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Sample records for competitivite des males

  1. Que Se Passe-T-Il Quand Des Delinquants Vivent Dans Une Communaute Juste? (What Happens When Male Delinquents Live in a Just Community?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Jacques; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This paper, in French, describes possible links between moral discussion, moral judgment, moral action, and moral atmosphere in a readaptation unit for male adolescent delinquents in which the Just Community Approach was used. Results showed an improvement in individual moral judgment and decreased frequency of misbehaviors after group…

  2. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  3. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  4. Modification by chloramphenicol of diethyl sulphate-induced male recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miglani, G S; Kaur, N P

    1995-06-01

    To study the effect of chloramphenicol (CPL, an inhibitor of protein synthesis) on diethyl sulphate (DES, a potent mutagen) induced male recombination frequency, the F1 (+/aristaless dumpy black cinnabar, al dp b cn) larvae of D. melanogaster were given a pre- or post-treatment of CPL with DES during the first or second half of larval life. In order to determine sensitivity of different germ cell stages to the induction and modification of male recombination frequency, five 3-day broods were taken from every F1 male. DES showed toxic effect on egg-to-adult development. DES was found to be a potent recombinogen. Several cases of non-reciprocal male recombination were recorded. The most frequent recombinant phenotype observed was b cn followed by cn and al. Majority of the recombinants appeared in clusters suggesting their pre-meiotic origin. DES produced male recombination at a stage where only primary spermatocytes were present in the larval testes. CPL when given as a pre- or post-treatment with DES revealed highest frequency of male recombination in broods that represented effect of treatment on spermatogonia predominantly. CPL enhanced the overall level of male recombination produced by DES in both pre- and post-treatments. The results suggested the role of protein synthesis in induction of male recombination in D. melanogaster. In addition, the present experiments give a methodology of enhancing the frequency of chemically-induced male recombination.

  5. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  6. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  7. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  8. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  9. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  10. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  11. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Mahawong, Phitsanu; Sinclair, Adriane; Li, Yi; Schlomer, Bruce; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Max, Ferretti M.; Liu, Baomei; Baskin, Laurence S.; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Potential trans-generational influence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure emerged with reports of effects in grandchildren of DES-treated pregnant women and of reproductive tract tumors in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES. Accordingly, we examined the trans-generational influence of DES on development of external genitalia (ExG) and compared effects of in utero DES exposure in CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice injected with oil or DES every other day from gestational days 12 to 18. Mice were examined at birth, and on 5 to 120 days postnatal to evaluate ExG malformations. Of 23 adult (≥60 days) prenatally DES-exposed males, features indicative of urethral meatal hypospadias (see text for definitions) ranged from 18 to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males and 31 to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed C57BL/6 males. Thus, the strains differed in the incidence of male urethral hypospadias. Ninety-one percent of DES-exposed CD-1 females and 100% of DES-exposed C57BL/6 females had urethral-vaginal fistula. All DES-exposed CD-1 and C57BL/6 females lacked an os clitoris. None of the prenatally oil-treated CD-1 and C57BL/6 male and female mice had ExG malformations. For the second-generation study, 10 adult CD-1 males and females, from oil- and DES-exposed groups, respectively, were paired with untreated CD-1 mice for 30 days, and their offspring evaluated for ExG malformations. None of the F1 DES-treated females were fertile. Nine of 10 prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males sired offspring with untreated females, producing 55 male and 42 female pups. Of the F2 DES-lineage adult males, 20% had exposed urethral flaps, a criterion of urethral meatal hypospadias. Five of 42 (11.9%) F2 DES lineage females had urethral-vaginal fistula. In contrast, all F2 oil-lineage males and all oil-lineage females were normal. Thus, prenatal DES exposure induces malformations of ExG in both sexes and strains of mice, and certain malformations are transmitted to the second-generation. PMID

  12. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  13. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  14. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  15. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  16. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  17. La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

  18. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  19. Missile Aerodynamics (Aerodynamique des Missiles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    guerre froide la production des missiles a baisse’, avec pour consequence une diminution des budgets de d6veloppement. Les nouveaux types de conflits ...Roma) Directeur - Gestion de l’information LUXEMBOURG (Recherche et developpement) - DRDGI 3 Voir Belgique Ministbre de la Difense nationale NORVEGE

  20. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  1. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  2. Inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on diethylstilbestrol-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis in male rats and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kohigashi, K; Fukuda, Y; Imura, H

    1988-12-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks later the rats were divided into 4 groups; DEN-C group rats were given no further treatment; DEN-DES group rats were fed diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5 mg/day); DEN-TMX group rats were given tamoxifen (TMX, 1.0 mg/day) orally; DEN-DES TMX group rats were fed both DES and TMX for 8 months. Rats of the DEN-DES group developed grossly visible hepatic tumors. On the other hand, tumor development was significantly inhibited in rats of the DEN-DES TMX group. Total area of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive lesions and the mean area per lesion were significantly larger in rats of the DEN-DES group than those of the DEN-C, DEN-TMX or DEN-DES-TMX group. Estrogen receptor (ER) content of liver cytosol assayed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-DES group than in those of the DEN-C group and smaller in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in the DEN-C group. On the contrary, ER content of liver nuclei was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in those of the DEN-C or DEN-DES group. These results suggest that the promotive action of DES and the inhibitory action of TMX on DES-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis are, at least in part, mediated by ER in the rat.

  3. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  4. Impact of Materials Defects on Engine Structures Integrity (L’Impact des Defauts des Materiaux sur l’Integrite des Structures des Moteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    participants ont fait le point des aspects traitement et contr6le des mat~riaux. en mettant I’accent sur les materiaux constitutifs des disques moteur en...adapte. Pour le physicien. un -d~faur’" peut tres bien se resumer A une imperfection de Ia structure rericulaire d’un materiau. En science des materiaux ... materiaux sur l~integrite des structures des moteurs Defence Research Ag~ency Matenials & Structures Department Farnborough. Hants GUt 14 fITD Rovaume-Uni

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  6. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  7. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  8. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  9. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  10. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Classification of 17 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, J. K.; Asorey, J.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Yuan, F.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  13. Classification of 11 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R.; Zhang, B.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Asorey, J.; Mould, J.; Smith, M.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Yuan, F.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2017-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  14. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  15. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  16. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 17 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, D.; Martini, P.; Lewis, G. F.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R. G.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Carnero, A.; King, A.; Lidman, C.; Webb, S.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Latina Voices of Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. Dawn

    This dissertation examines the lives of Hispanic women living in Des Moines and includes their views of problems and opportunities involved in living in that city. Interviews were conducted with 24 Latino women over the age of 17 who had been in the area for over 2 years. Findings indicate that learning to speak English was the single most…

  3. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  4. Multistatic Surveillance and Reconnaissance: Sensor, Signals and Data Fusion (Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs, des signaux et des donnees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    capteurs , des signaux et des données) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France RTO-EN-SET-133...Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Lecture Series under the...Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données (RTO-EN-SET-133) Synthèse Les systèmes radar

  5. Active Control Technology for Enhanced Performance Operational Capabilities of Military Aircraft, Land Vehicles and Sea Vehicles (Technologies des systemes a commandes actives pour l’amelioration des performances operationnelles des aeronefs militaires, des vehicules terrestres et des vehicules maritimes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    d’améliorer le comportement global des systèmes et des sous- systèmes. Il s’agit de matériaux intelligents, de technologies informatiques, de capteurs ...des servocommandes rapides et fiables, ainsi que des capteurs de fonctionnement fiable même dans des environnements défavorables, et en particulier...des sous-systèmes. Il s’agit de matériaux intelligents, de technologies de fabrication novatrices, de technologies informatiques, de capteurs et de

  6. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  7. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  8. Low-dose and combined effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on the male reproductive system in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Hong-Qiang; Cui, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Li; Zhang, Wen-Long; Liu, Wen-Bin; Han, Fei; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Study of the joint action of xenobiotics is important to fully explore their toxicity and complete risk analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-dose and combined exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the reproductive system in adult male rats. The results showed that the sperm motility decreased in the BPA/DES and combined groups. Sperm deformity ratios and histological lesions of the testes were significantly higher and more significant, respectively, in the combined group compared with the single treated groups. No dose-effect relationship or significant additive effect on serum hormone levels was observed after combined exposure to BPA/DES. Ultrastructural results showed lesions of the Sertoli and Leydig cells, mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in all treated groups. ER stress molecular sensor IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after BPA and DES treatment in this study. The protein levels of ES stress molecular marker CHOP were significantly up-regulated after exposure to BPA, DES, and BPA and DES combined. These findings indicate that ER stress is important in BPA/DES-induced damage in rat testes. Low-dose and combined exposure to BPA and DES may have toxic effects on male fertility in the adult population.

  9. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  10. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  11. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  12. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have sex without wearing a male or female condom Have more than one sexual partner Use drugs ... to have sexual contact, use latex or polyurethane condoms. Remember to: Use condoms for all vaginal, anal, ...

  13. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  14. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  15. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hasn't spread beyond your breast tissue. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill ... option for men with advanced breast cancer. Hormone therapy Most men with male breast cancer have tumors ...

  16. Techniques of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

  17. Hyperprolactinaemia in male diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Mooradian, A. D.; Morley, J. E.; Billington, C. J.; Slag, M. F.; Elson, M. K.; Shafer, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    We recently investigated two patients with diabetes and elevated serum prolactin levels in whom no cause of hyperprolactinaemia could be found. For this reason we measured fasting serum prolactin levels in 72 diabetic males and compared the results with those of 63 healthy males and 90 nondiabetic males attending an Impotence Clinic. The diabetic group had significantly higher serum prolactin levels (13.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml) than the two control groups (9.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml for normal males and 7.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml for the non-diabetic impotent group). Eighteen percent of the diabetics studied had serum prolactin levels above the normal range for males (greater than 20 ng/ml). There was no correlation between serum prolactin levels and duration of diabetes, glycosylated haemoglobin level or presence of clinically apparent retinopathy. The correlation between serum prolactin level and fasting plasma glucose was weak though statistically significant (r = 0.26, P less than 0.05). PMID:3991396

  18. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  19. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  20. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  1. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  2. Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; İnan, Aydın; Bozer, Mikdat

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Although breast carcinomas share certain characteristics in both genders, there are notable differences. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very small. Thus, most data on male breast cancer are derived from studies on females. However, when a number of these small studies are grouped together, we can learn more from them. This review emphasizes the incidence, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, pathology, survival, and prognostic factors related to MBC.

  3. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  4. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  5. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  6. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  7. Minority Male Afterschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Herbert F., Jr.

    Through a program called the Minority Male Afterschool Program (MMAP), college students at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena (Mississippi) are working one-on-one with high school students. The MMAP is an enrichment program that encourages at-risk African American students aged 12 to 19 to complete high school and pursue…

  8. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Gf; Castro, Marcos As; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2011-06-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. However, as global populace ages, there is a trend to MBC increasing. Although aetiology is still unclear, constitutional, environmental, hormonal (abnormalities in estrogen/androgen balance) and genetic (positive family history, Klinefelter syndrome, mutations in BRCA1 and specially BRCA2) risk factors are already known. Clinic manifestation is painless hard and fixed nodule in the subareolar region in 75% of cases, with nipple commitment earlier than in women. Breast cancer has similar prognostic factors in males and females, among which axillary adenopathy (present in 40-55% cases) is the most important one. Although mammography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy can be useful tools in diagnosis; clinical assessment, along with a confirmatory biopsy, remains the main step in the evaluation of men with breast lesions. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The established standard of care is modified radical mastectomy followed by tamoxifen for endocrine-responsive positive disease, although other options are being explored. While similarities between breast cancer in males and females exist, it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from female disease to the treatment of male. There is a need for specific multi-institutional trials to better understanding of clinicopathologic features and establishment of optimal therapy for this disease.

  9. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  10. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  11. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  12. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  13. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat.

  14. Effects of gestational diethylstilbestrol treatment on male and female gonads during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yayoi; Tanaka, Hideo; Esaki, Michiyo

    2008-08-01

    To study the effects of gestational exposure to estrogen on early gonadal differentiation, pregnant mice were treated by sc injection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) or vehicle from embryonic day (E) 8.5 to E14.5, and gonads at E11.5, E12.5, and E14.5 were examined. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a key regulator of gonadal differentiation, and several male gonad-specific genes, including Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450, and Cerebellin 1 precursor protein, were significantly decreased in the DES-treated testis, compared with the control testis at E12.5 and/or E14.5. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the staining intensities for SF-1 and MIS in Sertoli cells were apparently reduced in the DES-treated testis, compared with those of the controls, at E12.5 and E14.5. Because MIS, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450, and Cerebellin 1 precursor protein are activated under the regulation of SF-1, the down-regulation of these factors may be due to reduced SF-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry for laminin-1 demonstrated that ovigerous cords in the DES-treated ovary were smaller than those in controls at E14.5. Moreover, the number of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate-labeled cells in the DES-treated testis was significantly reduced at E12.5 and E14.5, compared with controls, and that in the DES-treated ovary remained higher than that in the control ovary at E14.5. The results suggest that exogenous estrogens can alter sex-specific genetic pathways governing early differentiation and cell proliferation of both male and female gonads.

  15. Greening America's Capitals - Des Moines, IA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from Greening America's Capitals project in Des Moines, IA, to help the city enhance the 6th Avenue Corridor with pedestrian and bike improvements and green infrastructure to manage stormwater.

  16. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  17. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Mepham, Kathryn; Sebag, Igal A.; and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  18. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Male Zuska's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Schaub, George A

    2014-04-04

    Subareolar abscess of the male breast is a rare condition, which can be complicated by a fistula from the areolar skin into a lactiferous duct. In 1951, Zuska et al first characterised this entity in women. Literature on mammillary fistulas in men is scarce and therefore standardisation of treatment does not exist. We present two cases of recurrent subareolar abscesses with draining fistulas. Both patients were successfully treated by complete excision of the lactiferous duct fistula, and continue to do well with no evidence of disease recurrence. When male patients present with a draining subareolar abscess, one should have a high index of suspicion for a mammillary fistula. Failure to identify and surgically excise the fistula may lead to recurrence of the abscess and prolonged morbidity. The most effective management of this uncommon entity includes complete excision of the lactiferous duct fistula.

  20. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  1. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  2. Male only Systemic Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rachna; Namjou, Bahram; Li, Shibo; D'Souza, Anil; Tsao, Betty P; Bruner, Ben; James, Judith A.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more common among women than men with a ratio of about 10 to 1. We undertook this study to describe familial male SLE within a large cohort of familial SLE. SLE families (two or more patients) were obtained from the Lupus Multiplex Registry and Repository. Genomic DNA and blood samples were obtained using standard methods. Autoantibodies were determined by multiple methods. Medical records were abstracted for SLE clinical data. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with X and Y centromere specific probes, and a probe specific for the toll-like receptor 7 gene on the X chromosome. Among 523 SLE families, we found five families in which all the SLE patients were male. FISH found no yaa gene equivalent in these families. SLE-unaffected primary female relatives from the five families with only-male SLE patients had a statistically increased rate of positive ANA compared to SLE-unaffected female relatives in other families. White men with SLE were 5 times more likely to have an offspring with SLE than were White women with SLE but there was no difference in this likelihood among Black men. These data suggest genetic susceptibility factors that act only in men. PMID:20472921

  3. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  4. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  5. Male breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meguerditchian, Ari-Nareg; Falardeau, Maurice; Martin, Ginette

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer. Data sources Articles, written in English or French, selected from the Medline database (1966 to January 2001), corresponding to the key words “male breast cancer,” according to the following criteria: covering institutional experience or comparing diagnostic and treatment modalities, and epidemiologic or general reviews. Study selection Of 198 articles found 50 fulfilled the review criteria. Data synthesis Risk factors included advanced age, a positive family history, Jewish origin, black race, excess exposure to female hormones (Klinefelter’s syndrome), environmental exposure (irradiation), alcohol, obesity, higher socioeconomic or higher educational status and childlessness. Gynecomastia remains a controversial factor, this term being used for both a histologic reality and a physical finding. Advanced disease is characterized by pain, bloody discharge and skin ulceration. There is no definitive diagnostic algorithm. Experience with male breast mammography is limited, and imaging is less informative for patients under 50 years of age. Fine-needle aspiration tends to overestimate the rate of malignancy. The commonest histologic finding is infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma. Treatment includes modified radical mastectomy, followed by cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluo-rouracil or 5-fluorouracil–Adriamycin–cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for disease of stage II or greater. Radiotherapy does not seem to add any benefit. The disease is highly receptor-positive; however, many patients discontinue tamoxifen due to side effects. The most important prognostic factors are tumour size, lymphatic invasion and axillary node status. Conclusions Because of the low incidence of male breast cancer, advances will be obtained mainly with the rapid transfer of newly gained knowledge in female mammary neoplasia. The increased use of adjuvant

  6. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  7. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  8. Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne und externe Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan

    Die Initiierung und Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken und Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen und Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten und nur auf das "hier und heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- und langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.

  9. Cross-Correlating DES and SPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) provide a uniquely powerful combination of overlapping optical imaging and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Cross-correlations between DES and SPT are expected to arise from several physical effects, including gravitational lensing, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. The resultant correlations contain information not accessible to either experiment on its own. Measurement of these correlations offers several exciting possibilities, such as improved cosmological parameter constraints, improved understanding of systematics affecting the two experiments, and calibration of the masses of galaxy clusters at high redshift. In this talk I will summarize recent results obtained by cross-correlating early DES data with data from the SPT-SZ survey and will discuss prospects for future cross-correlation measurements with these two surveys.

  10. Dynamic DDES On DES Type Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zifei; Durbin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    A dynamic procedure allows a DES formulation that we developed to adjustCDES for different flow configurations. Similarly to the dynamic Smagorinsky model, the grid is required to be fine enough to resolve a significant portion of the inertial range. In some cases, that requirement conflicts with the goal of DES to cut down computing cost. The current effort is therefore to determine a properCDES value by approximately recovering some unresolved small scales from primary, filtered solution. Repeated test filtering is adopted here to compute the approximation of the unfiltered solution. The formulation is based on the dynamicl2 w DDES model and different geometries with varies grid resolution are tested to determine the applicability of proposed formultion on DES type grids.

  11. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  12. Sport and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-03-22

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  13. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  14. Association between fetal DES-exposure and psychiatric disorders in adolescence/adulthood: evidence from a French cohort of 1002 prenatally exposed children.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, Marie-Odile; Paris, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Courtet, Philippe; Sultan, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure has been demonstrated to be associated with somatic abnormalities in adult men and women. Conversely, the data are contradictory regarding the association with psychological or psychiatric disorders during adolescence and adulthood. This work was designed to determine whether prenatal exposure to DES affects brain development and whether it is associated with psychiatric disorders in male and female adolescents and young adults. HHORAGES Association, a national patient support group, has assembled a cohort of 1280 women who took DES during pregnancy. We obtained questionnaire responses from 529 families, corresponding to 1182 children divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 180): firstborn children without DES treatment, Group 2 (n = 740): exposed children, and Group 3 (n = 262): children born after a previous pregnancy treated by DES. No psychiatric disorders were reported in Group 1. In Group 2, the incidence of disorders was drastically elevated (83.8%), and in Group 3, the incidence was still elevated (6.1%) compared with the general population. This work demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES is associated with a high risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and adulthood.

  15. Coalitions and male-male behavior in Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro Américo D; Rangel-Negrin, Ariadna; Veà, Joaquim J; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    Coalitions influence the establishment and maintenance of social relationships among males in primate species. In this study, we compare the social behavior of males between two groups of Alouatta palliata: a group that was recently taken over by a coalition of two males (Mt), and a group that had a stable composition for at least 9 months (Rh). We predicted that coalition partners would be more cooperative and less competitive than dyads formed by immigrant and long-term resident males, and dyads formed by long-term resident males. Additionally, we predicted that these dyadic trends should be reflected in more competition and less cooperation in the group that was taken over. As predicted, the coalition partners of Mt showed the highest levels of cooperation among all dyads and the second lowest rate of agonism. Cooperation was higher in the group that had a stable composition. Results from this study suggest that the social relationships of male mantled howlers vary as a function of familiarity between males and that in the context of coalitionary takeovers, coalitionary males are highly cooperative. Cooperation is lower in groups recently taken over and competition is more intense, perhaps as a consequence of the process of establishment and reorganization of power relationships within some dyads. In the future, we must determine the frequency of coalitionary takeovers in this population and assess its ultimate consequences for male-male social relationships.

  16. Etude numerique et experimentale de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures raidies a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdi, Abderrazak

    Les fuselages des avions sont generalement en aluminium ou en composite renforces par des raidisseurs longitudinaux (lisses) et transversaux (cadres). Les raidisseurs peuvent etre metalliques ou en composite. Durant leurs differentes phases de vol, les structures d'avions sont soumises a des excitations aeriennes (couche limite turbulente : TBL, champs diffus : DAF) sur la peau exterieure dont l'energie acoustique produite se transmet a l'interieur de la cabine. Les moteurs, montes sur la structure, produisent une excitation solidienne significative. Ce projet a pour objectifs de developper et de mettre en place des strategies de modelisations des fuselages d'avions soumises a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes. Tous d'abord, une mise a jour des modeles existants de la TBL apparait dans le deuxieme chapitre afin de mieux les classer. Les proprietes de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures planes finies et infinies sont analysees. Dans le troisieme chapitre, les hypotheses sur lesquelles sont bases les modeles existants concernant les structures metalliques orthogonalement raidies soumises a des excitations mecaniques, DAF et TBL sont reexamines en premier lieu. Ensuite, une modelisation fine et fiable de ces structures est developpee. Le modele est valide numeriquement a l'aide des methodes des elements finis (FEM) et de frontiere (BEM). Des tests de validations experimentales sont realises sur des panneaux d'avions fournis par des societes aeronautiques. Au quatrieme chapitre, une extension vers les structures composites renforcees par des raidisseurs aussi en composites et de formes complexes est etablie. Un modele analytique simple est egalement implemente et valide numeriquement. Au cinquieme chapitre, la modelisation des structures raidies periodiques en composites est beaucoup plus raffinee par la prise en compte des effets de couplage des deplacements planes et transversaux. L'effet de taille des structures finies periodiques est egalement pris en

  17. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d

  18. Les applications des faisceaux d'ions dans la physique des polymères

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; Lucas, B.; Guille, B.; Clamadieu, M.

