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Sample records for complementary hfet technology

  1. Complementary HFET technology for wireless digital and microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1996-09-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. Digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors has been shown to operate with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ. Power consumption is dominated by leakage currents of the p-channel FET, while performance is determined by the characteristics of 0.7 {mu}m gate length devices. As a microwave technology, the nJFET forms the basis of low-power cirucitry without any modification to the digital process. Narrow band amplification with a 0.7x100 {mu}m nJFET has been demonstrated at 2.1-2.4 GHz with gains of 8-10 dB at 1 mW power. These amplifiers showed a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. Next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {mu}m gate lengths have also been developed. Cutoff frequencies of 49 and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {mu}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable enhancements in both digital and microwave circuits.

  2. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  3. Building on basic metagenomics with complementary technologies

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Falk; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Metagenomics, the application of random shotgun sequencing to environmental samples, is a powerful approach for characterizing microbial communities. However, this method only represents the cornerstone of what can be achieved using a range of complementary technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, cell sorting and microfluidics. Together, these approaches hold great promise for the study of microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:18177506

  4. Complementary heterojunction FET technology for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, George

    1993-01-01

    A 32-bit serial integer multiplier was designed to investigate the yield and performance of complementary heterojunction FET (CHFET) technology. This is the largest reported CHFET logic circuit. The maximum operating frequency was 500 MHz. Very low power dissipation of 3 mW was obtained at 5 MHz operation. Single-event upset (SEU) characteristics of CHFET devices and latches were also measured and indicates the potential for SEU hard circuits for space and military applications.

  5. Ion implantation for high performance III-V JFETS and HFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ion implantation has been an enabling technology for realizing many high performance electronic devices in III-V semiconductor materials. We report on advances in ion implantation processing for GaAs JFETs (joint field effect transistors), AlGaAs/GaAs HFETs (heterostructure field effect transistors), and InGaP or InAlP-barrier HFETs. The GaAs JFET has required the development of shallow p-type implants using Zn or Cd with junction depths down to 35 nm after the activation anneal. Implant activation and ionization issues for AlGaAs are reported along with those for InGaP and InAlP. A comprehensive treatment of Si-implant doping of AlGaAs is given based on donor ionization energies and conduction band density-of-states dependence on Al-composition. Si and Si+P implants in InGaP are shown to achieve higher electron concentrations than for similar implants in AlGaAs due to absence of the deep donor level. An optimized P co- implantation scheme in InGaP is shown to increase the implanted donor saturation level by 65%.

  6. CLEANSPACE 'Small Debris Removal By Laser Illumination And Complementary Technologies'

    SciTech Connect

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe

    2011-11-10

    Studies show that the number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Especially, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground based laser solution which can remove at low expense and in a non-destructive way hazardous debris of decimetric size around selected space assets appears as one highly promising answer. This solution will be studied in the frame of CLEANSPACE project which is a part of the FP7 space theme. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is threefold: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the CLEANSPACE project.

  7. New high-performance complementary bipolar technology featuring 45-GHz NPN and 20-GHz PNP devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Martin C.; Osborne, Peter H.; Thomas, Simon; Cook, Trevor

    1999-09-01

    A new high performance silicon complementary bipolar technology is introduced. In addition a novel process 'enhancement' technique based on a local oxidation is described and demonstrated and NPN devices with cut-off frequencies up to 45GHz and PNP devices of 20GHz have been fabricate. We propose that the technique we have used will allow specific transistors within a circuit to be optimized, as required.

  8. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  9. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-12 Section... and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP... the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity,...

  10. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  11. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  12. Technology and First Electrical Characteristics of Complementary NPN and PNP InAlAs/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Delong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Sawdai, Donald; Chin, Patrick; Block, Tom

    2002-02-01

    A selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth approach is presented and applied in the demonstration of complementary InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology for monolithic integration of NPN and PNP HBTs. State-of-art performance has been observed: The DC gain was 35 for both integrated NPN and PNP HBTs. fT of 79.6 GHz and fmax of 109 GHz were achieved for NPN devices while fT of 11.6 GHz and fmax of 22.6 GHz were achieved for PNP devices. Little performance degradation has been observed compared with same design NPN or PNP HBT layers grown on individual substrates. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) based on complementary InP HBT technology have been studied for the first time using this technology and their electrical characteristics are presented.

  13. Heterostructure designs for enhanced performance and reliability in GaN HFETs: camelback channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. H.; Wu, M.; Morkoç, H.; Ramonas, M.; Matulionis, A.

    2011-02-01

    The electric fields present in a heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) give rise to large densities of hot electrons and hot phonons not in equilibrium with the lattice (thus the term "hot"). Hot electrons give rise to an accumulation of hot phonons, which play a deleterious role in device performance and reliability, particularly as 2DEG densities increase. Thus, it is important that hot phonon effects be mitigated. The hot phonon effect arises due to the fact that LO phonon (longitudinal optical phonon) scattering is the primary scattering mechanism at high fields in GaN, and that LO phonons tend to accumulate in the channel due to long lifetimes and low group velocity; minimizing the existence in time of hot phonons in the channel is the overall goal. That said, the lifetime of the LO phonons decaying into propagating LA modes is not constant, and it is through the exploitation of this fact that one gains the ability to enhance the performance and reliability of HFETs. This has been evidenced by operating HFETs at particular bias conditions which tend to lend themselves to relatively short LO phonon lifetimes. Alternatively, minimization of hot phonon lifetimes may be achieved through novel device designs. In this work, we outline designs for minimizing hot phonon effects in HFET devices with sheet densities >2 x 1013 cm-2. We propose "camel-back" structures with wavefunction "spreading layers" to maximize 2DEG charge while mitigating hot phonon effects arising from high density 2DEGs.

  14. GaN HFET-Based DC/DC Converters for Low Power RF Satellite Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamare, Guillaume; Maynadier, Paul; Schneider, Henri

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation and prototyping of a low power, multiple outputs, isolated DC/DC converter for 100 V telecom satellite applications, using enhancement-mode GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) to enable 1 MHz switching frequencies.Radiation-hardened power MOSFETs are currently the main drivers for both cost and size (because of their limited switching frequency) of existing DC/DC converters. Commercially available normally-off GaN HFETs are very promising replacements, thanks to their high switching speed and intrinsic radiation hardness.In this study different designs, built around various isolated topologies, were compared for a typical low power RF application (10W) with a switching frequency of 1 MHz. Calculations and simulations helped select the most adequate architecture in terms of size and efficiency. A prototype was then built and its performance measured. Electromagnetic compatibility was evaluated by mating the power supply to its RF equipment.

