency and sustainable design community for several reasons: (1) They are a growing segment of the building sector. (2) They are very energy and resource intensive laboratories on average are four to six times as energy intensive as office buildings, and five to ten times as expensive to build. (3) There are significant opportunities for efficiency and conservation, especially when compared to other buildings. In this paper, we describe how the Labs21 program, a joint program of the US EPA and US DOE, is structured to meet these needs recognizing that laboratories require very specialized engineering and design knowledge not addressed in academia or industry, and not readily shared to a level commensurate with the needs of this building sector. While Labs21 is focused on one niche market, we also highlight some experiences from this program applicable to other specialized building types.

  19. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.