    1998-06-01

    Experimental configurations of ions beams are illustrated by diagrams in the case of low energy implantation, Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE), Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) of molecular layers (or oligomers). Nous présentons les configurations expérimentales (illustrées par des schémas) de trois applications des faisceaux d'ions au traitement physique des polymères : dopage par implantation (cité pour mémoire), gravure par faisceaux d'ions réactifs (RIBE), dépôt des couches moléculaires (ou oligomères) assistés par faisceau (IBAD).

  19. La structure des liquides simples et des alliages liquides métalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonet, V.; Bellissent, R.

    2003-09-01

    De par le caractère isotrope des interactions et leur courte portée, les liquides métalliques ont longtemps été considérés comme des systèmes modèles pouvant être décrits par un arrangement aléatoire de sphères dures. Ceci a été confirmé par l'allure des premières fonctions de distribution de paires déterminées par diffusion de RX ou de neutrons à la précision près des expériences de l'époque. Néanmoins, cette image a tout d'abord été révisée pour le cas des alliages métalliques dont les fonctions de distribution de paires ont révélé un ordre local plus complexe à cause des affinités chimiques entre espèces différentes. Grâce à la possibilité actuelle de mesurer des facteurs de structure de bien meilleure qualité, la question de la nature de l'ordre local et du degré d'isotropie des interactions peut se poser même dans le cas des liquides simples ou dans le cas d'alliages présentant à priori peu d'ordre chimique. Dans ce cadre, l'ordre local icosaédrique est particulièrement intéressant puisque l'icosaèdre est un agrégat très compact et, bien que présentant des liaisons directionnelles, très proche d'une configuration isotrope. La mise en évidence de ce type d'ordre local est présentée pour deux types de liquides : les liquides surfondus dans lesquels un ordre local icosaédrique a été prédit pour expliquer les propriétés de surfusion, et les liquides en équilibre avec des quasicristaux qui présentent un ordre local icosaédrique.

  20. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  1. Male-male interactions and mating kinetics in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1990-05-01

    Male-male interaction (K) has been estimated from data on the attrition rate of virgin females per minute in a study of the mating kinetics in Drosophila. K is expressed as the time males expend on other males relative to that expended while searching for, courting, and copulating with females. The value of K in these studies ranged from 0 (approximately) to .695; it was affected both by strain (sepia or ebony D. melanogaster and wild-type D. simulans) and by size of the mating chamber. Host-parasitoid models of ecologists appear to be appropriate for examining mating kinetics in Drosophila.

  2. Mating and male pheromone kill Caenorhabditis males through distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cheng; Runnels, Alexi M; Murphy, Coleen T

    2017-01-01

    Differences in longevity between sexes is a mysterious yet general phenomenon across great evolutionary distances. To test the roles of responses to environmental cues and sexual behaviors in longevity regulation, we examined Caenorhabditis male lifespan under solitary, grouped, and mated conditions. We find that neurons and the germline are required for male pheromone-dependent male death. Hermaphrodites with a masculinized nervous system secrete male pheromone and are susceptible to male pheromone killing. Male pheromone-mediated killing is unique to androdioecious Caenorhabditis, and may reduce the number of males in hermaphroditic populations; neither males nor females of gonochoristic species are susceptible to male pheromone killing. By contrast, mating-induced death, which is characterized by germline-dependent shrinking, glycogen loss, and ectopic vitellogenin expression, utilizes distinct molecular pathways and is shared between the sexes and across species. The study of sex- and species-specific regulation of aging reveals deeply conserved mechanisms of longevity and population structure regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23493.001 PMID:28290982

  3. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  4. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  5. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  6. Coaching the alpha male.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  7. "Promotores'" Perspectives on a Male-to-Male Peer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers ("promotores") networks. The experiences of "promotores" can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male "promotores" in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of "promotores" who participated in a male…

  8. Aircraft Operations on Repaired Runways (l’Exploitation des Aeronefs sur les Pistes Refaites)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    procedures d’cxploitaiion des acronels sur des pistes repar&s. le Panel AGiARI) des Structures ct Materiaux at organisii des reunions pour faire Ic...existing 4.6 Resistance des avions. AIR 2(4E L - length of obstacle H - height/depth of obstacle Single obstacle Repeated obstacles (STOL aircraft

  9. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  10. Determination des Parametres Atmospheriques des Etoiles Naines Blanches de Type DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Alain

    1995-01-01

    Les etoiles naines blanches dont les spectres visibles sont domines par des raies fortes d'helium neutre sont subdivisees en trois classes, DB (raies d'helium neutre seulement), DBA (raies d'helium neutre et d'hydrogene) et DBZ (raies d'helium neutre et d'elements lourds). Nous analysons trois echantillons de spectres observes de ces types de naines blanches. Les echantillons consistent, respectivement, de 48 spectres dans le domaine du visible (3700-5100 A). 24 dans l'ultraviolet (1200-3100 A) et quatre dans la partie rouge du visible (5100-6900) A). Parmi les objets de l'echantillon visible, nous identifions quatre nouvelles DBA, ainsi que deux nouvelles DBZ, auparavant classees DB. L'analyse nous permet de determiner spectroscopiquement les parametres atmospheriques, soit la temperature effective, la gravite de surface, ainsi que l'abondance relative de l'hydrogene, N(H)/N(He), dans le cas des DBA. Pour les objets plus chauds que ~15,000 K, la gravite de surface determinee est fiable, et nous obtenons les masses stellaires avec une relation masse -rayon theorique. Les exigences propres a l'analyse de ces objets ont requis d'importantes ameliorations dans la modelisation de leurs atmospheres et distributions de flux de radiation emis par ces derniers. Nous avons inclus dans les modeles d'atmospheres, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, les effets dus a la molecule He_sp{2 }{+}, ainsi que l'equation d'etat de Hummer et Mihalas (1988), qui tient compte des perturbations entre particules dans le calcul des populations des differents niveaux atomiques. Nous traitons la convection dans le cadre de la theorie de la longueur de melange. Trois grilles de modeles d'atmospheres a l'ETL (equilibre thermodynamique local) ont ete produites, pour un ensemble de temperatures effectives, gravites de surface et abondances d'hydrogene couvrant les proprietes des etoiles de nos echantillons; elles sont caracterisees par differentes parametrisations appelees, respectivement

  11. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  12. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  13. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  14. Latino Males in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  15. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  16. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy.

  17. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  18. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  19. Scramjet Thermal Management (Tenue thermique des superstatoreacteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    combustion). Airbreathing launchers could typically use hydrogen-fuelled DMR. Less energetic fuels like hydrocarbons could also be used at a Mach number ...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scramjet Thermal Management (Tenue thermique des superstatoréacteurs) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  20. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  1. Males disposed to commit rape.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Scher, H; Racansky, I G; Campbell, K; Heasman, G

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that the preferential rape pattern belongs among the courtship disorders like voyeurism, exhibitionism, and toucheurism was tested. The study consisted of two experiments. The first compared 11 rape-prone males, who were most likely afflicted with the preferential rape pattern, with 11 sexually normal controls on penile response to narratives that depicted scenes in which the individual engaged in behavior typical of voyeurs, exhibitionists, or toucheurs. Narratives depicting normal tactile interaction (short of intercourse) with a genuinely participating woman, normal intercourse, and sexually neutral scenes were also presented. The rape-prone males responded more to the voyeuristic situations than did the controls. The standing of the normal intercourse situations on the scale of erotic value, relative to the other above-mentioned situations, was lower for the rape-prone males than for the normal controls. A second experiment compared 12 rape-prone males, who most likely demonstrated the preferential rape pattern, with 12 males with (other) courtship disorders and 12 sexually normal controls. Penile response to narratives depicting the individual involved in pretactile erotic activity, in tactile sexual activity short of intercourse, or in having intercourse was compared. Each situation was presented in two modalities depicting either a genuinely participating woman or a woman fearful of the individual. The penile responses of the rape-prone males, as well as those of males with other courtship disorders, differentiated less between sexual interaction with a fearful woman and such interaction with a participating woman than did the penile responses of normal controls. There was no significant difference in this respect between the rape-prone males and males with other courtship disorders.

  2. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire. PMID:27516827

  3. Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Walther; Lettowsky, Christoph

    Das Spritzgießen ist neben der Extrusion das wichtigste Verarbeitungsverfahren für Kunststoffe [1]. Das Verfahren hat sich seit seinen Ursprüngen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis heute stetig weiterentwickelt [2]. In neuerer Zeit steigt die Anzahl komplexer Anwendungen, die die gezielte Kombination verschiedener Funktionalitäten in einem Formteil erfordern. Das Standard-Spritzgießen kann diese Anforderungen immer weniger befriedigen. Daher gewinnen die Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens zunehmend an Bedeutung [3]. Ihre Anzahl beträgt inzwischen über 100. Die Aufgabe des Anwenders ist es, aus der Vielzahl der möglichen Verfahren, ein anforderungsgerechtes auszuwählen, das sowohl unter technischen wie wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten die optimale Lösung darstellt. Dies setzt die ständige Auseinandersetzung mit Entwicklungstendenzen im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnologie voraus. Daher soll im folgenden Abschnitt ein Überblick über die wichtigsten Spritzgieß-Sonderverfahren gegeben werden.

  4. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  5. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  6. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    Des mesures spectroscopiques effectuees avec un haut rapport signal sur bruit et une bonne resolution ont demontre l'existence de regions perturbees en mouvement dans le vent d'etoiles Wolf-Rayet (WR). L'echantillon d'objets etudies ici comprend 9 etoiles WR couvrant differents sous-types WN et WC. De nombreuses petites structures variables superposees au profil des raies d'emission formees dans le vent stellaire signalent la presence des perturbations. L'etude des variations globales des raies et l'examen des micro-structures individuelles ont permis de decrire plusieurs caracteristiques des perturbations. Entre autres, on observe des correlations significatives entre le niveau de variabilite des raies et certains parametres des etoiles qui confirment que le phenomene de variabilite est intrinseque au vent stellaire. En comparant les changements des vitesses radiales et des largeurs equivalentes des differentes raies d'une meme etoile, on conclut que les regions perturbees ont une etendue finie par rapport a l'enveloppe des etoiles. On peut facilement suivre les structures individuelles sur une periode de temps couvrant ~eq8 heures (et peut etre meme 24 heures) avant qu'elles ne disparaissent. Durant ce temps les structures se deplacent en s'eloignant du centre de la raie. A partir des differents comportements notes lors de l'analyse des variations globales et lors de l'examen des structures individuelles, on propose de representer les perturbations par un modele d'inhomogeneites discretes en expansion dans le vent. On suppose simplement que les inhomogeneites emettent comme le vent global (et absorbent aussi si le vent global montre un profil P Cyg). La superposition du graphique de l'acceleration radiale moyenne des inhomogeneites de WR140 en fonction de leur vitesse radiale et du modele theorique d'inhomogeneites qui suivent la loi generale de vitesse donne un taux d'acceleration lent, avec beta >= 3 pour les inhomogeneites de cette etoile. On obtient, entre

  7. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  8. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  9. Annual Program Management Report (1990), Des Moines Recreational River and Greenbelt, Des Moines River, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    study are listed below: STUDY MANAGEMENT C111 Jim MIll I SITE PLANNING George Gitter, AICP ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS Patricia Risser ENVIRONMENTAL...Trail (Raccoon River Segment), Des Moines - The project involves the construction of approximately 42,500 feet of paved multi-purpose trail in the...Federd Fee kwe Sc Am 1000 02000 ~]Lod Area -~ aroraed SCALE FEET Des Moies Recreaond Rvf And Greenbdt U.S. ARMY VNGDIKE DITrWC - ROC BLAND -A MOCK SA’rL0A

  10. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  11. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  12. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  13. MECP2 mutations in males

    PubMed Central

    Villard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS; MIM 312750) is a severe neurological disorder affecting exclusively females. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10 000 female births, and it is a prominent cause of profound mental handicap in women. RS is caused by mutations in the X‐linked methyl CpG‐binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. These mutations were initially thought to be lethal in males. However, MECP2 mutations are now frequently identified in mentally retarded male patients. The frequency of disease‐causing MECP2 mutations in this population is between 1.3% and 1.7%. Surprisingly, MECP2 mutations in males are responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from mild mental retardation to severe neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to describe the nature of the MECP2 mutations identified in male patients to date and their associated phenotypes. PMID:17351020

  14. Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Nicolas

    Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une

  15. Molecular biology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Feng, H L

    2003-01-01

    About 15% of couples have reduced fertility and in approximately one-half of all cases the reason is male infertility, usually of genetic origin. Thus, in the context of research in genes involved in reproduction and sex determination, genetic anomalies in gametogenesis are being extensively studied. The most frequent pathogenic causes of male infertility are Y-chromosomal microdeletions (8-15%) in the long arm of the Y chromosome, which, by loss of specific DNA segments, leads to loss of vital genes for sperm production. Infertile men, who attend infertility clinics, rise to 15% among those with azoospermia or spermatogenesis problem. The new technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection has allowed many infertile men to achieve their dreams of fatherhood. However, the spermatogenic defect is genetic anomalies, which might be a potential risk of transmitting this defect to future offspring. Therefore, genetic counseling of all couples with the diagnosis of male infertility is recommended before their enrolment in intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The important role of genetic abnormalities in the causation of human male infertility is increasingly recognized. While much remains to be learned in this fast-moving field, considerable progress has been made in the clinical delineation of genetic forms of male infertility and in the characterization of the responsible genes and their mutations or deletions. This review should provide insight into the understanding of parthenogenesis of male infertility in the human.

  16. Leptin pharmacokinetics in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Robin C; Agnew, Linda L; Smart, Neil A; McFarlane, James R

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has not been studied in detail and only one study has examined more than one time point in non-mutant mice and this was in a female mice. This is the first study to describe leptin distribution over a detailed time course in normal male mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected into adult male mice via the lateral tail vein and tissues were dissected out and measured for radioactivity over a time course of up to two hours. Major targets were the digestive tract, kidneys, skin and lungs. The brain was not a major target, and 0.15% of the total dose was recovered from the brain 5 min after administration. Major differences appear to exist in the distribution of leptin between the male and female mice, indicating a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Although the half-lives were similar between male and female mice, almost twice the proportion of leptin was recovered from the digestive tract of male mice in comparison to that reported previously for females. This would seem to indicate a major difference in leptin distribution and possibly function between males and females. PMID:27998953

  17. Workplace homicides of Texas males.

    PubMed

    Davis, H

    1987-10-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 779 civilian males whose deaths were homicides that occurred in the workplace. Injuries from firearms caused 81 per cent of the deaths. The overall rate of workplace homicide was 2.1/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in taxicab service had the highest rate of workplace homicide. 78.2/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in certain retail trade industries, law enforcement, and the private-security industry also had high rates of workplace homicide. Male workers greater than or equal to 65 years old were at especially high risk, with a workplace-homicide rate 3.5 times that of younger workers. A review of medical examiners' records in five urban counties indicated that 32 per cent of victims who had worked in eating-and-drinking places and 5 per cent of other workers had blood or cerebrospinal-fluid alcohol levels greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. These results provide a base for designing effective strategies to prevent workplace homicides.

  18. Proprietes Adiabatiques des Naines Blanches Pulsantes de Type ZZ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Cette these a pour but d'etudier les proprietes des oscillation non-radiales des etoiles ZZ Ceti, appelees aussi etoiles DA variables, dans le contexte de la theorie adiabatique des petites oscillations. Ces oscillations sont observables, pour ce type d'etoiles, sous forme de variations periodiques de la luminosite. A partir d'une analyse de modeles stellaires, analyse qui consiste principalement a calculer et a interpreter les periodes d'oscillations des modeles, nous voulons mieux connai tre les proprietes physiques fondamentales des ZZ Ceti. Nous developpons tout d'abord divers outils pour entreprendre cette etude. Apres avoir presente le formalisme mathematique de base decrivant les oscillations non-radiales d'une etoile, nous discutons des difficultes pouvant etre rencontrees dans le calcul de la frequence de Brunt-Vaisala, une quantite fondamentale pour le calcul des periodes d'oscillations. Par la suite, nous developpons un modele theorique simple permettant d'analyser et d'interpreter la structure des periodes calculees (ou observees) en termes des proprietes de structure de l'etoile. Nous presentons aussi les outils numeriques tout a fait originaux utilises pour calculer nos periodes a partir de modeles stellaires. Finalement, nous presentons les resultats d'ensemble de l'analyse de nos modeles, et discutons de l'interpretation des observations de periodes et du taux de variation de ces periodes en termes de structure de l'etoile et de composition du noyau de l'etoile, respectivement. Ces resultats representent l'etude la plus complete a ce jour de la seismologie des naines blanches.

  19. La modelisation mathematique dans l'enseignement de la chimie des gaz a des eleves de la cinquieme annee du secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Diane

    Les problemes d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz parfaits sont donc importants. Si plusieurs etudes ont ete realisees dans le but d'identifier et d'interpreter ces problemes, aucune recherche, a notre connaissance, n'a ete realisee sur l'enseignement des lois sur les gaz parfaits. Notre recherche sur l'enseignement est donc pionniere. Elle a pour objectif general de construire et d'analyser une sequence d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz comportant diverses situations de modelisation mathematique des conduites des gaz. Les principaux objectifs specifiques sont les suivants: (1) identifier et caracteriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des conceptions naives des eleves, evolution vers des connaissances plus adequate sur les gaz; (2) identifier et caractEriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des connaissances mathematiques des eleves leur permettant d'interpreter convenablement les resultats des experiences, d'eprouver leurs conceptions, de donner un sens aux notions et aux relations impliquees dans les lois des gaz parfaits, lois de Boyle-Mariotte et Gay-Lussac. Une sequence d'enseignement comportant huit situations est d'eleves de secondaire V. La construction de ces situations est orientee par les recherches sur les conceptions naives des eleves, par les etudes sur l'evolution historique des conceptions sur les gaz et des pratiques scientifiques, ainsi que par les etudes theoriques et empiriques realisees en didactique des sciences et des mathematiques. La methodologie de l'ingenierie didactique (Artigue, 1998) qui constitue une application de la theorie des situations didactiques (Brousseau, 1986) est utilisee dans la construction et l'analyse des situations d'enseignement. Une analyse a priori de chacune des situations d'enseignement est effectuee; elle a pour but dexpliquer les choix des taches qui font partie des situations et de preciser la gestion didactique des situations. Diverses situations d'enseignement de la chimie ont ainsi

  20. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    La presente these, qui combine des mesures de diffusion Raman, de transmission infrarouge, de conductivite hyperfrequence et d'interferometrie ultrasonore sur les composes Nd 2-xCexCuO 4, traite des defauts d'oxygene, ainsi que des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques de ces materiaux. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus sont correles avec plusieurs donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature. D'abord, la caracterisation des modes Raman et des niveaux d'energie de champ cristallin de l'ion Nd3+ au moyen de techniques optiques, en fonction du dopage en cerium et du contenu en oxygene, permettent de conclure a la presence de defauts lies a une non-stoechiometrie en oxygene dans ces composes. En effet, des excitations de champ cristallin assignees a des ions Nd3+ en sites irreguliers sont observees, en plus des bandes d'absorption associees aux ions Nd3+ en site regulier, dans les spectres correspondant aux multiplets 4I11/2, 4I13/2 et 4I 15/2 de l'ion Nd3+. Les resultats experimentaux indiquent que, contrairement a la croyance largement repandue, les oxygenes apicaux, bien que presents dans les echantillons dopes, ne sont pas enleves lors du processus de reduction des echantillons necessaire pour faire apparaitre la supraconductivite dans cette famille de cuprates. Au contraire, des lacunes d'oxygene, dont le type varie en fonction du dopage, sont creees lors de ce processus. En particulier, il est montre dans ce travail que la reduction des echantillons dopes de maniere optimale conduit a la creation de lacunes d'oxygene dans les plans CuO2. Les consequences de telles lacunes sont largement discutees. En outre, il est suggere que de telles lacunes sont responsables de la perte de l'ordre antiferromagnetique a longue portee des ions Cu2+. Finalement, l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans le compose nondope est caracterisee au moyen de la transmission infrarouge sous champ magnetique. L'eclatement des doublets de Kramers mesure

  1. Etude des chaines de spins par les methodes de la theorie quantique des champs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dave

    Notre etude porte sur la chaine de spins en zigzag avec dimerisation dans le cas des spins 1/2 et 1. L'echelle de spin ordinaire et la chaine en zigzag simple en sont des cas particuliers. Dans la limite continue, ces systemes sont decrits par des modeles Wess-Zumino-Witten couples. Afin de pouvoir calculer les fonctions de correlation, nous exposons differentes equivalences quantiques permettant de simplifier les calculs. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1/2, nous demontrons l'equivalence avec un modele de type Gross-Neveu, en fonction de fermions de Majorana; ces fermions decrivent alors les excitations elementaires du systeme. Nous exposons une vision classique de ces excitations afin de voir les mecanismes de confinement des spinons. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1, l'etude est plus complexe. Nous pouvons decrire le systeme a l'aide de modeles sine-Gordon perturbes par de nombreuses interactions. En se limitant aux plus importantes, nous pouvons expliquer le comportement du gap en fonction du couplage interchaine observe numeriquement.

  2. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  3. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  4. 75 FR 63714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing bridge across Des Allemands Bayou, mile 14.0, in St. Charles and... INFORMATION: The Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing span drawbridge across Bayou Des Allemands, mile... tows, fishing vessels and recreational craft. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway requested...

  5. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  6. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439 Section 117.439 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439 Section 117.439 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439 Section 117.439 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439 Section 117.439 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439 Section 117.439 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The...

  11. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  15. Anisotropie des coefficients de diffusion dans des cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Gharbia, M.; Gharbi, A.