  15. DC characteristics improvement of recessed gate GaN-based HFETs grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. T.; Su, Y. K.; Lai, W. C.; Huang, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the recessed gate structure on DC characteristics of n-channel depletion mode heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was demonstrated. The recessed gate process was carried out by using photo-enhanced chemical (PEC) wet etching. There were improvements on the electrical characteristics after using the recessed gate AlGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN/InGaN/GaN HFET structures because of the better gate controllability to the drain current. It was also found that the gate voltage, VGS, of the transconductance peak value shifted toward positive bias for the recessed gate structure. The leakage current, the transconductance ( Gm) and the saturation current of the recessed gate AlGaN/GaN/InGaN/GaN HFET with a 30-nm-thick Si-doped GaN cap layer are 1.95 mA/mm, 94.82 mA/mm and 230 mA/mm, respectively. This performance is quite better than that of the device with no recessed gate structure.

  16. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  17. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  18. 0.5 {mu}m E/D AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field effect transistor technology with DFET threshold adjust implant

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Briggs, R.D.; Heise, J.A.; Robertson, P.J.; Hafich, M.F.

    1997-04-01

    A doped-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (H-FET) technology has been developed with self-aligned refractory gate processing and using both enhancement- and depletion-mode transistors. D-HFET devices are obtained with a threshold voltage adjust implant into material designed for E-HFET operation. Both E- and D-HFETs utilize W/WSi bilayer gates, sidewall spacers, and rapid thermal annealing for controlling short channel effects. The 0.5 {mu}m E- HFETs (D-HFETs) have been demonstrated with transconductance of 425 mS/mm (265-310 mS/mm) and f{sub t} of 45-50 GHz. Ring oscillator gate delays of 19 ps with a power of 0.6 mW have been demonstrated using direct coupled FET logic. These results are comparable to previous doped-channel HFET devices and circuits fabricated by selective reactive ion etching rather than ion implantation for threshold voltage adjustment.

  19. Complementary Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-10-01

    As the debate over complementary and alternative medicine's place in medicine continues, Texas Medical Association policy recommends physicians stay on top of evidence-based studies of complementary and alternative therapies and routinely ask patients about their use of such therapies.

  20. Health Reform in Minnesota: An Analysis of Complementary Initiatives Implementing Electronic Health Record Technology and Care Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Soderberg, Karen; Rajamani, Sripriya; Wholey, Douglas; LaVenture, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Minnesota enacted legislation in 2007 that requires all health care providers in the state to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. 100% of hospitals and 98% of clinics had adopted EHR systems by end of 2015. Minnesota’s 2008 health reform included a health care home (HCH) program, Minnesota’s patient centered medical home. By end of 2014, 43% of HCH eligible clinics were certified with 335 certified HCHs and 430 eligible but not certified clinics. Objectives: To study the association between adoption and use of EHRs in primary care clinics and HCH certification, including use of clinical decision support tools, patient registries, electronic exchange of patient information, and availability of patient portals. Methods: Study utilized data from the 2015 Minnesota Health Information Technology Clinic Survey conducted annually by the Minnesota Department of Health. The response rate was 80% with 1,181 of 1,473 Minnesota clinics, including 662 HCH eligible primary care clinics. The comparative analysis focused on certified HCHs (311) and eligible but not certified clinics (351). Results: HCH clinics utilized the various tools of EHR technology at a higher rate than non-HCH clinics. This greater utilization was noted across a range of functionalities: clinical decision support, patient disease registries, EHR to support quality improvement, electronic exchange of summary care records and availability of patient portals. HCH certification was significant for clinical decision support tools, registries and quality improvement. Conclusions: HCH requirements of care management, care coordination and quality improvement can be better supported with EHR technology, which underscores the higher rate of utilization of EHR tools by HCH clinics. Optimizing electronic exchange of health information remains a challenge for all clinics, including HCH certified clinics. This research presents the synergy between complementary

  1. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  2. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  3. A Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Wen; Chang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chia; Chen, Huey-Ing; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2016-10-01

    Based on an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach, a Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) is fabricated and investigated at higher temperatures. The Pt/AlGaN interface with nearly oxide-free is verified by an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) depth profile for the studied EPD-HFET. This result substantially enhances device performance at room temperature (300 K). Experimentally, the studied EPD-HFET exhibits a high turn-on voltage, a well suppression on gate leakage, a superior maximum drain saturation current, and an excellent extrinsic transconductance. Moreover, the microwave performance of an EPD-HFET is demonstrated at room temperature. Consequentially, this EPD-gate approach gives a promise for high-performance electronic applications.

  4. High-resistivity GaN buffer templates and their optimization for GaN-based HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Zhao, G.; Pavlidis, D.; Sutton, W.; Cho, E.

    2005-11-01

    High-resistance (HR) GaN templates for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor (HFET) applications were grown using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN sheet resistance was tuned using final nucleation layer (NL) annealing temperature and NL thickness. Using an annealing temperature of 1033 °C and NL thickness of 26 nm, GaN with sheet resistance of 10 10 Ω/sq was achieved, comparable to that of Fe-doped GaN. Material characterization results show that the high-resistance GaN is achieved due to compensating acceptor levels that may be introduced through edge-type threading dislocations. Optimization of annealing temperature and NL thickness provided a means to maximize GaN sheet resistance without significantly degrading material quality. In situ laser reflectance was used to correlate the NL properties to sheet resistance and material quality, providing a figure of merit for expected sheet resistance. AlGaN/GaN HFET layers grown using HR GaN templates with R of 10 10 Ω/sq gave surface and interface roughness of 14 and 7 Å, respectively. The 2DEG Hall mobility and sheet charge of HFETs grown using HR GaN templates was comparable to similar layers grown using unintentionally doped (UID) GaN templates.

  5. Self-aligned silicides for Ohmic contacts in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology: TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.

    2004-07-01

    Metal silicides continue to play an indispensable role during the remarkable development of microelectronics. Along with several other technological innovations, the implementation of the self-aligned silicide technology paved the way for a rapid and successful miniaturization of device dimensions for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in pace with the Moore's law. The use of silicides has also evolved from creating reliable contacts for diodes, to generating high-conductivity current paths for local wiring, and lately to forming low-resistivity electrical contacts for MOSFETs. With respect to the choice of silicides for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, a convergence has become clear with the self-alignment technology using only a limited number of silicides, namely TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi. The present work discusses the advantages and limitations of TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi using the development trend of CMOS technology as a measure. Specifically, the reactive diffusion and phase formation of these silicides in the three terminals of a MOSFET, i.e., gate, source, and drain, are analyzed. This work ends with a brief discussion about future trends of metal silicides in micro/nanoelectronics with reference to potential material aspects and device structures outlined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. .

  6. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and... of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model...

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles §...

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this..., SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and...

  15. High-Current and High-Transconductance Self-Aligned P+-GaAs Junction HFET of Complete Enhancement-Mode Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishii, Katsunori; Yokoyama, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shinji; Tamura, Akiyoshi; Inoue, Kaoru

    1999-04-01

    High-current and high-transconductance self-aligned p+-GaAs junction HFETs (PJ-HFETs) of a complete enhancement-mode operation have been developed for the first time. Due to the advantages of the p/n junction, the barrier height of 1.12 eV has been obtained. To obtain high activation for the Si implanted epitaxial layers, we optimized theannealing conditions. The 0.8 µm-gate complete enhancement mode PJ-HFET with a large forward gate voltage swing of more than 1.5 V exhibited a K-value of 400 mS/Vmm, a maximum transconductance (gmMAX) of 410 mS/mm and a maximum drain current (IMAX) of 380 mA/mm with a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.2 V. The standard deviation of Vth was 18.4 mV across a 3 inch wafer. Operated with a drain bias of 3.3 V, the PJ-HFET demonstrated a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 39.5% with an adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACPR) of -57.4 dBc at an output power (Pout) of 21.5 dBm and a frequency of 1.9 GHz.