    1994-06-01

    The diffusion constants of dyes in several hexagonal discotic liquid crystals are measured and discussed. For all the liquid crystals studied, these constants are anisotropic : the diffusion in the direction parallel to the columns is faster than that in the perpendicular plane (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). The effects of the length and shape of the chains bound to the triphenylene discs are shown. The effect of the dye molecular size is also described. The study of the diffusion coefficients of hexapentoxytriphenylene (C5HET) as a function of temperature has shown that the activation energies along the columns and perpendicular to the columns are comparable. The main features of dye diffusion in the hexagonal columnar liquid crystals studied are similar to those reported in nematic phases. Les mesures des constantes de diffusion de colorants dans plusieurs cristaux liquides discotiques hexagonaux sont présentées et discutées. Pour tous les cristaux liquides étudiés, ces constantes présentent une anisotropie, avec une diffusion plus rapide parallèlement aux colonnes que perpendiculairement à celles-ci (frac{D_allel}{D_perp}>1). Des effets de longueur et de forme des chaînes branchées sur les disques de triphénylène sont mis en évidence. Il en est de même pour la taille des molécules de colorants. L'étude en fonction de la température a montré que dans le cas de l'hexapentoxytriphénylène (C5HET), les énergies d'activation dans les directions parallèle et perpendiculaire aux colonnes sont comparables. Les caractéristiques de la diffusion de colorants dans les cristaux liquides colonnaires hexagonaux étudiés sont semblables à celles des nématiques.

  16. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  17. Familial aspects of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dawood, K; Pillard, R C; Horvath, C; Revelle, W; Bailey, J M

    2000-04-01

    Research has generally supported the existence of familial-genetic factors for male sexual orientation, but has not shed much light on the specific nature of those influences. Gay men with gay brothers provide the opportunity to examine several hypotheses. Sixty-six men, representing 37 gay male sibling pairs, completed questionnaires assessing behavior on various measures including childhood and adult gender nonconformity, timing of awareness of homosexual feelings, self-acceptance, and the quality of family relationships. Consistent with prior findings using twins, gay brothers were similar in their degree of childhood gender non-conformity, suggesting that this variable may distinguish etiologically (e.g., genetically) heterogeneous subtypes. The large majority of gay men with brothers knew about their own homosexual feelings before they learned about their brothers' homosexual feelings, suggesting that discovery of brothers' homosexuality is not an important cause of male homosexuality.

  18. Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Waguih William; Berman, Daniel S; Peters, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Introduction. This is a case report on male anorgasmia that was successfully treated with oxytocin. Oxytocin is increased during arousal and peaks during orgasm. More recently, a study on humans published in Nature has shown its value in social bonding, increasing trust, and enhancing the sense of well-being. Aim. To test the effectiveness of administering oxytocin in a case of treatment-resistant anorgasmia. Methods. The patient underwent a biopsychosocial evaluation by a psychiatrist trained in sexual medicine and sex therapy for male orgasmic disorder, acquired type. Medical conditions, effect of substances, and psychological issues were ruled out. The patient was properly consented to using oxytocin as an off-label trial. Oxytocin was administered using a nasal spray intracoitally because of its ultra-short half-life. Results. Oxytocin was effective in restoring ejaculation. Conclusions. A case of treatment-resistant male anorgasmia was successfully treated with intracoital administration of intranasal oxytocin.

  19. Age and male erectile responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Solnick, R L; Birren, J E

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine (1) the difference in the rate of penile circumference increase per unit time between a group of young and a group of old normal males when exposed to the same erotic movie and (2) the correlation coefficient between penile shaft temperature increase and penile circumference increase. Ten males aged 19-30 years and ten males aged 48-65 years served as subjects. Each subject placed a thermistor and strain gauge on his penis and both outputs were recorded simultaneously on a two-channel recorder. The younger group responded at an erection rate 5.8 times faster than that of the older group. The correlation coefficient, based on the percent approach to oral temperature (98.6 degrees F) and the percent increase in penile circumference, was 0.75.

  20. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  1. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  2. Male contraception: history and development.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception.

  3. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  4. Male genital trauma in sports.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  5. Fertility regulation in the male

    PubMed Central

    de Kretser, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of research into new methods of male contraception is reviewed, with special emphasis on the efforts of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. The article concentrates mainly on the development of orally administered or injectable substances capable of either (a) interfering with the hormonal control of testicular function, (b) disrupting spermatogenesis by direct influence on testis function, or (c) interfering with the fertilizing ability of the sperm and their transport. It is concluded that, despite the numerous areas of research currently being pursued, the availability of a new male contraceptive remains several years away. PMID:308403

  6. Mammary Malignancy in The Male

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Leslie L.; Benninghoff, David L.; Camiel, Mortimer R.; Medina, Antonio

    1978-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma in the male, a relatively uncommon disease, represents about 0.9 to 1.5 percent of all breast cancers. 1,2 The authors reviewed 16 cases of male breast cancer seen in a 30-year period at the State University of New York, Kings County Hospital Medical Center in Brooklyn, and the North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset. Epidemiology, etiology, demography, signs and symptoms, management, and prognosis are discussed. A review of pertinent literature is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:722829

  7. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries.

  8. Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Guy

    Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est

  9. Modelisation microstructurale en fatigue/fluage a froid des alliages de titane quasi alpha par le modele des automates cellulaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutana, Mohammed Nabil

    Les proprietes d'emploi des alliages de titane sont extremement dependantes a certains aspects des microstructures developpees lors de leur elaboration. Ces microstructures peuvent etre fortement heterogenes du point de vue de leur orientation cristallographique et de leur repartition spatiale. Leurs influences sur le comportement du materiau et son endommagement precoce sont des questions qui sont actuellement soulevees. Dans le present projet de doctorat on chercher a repondre a cette question mais aussi de presenter des solutions tangibles quant a l'utilisation securitaire de ces alliages. Un nouveau modele appele automate cellulaire a ete developpe pour simuler le comportement mecanique des alliages de titane en fatigue-fluage a froid. Ces modeles ont permet de mieux comprendre la correlation entre la microstructure et le comportement mecanique du materiau et surtout une analyse detaillee du comportement local du materiau. Mots-cles: Automate cellulaire, fatigue/fluage, alliage de titane, inclusion d'Eshelby, modelisation

  10. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  11. Management of male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggested for early postoperative and mild incontinence. For surgical treatment the artificial urinary sphincter is still labeled the gold standard despite the introduction of several more minimally invasive treatments. However, as yet there is no consensus on the optimal timing and best modality for managing these men. Well designed, centrally funded clinical trials are required to establish which treatment modality to offer and when in the broad spectrum of male incontinence. This review focuses mainly on the management of post-prostatectomy incontinence since the management of other types varies little from the modalities of treatment in women. PMID:20877603

  12. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-02

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  13. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  14. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the subject of risk assessment in male reproductive toxicology. After providing an overview of the risk assessment process, laboratory test protocols, including those specified by EPA and used by NIEHS are summarized and discussed in detail with respect to t...

  16. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, Michael P. . E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov; Liu Jie; Ward, Jerrold M.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2006-09-15

    Pregnant CD1 mice received 85 ppm arsenite in the drinking water from gestation day 8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 {mu}g/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 {mu}g/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 weeks. Arsenic alone increased hepatocellular carcinoma (14%), adenoma (23%) and total tumors (31%) compared to control (0, 2 and 2%, respectively). Arsenic alone also increased lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortical adenoma and renal cystic tubular hyperplasia compared to control. Compared to arsenic alone, arsenic plus DES increased liver tumor incidence in mice at risk 2.2-fold and increased liver tumor multiplicity (tumors/liver) 1.8-fold. The treatments alone did not impact urinary bladder carcinogenesis, but arsenic plus TAM significantly increased formation of urinary bladder transitional cell tumors (papilloma and carcinoma; 13%) compared to control (0%). Urinary bladder proliferative lesions (combined tumors and hyperplasia) were also increased by arsenic plus TAM (40%) or arsenic plus DES (43%) compared to control (0%) or the treatments alone. Urinary bladder proliferative lesions occurred in the absence of any evidence of uroepithelial cytotoxic lesions. Urinary bladder lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by arsenic plus TAM and/or DES overexpressed estrogen receptor-{alpha}, indicating that aberrant estrogen signaling may have been a factor in the enhanced carcinogenic response. Thus, in male CD1 mice, gestational arsenic exposure alone induced liver adenoma and carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal adenoma and renal cystic hyperplasia. Furthermore, DES enhanced transplacental arsenic-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In utero arsenic also initiated urinary bladder tumor formation when followed by postnatal TAM and uroepithelial proliferative lesions when followed by TAM or DES.

  17. Males adjust their signalling behaviour according to experience of male signals and male-female signal duets.

    PubMed

    Rebar, D; Rodríguez, R L

    2016-04-01

    Sexual signals are conspicuous sources of information about neighbouring competitors, and species in which males and females signal during pair formation provide various sources of public information to which individuals can adjust their behaviour. We performed two experiments with a duetting vibrational insect, Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), to ask whether males adjust their signalling behaviour according to (1a) their own experience of competitors' signals, (1b) how females adjust their mate preferences on the basis of their experience of male signals (described in prior work), and/or (2) their own experience of female response signals to competitors' signals. We presented males with synthetic male signals of different frequencies and combinations thereof for 2 weeks. We recorded males a day after their last signal exposure, finding that (1a) male signal rate increased in response to experience of attractive competitors, but that (1b) male signal frequency did not shift in a manner consistent with how females adjust their mate preferences in those experience treatments. Second, we presented males with different male-female duets for 2 weeks, finding that (2) male signal length increased from experience of female duets with attractive competitors. Males thus make two types of adjustment according to two sources of public information: one provided by experience of male signals and another by experience of female responses to male signals. Signalling plasticity can generate feedback loops between the adjustments that males and females make, and we discuss the potential consequences of such feedback loops for the evolution of communication systems.

  18. Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Steven R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)

  19. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  20. Annual Program Management Report 1989: Des Moines Recreational River and Greenbelt, Des Moines River, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Rock Island District EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The General Design Memorandum (GDM) and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Des Moines...River and Greenbelt Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. 40 Recommended for Preoaration of Feature Design Memoranda Bellville Overlook Sever...of the dam and lake is a wasteful expenditure of public money and would have extreme adverse impact on the environment in the area. The area is now

  1. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  2. Des agents de santé communautaires pour la promotion de la santé des pasteurs nomades au Mali.

    PubMed

    Ag Ahmed, Mohamed Ali

    2016-12-01

    Au Mali, les nomades (des Maures, Touaregs et Peulhs) représentent environ 1,25 million de personnes. Les services de santé leur sont peu accessibles en raison de leur mobilité, liée à leur activité d'élevage. La question que se posent plusieurs intervenants en santé publique des pays où vivent ces nomades est de savoir comment améliorer leur santé. Dans ce commentaire, après un bref exposé des problèmes liés à l'accès aux services de santé, nous proposons une approche innovante et holistique de la santé, qui soutient que des agents de santé communautaires (ASC) pourraient contribuer à améliorer la santé des nomades en offrant conjointement des services de santé aux nomades et à leurs animaux (le concept « One Health » [d'Une Seule Santé]). Des pistes de réflexion sont dégagées, quant aux principaux défis pour leur efficacité et durabilité, qui sont la conception et gestion du programme, leur soutien par les communautés et leur intégration aux services de santé publique et vétérinaire.

  3. Evaluation des connaissances des parents sur les bronchiolites aiguës

    PubMed Central

    Gueddari, Widad; Tazi, Abderrahmane; Ouardi, Amine; Nani, Samira; Zineddine, Abdelhadi

    2014-01-01

    Les infections respiratoires (IR) constituent la deuxième cause de mortalité infantile au Maroc, dû en partie à l'absence d'information et de sensibilisation. Le but de ce travail était d’évaluer les connaissances des parents sur la bronchiolite aiguë, infection respiratoire très fréquente. Nous avons réalisé une enquête basée sur un questionnaire, auprès de parents de nourrissons consultants pour toux, avec ou sans gêne respiratoire. 180 parents ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les parents pensaient que l'infection respiratoire était secondaire au climat froid (96%); seuls 4% ont évoqué une origine infectieuse. Aucun des parents ne savait que le lavage des mains était un moyen de prévention de la transmission. Les parents ont majoritairement répondu que la kinésithérapie respiratoire ne servait à rien (65%), et qu'elle était nocive (24.5%). Ce manque de connaissances fondamentales en matière d'IR et de bronchiolite en particulier, devrait inciter à entreprendre un programme de sensibilisation PMID:25328606

  4. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  5. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  6. Male vs. female mediated teratogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.

  7. Endocrinology of the Aging Male

    PubMed Central

    Wittert, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of the aging male is complex, with multiple hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis interacting with one another in feedback. As men age, there is a small and progressive (not precipitous, as in women) decline in several sex hormones, in particular testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and related increases in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The importance of these changes is wide-ranging because of the ubiquitous role of sex hormones in male physiology. This chapter discusses the endocrinology of the aging male. We provide an overview of the regulation of the HPT axis with an emphasis on the changes that occur with aging and the measurement of gonadal steroids, including hormone pulsatility, within-subject and circadian variations. The difficulties of assessing the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism are highlighted. There is a comprehensive discussion of the epidemiology of sex hormone changes, including their age associations, prevalence of symptomatic hypogonadism, secular changes, risk factors, and the association of sex hormones with outcomes. PMID:21397200

  8. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  9. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  10. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  11. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index. Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases PMID:28079813

  12. Modélisation des boucles d'immunisation magnétique des navires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dorze, F.; Bongiraud, J. P.; Coulomb, J. L.; Meunier, G.; Brunotte, X.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents the problem of the three-dimensional modeling of degaussing coils in ships with a finite elements method. We show that these current coils are so close to the ferromagnetic sheets of the ship that they require a local very fine mesh which would be unrealistic for the whole complex structure of a real ship. We propose an alternative to the expensive mesh refinement called "reduced scalar potential jump”. The idea is to previously solve the local problem by another method and to use the result in the whole FEM modelling. We present the method of implementation in the FEM software FLUX3D and comparative results on a simple geometry. Cet article présente le problème de la modélisation en trois dimensions des boucles d'immunisation des navires par la méthode des éléments finis. Nous montrons que ces boucles de courant sont si proches des tôles ferromagnétiques du navire que leur modélisation requiert un maillage localement très fin, ce qui est irréaliste pour la structure complexe d'un navire réel. Nous proposons une alternative à ce coûteux affinage du maillage, appelée "saut de potentiel réduit”. L'idée est de résoudre au préalable le problème local par une autre méthode que les éléments finis et d'utiliser le résultat dans la modélisation globale. Nous présentons la méthode utilisée pour l'implantation de cette technique dans le logiciel d'éléments finis FLUX3D, et des résultats comparatifs sur une géométrie simple.

  13. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  14. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Geoffrey K; Walton, Kelsey L; Merriman, Jacob O; Salmon, Mark V; Brooks, Krista M; Maddula, Swathi; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Male-male courtship is infrequent among mature adult Drosophila melanogaster. After pairs of mature adult males expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were treated at a restrictive temperature, however, they engaged in elevated levels of male-male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females, but were not courted by wildtype males. These results suggest that the ecdysone steroid hormone system may have a role in courtship initiation by adult male fruit flies.

  15. 2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, Collection de Dessins Distribues aus eleves, (n.d. and no place), ORIGINAL FINK TRUSS BRIDGE, 1852. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Fairmont Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Fairmont, Marion County, WV

  16. Le syndrome des enfants battus: aspects cliniques et radiologiques

    PubMed Central

    Jlalia, Zied; Znaigui, Talel; Smida, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de 75.000 décès par an en France. Ce problème de santé publique reste sous diagnostiqué en Tunisie et dans le monde. Le chemin a été laborieux pour la reconnaissance du syndrome des enfants battus dans certaines sociétés même occidentales. Nous avons voulus exposer ce problème aux praticiens afin qu'il soit mieux diagnostiqué et pris en charge. La maltraitance physique des enfants est appelée à tort syndrome de Silverman qui ne regroupe en fait que les lésions squelettiques chez ces enfants tels que les fractures. Mots clés: Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID:27642408

  17. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  18. RadNet Air Data From Des Moines, IA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Des Moines, IA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  20. Quantification des besoins en intrants antipaludiques: contribution à l'actualisation des hypothèses pour la quantification des intrants de prise en charge des cas de paludisme grave en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Likwela, Joris Losimba; Otokoye, John Otshudiema

    2015-01-01

    Les formes graves de paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum sont une cause majeure de décès des enfants de moins de 5 ans en Afrique Sub-saharienne. Un traitement rapide dépend de la disponibilité de médicaments appropriés au niveau des points de prestation de service. La fréquence des ruptures de stock des commodités antipaludiques, en particuliers celles utilisées pour le paludisme grave, avait nécessité une mise à jour des hypothèses de quantification. Les données issues de la collecte de routine du PNLP de 2007 à 2012 ont été comparées à celles rapportés par d'autres pays africains et utilisées pour orienter les discussions au cours d'un atelier organisé par le PNLP et ses partenaires techniques et financiers afin de dégager un consensus national. La proportion des cas de paludisme rapportés comme grave en RDC est resté autour d'une médiane de 7% avec un domaine de variation de 6 à 9%. Hormis la proportion rapportée au Kenya (2%), les pays africains ont rapporté une proportion de cas grave variant entre 5 et 7%. Il apparaît que la proportion de 1% précédemment utilisée pour la quantification en RDC a été sous-estimée dans le contexte de la gestion des cas graves sur terrain. Un consensus s'est dégagé autour de la proportion de 5% étant entendu que des efforts de renforcement des capacités seraient déployés afin d'améliorer le diagnostic au niveau des points de prestation des services. PMID:26213595

  1. Male-male and male-female aggression may influence mating associations in wild octopuses (Abdopus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Huffard, Christine L; Caldwell, Roy L; Boneka, Farnis

    2010-02-01

    Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity.

  2. Cout de Maintenance et Duree de Vie des Turbomoteurs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014136 TITLE: Cout de Maintenance et Duree de Vie des Turbomoteurs...termes op~rationnels et de gestion de flotte moteurs en service, il est cofiteux. Communication prisentge lors dit sYmiposium RTO A UTsur (f Les...macanismes vieillissants et le contrrle: Partie B - Le suivi et la gestion des turbomoteurs en vue Ai prolongement de leur durae de vie et de la

  3. Fehlertoleranzanalyse des FlexRay Startup-Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünte, Sven; Milbredt, Paul

    Die PlexfiRay-Prozeduren Wakeup und Startup sollen eine konsistent-synchrone Kommunikation bezüglich eines TDMA verwandten Verfuhrens herstellen. Beide Algorithmen werden in dieser Arbeit ubstrukt modelliert und mit Hilfe des Model Checkers SPIN bezüglich Terminierung analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in bestimmten Fehlerszenarios die Verwendung von Central Bus Guardians, die Clusterkonfiguration und das Verhalten des Hosts darüber entscheiden, ob Fehlertoleranz und Laufzeitbeschränkungen garantiert werden können.

  4. The Basic Physical Mechanism for Disconnection Events(DEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    2004-11-01

    Disconnection Events (DEs) are arguably the most dramatic phenomena in cometary physics. The entire plasma tail disconnects from the head, and image sequences have been available for approximately one century. Many details were known to Barnard (1899, 1908, 1920) and his contemporaries. Modern DE studies began with the rediscovery of the phenomena by Niedner & Brandt (1978) and their proposal that the physical mechanism was the severing of the magnetic field lines by magnetic reconnection at crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). While many areas of investigation-direct spacecraft observations (Niedner & Schwingenschuh 1987; Verigin et al. 1987; Kirsch et al. 1989); associations of DEs with solar-wind features (Niedner & Brandt 1979; Yi et al. 1994; Brandt et al. 1999); and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of DEs (Yi et al. 1996)-strongly supported this physical mechanism, areas of concern or disagreement remained (e.g., Farnham & Meech 1994; Wegmann 1995, 1998, 2000). Recent results seem to resolve the problems in all areas. The associations of DEs with solar-wind features have been extensively reinvestigated (Niedner et al. 2005). In particular, many high-speed streams are not associated with the HCS (as many as 40%) and these high-speed streams are definitely not associated with DEs. Finally, Konz et al. (2004) have reproduced DEs at crossings of the HCS using plasma-neutral gas simulations with anomalous resistivity. The new evidence strongly confirms the sunward, magnetic reconnection physical mechanism proposed by Niedner & Brandt (1978).

  5. Zur Biologie des marinen Heterotardigraden Tetrakentron synaptae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The life cycle of Tetrakentron synaptae Cuénot, 1892, a tardigrade closely associated with the sea cucumber Leptosynapta galliennei Herapath, was investigated in the littoral zone at Roscoff (France). Eggs and juveniles were found only in June and July, adults only from May to October. There are vagile males and stationary dwarf males. The dorsoventrally flattened body, an enlarged slimy epicuticle in females and dwarf males, the full set of claws also in juveniles, and the anus, which is in a dorsocaudal position, are indicative for an epizoic, sessile life. There is strong evidence that T. synaptae punctures the cells of L. galliennei and sucks out their content, which is indicative of parasitism.

  6. Identification et prise en charge des femmes ayant des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les meilleures données portant sur les stratégies d’identification et de prise en charge des femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur PubMed à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management et magnetic resonance imaging screening, entre 2000 et 2016. La plupart des données sont de niveau II. Message principal Une bonne anamnèse familiale est essentielle lors de l’évaluation du risque de cancer du sein afin d’identifier les femmes qui sont candidates à une recommandation en counseling génétique pour un éventuel test génétique. On peut sauver des vies en offrant aux femmes porteuses d’une mutation au gène BRCA des interventions chirurgicales de réduction des risques (mastectomie bilatérale prophylactique, salpingo-ovariectomie bilatérale). Il faut encourager toutes les femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein à demeurer actives et à limiter leur consommation d’alcool à moins de 1 verre par jour; certaines femmes sont admissibles à la chimioprévention. Il faut offrir aux femmes dont le risque à vie de cancer du sein est de 20 à 25 % ou plus un dépistage poussé par imagerie par résonance magnétique en plus d’une mammographie. Conclusion Une vie saine et la chimioprévention (chez les candidates) pourraient réduire l’incidence du cancer du sein; le dépistage poussé pourrait entraîner une détection plus précoce. Le fait d’aiguiller des femmes porteuses d’une mutation au BRCA vers la chirurgie de réduction des risques sauve des vies. PMID:27737991

  7. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  8. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  9. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  10. [Le leadership en santé et l'éthique de la gestion des attentes des soignants et des patients].

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister

    2016-03-01

    Les dispensateurs de soins et les patients sont souvent déçus du niveau de soins que les hôpitaux publics peuvent prodiguer. La solution consiste à réduire les attentes. Les dispensateurs devraient être amenés à considérer que leur obligation consiste à prodiguer les meilleurs soins en fonction des ressources. Le public devrait être bien informé des services que les hôpitaux de soins actifs peuvent ou non lui offrir et participer aux prises de décision. Les leaders en santé peuvent jouer des rôles novateurs à cet égard.

  11. Technical Evaluation Report on the Guidance and Control Panel 53rd Symposium on Air Vehicle Mission Control and Management (La Gestion et le Controle des Missions des Vehicules Aeriens)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    d’importance dans le guidage et le pilotage des vehicules aeriens. Les developpements dans ce domaine representent des contributions d’une importance...d’un vehicule non-pilots. fonctionner en mode automatique. Les communications techniques ont examine les realisations et les tendances actuelles dans...le domaine de la gestion des missions des vehicules aeriens, presente !’tat de I’art et propos, des solutions technologiques pour la conception des

  12. Rôle des hyrates dans la formation de Titan et des satellites réguliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.

    2001-12-01

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude de l'origine de Titan et de son atmosphere. Dans l'hypothese ou la subnebuleuse de Saturne etait geometriquement mince, le modele de disque turbulent utilise, derive des travaux de Dubrulle (1993), est moins dense que le modele de Prinn et Fegley (1981). De ce fait, les conversions de Co en CH4 et de N2 en NH3 ont ete inhibees dans la subnebuleuse, contrairement a ce qui est couramment admis pour interpreter la presence du methane dans l'atmosphere de Titan. C'est pourquoi nous avons developpe un nouveau scenario de la formation de titan, qui tient compte simultanement des contraintes resultant de la chimie de la subnebuleuse et des abondances de CH4, N2 et CH3D mesurees dans l'atmosphere du satellite. Nous faisons l'hypothese que ces gaz proviennent initialement de la vaporisation du nuage presolaire, qui s'effondra et forma le Soleil et son disque environnant. Lors du refroidissement de la nebuleuse, les volatils auraient ete pieges sous formes de clathrates d'hydrates dans les grains, puis dans les planetesimaux qu'ils formerent. Les planetesimaux hydrates a l'origine de la formation de Titan seraient alors des rescapes de l'effondrement hydsrodynamique de la feeding zone de Saturne. Ce scenario a ete applique aux subnebuleuses de Jupiter et d'Uranus, et a apporte un certain nombre de contraintes sur la formation des satellites reguliers de ces planetes. Le temps et la zone de formation des grains cometaires ont egalement ete estimes dans la nebuleuse solaire. Enfin, l'etude experimentale de la temperature de fusion du dihydrate d'ammoniac dans la gamme des hautes pressions a apporte des nouvelles donnees thermodynamiques qui permettront d'ameliorer les modeles de l'interieur de Titan.

  13. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus

  14. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences (RTO-MP-IST-086...contre-terrorisme, de sécurité nationale/publique et de réponse collective face aux situations d’urgence (à la fois gestion des crises et gestion de leurs

  15. Reconnaissance optique des formes en parallele utilisant des reseaux de neurones et une mire de reduction de dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Philippe

    Cette recherche vise à la mise en OEuvre optique de la reconnaissance des images en utilisant une mire d'anneaux afin de générer des vecteurs caractéristiques qui seront ensuite classifiés par un réseau de neurones. On proposera deux architectures originales: une qui permettra la reconnaissance invariante sous rotation en utilisant un corrélateur conjoint; l'autre montage permettra une classification en parallèle de plusieurs images grâce à la capacité des mires d'anneaux de compresser l'information. Ce dernier montage est basé sur un corrélateur 4F. On présentera des résultats optiques expérimentaux pour ces deux montages. Pour arriver à des résultats concluants on analysera le comportement des vecteurs obtenus à partir d'une mire d'anneaux, on introduira une règle d'apprentissage optimisant le pic de corrélation en réduisant les pics parasites et on corrigera à l'aide d'un algorithme génétique les modulations de phases générées par le modulateur spatial à cristaux liquides.

  16. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  17. Visual perception of male body attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Liu, F; Wu, J

    2005-02-07

    Based on 69 scanned Chinese male subjects and 25 Caucasian male subjects, the present study showed that the volume height index (VHI) is the most important visual cue to male body attractiveness of young Chinese viewers among the many body parameters examined in the study. VHI alone can explain ca. 73% of the variance of male body attractiveness ratings. The effect of VHI can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal VHI at 17.6 l m(-2) and 18.0 l m(-2) for female raters and male raters, respectively. In addition to VHI, other body parameters or ratios can have small, but significant effects on male body attractiveness. Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness.

  18. Neural circuitry coordinating male copulation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlou, Hania J; Lin, Andrew C; Neville, Megan C; Nojima, Tetsuya; Diao, Fengqiu; Chen, Brian E; White, Benjamin H; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation. This sexually dimorphic circuit composed of three neuronal classes – motor neurons, interneurons and mechanosensory neurons – controls the mechanics of copulation. By correlating the connectivity, function and activity of these neurons we have determined the logic for how this circuitry is coordinated to generate this male-specific behavior, and sets the stage for a circuit-level dissection of active sensing and modulation of copulatory behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20713.001 PMID:27855059

  19. Male contraception: expanding reproductive choice.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, M

    2005-11-01

    The development of steroid-based oral contraceptives had revolutionized the availability of contraceptive choice for women. In order to expand the contraceptive options for couples by developing an acceptable, safe and effective male contraceptive, scientists have been experimenting with various steroidal/non-steroidal regimens to suppress testicular sperm production. The non-availability of a long-acting androgen was a limiting factor in the development of a male contraceptive regimen since all currently tested anti-spermatogenic agents also concurrently decrease circulating testosterone levels. A combination regimen of long-acting progestogen and androgen would have advantage over an androgen-alone modality since the dose of androgen required would be much smaller in the combination regimen, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of high steroid load. The progestogen in the combination regimen would act as the primary anti-spermatogenic agent. Currently, a number of combination regimens using progestogen or GnRH analogues combined with androgen are undergoing trials. The side effects of long-term use of androgens and progestogens have also undergone evaluation in primate models and the results of these studies need to be kept in view, while considering steroidal regimens for contraceptive use in men. Efforts are also being made to popularize non-scalpel vasectomy and to develop condoms of greater acceptability. The development of contraceptive vaccines for men, using sperm surface epitopes not expressed in female reproductive tract as source, still requires considerable research efforts.

  20. [Overweight and secretory male infertility].

    PubMed

    Oshakbaev, K P; Abylaĭuly, Zh; Dukenbaeva, B A

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a trial with participation of 60 males aged 23-52. Of them, 30 had secretory male iufertility (SMI) and obesity. The control 30 patients were healthy volunteers. The protocol was performed by two stages. Stage 1 included: investigation of a clinico-laboratory status, of correlation between a sorption function of erythrocytes, endogenic metabolic intoxication (EMI) and spermogram parameters, concentration of serum testosterone in SMI patients. Stage 2 consisted in treatment of the intoxication by reducing body mass. All the infertile men were obese; 30% of them had low glucose tolerance, 46.7% had stage 2 hypertension, 23.3%--seasonal allergic symptoms. The level of organic substances on the surface of erythrocytes in infertile men was higher than in the controls (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was seen between spermogram parameters and organic substances content on erythrocytic surface (p < 0/05), concentration of serum testosterone and the above substances (p < 0.01). The loss of fat tissue by 7-14 kg by infertile men resulted in a positive trend in spermogram parameters and the level of serum testosterone (p < 0.01).

  1. Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.

  2. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  3. Nouvelle approche à la prise en charge des condylomes

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire le résumé des anciens et des nouveaux moyens de traitement des verrues génitales ou condylomes et déterminer comment les utiliser de manière appropriée. Sources des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans les bases de données suivantes: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, base de données des synthèses systématiques et registre central des études contrôlées de la Collaboration Cochrane (en anglais), ACP Journal Club et Trip. Les bibliographies des articles extraits ont aussi été examinées. Les études cliniques, les articles de révision qualitative, les rapports consensuels et les guides de pratique clinique ont été retenus. Message principal Les verrues symptomatiques sont présentes chez au moins 1 % des personnes âgées entre 15 et 49 ans et on estime que jusqu’à 50 % des gens sont infectés par le virus du papillome humain à un moment donné de leur vie. L’imiquimod et la podophyllotoxine sont 2 nouveaux traitements pour les verrues génitales externes qui sont moins douloureux et peuvent être appliqués par les patients à la maison. De plus, il a été démontré que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le virus du papillome humain est efficace pour prévenir les condylomes et le cancer du col. Les plus anciennes méthodes thérapeutiques ont aussi leur place dans certaines situations, comme les verrues intravaginales, urétrales, anales ou récalcitrantes ou encore pour les patientes enceintes. Conclusion Les nouveaux traitements des verrues génitales externes peuvent réduire la douleur causée par la thérapie et le nombre de visites au cabinet. Les autres méthodes thérapeutiques demeurent utiles dans certaines situations.

  4. Caractérisation des convertisseurs matriciels : II. Synthèse des fonctions de connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Cambronne, J. P.; Hautier, J. P.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing the wished conversion levels (-1,0,1) of a power converter, this paper describes a particular method for setting the corresponding states of switches into the matrix converter. In a first step, a mathematical analysis establishes the relations linking the states of switches with the conversion functions. Afterwards, the presented method gives the inverse relations which constitute the sequential part of the converter control. The turn-on and the turn-off sequences are designed by considering the on-line wished level conversions. This general method enhances the idea that a converter functionnality must be defined by its structure and its control. Cet article propose une méthode originale pour définir la séquence de commande d'un convertisseur à partir de la fonction de conversion globalement souhaitée. Les auteurs procèdent d'abord à une analyse mathématique précise des relations qui existent entre les états des interrupteurs et les fonctions de conversion obtenues. À partir de cette analyse, la méthode developpée permet d'établir systématiquement les relations inverses qui constituent alors le module séquentiel de la commande rapprochée du convertisseur. Les ordres d'ouverture et de fermeture des interrupteurs sont élaborés en considérant à tout instant les niveaux de conversion souhaités pour les grandeurs électriques. Cette méthode générale renforce l'idée que la fonction remplie par un convertisseur moderne doit être définie à la fois par sa structure et sa commande.

  5. Étude analytique des perturbations solaires des satellites d'Uranus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, C.; Laskar, J.

    1990-12-01

    Ce travail s'insère dans le cadre de la General Uranian Satellites Theory de J. Laskar (1986) et Laskar et Jacobson (1987), qui donne une solution analytique du mouvement des cinq principaux satellites d'Uranus, incluant les perturbations mutuelles et la perturbation due à l'aplatissement de la planète. Les perturbations solaires dont il n'avaient pas été tenu compte dans cette étude ont été calculées pour tous les éléments orbitaux de chaque satellite.

  6. Relations de Dispersion et Diffusion des Glueballs et des Mesons dans la Theorie de Jauge U(1)(2+1) Compacte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chaara El Mouez

    Nous avons etudie les relations de dispersion et la diffusion des glueballs et des mesons dans le modele U(1)_{2+1} compact. Ce modele a ete souvent utilise comme un simple modele de la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), parce qu'il possede le confinement ainsi que les etats de glueballs. Par contre, sa structure mathematique est beaucoup plus simple que la QCD. Notre methode consiste a diagonaliser l'Hamiltonien de ce modele dans une base appropriee de graphes et sur reseau impulsion, afin de generer les relations de dispersion des glueballs et des mesons. Pour la diffusion, nous avons utilise la methode dependante du temps pour calculer la matrice S et la section efficace de diffusion des glueballs et des mesons. Les divers resultats obtenus semblent etre en accord avec les travaux anterieurs de Hakim, Alessandrini et al., Irving et al., qui eux, utilisent plutot la theorie des perturbations en couplage fort, et travaillent sur un reseau espace-temps.

  7. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  8. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  9. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  10. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  11. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  12. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  13. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical

  14. Misexpression of the white (w) gene triggers male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S D; Odenwald, W F

    1995-01-01

    We report here that the general ectopic expression of a tryptophan/guanine transmembrane transporter gene, white (w), induces male-male courtship in Drosophila. Activation of a hsp-70/miniwhite (mini-w) transgene in mature males results in a marked change in their sexual behavior such that they begin to vigorously court other mature males. In transformant populations containing equal numbers of both sexes, most males participate, thus forming male-male courtship chains, circles, and lariats. Mutations that ablate the w transgene function also abolish this inducible behavior. Female sexual behavior does not appear to be altered by ectopic w expression. By contrast, when exposed to an active homosexual courtship environment, non-transformant males alter their behavior and actively participate in the male-male chaining. These findings demonstrate that, in Drosophila, both genetic and environmental factors play a role in male sexual behavior. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777542

  15. Treatment of hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sara; Fuqua, John S; Lee, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures.

  16. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  17. Le role du phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) dans les variations des proprietes optiques des eaux du Saint-Laurent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Sebastien

    Les mesures satellitaires de couleur des oceans sont largement determinees par les proprietes optiques inherentes (IOPs) des eaux de surface. D'autre part, le phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) est le plus souvent dominant dans les oceans, et peut donc etre une source importante de variation des IOPs dans les oceans. Dans ce contexte, le but principal de ce doctorat etait de definir l'impact du phytoplancton (<20 mum) sur les variations des proprietes optiques de l'Estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, il etait necessaire de determiner en milieu controle les facteurs de variabilite des proprietes optiques cellulaires et des IOPs du phytoplancton (<20 mum) des eaux du Saint-Laurent, et d'evaluer la contribution du phytoplancton (<20 mum) aux proprietes optiques totales des eaux du Saint-Laurent. Des experiences en laboratoire ont montre que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques soumises a un cycle jour-nuit, ainsi qu'a des changements concomitants d'intensite lumineuse, peuvent contribuer significativement a la variabilite des proprietes optiques observee en milieu naturel. D'autres experiences ont, quant a elles, mis en evidence que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques dues aux phases de croissance peuvent alterer les IOPs des oceans, particulierement pendant les periodes de floraison. De plus, la presence de bacteries et de particules detritiques peut egalement affecter la variabilite des IOPs totales, notamment la diffusion. Au printemps, dans l'Estuaire et le Golfe du Saint-Laurent, la contribution du phytoplancton <20 mum aux IOPs presentait des differences regionales evidentes pour les proprietes d'absorption et de diffusion. En plus de la variabilite spatiale, les proprietes optiques cellulaires presentaient des variations journalieres, et ce particulierement pour le picophytoplancton. Enfin, la plupart des differences observees dans les

  18. Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskri, Djallel Eddine

    L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol. De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS. Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses.

  19. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  20. Functional rare males in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia.

    PubMed

    Maccari, M; Gómez, A; Hontoria, F; Amat, F

    2013-09-01

    Functional males that are produced occasionally in some asexual taxa - called 'rare males' - raise considerable evolutionary interest, as they might be involved in the origin of new parthenogenetic lineages. Diploid parthenogenetic Artemia produce rare males, which may retain the ability to mate with females of related sexual lineages. Here, we (i) describe the frequency of male progeny in populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, (ii) characterize rare males morphologically, (iii) assess their reproductive role, using cross-mating experiments with sexual females of related species from Central Asia and characterize the F1 hybrid offspring viability and (iv) confirm genetically both the identity and functionality of rare males using DNA barcoding and microsatellite loci. Our result suggests that these males may have an evolutionary role through genetic exchange with related sexual species and that diploid parthenogenetic Artemia is a good model system to investigate the evolutionary transitions between sexual species and parthenogenetic strains.

  1. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future.

  2. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus.

  3. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  4. Regles de fusion en theorie des champs conformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begin, Luc

    1999-10-01

    Les théories de champs conformes constituent un domaine de recherche très actif avec de nombreuses applications en physique statistique, en matière condensée, en théorie des cordes, en mathématiques, etc. Nous analysons ici le calcul des règles de fusion dans les modèles Wess- Zumino-Witten par des méthodes positives. Les règles de fusion sont des quantités importantes puisqu'elles indiquent comment se combinent les champs primaires de la théorie. L'approche présentée est basée sur l'hypothèse que les règles de fusion sont décrites par un système d'inéquations linéaire et homogène et mène au concept original de «base de fusion». Cette approche simple et générale permet d'utiliser les méthodes combinatoires et de programmation linéaire pour construire les fonctions génératrices et les bases de fusion. Cette méthode permet d'obtenir des résultats originaux et explicites pour les algèbres su (3), su (4) et sp (4).

  5. Electronic Messaging for the 90s (Les Messageries Electroniques des Annees 90)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    cle une importance considdrable, au cette inddpendance support/contenti ntm xiste pas. Au niveati des Etats, des administrations, des entreprises ... financi ~res nature de lVinformation sont tr~s ddpendantes de sa entre detix points tr~s dloignds, tels que New York et chaine de traitement. qui induit tout...principe essenticl de entreprise oti du monde entier. RETRAITABILITE de l’information tout consommateur petit A son tour devenir producteur 1. DES ESPACES

  6. Cue Integration in Dynamic Decision Marking (Integration des indices dans la Prise de Decision Dynamique)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    environnements complexes et dynamiques. La nature complexe et dynamique de differents types d’operations (p. ex., les operations basees sur les...destinees a preparer les commandants et le personnel des etats- majors des Forces canadiennes (FC) a prendre des decisions dans des environnements ...Ia prise de decisions dans les environnements complexes et dynamiques est habituellement designee sous le nom de prise de decisions dynamique (POD

  7. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program…

  8. Influence Operations: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions (Les Dimensions Historiques et Contemporaines des Operations d’Influence)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-31

    entendue dans l’ensemble du discours politique et militaire des praticiens asiatiques des guerres de petite envergure et des théoriciens soviétiques... dividend ” through a reduction of defence spending. Naturally, the latter would have an effect on the nature of the British defence establishment. The

  9. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part.

  10. The craniofacial complex in 47,XYY males.

    PubMed

    Grön, M; Pietilä, K; Alvesalo, L

    1997-08-01

    Eight adult, Finnish 47,XYY males were compared with population male and female controls and, in addition, three of them were compared with first-degree male relatives. Linear and angular measurements were made from standardized lateral cephalograms of patients and normal population controls from the "Kvantti" study series. In both comparisons the craniofacial dimensions in 47,XYY males were larger than those in population male and female controls. Their craniofacial proportions and plane angles were similar to those of normal men except for a larger lower facial height with posterior rotation of the mandible and a tendency to bimaxillary protrusion, a longer cranial base and a lesser cranial-base angle. Thus the supernumerary Y chromosomal gene(s) in 47,XYY males may result in larger craniofacial dimensions than in normal males, without substantial effects on dimensional ratios and plane angles. This general metric pattern is similar to that observed in relation to many adult body and head dimensions, and the dental arches and tooth crowns, of 47,XYY males. The foramen magnum in 47,XYY males was smaller in the sagittal plane than that of normal males and females.

  11. Restauration adaptative des contours par une approche inspiree de la prediction des performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Kami

    En teledetection, les cartes de contours peuvent servir, entre autres choses, a la restitution geometrique, a la recherche d'elements lineaires, ainsi qu'a la segmentation. La creation de ces cartes est faite relativement tot dans la chaine de traitements d'une image. Pour assurer la qualite des operations subsequentes, il faut veiller a obtenir une carte de contours precise. Notre problematique est de savoir s'il est possible de diminuer la perte de temps liee au choix d'algorithme et de parametre en corrigeant automatiquement la carte de contours. Nous concentrerons donc nos efforts sur le developpement d'une methode de detection/restauration de contours adaptative. Notre methode s'inspire d'une technique de prediction des performances d'algorithmes de bas niveau. Elle consiste a integrer un traitement par reseau de neurones a une methode " classique " de detection de contours. Plus precisement, nous proposons de combiner la carte de performances avec la carte de gradient pour permettre des decisions plus exactes. La presente etude a permis de developper un logiciel comprenant un reseau de neurones entraine pour predire la presence de contours. Ce reseau de neurones permet d'ameliorer les decisions de detecteurs de contours, en reduisant le nombre de pixels de fausses alarmes et de contours manques. La premiere etape de ce travail consiste en une methode d'evaluation de performance pour les cartes de contours. Une fois ce choix effectue, il devient possible de comparer les cartes entre elles. Il est donc plus aise de determiner, pour chaque image, la meilleure detection de contours. La revue de la litterature realisee simultanement a permis de faire un choix d'un groupe d'indicateurs prometteurs pour la restauration de contours. Ces derniers ont servi a la calibration et a l'entrainement d'un reseau de neurones pour modeliser les contours. Par la suite, l'information fournie par ce reseau a ete combinee par multiplication arithmetique avec les cartes d

  12. Cytokinesis in plant male meiosis.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-03-01

    In somatic cell division, cytokinesis is the final step of the cell cycle and physically divides the mother cytoplasm into two daughter cells. In the meiotic cell division, however, pollen mother cells (PMCs) undergo two successive nuclear divisions without an intervening S-phase and consequently generate four haploid daughter nuclei out of one parental cell. In line with this, the physical separation of meiotic nuclei does not follow the conventional cytokinesis pathway, but instead is mediated by alternative processes, including polar-based phragmoplast outgrowth and RMA-mediated cell wall positioning. In this review, we outline the different cytological mechanisms of cell plate formation operating in different types of PMCs and additionally focus on some important features associated with male meiotic cytokinesis, including cytoskeletal dynamics and callose deposition. We also provide an up-to-date overview of the main molecular actors involved in PMC wall formation and additionally highlight some recent advances on the effect of cold stress on meiotic cytokinesis in plants.