  16. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  17. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  18. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  19. The effect of gate length variation on InAlGaN/GaN HFET device characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketteniss, N.; Behmenburg, H.; Lecourt, F.; Defrance, N.; Hoel, V.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Heuken, M.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.

    2012-03-01

    InAlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) with a nearly lattice-matched barrier layer (thickness tbar = 8.3 nm) are investigated. The focus is set on resolving the systematic dependence of device characteristics on the gate length LG. Therefore, five different gate length devices with LG ranging from 75 nm to 2 µm have been realized. Peak values of 460 mS mm-1 and 100 GHz for transconductance gm and unity current gain cut-off frequency fT are obtained for the 75 nm device. DC characteristics as well as the cut-off frequency fT show systematic scaling with the gate length LG. Nevertheless, short-channel effects appear for the short gate length devices in both DC and RF operation, and a critical minimum aspect ratio LG/tbar of 27 is identified for the investigated barrier composition of xIn = 0.11; yAl = 0.63 and zGa = 0.26.

  20. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  1. Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  2. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  4. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN HFETs utilizing post-metallization etching by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Lee, Ching-Sung; Liu, Han-Yin; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Ho, Chiu-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    This work investigates AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) processed by using a simple post-metallization etching (PME) treatment. Decreased gate length (LG) can be achieved by using nitric acid (HNO3) PME treatment owing to the high etching selectivity of HNO3 of Ni against the Au and GaN layer. Influences on LG, etched gate profiles and device characteristics with respect to different PME processing parameters by HNO3 treatment are systematically investigated. Optimum device performance is obtained as LG was reduced to 0.5 µm by using a 1 µm long gate mask by immersing the device into a 45% diluted HNO3 solution for 35 s. Improved device performances, including maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max: 657.6 mA mm-1 → 898.5 mA mm-1), drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS0: 448.3 mA mm-1 → 653.4 mA mm-1), maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm, max: 158.3 mS mm-1 → 219.2 mS mm-1), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 12.35 GHz → 22.05 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 17.55 GHz → 29.4 GHz) and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.: 26.3% → 34.5%) compared to the untreated reference device, have been successfully achieved.

  5. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  6. Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Matched-Impedance Wide-Band Amplifiers With Multiple Feedback Loops Using 0.18 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Lee, Tai-Hsing

    2004-10-01

    The realization of matched-impedance wide-band amplifier fabricated by 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is reported. The technique of multiple feedback loops was used in the amplifier for terminal impedance matching and wide bandwidth simultaneously. The experimental results show that 3-dB bandwidth of 3 GHz and a gain of 10.7 dB with in-band input/output return loss more than 10 dB are obtained. These values agree well with those predicted from the analytic expressions derived for voltage gain, trans-impedance gain, bandwidth, and input/output return loss and impedance. In addition, the use of source capacitive peaking technique can improve the intrinsic over-damped characteristic of this amplifier.

  7. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  8. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  9. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Complementary and alternative are terms used ... with cancer here. What Are Complementary and Alternative Methods? How Are Complementary Methods Used to Manage Cancer? ...

  10. High f T and f max AlGaN/GaN HFETs achieved by using thin and high-Al-composition AlGaN barrier layers and Cat-CVD SiN passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiwaki, M.; Onojima, N.; Matsui, T.; Mimura, T.

    2006-05-01

    We fabricated sub-0.1 m-gate Al0.4Ga0.6N/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with AlGaN barrier thicknesses of 4-10 nm. The devices were passivated with 2 nm-thick SiN layers formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN passivation greatly increased electron density, and the effect became more significant with decreasing AlGaN barrier thickness. The HFETs had maximum drain current densities of 1.1-1.5 A/mm and peak extrinsic transconductances of 305-438 mS/mm. Peak current-gain cutoff frequency of 163 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency of 192 GHz were obtained for the devices with 8 nm-thick AlGaN barriers.

  11. April 25, 2003, FY2003 Progress Summary and FY2002 Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers,and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Bibeau, C

    2005-10-25

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, synergistic effort to develop inertial fusion energy (IFE). This program is building a physics and technology base to complement the laser-fusion science being pursued by DOE Defense programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The current LLNL proposal is a companion document to the one submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. The NRL and LLNL proposals also jointly pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, target physics, materials and power plant economics. This proposal requests continued funding in FY03 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1 kW, 100 J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser, as well as research into high gain fusion target design, fusion chamber issues, and survivability of the final optic element. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments. The HAPL Program pursues technologies needed for laser-driven IFE. System level considerations indicate that a rep-rated laser technology will be needed, operating at 5-10 Hz. Since a total energy of {approx}2 MJ will ultimately be required to achieve suitable target gain with direct drive targets, the architecture must be scaleable. The Mercury Laser is intended to offer such an architecture. Mercury is a solid state laser that incorporates diodes, crystals and gas cooling technologies.

  12. Assortativity of complementary graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Winterbach, W.; van Mieghem, P.

    2011-09-01

    Newman's measure for (dis)assortativity, the linear degree correlationρD, is widely studied although analytic insight into the assortativity of an arbitrary network remains far from well understood. In this paper, we derive the general relation (2), (3) and Theorem 1 between the assortativity ρD(G) of a graph G and the assortativityρD(Gc) of its complement Gc. Both ρD(G) and ρD(Gc) are linearly related by the degree distribution in G. When the graph G(N,p) possesses a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs Gp(N), its complementary graph Gpc(N) = G1-p(N) follows a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs G1-p(N). We prove that the maximum and minimum assortativity of a class of graphs with a binomial distribution are asymptotically antisymmetric: ρmax(N,p) = -ρmin(N,p) for N → ∞. The general relation (3) nicely leads to (a) the relation (10) and (16) between the assortativity range ρmax(G)-ρmin(G) of a graph with a given degree distribution and the range ρmax(Gc)-ρmin(Gc) of its complementary graph and (b) new bounds (6) and (15) of the assortativity. These results together with our numerical experiments in over 30 real-world complex networks illustrate that the assortativity range ρmax-ρmin is generally large in sparse networks, which underlines the importance of assortativity as a network characterizer.