  13. Cognitive Task Analysis (l’Analyse des taches cognitives)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    pilotage, guidage, gestion de produits chimiques), aujourd’hui, le CTA est principalement utilisé pour des tâches décisionnelles telles que le...adéquation entre les fonctions système et les capacités cognitives humaines (2) optimisation des performances système et de la charge de travail (3...S.E. DGA Etas Division Facteurs Humains Professor Emeritus Cognitive & Neural S&T Division BP 36 Route de Laval The University of Warwick Office of

  14. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    PubMed

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for <1% of all cancers in men, showing an increasing incidence with a peak in the sixth decade. Overall, men experience a worse prognosis than women, probably due to an advanced stage together with the higher age at diagnosis of male patients. Major risk factors for developing male BC include clinical disorders involving hormonal imbalances (excess of estrogen or a deficiency of testosterone as seen in patients with Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  15. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  16. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  17. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  18. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  19. Paget disease of the male nipple.

    PubMed

    El Harroudi, T; Tijami, F; El Otmany, A; Jalil, A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer occurring in the mammary gland of men is infrequent. It accounts for 0.8% of all breast cancers, which is less than one per cent of all newly diagnosed male cancers and 0.2% of male cancer deaths. However, Paget disease of the male nipple is extremely rare. We report a single case of Paget disease with infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 61-year-old man.

  20. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  1. Strategic male mating effort and cryptic male choice in a scorpionfly.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, L; Sauer, K P

    2001-04-07

    In animal species with high male mating effort, males often find themselves in a dilemma: by increasing their mating effort, the gain from each copulation increases but simultaneously reduces available resources and, thus, the opportunity for future copulations. Therefore, we expect males to spend less reproductive resources on matings that provide low reproductive potential, thereby saving resources for future copulations, possibly with high-quality females, a sort of cryptic male choice. However, the strength of the trade-off between investment in a current mating and resources available for future matings must not be the same for all males. Males with relatively high mating costs should allocate their limited resources more cautiously than males with more plentiful resources. Here, we examine this prediction in the scorpionfly Panorpa cognata. Prior to copulation, males produce a large salivary mass on which females feed during copulation. We show that the production of larger salivary masses leads to longer copulations. Moreover, the size of the salivary gland and salivary mass increases with increasing male condition. However, males in poor condition make a relatively higher mating investment than males in good condition. We therefore expect male condition to influence cryptic male choice. In accordance with our hypothesis, only males in poor condition choose cryptically, producing larger salivary masses in copulations with females of high fecundity.

  2. Zur Ätiologie des Mongolismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbichler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Beside the rare cases of translocation mongolism, Down syndrom is caused by meiotic malsegregation of chromosomes No. 21. The meiotic error can take place in both sexes and was found twice as frequently in the female as in the male. The same 2∶1 ratio was found concerning nondisjunction in the first and in the second meiotic division. The rate of meiotic errors, which occur at random, is largely dependent on age; this tendency is more pronounced in oogenesis than in spermatogenesis. The results of prenatal chromosomal diagnosis indicate that the recurrence risk of trisomy 21 is not above the age-dependent average.

  3. Sexually coercive male chimpanzees sire more offspring.

    PubMed

    Feldblum, Joseph T; Wroblewski, Emily E; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Hahn, Beatrice H; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E; Gilby, Ian C

    2014-12-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice, but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female's swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal.

  4. Brood care by male bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sydney A.

    1985-01-01

    Male Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) share in the brood care of nestmates by incubating pupae (usually during the first few days after they emerge as adults). Male posture during incubation of a pupa is identical to that observed for females. Pupae incubated by males were 4°C-6°C above the temperature of unincubated pupae. Although this increase was not as great as that caused by workers or queens, it was an important factor in warming pupae. Incubating males may benefit nestmates incidentally without lowering their own individual fitness. Images PMID:16593608

  5. Modulation of Drosophila male behavioral choice

    PubMed Central

    Certel, Sarah J.; Savella, Mary Grace; Schlegel, Dana C. F.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive and defensive behaviors that are initiated in response to specific sensory cues can provide insight into how choices are made between different social behaviors. We manipulated both the activity and sex of a subset of neurons and found significant changes in male social behavior. Results from aggression assays indicate that the neuromodulator octopamine (OCT) is necessary for Drosophila males to coordinate sensory cue information presented by a second male and respond with the appropriate behavior: aggression rather than courtship. In competitive male courtship assays, males with no OCT or with low OCT levels do not adapt to changing sensory cues and court both males and females. We identified a small subset of neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion region of the adult male brain that coexpress OCT and male forms of the neural sex determination factor, Fruitless (FruM). A single FruM-positive OCT neuron sends extensive bilateral arborizations to the suboesophageal ganglion, the lateral accessory lobe, and possibly the posterior antennal lobe, suggesting a mechanism for integrating multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, eliminating the expression of FruM by transformer expression in OCT/tyramine neurons changes the aggression versus courtship response behavior. These results provide insight into how complex social behaviors are coordinated in the nervous system and suggest a role for neuromodulators in the functioning of male-specific circuitry relating to behavioral choice. PMID:17360588

  6. Codependency in male and female helping professionals.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, D S; Hughes-Hammer, C; Estok, P; Zeller, R A

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the prevalence of codependency in a group of 77 female and a group of 72 male helping professionals. Relatively low rates of codependency were observed in this sample, and the five-factor structure of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) was replicated. Males showed slightly higher codependency than females on the total CODAT and on the Hiding Self and Family of Origin Issues subscales. The CODAT was shown to be relevant to both males and females. Further research is needed to determine if a general population of male and female subjects would yield similar results.

  7. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  8. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  9. Apport des neutrons à l'analyse structurale des composés partiellement désordonnés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousson, A.

    2003-02-01

    La cristallographie est un outil extrêmement puissant qui pourrait être utilisé par de nombreux scientifiques dont les sujets de recherche sont en fait très éloignés. L'évolution des techniques ces dernières années a relégué par exemple la cristallographie des rayons X des petites molécules à un rôle mineur, un rôle de service. Certains ont même le sentiment semble-t-il que toutes les connaissances sont contenues dans de multiples logiciels capables par eux-mêmes de conduire une analyse structurale à un résultat correct unique. Il est souhaitable que chacun soit capable de réaliser l'étude structurale du composé qui l'intéresse et bien entendu nécessaire de comprendre ce que l'on fait, la qualité des résultats et leur analyse en dépend. L'objet de cette présentation est de montrer l'apport spécifique de la diffraction de neutrons sur monocristaux à l'étude du désordre, en particulier des atomes d'hydrogène, et ses conséquences sur la compréhension des propriétés physiques, à partir de développements et d'exemples récents.

  10. Classification of DES16C2nm as a SLSN at z=1.998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Ponder, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES16C2nm as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES16C2nm was discovered in the first epoch of DES Y4, on 22 August 2016 at R.A. = 03:40:14.83, Decl = -29:05:53.5 with i = 23.2 mag. DES16C2nm has a non-detection in the final epoch of DES Y3 on 08 February 2016.

  11. Formation des etoiles massives dans les galaxies spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, Mario

    Le but de cette thèse est de décrire la formation des étoiles massives dans les galaxies spirales appartenant à divers types morphologiques. L'imagerie Hα profonde combinée à une robuste méthode d'identification des régions HII ont permis de détecter et de mesurer les propriétés (position, taille, luminosité, taux de formation d'étoiles) de plusieurs régions HII situées dans le disque interne (R < R25) de dix galaxies mais aussi à leur périphérie (R ≥ R 25). De façon générale, la répartition des régions HII ne montre aucune évidence de structure morphologique à R < R25 (bras spiraux, anneau, barre) à moins de limiter l'analyse aux régions HII les plus grosses ou les plus lumineuses. La répartition des régions HII, de même que leur taille et leur luminosité, sont toutefois sujettes à de forts effets de sélection qui dépendent de la distance des galaxies et qu'il faut corriger en ramenant l'échantillon à une résolution spatiale commune. Les fonctions de luminosité montrent que les régions HII les plus brillantes ont tendance à se former dans la portion interne du disque. De plus, l'analyse des pentes révèle une forte corrélation linéaire par rapport au type morphologique. Aucun pic n'est observé dans les fonctions de luminosité à log L-37 qui révèlerait la transition entre les régions HII bornées par l'ionisation et par la densité. Une relation cubique est obtenue entre la taille et la luminosité des régions HII, cette relation variant toutefois de façon significative entre le disque interne et la périphérie d'une même galaxie. La densité et la dynamique du gaz et des étoiles pourraient influencer de façon significative la stabilité des nuages moléculaires face à l'effondrement gravitationnel. D'une part, l'étendue du disque de régions HII pour cinq galaxies de l'échantillon coïncide avec celle de l'hydrogène atomique. D'autre part, en analysant la stabilité des disques galactiques, on conclue

  12. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  13. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  14. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  15. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  16. The transvestite serpent: why do male garter snakes court (some) other males?

    PubMed

    Shine; Harlow; LeMaster; Moore; Mason

    2000-02-01

    In large mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, in Manitoba, male courtship is directed not only to females, but also to other males with female-like skin lipids ('she-males'). We show that 'she-maleness' is an intrinsic property of a male rather than an artefact of lipid transfer from females, and that male-male courtship is very common in the field. She-males were distinctive in terms of appearance (they were heavier than other males and more often covered with mud), behaviour (they were inactive and rarely courted females) and performance (they were slow crawlers, ineffective courters and easily outcompeted by other males in mating trials). 'She-maleness' was not a characteristic of a particular subset of males, as envisaged in previous work; instead, it was a transitory phase that most (perhaps all) male snakes passed through soon after they first emerged from the winter den. Recently emerged males spent their first day or two relatively inactive, while restoring physiological functions (including locomotor performance and courtship ability). Experimental application of female skin lipids on to males dramatically decreased courtship levels of the recipient snakes. Thus, recently emerged males may derive two kinds of benefit from mimicking female skin lipids. First, female mimicry 'switches off' the male's own (energetically expensive) courtship at a time when that courtship would be unproductive. Second, it may disadvantage his rivals by distracting them from females, and increasing their energy expenditure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Étude par diffraction des rayons X des vernis rouges des sigillées du sud de la Gaule. Les ateliers de la Graufesenque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendier, L.; Sciau, Ph.; Dooryhee, E.

    2002-07-01

    La Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) 1^rst and 2^nd, centuries AC Sigillata red slips have been studied by x-ray diffraction at ESRF and on a conventional diffractometer. Although x-ray diffraction is a non-destructive characterisation technique adapted to surface study, it has not been used so mutch for Sigillata slip characterisation. The poor quality of the slip surface can be an explanation. In this work we demonstrate that it is possible to get good quality diffraction diagrams on 20-120 AC Sigillata slips. The results confirm the productions homogeneity and the hypothesis about a non-local clay used for the slips. On a counterpart, the late (second half of 2^nd century AC) Sigillata study needs because of their crackled surface a high quality beam, which can only be accessible on a synchrotron installation. These productions seems to be more heterogeneous: some Sigillata present similar diffraction diagrams for the slip and ceramic body (same clay?), some others present results similar to the precedent production period ones. Les vernis rouges de poteries sigillées (I^er et II^e siècles) de la Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) ont été étudiés par diffraction des rayons X à la fois à l'ESRF et sur une installation classique de laboratoire. Bien que la diffraction des rayons X soit une technique adaptée à l'étude des surfaces, cette technique a jusqu'à présent assez peu servi dans l'examen de ces objets. Ceci peut en partie s'expliquer par le mauvais état de surface de certains vernis. Dans ce travail, nous montrons que moyennant quelques précautions, il est possible d'obtenir sur une installation classique de bons diffractogranunes des vernis des sigillées datés entre 20 et 120 ap. J.C. Les résultats confirment l'homogénéité de ces productions et l'hypothèse selon laquelle ces vernis n'ont pas été fabriqués à partir des argiles locales du jurassique environnant le site. Par contre, l'étude des sigillées tardives de la deuxième moitié du

  18. Male-male competition leads to less abundant but more attractive sperm.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Males employ complex strategies to optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition; for instance, they can adjust the ejaculate characteristics. In copulating species, a male may also strategically adjust his ejaculate expenditure according to female quality. Quantifying the relative contribution of ejaculate plasticity in male reproductive success is often difficult, especially when females exert postcopulatory cryptic choice. One way to quantify the functional significance of ejaculate plasticity is offered by mating systems in which the reproductive partners do not meet each other during insemination. In the collembolan Orchesella cincta, males deposit their ejaculates (spermatophores) irrespective of the presence of females. We tested whether Orchesella males adjust spermatophore number when exposed to the presence of another male and whether changes in spermatophore production influence female choice. We found that Orchesella males display plasticity in spermatophore allocation. Males decreased the spermatophore number when exposed to a rival male. Moreover, females preferentially took up spermatophores of males that were exposed to a competitor. The reduction in spermatophore number suggests, besides an adaptive response to the risk of ejaculate removal by rival males, an optimization strategy owing to the costs of more attractive spermatophores.

  19. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  20. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  1. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII.

    PubMed

    Ruszczycky, Mark W; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2015-04-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  2. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  3. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  4. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  5. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  6. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  7. Adolescent Male Attitudes about Singing in Choir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…

  8. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  9. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  10. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  11. Changing Views on Male Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the changing views on the role and status of male early childhood education teachers in the forties and fifties (male prohibition), the sixties and early seventies (the macho image), and the late seventies and early eighties (the age of androgyny).

  12. Male Categories: Are All Men "Masculine?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Eileen M.; Hyland, Diane T.

    Research on gender stereotypes has contrasted males with females, describing males by competency traits and females by traits which denote warmth or emotionality. However, it has become clear that these traits do not satisfactorily describe all members of either sex, since not all men possess only masculine characteristics and not all women…

  13. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  14. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  15. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  16. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  17. Male Roles in Mid-Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jessica Field

    1979-01-01

    A review of research literature in the area of male roles and middle age suggests that adherence to the traditional male role may be deleterious to readjustment during middle-age transitions. Traditional roles require men to have characteristics that are questioned during the middle years. (Author)

  18. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  19. Approaches to male hypogonadism in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kristi L.; Stewart, Felicia; Larson, Brandi M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Evidence suggests that providers are not adhering to current testosterone replacement therapy guidelines when treating male hypogonadism. Understanding the diagnosis and management of this condition is further complicated by conflicting recommendations among available guidelines. NPs must select and follow the best guideline recommendations available to optimally treat male hypogonadism. PMID:28085783

  20. Family planning--male responsibility campaign.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    At a press conference on March 29, 1982, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong launched a 1-year campaign to encourage men to assume more responsibility in family planning. The campaign will publicize the message that "real men" share family planning responsibilities with their wives. The campaign was developed in response to the Association's recognition that its male clinics were underutilized. Although the Association established its 1st male clinic in 1960, only 1.3% of the Association's clients in 1981 were men. Futhermore, the number of vasectomies performed in recent years had not increased. The campaign will seek to overcome the prevailing attitude that family planning is a women's issue, the reluctance of men to discuss fertility with their physicians, and various misconceptions about male methods. Activities initiated during the 1st few months of the campaign included 1) broadcasting a 30-second television spot to promote the male responsibility message; 2) setting up a mobile exhibit in railway stations and commercial complexes to inform the public about male birth control methods and about the services offered at the Association's male clinics; 3) giving away items which publicize the male clinics such as stickers, match boxes, condom samples, and literature; and 4) selling T-shirts which promote 2 as the ideal family size. In addition, a contest aimed at publicizing male birth control was undertaken jointly by a television magazine, Durex Products, and the Association. The contest engendered considerable interest and 2600 entries were received from men.

  1. Characteristics of Male Homosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromhart, Michael V.

    1971-01-01

    A limited comparative study of undergraduate homosexual males and control males were compared on referral source, therapy referral, academic interest and achievement, ordinal position, perceived relationship with parents, and personality adjustment as measured by the MMPI. Several differences were found and implications for treatment were…

  2. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  3. How the Male Body Works Sexually

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Sex and the Man With Cancer Cancer, Sex, and the Male Body Cancer and sex When you first found out you had cancer, ... remains. How a man’s body works The male sex organs A man’s genitals and sex organs are ...

  4. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  5. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  6. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  7. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  8. Black Males in College: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S.; And Others

    Because relatively few black males successfully complete college, this study sought to determine how black male freshmen at a predominantly white university differed from other freshmen in their values, aspirations, and assumptions about college life. In the fall of 1989, the ACT Entering Student Survey, plus 30 locally developed questions, was…

  9. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  10. Serosurvey of peste des petits ruminants virus in small ruminants from different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Woma, Timothy Y; Ekong, Pius S; Bwala, Dauda G; Ibu, John O; Ta'ama, Louisa; Dyek, Dyek Y; Saleh, Ladi; Shamaki, David; Kalla, Demo J U; Bailey, Dalan; Kazeem, Haruna M; Quan, Melvyn

    2016-03-11

    Peste des petits ruminants, caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is a highly contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and a major hindrance to small-ruminant production in Nigeria. The seroprevalence and distribution of PPRV antibodies in small ruminants in rural households, farms, live animal markets and slaughter slabs across the six different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were determined. A total of 4548 serum samples from 3489 goats and 1059 sheep were collected in 12 states. A PPRV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the samples and the data analysed with R statistical software version 3.0.1. The study animals included all ages and both sexes. The overall prevalence estimate of sera positive for PPRV antibodies was 23.16% (n = 1018 positive samples per 4548 total samples, 95% confidence interval: 21.79% - 24.57%). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence between the states (p = 0.001). Taraba State had the highest seroprevalence of 29.51%, whilst the lowest seroprevalence of 14.52% was observed in Cross River State. There were no significant differences in the PPRV seroprevalence between male and female animals (p = 0.571), age (p = 0.323) and between species (p = 0.639). These data indicate the current seroprevalence to PPRV in the small-ruminant population in Nigeria.

  11. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  12. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  13. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. PMID:22046184

  14. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-08-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species.

  15. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  16. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  17. Developmental trajectories to male borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marianne; Patel, Uday; Oakes, Allison; Matho, Andrea; Triebwasser, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Due to the higher diagnostic prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in females, there exists a dearth of literature on the manifestations of BPD in men and minimal information on male developmental trajectories to the disorder. To identify precursors of BPD in males, surveys were administered to parents about their BPD male offspring and non-BPD male siblings. Questions covered aspects of probands' lives from infancy to late adolescence. BPD offspring were identified through self-reported clinical diagnoses and standardized diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey. A total of 263 male offspring (97 meeting strict criteria for BPD and 166 non-BPD siblings) were studied. The authors found that parents describe the early emergence of a constellation of symptoms in their BPD sons that include separation anxiety starting in infancy, body image concerns in childhood, and impulsivity, emptiness, and odd thinking in adolescence. This trajectory differs from the developmental course found in females diagnosed with BPD.

  18. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  19. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  20. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  1. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  2. Plastic responses of male Drosophila melanogaster to the level of sperm competition increase male reproductive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Bretman, Amanda; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary and plastic responses by males to the level of sperm competition (SC) are reported across widespread taxa, but direct tests of the consequences for male reproductive success in a competitive context are lacking. We varied male perception of SC to examine the effect on male competitive reproductive success and to test whether the outcomes were as predicted by theory. Exposure to rival males prior to mating increased a male's ejaculate investment (measured as mating duration); by contrast, exposure to rival males in the mating arena decreased mating duration. The results therefore suggested that SC intensity is important in shaping male responses to SC in this system, although the patterns were not strictly in accord with existing theory. We then tested whether males that responded to the level of SC had higher reproductive fitness in a competitive context. We found that males kept with rivals prior to mating again mated for longer; furthermore, they achieved significantly higher paternity share regardless of whether they were the first or second males to mate with a female. The plastic strategies employed by males therefore resulted in significantly increased reproductive success in a competitive context, even following subsequent rematings in which the majority of sperm were displaced. PMID:19324834

  3. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  4. Croissance des couches minces et des multicouches de matériaux supraconducteurs H Tboldmath_c : bilan et perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contour, J. P.

    1994-11-01

    The main physical and chemical techniques of epitaxial growth of High T_c superconductor thin films are described together with their in situ analysis facilities and discussed with respect to their cost, sophistication and results (T_c, J_c growth defects, thickness and composition uniformity, crystallinity, electronic applications...). The future trends of the growth machines are then examined in connection with the present results and the development of superconductor electronics. Après la présentation des principales techniques de croissance physique et physicochimique de couches minces d'oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique, un bilan des résultats sera dressé par rapport aux différentes propriétés des films (transition résistive, courant critique, défauts de croissance, uniformité d'épaisseur et de composition, cristallinité...), aux difficultés de mise en œuvre et au coût de l'expérience. Les perspectives des différentes techniques seront ensuite examinées dans le cadre du développement potentiel d'une électronique utilisant les matériaux supraconducteurs H T_c.