  13. FY2002 Progress Summary Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R; Behrendt, B; Ebbers, C; Latkowski, J; Meier, W; Payne, S; Perkins, J; Schaffers, K; Skulina, K; Ditmire, T; Kelly, J; Waxer, L; Rudi, P; Randles, M; Witter, D; Meissner, H; Merissner, O

    2001-12-13

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, coordinated effort to develop a high-energy, repetitively pulsed laser system for Inertial Fusion Energy and other DOE and DOD applications. This program is building a laser-fusion energy base to complement the laser-fusion science developed by DOE Defense programs over the past 25 years. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and LLNL. The current LLNL proposal is a companion proposal to that submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. Aside from the driver development aspect, the NRL and LLNL companion proposals pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, materials and power plant economics. This report requests continued funding in FY02 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1kW, 100J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser. In addition, research in high gain laser target design, fusion chamber issues and survivability of the final optic element will be pursued. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments.

  14. A novel way to improve the quantum efficiency of silicon light-emitting diode in a standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaikai; Li, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    Silicon diode at avalanche breakdown has visible light emission in the depletion region. It is believed that this optical radiation comes from the kinetic energy loss of carriers generated by impact ionization colliding with immobile charge centers in the avalanche region. A theoretical model is presented to show the correlation of the hot carrier effect with the related photonic emission in high field. Meanwhile, a PMOSFET-like silicon light source device fabricated completely in the standard silicon CMOS process technology is measured to demonstrate that avalanching current is linearly proportional to optical emission power whether this light source acts as a two-terminal device (i.e., diode, the "p+ Source/Drain to n-Substrate junction" with floating the gate) or acts as a three-terminal device (i.e., gate-diode, the "p+ Source/Drain to n-Substrate junction" in the course of varying the gate voltage). Such linearity implies that control of the increasing current is a significant way to enhance the quantum efficiency of this light source device no matter what the physical structure (i.e., two terminals or three terminals) of this device is. For the first time, it has been discovered that, at the same avalanching current, the optical output power in gate-diode structure is higher than the optical output power in diode structure. In other words, for this PMOSFET-like device, the three-terminal operating mode is more efficient than the two-terminal operating mode.

  15. [Complementary care approaches, towards more humanity].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Modern medicine, with its cutting-edge technology, questions the notions of dehumanisation, over-medicalisation, the relationship to care. It seems to be aimed more at the disease than the patient. Complementary care approaches, which also encompass conventional medicine, guide and support the patient. Today, they have a role in giving back to the patient a feeling of being present in the world and testify to different approaches.

  16. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula.

  17. Complementary medicine for the allergist.

    PubMed

    Bielory, L

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a historical overview of the present state of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the treatment of atopic disorders. The evolution of medicine in the United States has been in flux with the advent of newer technologies, new designs in managed care, and integrating the cultural differences into a complex multidisciplinary health care delivery process. There have been several herbal modalities that contain various anti-allergy and asthma components with effects on bronchodilation, congestion, pulmonary function tests, and antagonism of asthma mediators such as histamine and PAF, corticosteroid levels, and clearance of mucus. In the field of allergy, asthma, and immunology, the popularity of CAM is more widespread than other common chronic medical problems. Overall, CAM use has created a $15-billion-a-year industry in dietary supplements alone. This has been especially fueled by the deregulation of the "herbal" industry by the congressional passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. It would appear that our specialty would clearly benefit from expanding its knowledge base about these entities because "allergies" are high on the list of patients seeking CAM. This will prepare us to better coordinate the future possibilities and to "doctor" (i.e., teach) our patients about the risks and benefits of these modalities.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gaboury, Isabelle; Johnson, Noémie; Robin, Christine; Luc, Mireille; O’Connor, Daniel; Patenaude, Johane; Pélissier-Simard, Luce; Xhignesse, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether medical training prepares FPs to meet the requirements of the Collège des médecins du Québec for their role in advising patients on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Secondary analysis of survey results. Setting Quebec. Participants Family physicians and GPs in active practice. Main outcome measures Perceptions of the role of the physician as an advisor on CAM; level of comfort responding to questions and advising patients on CAM; frequency with which patients ask their physicians about CAM; personal position on CAM; and desire for training on CAM. Results The response rate was 19.5% (195 respondents of 1000) and the sample appears to be representative of the target population. Most respondents (85.8%) reported being asked about CAM several times a month. A similar proportion (86.7%) believed it was their role to advise patients on CAM. However, of this group, only 33.1% reported being able to do so. There is an association between an urban practice and knowledge of the advisory role of physicians. More than three-quarters of respondents expressed interest in receiving additional training on CAM. Conclusion There is a gap between the training that Quebec physicians receive on CAM and their need to meet legal and ethical obligations designed to protect the public where CAM products and therapies are concerned. One solution might be more thorough training on CAM to help physicians meet the Collège des médecins du Québec requirements. PMID:27965354

  19. [Complementary medicine--the facts].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud

    2011-08-01

    The popularity of complementary medicine in the western world continues to grow. Complementary medicine has a wide scope of topics including acupuncture, hypnosis, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, tai chi, yoga, botanical and herbal supplements and many other undefined modalities such as copper bracelets, magnets, holy water etc. For most modalities the mechanism of action is unknown and the evidence of benefit is poor. Some modalities such as acupuncture, hypnosis and tai chi may improve pain and other subjective complains. It seems that most of the beneficial effects of complementary medicine are placebo effects. Complementary treatment may be associated with side effects and should not be an alternative to the conventional medicine. Complementary medicine can be used as an adjunct to the conventional medicine and should be used in full agreement with and under the supervision of the attending physician. Patients should be informed about the existing evidence and what to expect from complementary medicine. Further meticulous research should be conducted to expand our knowledge in complementary medicine.

  20. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photo: iStock Herbal supplements, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) ... effective. For example, NCCAM studies have shown that: Acupuncture can provide pain relief and improve function for ...

  1. Small sets of complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassl, M.; McNulty, D.; Mišta, L.; Paterek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Two observables are called complementary if preparing a physical object in an eigenstate of one of them yields a completely random result in a measurement of the other. We investigate small sets of complementary observables that cannot be extended by yet another complementary observable. We construct explicit examples of unextendible sets up to dimension 16 and conjecture certain small sets to be unextendible in higher dimensions. Our constructions provide three complementary measurements, only one observable away from the ultimate minimum of two. Almost all our examples in finite dimensions are useful for discriminating pure states from some mixed states, and they help to shed light on the complex topology of the Bloch space of higher-dimensional quantum systems.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  3. FY2005 Progress Summary and FY2006 Program Plan Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C

    2006-03-24

    The primary focus this year was to operate the system with two amplifiers populated with and pumped by eight high power diode arrays. The system was operated for extended run periods which enabled average power testing of components, diagnostics, and controls. These tests were highly successful, with a demonstrated energy level of over 55 joules for 4 cumulative hours at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (average power 0.55 kW). In addition, high average power second harmonic generation was demonstrated, achieving 227 W of 523.5 nm light (22.7 J, 10 Hz, 15 ns, 30 minutes) Plans to achieve higher energy levels and average powers are in progress. The dual amplifier system utilizes a 4-pass optical arrangement. The Yb:S-FAP slabs were mounted in aerodynamic aluminum vane structures to allow turbulent helium gas flow across the faces. Diagnostic packages that monitored beam performance were deployed during operation. The laser experiments involved injecting a seed beam from the front end into the system and making four passes through both amplifiers. Beam performance diagnostics monitored the beam on each pass to assess system parameters such as gain and nearfield intensity profiles. This year, an active mirror and wavefront sensor were procured and demonstrated in an off-line facility. The active mirror technology can correct for low order phase distortions at user specified operating conditions (such as repetition rates different than 10 Hz) and is a complementary technology to the static phase plates used in the system for higher order distortions. A picture of the laser system with amplifier No.2 (foreground) and amplifier No.1 (background) is shown in Fig. 1.0.1.1. The control system and diagnostics were recently enhanced for faster processing and allow remote operation of the system. The growth and fabrication of the Yb:S-FAP slabs constituted another major element of our program objectives. Our goal was to produce at least fourteen 4x6 cm2 crystalline slabs. These

  4. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  5. A Drosophila complementary DNA resource

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Gerald M.; Hong, Ling; Brokstein, Peter; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Stapleton, Mark; Harvey, Damon A.

    2000-03-24

    Collections of nonredundant, full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for each of the model organisms and humans will be important resources for studies of gene structure and function. We describe a general strategy for producing such collections and its implementation, which so far has generated a set of cDNAs corresponding to over 40% of the genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  6. Complementary therapies for cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, Barrie; Trevisan, Carrie; Gubili, Jyothirmai

    2007-08-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of pain does not always meet patients' needs and may produce difficult side effects. Complementary therapies, which are safe, noninvasive, and generally considered to be relatively free of toxicity, may be used adjunctively with standard pain management techniques to improve outcome and reduce the need for prescription medication. Approaches such as acupuncture, massage therapy, mind-body interventions, and music therapy effectively reduce pain, enhance quality of life, and provide patients with the opportunity to participate in their own care. Such therapies have an important role in modern pain management.

  7. Integrating complementary therapies into health care education: a cautious approach.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    2001-11-01

    The movement of complementary therapy training and education into higher education in the United Kingdom (UK) and the interest in alternative therapeutic approaches within the health professions presents an ideal opportunity for multidisciplinary teaching and shared learning. The diversity and similarities of complementary therapies and areas of convergence with conventional healthcare practice can be explored. The recent publication of the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology report on complementary and alternative medicine (HL Paper 123) provides a broader context for discussion and makes specific recommendations about regulation, education and research in the UK. This paper considers the appropriateness of integrating complementary therapies into education for conventional healthcare practitioners, what we should integrate, and when might be the most appropriate time in the education of healthcare practitioners to introduce different therapeutic modalities and their respective philosophical languages. Rather than present a range of solutions, the paper raises some fundamental issues that are central to the integration of complementary therapeutic approaches. If these issues are neglected as we hurry to incorporate different 'techniques' into our conventional practice, we may simply be left with additional tools that we are ill equipped to use.

  8. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  9. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  10. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  11. The Complementary Function and the General Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramankutty, P.

    1991-01-01

    Clarified is the assertion that the so-called complementary function is indeed the general solution of the homogeneous equation associated with a linear nth-order differential equation. Methods to obtain the particular integral, once the complementary function is determined, are illustrated for both cases of constant and of variable coefficients.…

  12. Adequacy of family foods for complementary feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that complementary foods be introduced to all infants at age 6 mo and that breastfeeding be continued until age 18–24 mo. Beginning at age 6 mo, complementary foods should be pureed, mashed, or semisolid, but by age 12 mo the child should be able to eat solid foods that are consum...

  13. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2015-02-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

  14. Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories.

    PubMed

    Linn, Eike; Rosezin, Roland; Kügeler, Carsten; Waser, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    On the road towards higher memory density and computer performance, a significant improvement in energy efficiency constitutes the dominant goal in future information technology. Passive crossbar arrays of memristive elements were suggested a decade ago as non-volatile random access memories (RAM) and can also be used for reconfigurable logic circuits. As such they represent an interesting alternative to the conventional von Neumann based computer chip architectures. Crossbar architectures hold the promise of a significant reduction in energy consumption because of their ultimate scaling potential and because they allow for a local fusion of logic and memory, thus avoiding energy consumption by data transfer on the chip. However, the expected paradigm change has not yet taken place because the general problem of selecting a designated cell within a passive crossbar array without interference from sneak-path currents through neighbouring cells has not yet been solved satisfactorily. Here we introduce a complementary resistive switch. It consists of two antiserial memristive elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption.

  15. Shielded silicon gate complementary MOS integrated circuit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.; Hayes, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    An electrostatic shield for complementary MOS integrated circuits was developed to minimize the adverse effects of stray electric fields created by the potentials in the metal interconnections. The process is compatible with silicon gate technology. N-doped polycrystalline silicon was used for all the gates and the shield. The effectiveness of the shield was demonstrated by constructing a special field plate over certain transistors. The threshold voltages obtained on an oriented silicon substrate ranged from 1.5 to 3 V for either channel. Integrated inverters performed satisfactorily from 3 to 15 V, limited at the low end by the threshold voltages and at the high end by the drain breakdown voltage of the n-channel transistors. The stability of the new structure with an n-doped silicon gate as measured by the shift in C-V curve under 200 C plus or minus 20 V temperature-bias conditions was better than conventional aluminum gate or p-doped silicon gate devices, presumably due to the doping of gate oxide with phosphorous.

  16. Adhesion of microchannel-based complementary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun K; Bai, Ying; Nadermann, Nichole; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2012-03-06

    We show that highly enhanced and selective adhesion can be achieved between surfaces patterned with complementary microchannel structures. An elastic material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), was used to fabricate such surfaces by molding into a silicon master with microchannel profiles patterned by photolithography. We carried out adhesion tests on both complementary and mismatched microchannel/micropillar surfaces. Adhesion, as measured by the energy release rate required to propagate an interfacial crack, can be enhanced by up to 40 times by complementary interfaces, compared to a flat control, and slightly enhanced for some special noncomplementary samples, despite the nearly negligible adhesion for other mismatched surfaces. For each complementary surface, we observe defects in the form of visible striations, where pillars fail to insert fully into the channels. The adhesion between complementary microchannel surfaces is enhanced by a combination of a crack-trapping mechanism and friction between a pillar and channel and is attenuated by the presence of defects.

  17. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  18. Coding capacity of complementary DNA strands.