  5. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  6. Dépistage des maladies cardiovasculaires chez des étudiants de l'Université de Douala et influence des activités physiques et sportives

    PubMed Central

    Ewane, Marielle Epacka; Mandengue, Samuel Honoré; Priso, Eugene Belle; Tamba, Stéphane Moumbe; Ahmadou; Fouda, André Bita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) constituent l'une des principales causes de mortalité dans les pays en développement. Le dépistage de ces dernières chez des jeunes est un défi dans la lutte contre leur expansion. Le but de cette étude était de dépister ces maladies au sein d'une population jeunes d’étudiants camerounais. Methodes Deux mille six cent cinquante-huit étudiants de l'Université de Douala (23,6 ± 2,9 ans, sex-ratio H/F = 0,9) ont en Avril - Mai 2011 participé à une campagne de dépistage gratuit du diabète, de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) et de l'obésité. Ils ont également été soumis à une d'enquête évaluant leur niveau en activités physiques et sportives (APS). Resultats 12,7% des participants avaient une pression artérielle (PA) ≥ 140/90 mmHg, 3,6% étaient obèses et 0,9% avaient une glycémie ≥1,26 g/L. Des corrélations ont été trouvées entre certains facteurs de risque (diabète, hypertension et obésité) et le niveau académique d'une part (r =0,366; p < 0,0001) et le temps passé devant la télévision d'autres part (r = 0,411; p < 0,0001). L‘APS était inversement corrélée à l‘âge (r =-0,015; p < 0,0001) et au temps passé devant la télévision (r = -0,059; p = 0,002). Conclusion La présence des MCV et leurs facteurs de risque mis en évidence dans cette étude réalisée en milieu estudiantin camerounais interpelle à une prévention et une éducation dans la lutte contre ces dernières. PMID:22655111

  7. Evaluation des prescriptions antibiotiques au service des urgences de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V (HMIMV)

    PubMed Central

    Elbouti, Anass; Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Jidane, Said; Belkouch, Ahmed; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude à pour objectifs de décrire les pratiques des prescriptions, évaluer leur pertinence et leur conformité aux règles d’utilisations et étudier les facteurs susceptibles de les influencer. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale d’évaluation des prescriptions antibiotiques portant sur 105 patients réalisée au service des urgences médico-chirurgicales de l’H.M.I.Med V de Rabat sur une période d’un mois. Le recueil des données était fait à l’aide d’un questionnaire rapportant les données démographiques et anamnestiques, les antécédents, la notion d’allergie, les données spécifiques de l’examen clinique, les données para cliniques, la prescription détaillée de l’antibiotique. Les données récoltées ont été ensuite évaluées par un médecin référent, chargé d’indiquer les éventuelles erreurs de traitement. Parmi les infections ayant motivé la prescription des antibiotiques, les affections des systèmes respiratoires et urinaires étaient au premier rang, les familles d’antibiotiques les plus couramment employées sont les pénicillines, les quinolones et les céphalosporines. 74 prescriptions soit (70,5%) étaient à la fois pertinentes et conformes contre 9 prescriptions soit (8,6%) justifiées mais non pertinentes et 6 prescriptions soit (5,7%) étaient jugées injustifiées par le médecin référent par absence d’infection. Les évaluations des pratiques médicales sont rarement menées dans les établissements de santé; c’est dans ce cadre que nous avons voulu nous inscrire en produisant cette étude afin d’améliorer la pertinence de nos prescriptions antibiotiques et d’optimiser leur conformité aux différentes recommandations. PMID:28292124

  8. Influence des interactions du couple ciment/adjuvant dispersant sur les proprietes des betons: Importance du mode d'introduction des adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalbaki, Moussa

    1998-12-01

    Les travaux de recherche de cette these de doctorat ont porte sur les phenomenes d'incompatibilite (ou de compatibilite) ciment/adjuvant dispersant en mettant l'accent sur l'influence du mode d'introduction des adjuvants sur les proprietes des betons frais et durcis. Les aspects physiques et chimiques de l'interaction ciment/adjuvant a ete relies aux proprietes des betons en tenant compte du rapport E/C, de la teneur en C3A du ciment ainsi que du type d'adjuvant dispersant. Le programme experimental propose debute par une etude rheologique et mecanique sur pate et sur beton. Le comportement du superplastifiant a base de polynaphtalene (PNS) depend surtout de son interaction avec les premiers produits d'hydratation du ciment. Cette interaction du superplastifiant PNS avec le ciment est remarquablement differente dans le cas ou l'ajout du PNS est differe de quelques minutes. Lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit directement avec l'eau de gachage, on remarque la formation d'un gel blanc compose d'ettringite, de CaCO 3 et de polynaphtalene et ce compose organo-mineral est presque inexistant lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est ajoute en mode differe. Ce gel organo-mineral se forme a partir de la solution entre les aluminates de calcium hydrates, les sulfates et le PNS, et est responsable de la perte d'affaissement du beton. Les analyses au microscope electronique a balayage montrent que l'introduction du superplastifiant PNS en mode S1 (ajout direct) engendre la precipitation d'une plus grande quantite d'ettringite et de produit organo-mineral. Cette ettringite finement cristallisee, abondante et enchevetree aura pour consequence de diminuer les proprietes rheologiques des betons et des pates. Ce phenomene ne s'observe pas lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit en mode differe. Le mode d'introduction du superplastifiant a base de polyacrylate (PAE) n'affecte nullement le comportement rheologique du beton. Par ailleurs, le gel organo-mineral n'apparait pas

  9. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  10. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  11. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  12. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  13. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  14. Microscopie interférentielle X-UV : un outil pour l'étude des endommagements des surfaces optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents concernant des premières investigations de microscopie interférentielle par laser X-UV d'endommagement optique. Le laser X-UV utilisé est un laser collisionnel en régime quasi-stationnaire émettant à 21.2 nm, développé au Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS, Prague, République Tchèque). Des échantillons de silice fondue de haute qualité, avec ou sans rayure, étaient irradiées en face avant par un laser bleu, correspondant au 3selectfontfontsize{7{9}{textrm{ème}}} harmonique du laser à iode du PALS (1.315 μ m), servant également à réaliser le laser X-UV à 21.2 nm. Celui-ci était utilisé, 5 ns après l'irradiation pour réaliser une imagerie microscopique et interférentielle de la face arrière de l'échantillon. Les résultats font apparaître des déformations locales transitoires. Des premières analyses mettent en évidence une probable variation de la rugosité de la surface. Cette démonstration expérimentale encourageante ouvre la voie à de futures investigations, notamment sur notre prochaine installation laser : LASERIX.

  15. Selective inhibition of the alternative complement pathway by sCR1[desLHR-A] protects the rabbit isolated heart from human complement-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Gralinski, M R; Wiater, B C; Assenmacher, A N; Lucchesi, B R

    1996-09-01

    Evidence is presented that treatment with a selective inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, sCR1[desLHR-A], protects the ex vivo perfused rabbit heart from human complement-mediated injury. Hearts from male New Zealand white rabbits were perfused in the Langendorff mode. After equilibration, normal human plasma was added to the perfusate as a source of complement. Concomitant with the addition of human plasma, vehicle (n = 13), soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) (n = 10), or sCR1[desLHR-A], a truncated version of sCR1 that lacks the C4b binding region (n = 10) was included in the perfusate. Hemodynamic variables were obtained for all groups before (baseline) and after the addition of human plasma. Compared to vehicle-treated hearts, variables recorded during perfusion with human plasma including coronary perfusion pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure, along with a reduction of creatine kinase efflux, were improved in hearts perfused with either complement inhibitor. In addition, in vitro hemolysis assays were utilized to discriminate between the classical and alternative pathways. The addition of sCR1 to human serum prevented both the classical and alternative pathway-mediated hemolysis while sCR1[desLHR-A] prevented only the alternative pathway-mediated lysis. This study indicates that deletion of the C4b-binding site from sCR1 results in a new pharmacological moiety, sCR1[desLHR-A], that primarily inhibits the alternative pathway of human complement.

  16. Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles.

    PubMed

    Rowland, J Mark; Emlen, Douglas J

    2009-02-06

    Male animals of many species deploy conditional reproductive strategies that contain distinct alternative phenotypes. Such facultatively expressed male tactics are assumed to be due to a single developmental threshold mechanism switching between the expression of two alternative phenotypes. However, we discovered a clade of dung beetles that commonly expresses two threshold mechanisms, resulting in three alternative phenotypes (male trimorphism). Once recognized, we found trimorphism in other beetle families that involves different types of male weapons. Evidence that insects assumed to be dimorphic can express three facultative male forms suggests that we need to adjust how we think about animal mating systems and the evolution of conditional strategies.

  17. Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis). Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis). The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage) are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only. PMID:15328531

  18. Overview and trends in male grooming.

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    2012-03-01

    The use of cosmetics and medical cosmetic procedures by men has been widely ignored in dermatological research in the past, but it is finding increasing attention. As men are changing their habits and increasingly tend to use cosmetic products, the dermatologist will be asked for expert advice regarding efficacy and safety of cosmetics for male skin. For this service, dermatologists need to be aware of anatomical and physiological differences between male and female skin, about specific environmental stress factors affecting male skin, about cosmetic practices and product use especially regarding shaving, and about the counselling needs in men relating to protective cosmetic use.

  19. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  20. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  1. Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2004-09-01

    Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males and the sperm of those males compete within the female's reproductive tract to fertilize her eggs. The frequent occurrence of sperm competition has forced males of many species to develop different strategies to overcome the sperm of competing males. A prevalent strategy is for males to increase their sperm investment (total number of sperm allocated by a male to a particular female) after detecting a risk of sperm competition. It has been shown that the proportion of sperm that one male contributes to the sperm pool of a female is correlated with the proportion of offspring sired by that male. Therefore, by increasing his sperm investment a male may bias a potential sperm competition in his favour. Here we show that male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm investment when they mate in the presence of another male's odours. Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations.

  2. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  3. Zinc feeding and fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Samanta, K; Pal, B

    1986-01-01

    Supplementation of the diet of adult male rats with 4,000 ppm zinc as ZnSO4 for 30 to 32 days increased the zinc content in the testis and sperm by 25 and 18 per cent respectively, but did not change the same in accessory reproductive tissues, e.g. epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The incidence of conception from mating between normal females and zinc fed males was lower as compared to mating between normal females and control males. This observation indicated reduced fertility of the males resulting from additional zinc ingestion. Motility of the sperm collected from the epididymis (tail) of the zinc treated rats was found to be inhibited. It has been suggested that excess zinc in the sperm was responsible for their poor motility and hence a reduced fertilising capacity.

  4. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  5. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  6. A Description of Males of Hoplolaimus columbus

    PubMed Central

    Fassuliotis, G.

    1974-01-01

    The male of the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, is described and illustrated from a harvested soybean field in Holly Hill, South Carolina. It is morphologically similar to the female, except for reproductive structures. PMID:19308111

  7. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  8. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  9. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  10. Male gamete biology in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong

    2010-04-01

    Flowering plant reproduction is characterized by double fertilization, in which two diminutive brother sperm cells initiate embryo and endosperm. The role of the male gamete, although studied structurally for over a century at various levels, is still being explored on a molecular and cellular level. The potential of the male to influence development has been historically underestimated and the reasons for this are obvious: limitations provided by maternal imprinting, the much greater cellular volume of female gametes and the general paucity of paternal effects. However, as more is known about molecular expression of chromatin-modifying proteins, ubiquitin pathway proteins and transcription factors in sperm cells, as well as their ability to achieve effect by intaglio expression, passing transcripts directly into translation, the role of the male is likely to expand. Much of the expression in the male germline that appears to be distinct from patterns of pollen vegetative cell expression may be the result of chromosomal level regulation of transcription.

  11. Reproductibilité des classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004 des tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de la vessie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ben Yacoub-Abid, Lilia; Ben Sorba, Nabil; Jaïdane, Lilia; Mokni, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif : Déterminer les taux d’accord et la reproductibilité intra et inter-observateurs des classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004 des tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de la vessie. Matériel et méthodes : Cent deux cas de tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de stade pTa/pT1 ont été étudiés. Deux pathologistes ont revu les lames et ont établi le grade tumoral selon les deux classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004. En cas de désaccord, les deux évaluateurs ont procédé à une lecture commune au microscope en double tête afin d’aboutir à un grade consensuel selon les deux classifications. La variabilité intra-observateur a été étudiée chez l’un des deux évaluateurs qui a procédé à la relecture des lames un mois après sa première lecture. Les taux d’accord entre les deux pathologistes pour chaque catégorie de grade ont été déterminés et la reproductibilité des deux classifications a été évaluée à l’aide du coefficient kappa. Une valeur de 0 à 0,2 était interprétée comme un désaccord absolu, de 0,21 à 0,4, un accord faible, de 0,41 à 0,6, un accord modéré, de 0,61 à 0,8, un accord considérable, et de 0,8 à 1, un accord absolu. Résultats : Selon la classification OMS 1973, les proportions des grades G1, G2 et G3 étaient respectivement de 40,2 %, 50 % et 9,8 %. Selon la classification OMS 2004, les proportions respectives des tumeurs de faible potentiel de malignité, des carcinomes de bas grade et des carcinomes de haut grade de malignité étaient de 23,5 %, 60,8 % et 15,7 %. La reproductibilité intra-observateur était excellente pour les deux classifications (accord absolu). Les taux d’accord entre les deux pathologistes étaient meilleurs pour la classification OMS 2004 (kappa = 0,7) que pour la classification OMS 1973 (kappa = 0,51). Conclusions : La reproductibilité entre observateurs de la classification OMS 2004 est supérieure à celle de 1973. La reproductibilité intra-observateur est

  12. Prise en charge des troubles de consommation d’opioïdes en première ligne

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anita; Kahan, Meldon; Nader, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Conseiller les médecins quant aux options thérapeutiques à recommander à des populations précises de patients : approche axée sur l’abstinence, traitement d’entretien par la buprénorphine-naloxone ou traitement d’entretien par la méthadone. Sources d’information Une recherche sur PubMed a été effectuée, et on a relevé dans les publications les données sur l’efficacité, l’innocuité et le profil d’effets indésirables de l’approche axée sur l’abstinence, du traitement par la buprénorphine-naloxone et du traitement par la méthadone. Les études d’observation et interventionnelles ont été incluses. Message principal La méthadone et la buprénorphine-naloxone sont substantiellement plus efficaces que l’approche axée sur l’abstinence. La méthadone présente un taux de rétention plus élevé que la buprénorphine-naloxone, alors que la buprénorphine-naloxone présente un risque plus faible de surdose. Les médecins devraient recommander le traitement par la méthadone ou la buprénorphine-naloxone plutôt que l’approche axée sur l’abstinence, et ce, à tous les groupes de patients (données de niveau I). La méthadone est préférable à la buprénorphine-naloxone chez les patients qui présentent un risque élevé d’abandon, comme les usagers d’opioïdes par injection (données de niveau I). Les jeunes et les femmes enceintes qui font usage d’opioïdes par injection devraient aussi recevoir la méthadone d’abord (données de niveau III). Si la buprénorphine-naloxone est prescrite en premier, il faut faire passer rapidement le patient à la méthadone si les symptômes de sevrage, les fortes envies ou la consommation d’opioïdes persistent malgré une dose optimale de buprénorphine-naloxone (données de niveau II). La buprénorphine-naloxone est recommandée chez les usagers d’opioïdes sur ordonnance par voie orale socialement stables, surtout s’ils ont un emploi ou si leurs

  13. The male facelift: considerations and techniques.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Lee, E

    1996-07-01

    Facelift in the male patient presents unique challenges with respect to maintenance of normal hairline and management of bearded skin. With careful psychological preparation, surgical planning, and attention to detail, these male characteristics can be retained with a good rejuvenative result. The combination of a deep-plane rhytidectomy technique with modified incisions and endoscopic brow intervention has provided the authors with consistent surgical results. Complications have been minimal, with no significant hematomas, skin loss, or nerve injuries to date.

  14. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  15. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery.

  16. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Results: Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation by 68%. Conclusion: Infant male circumcision should continue to be allowed all over the world, as long as it is approved by both parents, and performed in facilities that can provide appropriate sterilization, wound care, and anesthesia. Under these conditions, the benefits of infant male circumcision outweigh the rare and generally minor potential harms of the procedure. PMID:27570848

  17. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  18. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  19. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments.

  20. Male urethral diverticulum uncommon entity: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Mane, Deepak; Mullay, Abhirudra

    2016-01-01

    Out pouching of the urethral wall could be congenital or acquired. Male urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare entity. We present 2 cases of acquired and 1 case of congenital male UD. Case 1A: 40 year male presented with SPC and dribbling urine. Clinically he had hard perineal swelling. RGU revealed large diverticulum in proximal bulbar, irregular narrow distal urethra and stricture just beyond diverticulum. Managed with perineal exploration, stone removal, diverticulum repair and urethroplasty using excess diverticular wall. Case 2A: 30 year male with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) revealed bulbar urethral diverticulum akin to anterior urethral valve, managed endoscopically. 1 year follow up urine stream satisfactory. Case 3A: 27 year male previously operated large proximal bulbar urethral stone with incontinence. RGU large proximal bulbar UD with wide open sphincter. Treated with excision of excess diverticular wall and penile clamp with pelvic exercises for incontinence. Congenital UD develops due to imperfect closure of urethral fold, Acquired UDs occurs secondary to stricture, infection, trauma, long standing impacted urethral stones or scrotal / skin flap urethroplasties. RGU and MCU are the best diagnostic technique to confirm and characterize the UD. Urethral diverticulectomy with urethral reconstruction is the recommended treatment for UD. UD is a rare entity. Especially in males, congenital are even more rare. Management should be individualized. Surgery can involve innovation and/or surgical modifications. We used excess diverticular flap for stricture urethroplasty in one case. PMID:28057997

  1. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-02-28

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict.

  2. Familiality of female and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Bell, A P

    1993-07-01

    We examined data from a large cohort of homosexual and heterosexual females and males concerning their siblings' sexual orientations. As in previous studies, both male and female homosexuality were familial. Homosexual females had an excess of homosexual brothers compared to heterosexual subjects, thus providing evidence that similar familial factors influence both male and female homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the large sample size, homosexual females and males did not differ significantly from each other in their proportions of either homosexual sisters or homosexual brothers. Thus, results were most consistent with the possibility that similar familial factors influence male and female sexual orientation. However, because results conflicted with those of some other studies, and because siblings' sexual orientations were obtained in a manner likely to yield more errors than in these other, smaller studies, further work is needed using large samples and more careful methods before the degree of cofamiliality of male and female homosexuality can be resolved definitively. We also examined whether some parental influences comprised shared environmental effects on sexual orientation. Scales attempting to measure such influences failed to distinguish subjects with homosexual siblings from subjects with only heterosexual siblings and, thus, did not appear to measure shared environmental determinants of sexual orientation.

  3. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  4. Prise en charge des complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique

    PubMed Central

    Jiber, Hamid; Zrihni, Youssef; Zaghloul, Rachid; Hajji, Rita; Zizi, Othman; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    La fistule artério-veineuse native est l'accès vasculaire de choix pour l'hémodialyse chronique en raison de sa longévité, son taux faible de complication et de mortalité par rapport aux pontages artério-veineux et aux cathéters. Cependant, il arrive assez souvent que l'on assiste à des complications qui sont dominées par la sténose et la thrombose. C'est une étude rétrospective des complications ayants survenues pour 31 fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique des 200 fistules réalisées chez 200 patients au sein du service de chirurgie vasculaire du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une période de trois ans, étendue de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2009. Ces complications ont été présentés par les thromboses dans 14 cas soit 45,15% de l'ensemble des complications, les sténoses dans 4 cas (12,90%,) les anévrismes dans 4 cas (12,90%), les complications ischémiques dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'infection dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'hémorragie dans 2 cas (6,45%) et l’ hyperdébit dans un seul cas soit 3,22%. On a pu conserver 22 fistules soit 70,96% par traitement chirurgical ou endovasculaire, on a confectionné une nouvelle fistule dans 8 cas soit 25,80%, et on a adressé une patiente (3,22%) pour pose d'un cathéter veineux tunnelisé permanent. Les complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour l'hémodialyse chronique sont la principale cause de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés, il est donc important de s'impliquer lors de leur création, et de donner un maximum d'attention quand ils sont manipulés. Ceci suggère la mise en place d'un programme de surveillance de ces fistules en raison de l'impact des complications sur la morbi-mortalité du patient hémodialysé et sur le plan financier. PMID:26113933

  5. Acupuncture Au Laser He-Ne: Traitement Des Infections Rhinopharyngees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussert, Dr.

    1984-03-01

    Mesdames, Messieurs, y a 23 mois, je recevais l'urgence suivante dans mon cabinet medical : 1) Un homme de 53 ans, dyspneioue (cliniquement it etait en Bradypnee expiratoire). Il venait d'être hospitalise 1 mois et avait ete place sous cortisone. Je le fais assoir, et j'irradie avec un laser sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 6 minutes je debloque ce malade qui se met e respirer normalement. 2) Quelques temps apres : C'est un enfant de 7 ans que je regois en crise d'asthme. J'irradie sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 4 minutes une onde laser d'impulsion 6 et en basse freouence. L'enfant voit s'estomper la crise d'asthme. Devant ces deux cas, je decide d'organiser un travail de recherche.

  6. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  7. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  8. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGES

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  9. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  10. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  11. Gestion des plaines inondables: Hauteur ou débit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jabi, Nassir; Rousselle, Jean

    1983-07-01

    A stochastic model based on the recent developments in the theory of extreme values is presented to describe the flood occurrence. This model is applied to the "Rivière des Prairies", assuming that the exceedances (flood peak and/or stage above a given base flow and/or base stage) are independent and identically distributed in the time interval for a given year and season.

  12. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  13. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  14. Discovery and Classification of DES15E1iuh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15E1iuh discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. We obtained spectra using the X-SHOOTER instrument (wavelength range 380-950nm) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389; wavelength range 370-885nm) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  15. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    DOE PAGES

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; ...

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrainmore » the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.« less

  16. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  17. Probing the primordial Universe with MeerKAT and DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, José; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mário G.

    2017-04-01

    It is usually assumed that we will need to wait until next-generation surveys like Euclid, LSST and SKA, in order to improve on the current best constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from the Planck experiment. We show that two contemporary surveys, with the SKA precursor MeerKAT and the Dark Energy Survey (DES), can be combined using the multitracer technique to deliver an accuracy on measurement of fNL that is up to three times better than Planck.

  18. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  19. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Giannantonio, T.

    2016-01-07

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of themore » signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.« less

  20. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Giannantonio, T.

    2016-01-07

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.

  1. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantonio, T.; Fosalba, P.; Cawthon, R.; Omori, Y.; Crocce, M.; Elsner, F.; Leistedt, B.; Dodelson, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Holder, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Kirk, D.; Bauer, A. H.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Carretero, J.; Crawford, T. M.; Crittenden, R.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Krause, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Simard, G.; Soergel, B.; Stark, A.; Story, K. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Weller, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C. L.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.