    PubMed Central

    Casino, A; Cipollaro, M; Guerrini, A M; Mastrocinque, G; Spena, A; Scarlato, V

    1981-01-01

    A Fortran computer algorithm has been used to analyze the nucleotide sequence of several structural genes. The analysis performed on both coding and complementary DNA strands shows that whereas open reading frames shorter than 100 codons are randomly distributed on both DNA strands, open reading frames longer than 100 codons ("virtual genes") are significantly more frequent on the complementary DNA strand than on the coding one. These "virtual genes" were further investigated by looking at intron sequences, splicing points, signal sequences and by analyzing gene mutations. On the basis of this analysis coding and complementary DNA strands of several eukaryotic structural genes cannot be distinguished. In particular we suggest that the complementary DNA strand of the human epsilon-globin gene might indeed code for a protein. PMID:7015290

  19. Introducing complementary medicine into the medical curriculum.

    PubMed Central

    Rampes, H; Sharples, F; Maragh, S; Fisher, P

    1997-01-01

    We surveyed the deans of British medical schools to determine the provision of complementary medicine in the undergraduate curriculum. We also sampled medical students at one British medical school to determine their knowledge of, and views on instruction in, complementary medicine. There is little education in complementary medicine at British medical schools, but it is an area of active curriculum development. Students' levels of knowledge vary widely between different therapies. Most medical students would like to learn about acupuncture, hypnosis, homoeopathy and osteopathy. We conclude that complementary medicine should be included in the medical undergraduate curriculum. This could be done without a great increase in teaching of facts, and could serve as a vehicle to introduce broader issues, as recommended by the General Medical Council. PMID:9059376

  20. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  1. Complementary therapies for depression: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Rand, J I; Stevinson, C

    1998-11-01

    Depression is one of the most common reasons for using complementary and alternative therapies. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evidence available on the treatment of depression with complementary therapies. Systematic literature searches were performed using several databases, reference list searching, and inquiry to colleagues. Data extraction followed a predefined protocol. The amount of rigorous scientific data to support the efficacy of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression is extremely limited. The areas with the most evidence for beneficial effects are exercise, herbal therapy (Hypericum perforatum), and, to a lesser extent, acupuncture and relaxation therapies. There is a need for further research involving randomized controlled trials into the efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of depression.

  2. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms.

  3. Partial focusing by indefinite complementary metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Mock, Jack J.; Cui, Tie Jun; Smith, David R.

    2008-09-01

    We have experimentally realized a two-dimensional partial focusing within a planar waveguide using complementary indefinite metamaterials. When the electric fields emitted from the dipole are TE polarized, the focusing condition requires negative magnetic response in the propagation direction of the waveguide, which can be achieved by the complementary electric resonator (CELC) structures. We have carefully designed the experimental configurations and the dimensions for the CELC structures. The experimental result is consistent with the theoretical prediction, which validates the partial focusing phenomenon.

  4. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    PubMed

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK.

  5. HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach.

    PubMed

    Karltun, Anette; Karltun, Johan; Berglund, Martina; Eklund, Jörgen

    2017-03-01

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  6. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  7. [Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology].

    PubMed

    Hübner, J

    2013-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine are frequently used by cancer patients. The main benefit of complementary medicine is that it gives patients the chance to become active. Complementary therapy can reduce the side effects of conventional therapy. However, we have to give due consideration to side effects and interactions: the latter being able to reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy and so to jeopardise the success of therapy. Therefore, complementary therapy should be managed by the oncologist. It is based on a common concept of cancerogenesis with conventional therapy. Complement therapy can be assessed in studies. Alternative medicine in contrast rejects common rules of evidence-based medicine. It starts from its own concepts of cancerogenesis, which is often in line with the thinking of lay persons. Alternative medicine is offered as either "alternative" to recommended cancer treatment or is used at the same time but without due regard for the interactions. Alternative medicine is a high risk to patients. In the following two parts of the article, the most important complementary and alternative therapies cancer patients use nowadays are presented and assessed according to published evidence.

  8. Complementary and alternative therapies and SCI nursing.

    PubMed

    Oliver, N R

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are experimenting with different complementary and alternative techniques and practices in their quest to improve their health status or change symptom experiences. Consumer utilization patterns are described, activities to ensure the safety and efficacy of alternative practices are reviewed, and relationships to nursing interventions and nursing responsibilities are presented. The relationship between complementary/alternative therapies and spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing practice, education, and research are described, as well as strategies for integrating these therapies into SCI nursing. The potential roles for SCI nurses and benefits to individuals with SCI are unlimited.

  9. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on complementary access, BIS will forward a copy of the report to the location for its review, in accordance...

  10. A Reassessment of Complementary Access Tools for Chemical Indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, Barry; Stern, Warren; Henzl, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The Complementary Access Working Group (CAWG) was set up as a multi-laboratory team with members from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under the direction and funding provided by National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through NA-241, Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). During FY 13 the CAWG evaluated proliferation indicators based largely on a review of the 1996 version of the IAEA’s Physical Model (Phase 1). During FYs 13 and 14, the CAWG then selected technologies and specific portable and hand-held devices that could be used by the IAEA to identify the chemical compositions of materials found during complementary access (Phase 2). [Note that in this report “chemical” is used in a broad sense to include elements, metals, and alloys as well as chemical compounds.] In November 2014, the CAWG issued its Phase 3 report describing laboratory and field testing of three devices, each device representing a specific technology that the CAWG had selected as a result of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. LANL and BNL continued measurements and analysis during FY15, leading to a reinterpretation of some of the Phase 3 results. This report serves a twofold purpose. The first section of the report compares and contrasts the Phase 3 testing with presently available preliminary results of the Karlsruhe workshop. The results of Phase 3 (and the reinterpretation of some of these results) as well as the preliminary results of the Karlsruhe workshop provide the rationale for the second section of this report. In Section 2 of this report, we revisit the combinations of signatures and technologies considered in Phases 2 and 3 of the CAWG effort. We do this to determine whether the three technologies and the matching instruments selected for the Phase 3 testing are more limited than initially thought. Based on this initial re-evaluation of the

  11. PHM-Ethics and ETICA: complementary approaches to ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mittelstadt, Brent; Stahl, Bernd; Fairweather, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The chapter undertakes a comparison of different approaches to the ethical assessment of novel technologies by looking at two recent research projects. ETICA was a FP7 sister project to PHM-Ethics, responsible for identification and ethical evaluation of information and communication technologies emerging in the next 10-15 years. The aims, methods, outcomes and recommendations of ETICA are compared to those of PHM-Ethics, with identification of linkages and similar findings. A relationship is identified between the two projects, in which the assessment methodologies developed in the projects are shown to operate at separate, but complementary levels. ETICA sought to reform EU ethics governance for emerging ICTs. The outcomes of PHM-Ethics are analyzed within the policy recommendations of ETICA, which demonstrate how the PHM-Ethics toolbox can contribute to ethics governance reform and context-sensitive ethical assessment of the sort called for by ETICA.

  12. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  13. Recruiting Faculty: Complementary Tales from Two Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matier, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing individuals with firm job offers to join the faculty at two research universities, urban and rural, are examined, focusing on the relative importance of tangible, intangible, and non-work-related benefits in the decision-making process. Comparisons are drawn to previous faculty recruitment studies and a complementary retention…

  14. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying different, complementary niches. Niche partitioning is difficult to directly demonstrate, however, because differences among species in the resources they use are often difficult to separate from other species-specific t...

  15. Thinking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Copy This booklet covers: What complementary and alternative medicine is (CAM) is and why people use it The different types of CAM (mind-body methods, biologically based practices, body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole medical systems. How to talk ...

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  17. Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2003-01-01

    This article begins by drawing on literature to examine the various definitions of "technology" and "technique." Following a discussion of the origin of technology in education, the remaining sections of the article focus on the relationships and interaction between: (1) machines and technique; (2) science and technique; (3)…

  18. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  19. Complementary Proteomic Analysis of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Miteva, Yana; Conlon, Frank L.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic characterization of protein complexes leverages the versatile platform of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular and cellular signaling processes underlying the dynamic regulation of macromolecular assemblies. Here, we describe a complementary proteomic approach optimized for immunoisolated protein complexes. As the relative complexity, abundance, and physiochemical properties of proteins can vary significantly between samples, we have provided (1) complementary sample preparation workflows, (2) detailed steps for HPLC and mass spectrometric method development, and (3) a bioinformatic workflow that provides confident peptide/protein identification paired with unbiased functional gene ontology analysis. This protocol can also be extended for characterization of larger complexity samples from whole cell or tissue Xenopus proteomes. PMID:22956100

  20. [Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hidehisa; Machino, Akihiko; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-06-01

    Frequency of insomnia is increasing with age. Benzodiazepine receptor agonist has been prescribed for insomnia in the elderly, but there are some patients who complain the effect is not sufficient. Adherence for sleeping pills is very low in elderly Japanese, because there has been strong stigma against sleeping pills. Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia is widely used in elderly Japanese. Sedative antidepressants, novel antipsychotics, anti-histamine drugs, and supplements are used for insomnia as complementary and alternative medicine. But evidence of these drugs for insomnia is insufficient. In this paper, we outline the previous reports such as the advantages and disadvantages of these drugs for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly.

  1. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering.

  2. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  3. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  4. Using complementary and alternative medicines for depression.

    PubMed

    Fava, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has increased among patients with psychiatric disorders over recent decades. Therefore, clinicians must inquire and be knowledgeable about the use of CAM therapies, not only to give their patients accurate and up-to-date information but also to know when to appropriately prescribe CAM therapies to patients. Of the available CAMs, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, SAM-e, and St John's wort are reviewed.

  5. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  6. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  7. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  8. Predictors of College Students' Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Neill, Kweethai; Fogle, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the use of complementary and alternative medicine among college students (N=913), the relationships between health locus of control with use of complementary and alternative medicine, and health local of control with attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and what predicts their use. A majority (66%, n-913) of…

  9. Traditional and complementary therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Sánchez-Ramos, J R

    1999-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study.

  10. Complementary Skyrmion Racetrack Memory With Voltage Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Zheng, Chentian; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic skyrmion holds promise as information carriers in the next-generation memory and logic devices, owing to the topological stability, small size and extremely low current needed to drive it. One of the most potential applications of skyrmion is to design racetrack memory (RM), named Sk-RM, instead of utilizing domain wall (DW). However, current studies face some key design challenges, e.g., skyrmion manipulation, data representation and synchronization etc. To address these challenges, we propose here a complementary Sk-RM structure with voltage manipulation. Functionality and performance of the proposed design are investigated with micromagnetic simulations.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  12. Complementary medicines in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bogarapu, S; Bishop, J R; Krueger, C D; Pavuluri, M N

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number and availability of various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has resulted in an exponentially growing utilization of these products for everything from minor aches and pains to the treatment of mental illness. Difficulties in treating mental illnesses in children, averseness to having children take psychiatric medications, and stigma all drive patients and their families to research alternative treatments. As a result, there has been an increased utilization of CAM in psychiatry, particularly for hard to treat conditions like pediatric BD. It is important for the health care providers to be aware of the alternative treatments by some of their patients. A review of studies investigating the utility of complementary and alternative medicines in bipolar patients was conducted and selected studies were included. Omega-3 fatty acids and lecithin/ choline have preliminary data indicating potential utility in the CAM treatment for bipolar disorder while S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and inositol have some data supporting their efficacy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. Some data for CAM suggest they may be useful adjunctive treatments but only little data are available to support their use as stand-alone therapy. Thus, the conventional medicines remain the first choice in pediatric bipolar management. Healthcare providers need to routinely inquire about the utilization of these treatments by their patients and become familiar with the risks and benefits involved with their use in children.

  13. Complementary therapy and survival in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mulpur, Bhageeradh H.; Nabors, L. Burt; Thompson, Reid C.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; LaRocca, Renato V.; Thompson, Zachary; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complementary therapy (CAM) is common in cancer patients. We undertook this study to assess the association of complementary therapy usage with mortality in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods The analysis was based on 470 patients. Information on current use of CAM was collected in structured interviews conducted a median of 6 weeks following GBM diagnosis. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for GBM-related death according to the use of individual supplements with multivariate adjustment for known prognostic factors including age, KPS, and extent of tumor resection (ESR). Results Use of CAM agents was common, with 77% of the cohort reporting CAM usage. No mortality association was observed with the use of multivitamins (HR = 0.91; P = .40) or omega-3 fatty acids (HR = 1.07; P = .69). Patients taking vitamin D as an individual supplement (containing higher dosages than in a multivitamin) had reduced mortality when compared with nonusers (age-adjusted HR = 0.68; P = .02). However, the association was diminished after adjustment for KPS and ESR (HR = 0.74; P = .09). Use of herbal supplements was also associated with reduced mortality (HR = 0.58; P = .04). Vitamin E users had a nonsignificantly higher mortality when compared with nonusers (HR = 1.54; P = .09). Conclusions Use of CAM is common in GBM patients. These exploratory analyses suggest no mortality association with the use of multivitamins or omega-3 fatty acids. Associations observed with vitamins D and E merit further investigation. PMID:26649185

  14. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2014-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors.

  15. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use.

    PubMed

    Gable, Jacob T; Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Steffan, Shawn A; Snyder, William E

    2012-09-01

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying complementary niches. Demonstrating niche complementarity among species is challenging, however, due to the difficulty in relating differences between species in particular traits to their use of complementary resources. Here, we overcame this obstacle by exploiting plastic foraging behavior in a community of predatory insects common on Brassica oleracea plants in Washington, USA. These predators complemented one another by partitioning foraging space, with some species foraging primarily along leaf edges and others at leaf centers. We hypothesized that emergent biodiversity effects would occur when predators partitioned foraging space on leaves, but not when spatial complementarity was dampened. Indeed, on intact leaves, edge- and center-foraging predators combined to kill more prey than any single predator species could by itself. These emergent diversity effects, however, disappeared on plants damaged by the caterpillar Plutella xylostella. Caterpillar chew-holes brought edge habitats to the center of leaves, so that all predator species could attack aphids anywhere on plants. With spatial niche differences diminished, there were no benefits of predator diversity; the most voracious single predator species killed the most aphids. Thus, caterpillar herbivory determined whether multi-predator-species effects reflected complementarity or species' individual impacts. Our study provides direct evidence for a causative relationship between niche differentiation and increased resource consumption by diverse communities, as revealed by ecological engineers that homogenize the foraging environment.

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine: impact on dentistry.