  2. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  3. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  4. Male-killing bacteria trigger a cycle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Charlat, Sylvain; Reuter, Max; Dyson, Emily A; Hornett, Emily A; Duplouy, Anne; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K; Wedell, Nina; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2007-02-06

    Sex-ratio distorters are found in numerous species and can reach high frequencies within populations. Here, we address the compelling, but poorly tested, hypothesis that the sex ratio bias caused by such elements profoundly alters their host's mating system. We compare aspects of female and male reproductive biology between island populations of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina that show varying degrees of female bias, because of a male-killing Wolbachia infection. Contrary to expectation, female bias leads to an increase in female mating frequency, up to a point where male mating capacity becomes limiting. We show that increased female mating frequency can be explained as a facultative response to the depleted male mating resources in female biased populations. In other words, this system is one where male-killing bacteria trigger a vicious circle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

  5. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE, Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, July 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-21

    The Des Moines TCE site includes the underground infiltration gallery used by the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) as a source of the public water supply. The site was discovered in 1984 after trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in the city's public water supply. The Dico Company disposed of an unknown quantity of oily waste sludge containing TCE onto their parking lot for dust control and into a drainage ditch on their property. The primary contaminants of concern include: TCE, PCE, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for this site includes: extraction wells to collect the contaminated ground water; isolation of the northern-most section of the north gallery; treatment of the ground water through air stripping to remove 96% of the TCE; discharge of the treated water to the Raccoon River; operation of the west extraction wells until established effluent levels are achieved for four consecutive months.

  7. Drosophila TRPA channel painless inhibits male-male courtship behavior through modulating olfactory sensation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyu; Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Fei; Wang, Zuoren

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster TRPA family member painless, expressed in a subset of multidendritic neurons embeding in the larval epidermis, is necessary for larval nociception of noxious heat or mechanical stimuli. However, the function of painless in adult flies remains largely unknown. Here we report that mutation of painless leads to a defect in male-male courtship behavior and alteration in olfaction sensitivity in adult flies. Specific downregulation of the expression of the Painless protein in the olfactory projection neurons (PNs) of the antennal lobes (ALs) resulted in a phenotype resembling that found in painless mutant flies, whereas overexpression of Painless in PNs of painless mutant males suppressed male-male courtship behavior. The downregulation of Painless exclusively during adulthood also resulted in male-male courtship behavior. In addition, mutation of the painless gene in flies caused changes in olfaction, suggesting a role for this gene in olfactory processing. These results indicate that functions of painless in the adult central nervous system of Drosophila include modulation of olfactory processing and inhibition of male-male courtship behavior.

  8. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  9. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  10. Aerospace Software Engineering for Advanced Systems Architectures (L’Ingenierie des Logiciels Pour les Architectures des Systemes Aerospatiaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    to acquire and execute the mission plan in close development has to face with a complex industrial 10-3 organization involving several compaies...un module L *S). Ces heuristiques ont dt Les deux niveaux dc rdseaux d’interconnexion peuvent validdes stir des graphes fortement connecties mis en...commutateurs doit dotic pouvoir commuter M* L /2 pouts d’entr~e vers M* L /2 ports de sortie. Les mdcanismes mis en place permettent successivement:0 6

  11. Etude des proprietes electroniques des etats fondamentaux aux facteurs de remplissage entiers dans la bicouche de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine

    Dans ce document, on etudie les proprietes electroniques d'un systeme compose de deux couches de graphene separees par un dielectrique en presence d'un fort champ magnetique perpendiculaire. L'epaisseur du dielectrique est choisie de facon a pouvoir negliger le transfert de charges par effet tunnel. Ce type de systeme est etudie par quelques groupes de recherche dans le principal but de predire et comprendre la formation de condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons dont les composants sont des fermions relativistes sans masse [1] [2] [3]. Nous nous interessons a l'effet de l'interaction electron-electron sur les etats fondamentaux de ce systeme et 'a leurs excitations collectives a facteur de remplissage entier. Plus precisement, nous etudions les diagrammes de phase de cette bicouche de graphene sans terme tunnel dans le niveau de Landau n = 0 pour les facteurs de remplissage nu = 1 et nu = 2 dans la limite ou la temperature tend vers zero. Lors de cette etude, nous appuyons les predictions faites par Allan H. MacDonald et Yogesh N. Joglekar a propos de la formation d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons pour differentes zones des diagrammes de phase. Nous etudions aussi la relation de dispersion des excitations collectives soutenues par les etats fondamentaux et leur effet sur le systeme. Finalement, nous nous interessons a la conductivite du systeme. Nous demontrons alors les regles de selection pour l'absorption inter-niveaux de Landaux et nous etudions l'effet des modes collectifs sur l'absorption .intrarniveau de Landau, Ce dernier phenomene ressort directement de la forme particuliere du reseau atomique du graphene et nous proposons dans ce document une toute premiere etude de ce concept. Mots-cles : graphene, gaz d'electrons bidimensionnel, effets Hall quantiques, proprietes electroniques, modes collectifs

  12. Antennes imprimées multicouches : choix des fonctions de base dans la méthode des moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennegueouche, J.; Damiano, J. P.; Papiernik, A.

    1993-03-01

    We present a theoretical method applied to the analysis of multilayered printed antennas with disc radiating elements, fed by coaxial probe. The method is based on a reaction integral equation solved in the spectral domain using the method of moments (Galerkin's method). The choice of the basis functions is crucial. We study the theoretical ponderation of these functions in a wide frequency band is done to yield more precise numerical results with a reduced computational time. Finally, it shows better agreement with the experimental data. Nous présentons une méthode théorique pour l'étude des antennes imprimées multicouches à éléments rayonnants de forme circulaire, alimentés par sonde coaxiale. La méthode est basée sur une équation intégrale de réaction, résolue dans le domaine spectral, à l'aide d'une méthode des moments (méthode de Galerkin). L'objectif est d'obtenir les caractéristiques radioélectriques de l'antenne : impédance d'entrée, diagrainme de rayonnement, gain, etc. Le choix des fonctions de base est un critère important. Nous avons réalisé une étude théorique de la pondération de ces fonctions sur une large bande de fréquence, d'où des résultats théoriques plus précis, un temps de calcul réduit et un accord théorie-expérience meilleur.

  13. Des lasers à excimères pour cristalliser le silicium des écrans plats : pourquoi ? comment ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, C.

    2003-06-01

    Les contraintes techniques et économiques de la fabrication d'écrans plats à cristaux liquides à matrice active ont suscité de nombreuses études de procédés de cristallisation de couches minces de silicium par laser à excimères, exploitant principalement trois types de phénomènes physiques, dans le but d'obtenir des cristaux micrométriques les plus uniformes possible.

  14. Interpretation of male rat renal tubule tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P

    1993-01-01

    Based on an analysis of recent scientific studies, a Technical Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Assessment Forum recently advised EPA risk assessors against using information on certain male rat renal tubule tumors to assess human risk under conditions specified in a new Forum report. Risk assessment approaches generally assume that chemicals producing tumors in laboratory animals are a potential cancer hazard to humans. For most chemicals, including classical rodent kidney carcinogens such as N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine, this extrapolation remains appropriate. Some chemicals, however, induce accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g), a low molecular weight protein, in the male rat kidney. The alpha 2u-g accumulation initiates a sequence of events that appears to lead to renal tubule tumor formation. Female rats and other laboratory mammals administered the same chemicals do not accumulate low molecular weight protein in the kidney, and they do not develop renal tubule tumors. Because humans appear to be more like other laboratory animals than like the male rat, in this special situation, the male rat is not a good model for assessing human risk. The Forum report stresses the need for full scrutiny of a substantial set of data to determine when it is reasonable to presume that renal tumors in male rats are linked to a process involving alpha 2u-g accumulation and to select appropriate procedures for estimating human risks under such circumstances. PMID:7517352

  15. Mammography Findings of Male Breast Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Şafak, Kadihan Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the percentage of men presenting with breast complaints has increased from 0.8% to 2.4%, and men now account for 1% of all breast cancer cases. The most common male breast mass is gynecomastia, followed by lipoma and epidermal inclusion cysts. Because there is a paucity of parenchyma as compared with the female breast, the malignancy rapidly progresses to the next stage, with the appearance of secondary signs like nipple retraction, fixation to deeper tissues, skin ulceration or adenopathy. Diagnostic evaluation is needed only when the palpable mass is unilateral, hard, fixed, peripheral to the nipple, or associated with nipple discharge, skin changes, or lymphadenopathy. Male breast cancer usually occurs in a subareolar location or is positioned eccentric to the nipple; occasionally, it occurs in a peripheral position. Secondary signs like skin thickening, nipple retraction, and axillary lymphadenopathy may be seen. Microcalcifications can occur. Mammography can accurately distinguish between malignant and benign male breast disease. Radiologists are generally less familiar with breast disease in males compared with females. In this article, we discuss the clinical, and mammographic features of a variety of benign and malignant diseases that can occur in the male breast.

  16. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  17. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  18. La chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte: des technologies novatrices élargissent les choix des patients canadiens.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Richard

    2016-11-01

    La chirurgie de la cataracte a toujours consisté à extraire le cristallin opacifié de l'œil pour le remplacer par une lentille artificielle. Cette intervention rend la vision du patient plus nette, sans pour autant corriger l'erreur de réfraction, c'est-à-dire la nécessité de porter des lunettes ou des lentilles cornéennes après l'opération. Les instruments diagnostiques et chirurgicaux modernes permettent désormais de corriger ces erreurs de réfraction au moment de l'opération, ce qui a fait émerger une nouvelle notion, celle de la chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte. Même si cette correction n'est pas nécessaire sur le plan médical, de nombreux patients se réjouissent de la possibilité de ne plus porter de lunettes ou d'en porter moins après l'opération, même s'ils doivent engager des frais.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  20. Natural variation in plep-1 causes male-male copulatory behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Luke M.; Chang, Audrey; McNelis, Daniel; Kramer, Max; Yen, Mimi; Nicodemus, Jasmine P.; Riccardi, David D.; Ammerman, Patrick; Phillips, Matthew; Islam, Tangirul; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In sexual species, gametes have to find and recognize one another. Signaling is thus central to sexual reproduction and involves a rapidly evolving interplay of shared and divergent interests [1-4]. Among Caenorhabditis nematodes, three species have evolved self-fertilization, changing the balance of intersexual relations [5]. Males in these androdioecious species are rare, and the evolutionary interests of hermaphrodites dominate. Signaling has shifted accordingly, with females losing behavioral responses to males [6, 7] and males losing competitive abilities [8, 9]. Males in these species also show variable same-sex and autocopulatory mating behaviors [6, 10]. These behaviors could have evolved by relaxed selection on male function, accumulation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit hermaphrodites and harm males [5, 11], or neither of these, because androdioecy also reduces the ability of populations to respond to selection [12-14]. We have identified the genetic cause of a male-male mating behavior exhibited by geographically dispersed C. elegans isolates, wherein males mate with and deposit copulatory plugs on one another's excretory pores. We find a single locus of major effect that is explained by segregation of a loss-of-function mutation in an uncharacterized gene, plep-1, expressed in the excretory cell in both sexes. Males homozygous for the plep-1 mutation have excretory pores that are attractive or receptive to copulatory behavior of other males. As excretory pore plugs are injurious and hermaphrodite activity is compromised in plep-1 mutants, the allele may be unconditionally deleterious, persisting in the population because the species' androdioecious mating system limits the reach of selection. PMID:26455306

  1. High male fertility in males of a subdioecious shrub in hand-pollinated crosses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Female reproductive success in females versus hermaphrodites has been well documented. However, documenting a potential advantage in male fertility of male versus hermaphrodite individuals in subdioecious species is also essential for understanding the evolutionary pathway toward dioecy from hermaphroditism via gynodioecy. Siring success in terms of fruit set, fruit mass, number of seeds and mean seed mass was compared by hand-pollinated crosses in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica. The pollen was from male and hermaphrodite individuals, and the pollen recipients were females and hermaphrodites. Seed quality was also evaluated in terms of seed germination rate, seed germination day and seedling survival. Overall, pollen from males sired more fruits of larger size and more seeds than did pollen from hermaphrodites. The male advantage was observed when pollen recipients were females, whereas no effect was found in hermaphrodite recipients. Pollen from males also produced better quality seeds with higher germination rate and sooner germination day. Although these results could also be explained by a higher pollen load for crosses with male pollen donors, we took care to saturate the stigma regardless of the pollen donor. Therefore, these results suggest that male individuals of E. japonica have advantages in male fertility in terms of both quantity and quality. Our previous studies indicated that females exhibit higher female reproductive success compared with hermaphrodites. Thus, both the female and male functions of hermaphrodites are outperformed by females and males, respectively, raising the possibility that the subdioecious E. japonica at this study site is entering the transitional phase to dioecy along the gynodioecy–dioecy pathway. PMID:27658818

  2. Environnement des Systèmes Binaires Jeunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, Gaspard

    2000-07-01

    La fréquence élevée des systèmes binaires, tant parmi les étoiles de la séquence principale que dans les régions de formation stellaire, a été largement mise en évidence au cours des dix dernières années. Cette constatation soulève naturellement la question de la nature du processus responsable de la formation préférentielle de ces systèmes multiples. Par ailleurs, les phénomènes d'interaction entre un compagnon et l'environnement complexe d'une étoile T Tauri sont encore trèsmal compris. C'est dans ce cadre que se place le travail conduit durant cette thèse, dont les principaux objectifs sont: i) la détermination de la fraction de binaires dans différentes populations pré-séquence principale, ii) l'étude quantitative du phénomène d'accrétion dans les systèmes binaires T Tauri, et iii) l'observation directe et la modélisation de disques circumstellaires et circumbinaires. Dans le cadre d'une recherche de binaires visuelles à l'aide du système d'optique adaptative du Télescope Canada-France-Hawaii, j'ai pris part à l'observation de plusieurs centaines d'objets situés dans différents amas stellaires jeunes. Je détaille ici l'analyse et les résultats concernant deux amas âgés de moins de deux millions d'années. Lorsqu'on considère l'ensemble des populations étudiées jusqu'à présent, on constate que la proportion de binaires visuelles parmi les étoiles de type solaire est la même dans les amas stellaires que sur la séquence principale. De plus, cette propriété ne dépend pas de l'âge de l'amas, ce qui implique que la fraction de binaires n'évolue pas après le premier million d'années dans ces amas. A l'opposé, les zones de formation peu denses, qui sont toutes très jeunes, possèdent une proportion de binaires sensiblement plus élevée. Les modèles les plus à même de reproduire ces observations sont ceux selon lesquels la fraction de binaires qui résulte de l'effondrement gravitationnel est proche de 100

  3. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  4. Occupation-related male infertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; Baker, H W; Hanna, P J

    1986-04-01

    Male infertility is a significant health problem for which few aetiological factors have been identified. The role of occupational exposure is largely unknown but certain substances such as 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, oestrogen, heat, lead and microwaves have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in workers. Other agents which interfere with reproductive performance in experimental animals such as cadmium, manganese, organophosphates and some solvents have not been studied sufficiently for their occupational risks to be fully known. Some occupational exposures, extensively studied, appear to convey little or no risk to male fertility including radiological exposure, anaesthetic gases and Agent Orange. It is clear that the range of substances potentially hazardous to male reproduction is great but the number of agents for which the evidence is unequivocal is very small.

  5. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  6. Chromatin remodelling during male gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The plant life cycle alternates between a diploid sporophytic phase and haploid gametophytic phase, with the latter giving rise to the gametes. Male gametophyte development encompasses two mitotic divisions that results in a simple three-celled structure knows as the pollen grain, in which two sperm cells are encased within a larger vegetative cell. Both cell types exhibit a very different type of chromatin organization - highly condensed in sperm cell nuclei and highly diffuse in the vegetative cell. Distinct classes of histone variants have dynamic and differential expression in the two cell lineages of the male gametophyte. Here we review how the dynamics of histone variants are linked to reprogramming of chromatin activities in the male gametophyte, compaction of the sperm cell genome and zygotic transitions post-fertilization.

  7. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

  8. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  9. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  10. Male reproductive proteins and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Grainger, David A

    2008-06-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction.

  11. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions. PMID:25870742

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  13. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  14. Developmental aspects of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jack

    1978-01-01

    The development of the mammalian reproductive system involves: (1) an indifferent or ambisexual stage, in which both the male (Wolffian) and female (Mullerian) duct systems are present; (2) sexual differentiation, in which the phenotypic sex is expressed by the enhancement of Mullerian structures in the female and Wolffian structures in the male and reciprocal suppression of the opposite duct system; (3) cytodifferentiation, in which the epithelial, stromal and muscular features are regionally established; and (4) actual response to endogenous hormones, especially in mammals, such as the human and guinea pig, in which the differentiated tissues respond according to their capability. Specifically in the male, the onset of sexual differentiation is signaled by the elaboration of an androgenlike material (possibly testosterone) and a Mullerian-inhibiting factor from the testis. In the absence of these two influences, or one of them, the reproductive tract remains essentially female in configuration, a normal situation in the female and in abnormal males in which the urogenital sinus and Wolffian structures are incapable of hormonal responses due to the lack of specific enzymes or receptors. Male differentiation in particular involves enlargement of the penis and its canalization by the urethra, scrotal development and descent of the testis, and the formation of accessory glandular structures from the urogenital sinus or Wolffian ducts (bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, ampulla, prostate). Remnants of the Mullerian system may persist at the upper pole of the testis and are normally present (uterus masculinus) in relation to the prostatic part of the urethra. The emergence of the characteristic parts of the male reproductive system in higher mammals in relation to phylogeny and the detailed origin of these in individual ontogeny are described. The use of the guinea pig as a model animal system for the study of transplacental effects of hormones (diethylstilbestrol

  15. Male responsibility for reproductive health. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Ndong, I; Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Before the advent of the oral contraceptive pill, men were more involved in family planning and other aspects of reproductive health. Then, if a couple wished to practice family planning, they were largely limited to withdrawal, periodic abstinence, and condom use, all practices which require the man's participation. Hormonal methods for women and the subsequent development of IUDs and modern surgical sterilization fostered the development of a family planning services community focused upon women rather than men. The challenge is now to increase the degree of male responsibility for family planning by expanding services in ways which protect the reproductive health of both men and women, and by encouraging greater sensitivity to gender issues. Adding reproductive health services for men can be done without reducing the level of services available for women. However, while PROFAMILIA clinics, which offer a wide range of male reproductive health services, have found ways to encourage male participation, an enormous gap exists between the rhetoric of promoting male involvement and the actual realities of female-oriented reproductive health programs. Obstacles include men's reluctance to use services, lack of knowledge among men about their own and women's sexuality, lack of communication by men about sexuality in their relationships, male beliefs in sexual myths, health providers' and false assumptions and generalizations about men. The authors discuss the need to encourage men to support women's contraceptive choices, to increase communication between partners, to increase the use of male methods, to improve men's behavior for the prevention of STDs, to address men's reproductive health needs, and to encourage men to become more aware of related family issues.

  16. Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Chang, S-M; Reid, J M

    2014-06-01

    One key objective in evolutionary ecology is to understand the magnitude of inbreeding depression expressed across sex-specific components of fitness. One major component of male fitness is fertilization success, which depends on male gametic performance (sperm and pollen performance in animals and plants, respectively). Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could create sex-specific inbreeding depression in fitness, increase the benefit of inbreeding avoidance and reduce the efficacy of artificial insemination and pollination. However, there has been no assessment of the degree to which inbreeding generally depresses male gametic performance and hence post-copulatory or post-pollination fertilization success. Because inbreeding depression is understood to be a property of diploid entities, it is not clear what degree of inbreeding depression in haploid gametic performance should be expected. Here, we first summarize how inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could potentially arise through gene expression in associated diploid cells and/or reduced genetic diversity among haploid gametes. We then review published studies that estimate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in traits measuring components of sperm or pollen quantity, quality and competitiveness. Across 51 published studies covering 183 study traits, the grand mean inbreeding load was approximately one haploid lethal equivalent, suggesting that inbreeding depresses male gametic performance across diverse systems and traits. However, there was an almost complete lack of explicit estimates from wild populations. Future studies should quantify inbreeding depression in systematic sets of gametic traits under naturally competitive and noncompetitive conditions and quantify the degree to which gamete phenotypes and performance reflect haploid vs. diploid gene expression.

  17. Reduction of Military Vehicle Acquisition Time and Cost through Advanced Modelling and Virtual Simulation (La reduction des couts et des delais d’acquisition des vehicules militaires par la modelisation avancee et la simulation de produit virtuel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    l’informatique – a naturellement conduit à envisager l’usage de la simulation de façon systématique tout au long d’un programme naval comme un élément...les fonctions de transfert des déformations souples au niveau des capteurs gyromètre et accéléromètre du système de commande de vol sur les braquages

  18. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  19. OLDER MALES, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Areheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the question, how do older men who drink alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measures of cognitive function, memory, affect, and health? Of the nonprobability sample of male participants (N = 60), 35 (58%) of the males reported some degree of alcohol consumption. Eleven men had one or more drinks per day, 14 had one or more drinks per week, and 9 were occasional drinkers. The drinkers reported significantly less depression, had higher self-reported general health and vitality, and had higher cognitive performance, cognitive flexibility, and verbal memory, and greater knowledge of memory processes. PMID:16546934

  20. Predictors of dominance in male Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, P M

    1985-03-01

    The formation of dominance/subordinancy relations in pairs of male Siamese fighting fish was examined in six experiments. Dominant animals typically were those fish that built the largest nests and that attacked an image of a live, displaying male most intensely prior to combat. However, pretest performance on an operant task and reaction to an animal's own mirror image were not useful predictors of subsequent dominance. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that domesticated Bettas have a territorial social strategy that includes both nest-building and fighting behaviors.

  1. Giant Intraperitoneal Multiloculated Pseudocyst in a Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal pseudocysts are rare and may be difficult to differentiate from other malignant neoplasms. Reports of occurrences are mainly associated with long-term intraperitoneal catheter use, intraperitoneal catheter infections, or major pelvic surgery in females, although there are few reported incidences without prior trauma. We present a case of a male patient found to have a 19 × 15 × 9 cm intraperitoneal pseudocyst with other multiloculated areas and a history of a right inguinal hernia repair. After a thorough review of the literature, this is the first multiloculated nonpancreatic pseudocyst reported in a male patient. PMID:27022497

  2. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention.

  3. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females.

  4. Sex-specific inbreeding depression depends on the strength of male-male competition.

    PubMed

    Janicke, Tim; Vellnow, Nikolas; Sarda, Violette; David, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression has become a central theme in evolutionary biology and is considered to be a driving force for the evolution of reproductive morphology, physiology, behavior, and mating systems. Despite the overwhelming body of empirical work on the reproductive consequences of inbreeding, relatively little is known on whether inbreeding depresses male and female fitness to the same extent. However, sex-specific inbreeding depression has been argued to affect the evolution of selfing rates in simultaneous hermaphrodites and provides a powerful approach to test whether selection is stronger in males than in females, which is predicted to be the consequence of sexual selection. We tested for sex-specific inbreeding depression in the simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa acuta by comparing the reproductive performance of both sex functions between selfed and outcrossed focal individuals under different levels of male-male competition. We found that inbreeding impaired both male and female reproductive success and that the magnitude of male inbreeding depression exceeded female inbreeding depression when the opportunity for sperm competition was highest. Our study provides the first evidence for sex-specific inbreeding depression in a hermaphroditic animal and highlights the importance of considering the level of male-male competition when assessing sex differences in inbreeding depression.

  5. Where Are All the Males?: A Mixed Methods Inquiry into Male Study Abroad Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Study abroad represents a powerful tool for internationalizing students' higher education experience; however, current participation numbers indicate that male students go on study abroad programs at half the rate of female students. This rate reflects broader engagement trends for male college students, who have fallen behind female participation…

  6. Effects of different male remating intervals on the reproductive success of Choristoneura rosaceana males and females.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Mireille; Delisle, Johanne; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2007-02-01

    The mass of the spermatophore transferred by a previously mated Choristoneura rosaceana male increases with time elapsed since the last mating but, even after 4 days, it never reaches the mass of the spermatophore of a virgin male. However, spermatophore mass is clearly not a good indicator of the male reproductive investment as the quantity of sperm in the second ejaculate of a previously mated male is the same as that of his first, if he is allowed a 2 (eupyrene sperm) to 3 day (apyrene sperm) recovery period. The interval between the first two matings had no influence on female fecundity or longevity but significantly affected fertility if the male had only 1 day to recover. The length of the post-copulatory refractory period was also shorter in females mated with previously mated males than in those mated with virgins, regardless of the male's remating interval. Furthermore, a significant variation in the eupyrene sperm content of the spermatophore transferred by virgin males had no influence on the length of the female refractory period. Globally, these results support the hypothesis that a factor, other than sperm numbers in the spermatheca, is responsible for maintaining the inhibition of pheromone production in this species.

  7. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  8. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  9. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  10. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  11. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  12. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  13. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  14. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males.

  15. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  16. Space Vehicle Flight Mechanics (La Mecanique du Vol des Vehicules Spatiaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    entreprise par la commnunaut6 techiiologique des pays membres de l’OTAN porterait ses. fruits pour cc qoi concermic la recherche d’apphications des nouvelles... finances , with a well planned and phased program leading to, for example, a human base on Mars in 2025, the financial resources of the nations that have

  17. A Study to Model Human Behavior in Discrete Event Simulation (DES) using Simkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    example, can be autonomous decision- making agents, user controlled decision inputs, or environmental conditions affecting the simulated world. Time...perception of environmental information, performance of an action, making of a commitment and even satisfaction of claims. Objects that are...reducing latency. Integrating ABS into DES [10] • Provides an effective tool to implement human-like interaction and behavior into DES, especially

  18. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  19. Internal flow numerical simulation of double-suction centrifugal pump using DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, P. J.; Wang, F. J.; Yang, M.

    2012-11-01

    It is a challenging task for the flow simulation for a double-suction centrifugal pump, because the wall effects are strong in this type of pumps. Detached-eddy simulation (DES), referred as a hybrid RANS-LES approach, has emerged recently as a potential compromise between RANS based turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulation. In this approach, the unsteady RANS model is employed in the boundary layer, while the LES treatment is applied to the separated region. In this paper, S-A DES method and SST k-ω DES method are applied to the numerical simulation for the 3D flow in whole passage of a double-suction centrifugal pump. The unsteady flow field including velocity and pressure distributions is obtained. The head and efficiency of the pump are predicted and compared with experimental results. According to the calculated results, S-A DES model is easy to control the partition of the simulation when using near wall grid with 30 < y+<300 control approach. It also has better performance on efficiency and accuracy than SST k - ω DES method. S-A DES method is more suitable for solving the unsteady flow in double-suction centrifugal pump. S-A DES method can capture more flow phenomenon than SST k - ω DES method. In addition, it can accurately predict the power performance under different flow conditions, and can reflect pressure fluctuation characteristics.

  20. Assortative sexual mixing patterns in male?female and male?male partnerships in Melbourne, Australia: implications for HIV and sexually transmissible infection transmission.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Law, Matthew G; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-07-29

    Background: Assortative mixing patterns have become a new and important focus in HIV/sexually transmissible infection (STI) research in recent years. There are very limited data on sexual mixing patterns, particularly in an Australian population. Methods: Male-female and male-male partnerships attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 2011 and 2014 were included. Correlation of age between two individuals within a partnership was examined by using Spearman's rank correlation. The Newman's assortativity coefficient was used as an aggregate quantitative measurement of sexual mixing for number of partners and condom use. Results: 1165 male-female and 610 male-male partnerships were included in the analysis. There was a strong positive correlation of age in both male-female (rho=0.709; P<0.001) and male-male partnerships (rho=0.553; P<0.001). The assortative mixing pattern for number of partners was similar in male-female (r=0.255; 95% CI: 0.221-0.289) and male-male partnerships (r=0.264; 95% CI: 0.218-0.309). There was a stronger assortative mixing pattern for condom use in male-male (r=0.517, 95% CI: 0.465-0.569) compared with male-female (r=0.382; 95% CI: 0.353-0.412) partnerships. Conclusion: Male-female and male-male partnerships have a high assortativity mixing pattern for age, number of partners and condom use. The sexual mixing pattern is not purely assortative, and hence it may lead to increased HIV and STI transmission in certain risk groups.

  1. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  2. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  3. The Political Economy of Black Male Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a framework which merges economic and sociological insights for studying the increasing suicide rate among Black males. Preliminary empirical analysis of the model indicated that a purely economic model must incorporate extra-economic influences to increase its explanatory power. (MK)

  4. Social Stress and Mortality Among Nonwhite Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.

    1977-01-01

    The leading causes of death for young black males are accidents, homicide and suicide. Stress arising from socioeconomic conditions precipitates these events. Heart disease and cancer, other major causes of death, are also thought to be environmentally related. The author proposes the development of new types of social institutions to remedy the…

  5. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  6. The Greeting Behavior of Fragile X Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mentally retarded males (N=18) above 12 years of age with a fragile site on the X chromosome exhibited a highly idiosyncratic stereotypic form of gaze avoidance during greeting ceremonies. Results suggest this aberrant greeting behavior may be uniquely associated with this syndrome of mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  7. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  8. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  9. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  10. Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela F; Nimmo, Derric; McKemey, Andrew R; Kelly, Nick; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Beech, Camilla; Petrie, William D; Alphey, Luke

    2011-10-30

    Dengue is the most medically important arthropod-borne viral disease, with 50-100 million cases reported annually worldwide. As no licensed vaccine or dedicated therapy exists for dengue, the most promising strategies to control the disease involve targeting the predominant mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. However, the current methods to do this are inadequate. Various approaches involving genetically engineered mosquitoes have been proposed, including the release of transgenic sterile males. However, the ability of laboratory-reared, engineered male mosquitoes to effectively compete with wild males in terms of finding and mating with wild females, which is critical to the success of these strategies, has remained untested. We report data from the first open-field trial involving a strain of engineered mosquito. We demonstrated that genetically modified male mosquitoes, released across 10 hectares for a 4-week period, mated successfully with wild females and fertilized their eggs. These findings suggest the feasibility of this technology to control dengue by suppressing field populations of A. aegypti.

  11. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  12. Sex Bias in Traditionally Male Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert; Godshalk, James

    To evaluate potential sources of female sex bias and sex stereotyping within traditionally male occupational programs at the College of DuPage, programs with low female enrollment were selected for study: air conditioning and refrigeration, architectural drafting, auto service, building construction, criminal justice, electronics, fire science,…

  13. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  14. Legalization of Employment Discrimination against White Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontham, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The intervention of government to require speeial treatment of designated groups on the basis of race, color, or sex is inconsistent with principles of equal treatment under American law. Regardless of past discrimination against certain classes, governmental determination to favor them at the expense of White males is not justified. (Author/WI)

  15. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  16. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  17. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  18. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  19. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  20. Sexually transmitted infections: impact on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R

    2008-04-01

    The impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) on male fertility is strongly dependent on the local prevalence of the STDs. In Western countries STD-infections are of minor relevance. In other regions, i.e. Africa or South East Asia, the situation appears to be different. Acute urethritis could not be associated with male infertility. Chronic infections (gonorrhoea) can cause urethral strictures and epididymo-orchitis. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea can be transmitted to the female partner and cause pelvic inflammatory disease with tubal obstruction. Ureaplasma urealyticum may impair spermatozoa (motility, DNA condensation). Trichomonas vaginalis has, if any, only minor influence on male fertility. The relevance of viral infections (HPV, HSV) for male infertility is not resolved. Any STD increases the chances of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV infection is associated with infectious semen and the risk of virus transmission. Semen quality deteriorates with the progression of immunodeficiency. Special counselling of serodiscordant couples is needed. STDs should be treated early and adequately to prevent late sequelae for both men and women.

  1. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  2. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  4. City's Black Males Stay in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders in Baltimore have mounted an offensive over the past three years to keep more students in school and on track. Last month, news came that the effort has produced a welcome dividend: Black male students are driving a marked increase in the district's graduation rate and a decrease in its dropout rate, and showing improvement at a…

  5. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  6. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  7. Career Patterns of Distinguished Male Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Seventy-four male eminent social scientists provided career stage data by which adult development theory was tested. All were born between 1893 and 1903 and met the criteria of a distinguished (and for several still active) scholarly career. The subjects were separated into four groups on the basis of their degree of productivity as of age 60.…

  8. A new orally active male antifertility agent.

    PubMed

    Coppola, J A; Saldarini, R J

    1974-05-01

    CL 88,236 (1-1-amino-3-chloro-2-propanol HC1) was tested orally for antifertility in male rats, mice and hamsters. It was given orally in propylene glycol either daily for 14 days with mating on Days 7-14, (or for 7 days with mating on Days 2, 4, and 6, or for 7 days every other week for 3 weeks in withdrawal tests. In male rats, 5 mg per kg for 14 days reduced number of pregnant females 50%, and at 10-80 mg per kg males were completely sterile. Libido, coitus, and ejaculation were normal, but fragmented sperm, spermatogenic arrest, and granuloma-like epididymal lesions appeared at 40 and 80 mg per kg. Serial matings showed that sterility developed within 6 days and lasted for 1 week after withdrawal. Sterility was maintained by treating rats with CL 88,236 on alternating weeks. Male mice and hamsters were sterilized by 300 mg per kg per day for 14 days, without toxicity. Sterility was apparently mediated by affecting epididymal and vas sperm stores.

  9. Sex chromosome inactivation in the male.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R

    2009-10-01

    Mammalian females have two X chromosomes, while males have only one X plus a Y chromosome. In order to balance X-linked gene dosage between the sexes, one X chromosome undergoes inactivation during development of female embryos. This process has been termed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Inactivation of the single X chromosome also occurs in the male, but is transient and is confined to the late stages of first meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis. This phenomenon has been termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A substantial portion ( approximately 15-25%) of X-linked mRNA-encoding genes escapes XCI in female somatic cells. While no mRNA genes are known to escape MSCI in males, approximately 80% of X-linked miRNA genes have been shown to escape this process. Recent results have led to the proposal that the RNA interference mechanism may be involved in regulating XCI in female cells. We suggest that some MSCI-escaping miRNAs may play a similar role in regulating MSCI in male germ cells.

  10. Childhood of Males with the XYY Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Johannes; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigated to determine specific intelligence, personality characteristics, and behavioral patterns of boys with the XYY syndrome (a rare pattern of sex chromosome imbalance) were the childhood and adolescence of 20 males, 6- to 58-years of age at time of diagnosis. (Author/MC)

  11. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  12. Stress and Identity among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon R.

    Twenty Black American males' reactions to slides depicting interracial climate and/or racial oppression were investigated by recording physiological responses, specifically, galvanic skin potential (GSP) and heart rate (HR). Participants were also given the Myers/Stokes Identity Scale (MSIS) to ascertain their reaction to oppression and, based on…

  13. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  14. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation.

  15. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  16. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  17. Brief Report: Trichotillomania in an Autistic Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Allen, Ghada

    1991-01-01

    This report describes trichotillomania (the irresistible urge to pull one's own body hair) in a young male with autism who was treated successfully with Fluoxetine, a serotonergic antidepressant. The possible etiologic interrelations and treatment implications of this kind of comorbidity are presented. (JDD)

  18. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  19. Queer Decisions? Gay Male Students' University Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulke-Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reported influences on the university choices of 17 gay male undergraduate students attending a UK institution. It is argued that this process is strongly mediated by, and, therefore, has to be considered in relation to, class. Data analysis provides insight into the factors gay students say are important in selecting…

  20. Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Barlow, Steven M.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults. Method: Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a…

  1. Suspect osteogenesis imperfecta in a male kitten.

    PubMed

    Evason, Michelle D; Taylor, Susan M; Bebchuk, Trevor N

    2007-03-01

    A 4.5-month-old, male domestic shorthair was presented with bilateral femoral fractures after falling from a low height. Radiographs revealed reduced radio-opacity and thin cortices of all long bones. A presumptive diagnosis of osteodystrophy, secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta, was made on postmortem examination.

  2. The Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlassie, Richard; Sagal, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of midlife males are frequently disturbed and have a definite impact on job satisfaction. Three major tasks to be worked on during this time are described: (1) terminating early adulthood; (2) dealing with polarities; and (3) initiating middle adulthood. (Author)

  3. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  4. The Cultural Bind on the American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Gene

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the cultural bind on the American male. The process starts with conception. If the spermatozoid that fertilizes the egg contains only X chromosomes a girl will be produced. If a single Y chromosome out of the 24 produced by the father is included, the baby will be a boy. From this point on the girls have a…

  5. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  6. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  7. Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-01-01

    Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce) is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP) may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life, puberty, and the time of ejaculation; longitudinal data over decades of time are required. The ongoing monitoring of semen quality and quantity should continue, and surveys monitoring fertility and waiting TTP should also be designed. PMID:24369129

  8. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  9. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  10. Still so Few Male Teachers: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shaun Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A shortage of male teachers at all levels of public education is not a new phenomenon. Gender disparities in teaching have been around for more than a century in the United States. While roughly 39 percent of all elementary and secondary public school teachers were men as early as 1869, only 29 percent of teachers were men by the turn of the…

  11. 47,XXX chromosome constitution in a male.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, U; Simoni, G; Montali, E; Dalpra, L; Rossella, F; Piazzini, M; Borghi, A

    1980-02-01

    An 18-year-old boy with a male phenotype was examined because of testicular hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis using Q- and R-banding techniques and BUdR treatment showed a 47,XXX karotype, in both lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Cytogenetic problems raised by this case are discussed in relation to data from previous published reports.

  12. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  13. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  14. Comprendre la maltraitance des aînés en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter ce qui constitue la maltraitance des aînés, ce dont les médecins de famille devraient être au courant, les signes et les symptômes laissant présager de mauvais traitements chez des adultes plus âgés, comment l’outil Elder Abuse Suspicion Index peut aider à détecter la maltraitance et les options qui existent pour réagir en cas de soupçons de maltraitance. Sources des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE, PsycINFO et Social Work Abstracts pour trouver des publications en français ou en anglais, de 1970 à 2011, à l’aide des expressions elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools et signs and symptoms. Les publications pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal La maltraitance des aînés est une cause importante de morbidité et de mortalité chez les adultes plus âgés. Si les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour détecter des mauvais traitements infligés aux aînés, leurs taux réels de signalement de cas de maltraitance sont plus faibles que dans d’autres professions. Cette situation pourrait s’améliorer s’ils comprenaient mieux les genres d’agissements qui constituent de la maltraitance des aînés, ainsi que les signes et les symptômes observés au bureau qui pourraient pointer vers des cas de mauvais traitements. La détection de tels cas pourrait être facilitée par le recours à un court outil validé, comme l’Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle plus important dans la détection d’une éventuelle maltraitance des aînés. Une fois qu’on soupçonne de mauvais traitements, il existe dans la plupart des communautés des services sociaux ou des forces de l’ordre accessibles pour effectuer des évaluations plus approfondies et intervenir.

  15. The visual system of male scale insects.

    PubMed

    Buschbeck, Elke K; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  16. The visual system of male scale insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbeck, Elke K.; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  17. Explosive neuromuscular performance of males versus females.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Ricci; Minshull, Claire; Buckthorpe, Matthew W; Folland, Jonathan P

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in explosive muscular force production, as measured by electromechanical delay (EMD) and rate of force development (RFD), and to examine the physiological mechanisms responsible for any differences. The neuromuscular performance of untrained males (n = 20) and females (n = 20) was assessed during a series of isometric knee extension contractions; explosive and maximal voluntary efforts, as well as supramaximal evoked twitches and octets (eight pulses at 300 Hz). Evoked and voluntary EMD were determined from twitch and explosive contractions. The RFD was recorded over consecutive 50 ms time windows from force onset during evoked and explosive contractions, and normalized to maximal strength. Neuromuscular activity during explosive voluntary contractions was measured with EMG of the superficial knee extensors normalized to maximal M-wave. Muscle size (thickness) and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness were assessed using ultrasonic images of the vastus lateralis at rest and during ramped contractions. Males and females had similar evoked and voluntary EMD. Males were 33% stronger (P < 0.001) and their absolute RFD was 26-56% greater (all time points P < 0.05) compared with females. Muscle size (P < 0.001) and absolute MTU stiffness were also greater for males (P < 0.05). However, normalized RFD was similar for both sexes during the first 150 ms of the explosive voluntary contractions (P > 0.05). This was consistent with the similar normalized twitch and octet RFD, MTU stiffness and agonist EMG (all P > 0.05). When differences in maximal strength were accounted for, the evoked capacity of the knee extensors for explosive force production and the ability to utilize that capacity during explosive voluntary contractions was similar for males and females.

  18. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  19. Development of male-fertility-regulating agents.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Verma, P; Kumar, A

    1991-09-01

    Steroidal, nonsteroidal, plant-derived, gonadotropin-related and immunological agents investigated for control of male fertility are reviewed with brief descriptions of their effects, and illustrations of their structures. The physiology of the male reproductive system is presented as an introduction: an ideal male antifertility agent would inhibit spermatogenesis at the level of the Sertoli cells, without affecting endogenous androgen production by Leydig cells, needed for libido and potency. Androgens down-regulate their own production at physiological levels, but few long-acting orally active derivatives are available. Anti-androgens with mixed androgen and progestin activity, combined with a pure androgen are potentially useful. Androgen-progestin combinations are being tested by WHO as implants. Dozens of miscellaneous nonsteroidal compounds have been discovered serendipitously to have antifertility activity in men or male animals, including alkylating agents antimetabolites, antibiotics, sulfa derivatives, fungicides, trichomonocides, amebicides, alpha blockers, antimalarials, coumarins, and carbohydrate derivatives. Various plant alkaloids have been screened. Those of Hibiscus, Vitex and Plumbago species, as well as Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides, which are being evaluated in combination with gossypol, are mentioned here. Gossypol has been thoroughly tested in China, but rejected because of its side effects, particularly hypokalemic paralysis, its low therapeutic index, and uncertain recovery of fertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists are being researched in combination with androgens with some success. The GnRH antagonists to date have low activity , or cause histamine-related side effects at higher doses; the androgens require a new route such as a long-acting implant to overcome the need for daily injections. Immunological contraception for males has not progressed beyond the research stage.

  20. Prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs des membres supérieures chez les utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel à Casablanca (Maroc)

    PubMed Central

    Seknaji, Nawal; Rachidi, Wafaa; Hassoune, Samira; Janani, Saadia; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane; Mkinsi, Ouafaa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) affectent des millions d'utilisateurs d'ordinateurs dans les pays développés. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) à Casablanca et identifier les différents facteurs de risque qui y sont impliqués, afin de définir les sous-groupes à haut risque, et d’établir des plans d'intervention efficaces. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée chez 118 employés de bureau francophones et utilisant l'ordinateur, à Casablanca. Les données ont été collectées de Décembre 2011 à Juin 2012, en utilisant la version française d'un questionnaire validé: Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Résultats 118 utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel ont été recrutés. Parmi les employés enquêtés, 93% ont rapporté des CDMS localisées au moins à un site. Les plaintes les plus fréquemment rapportées étaient les douleurs des épaules et les cervicalgies (48,3% et 46,6% respectivement). Nous n'avons pas remarqué de différence significative des fréquences des douleurs selon le genre. Nos résultats concordent avec les données de la littérature où il existe un certain consensus quant à l'impact des mauvaises conditions ergonomiques sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur en milieu professionnel. De même, les études récentes examinant les effets combinés et/ou interactifs tant des facteurs biomécaniques/physiques que de facteurs psychosociaux professionnels vont de pair avec nos résultats. Conclusion Il en ressort que les stratégies d'intervention visant à réduire les CDMS doivent agir essentiellement sur 3 volets, le premier correspond à l'amélioration et la sensibilisation quant au respect des conditions ergonomiques, le second concerne l'amélioration des conditions psychosociales. Enfin le troisième volet vise la rationalisant de la demande de