    PubMed

    Little, James W

    2004-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represent a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not considered to be part of conventional medicine. Biofeedback, acupuncture, herbal medication, massage, bioelectromagnetic therapy, meditation, and music therapy are examples of CAM treatments. Some dentists in the United States have used some of these treatments and products in their practices. Complementary medicines include herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines, and essential oils. There has been an increase in the use of herbal medicines in the US over the last 15-20 years. There is a public belief that these medicines are safe because they are made from natural sources. However, some of these products have associated adverse effects including toxicity and drug interactions. The health history taken by the dentist should include questions regarding the taking of herbal and over-the-counter medications. The dentist needs to be informed regarding the herbal and over-the-counter products that may impact the delivery of safe and effective dental treatment. In addition, the use of CAM treatments in dentistry should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.

  17. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of BIS. 784.1 Section 784... locations, and the role of BIS. (a) Overview. The Additional Protocol requires that the United States... will: (1) Serve as the official U.S. Government host to the IAEA inspection team; (2) Provide...

  18. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of BIS. 784.1 Section 784... locations, and the role of BIS. (a) Overview. The Additional Protocol requires that the United States... will: (1) Serve as the official U.S. Government host to the IAEA inspection team; (2) Provide...

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review†

    PubMed Central

    Canter, Peter H.; Coon, Joanna Thompson; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to October 2005. Review methods: Articles describing prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of any type of complementary therapy for any medical condition carried out in the UK were included. Data extracted included the main outcomes for health benefit and cost. These data were extracted independently by two authors, described narratively and also presented as a table. Results: Six cost-effectiveness studies of complementary medicine in the UK were identified: four different types of spinal manipulation for back pain, one type of acupuncture for chronic headache and one type of acupuncture for chronic back pain. Four of the six studies compared the complementary therapy with usual conventional treatment in pragmatic, randomized clinical trials without sham or placebo arms. Main outcome measures of effectiveness favored the complementary therapies but in the case of spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (one study) for back pain, effect sizes were small and of uncertain clinical relevance. The same four studies included a cost-utility analyses in which the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was less than £10 000. The complementary therapy represented an additional health care cost in five of the six studies. Conclusions: Prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies have been carried out in the UK only for spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (two studies). The limited data available indicate that the use of these therapies

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2000-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become an important subject for rheumatologists. This article is an attempt to provide an introduction to this subject. It will provide definitions of, and define the prevalence of, CAM. The emphasis of the article is on evaluating the efficacy of CAM treatment modalities. This is achieved by referring to systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture for low back pain, osteo-arthritis, fibromyalgia, inflammatory rheumatoid disease and neck pain. Further areas addressed in this way are herbal remedies, fish oil and glucosamine. Moreover, massage therapy and spinal manipulation for back pain are discussed. The final sections of this review deal with the safety and cost of CAM. It is concluded that, in view of the popularity of CAM with rheumatological patients, rigorous research into CAM is the best way forward.

  1. Modeling tauopathy: a range of complementary approaches.

    PubMed

    Hall, Garth F; Yao, Jun

    2005-01-03

    The large group of neurodegenerative diseases which feature abnormal metabolism and accumulation of tau protein (tauopathies) characteristically produce a multiplicity of cellular and systemic abnormalities in human patients. Understanding the complex pathogenetic mechanisms by which abnormalities in tau lead to systemic neurofibrillary degenerative disease requires the construction and use of model experimental systems in which the behavior of human tau can be analyzed under controlled conditions. In this paper, we survey the ways in which in vitro, cellular and whole-animal models of human tauopathy are being used to add to our knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these conditions. In particular, we focus on the complementary advantages and limitations of various approaches to constructing tauopathy models presently in use with respect to those of murine transgenic tauopathy models.

  2. Complementary and alternative treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon; Balen, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high and increasing worldwide. Patients usually use CAM in addition to conventional medicine, mainly to treat pain. In a large number of cases, people use CAM for chronic musculoskeletal pain as in osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, or fibromyalgia. Herewith, a review is presented of CAM efficacy in treating musculoskeletal pain for which, however, no scientific research has so far provided evidence solid enough. In some rare cases where adequate pain control cannot be achieved, CAM might be considered in rational and individual approach based on the first general rule in medicine "not to harm" and on the utility theory of each intervention, i.e. according to the presumed mechanism of painful stimulus and with close monitoring of the patient's response. Further high quality studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of CAM methods. Therefore, conventional medicine remains the main mode of treatment for patients with musculoskeletal painful conditions.

  3. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  4. Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

  5. Complementary ensemble clustering of biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Fodeh, Samah Jamal; Brandt, Cynthia; Luong, Thai Binh; Haddad, Ali; Schultz, Martin; Murphy, Terrence; Krauthammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly growing availability of electronic biomedical data has increased the need for innovative data mining methods. Clustering in particular has been an active area of research in many different application areas, with existing clustering algorithms mostly focusing on one modality or representation of the data. Complementary ensemble clustering (CEC) is a recently introduced framework in which Kmeans is applied to a weighted, linear combination of the coassociation matrices obtained from separate ensemble clustering of different data modalities. The strength of CEC is its extraction of information from multiple aspects of the data when forming the final clusters. This study assesses the utility of CEC in biomedical data, which often have multiple data modalities, e.g., text and images, by applying CEC to two distinct biomedical datasets (PubMed images and radiology reports) that each have two modalities. Referent to five different clustering approaches based on the Kmeans algorithm, CEC exhibited equal or better performance in the metrics of micro-averaged precision and Normalized Mutual Information across both datasets. The reference methods included clustering of single modalities as well as ensemble clustering of separate and merged data modalities. Our experimental results suggest that CEC is equivalent or more efficient than comparable Kmeans based clustering methods using either single or merged data modalities.

  6. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  7. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  8. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  9. [Alternative and complementary therapies in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Leweling, H; Meinck, H-M

    2005-08-01

    Most MS patients use unconventional therapies, usually as complementary measures in addition to the conventional treatment. Only a few adequate clinical trials exist in this field. By definition, the efficacy of these therapies is unproven. Moreover, the possible risks are also largely unknown. Some therapies rely on rational pathophysiological considerations, other must be regarded as potentially harmful. The influence of diet on MS is unproven. Possibly, unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. However, a few randomized trials yielded inconclusive results. Long-term supplementation of Vitamin D is associated with a decreased MS incidence. There is, however, insufficient evidence for an influence of Vitamin D on the course of the disease. Because of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in MS patients, prophylaxis with Vitamin D and Calcium is widely accepted. The effects of various minerals, selenium, antioxidant compounds, fish oil or vitamins remain speculative. Many patients use cannabis to alleviate spasticity and pain. Small series indicated positive effects, but randomized trials were negative for spasticity. However, many patients report subjective improvement under cannabis even if their objective parameters remain unchanged. Hyperbaric oxygenation was the subject of several small studies with heterogeneous results which, overall, do not support its use. Generally, physical therapies are perceived as an established therapy for MS. Short-term effects are probable, whereas the possible favourable long-term effects are unclear.

  10. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  11. Complementary optical diagnostics of noble gas plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Stewart, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    In this talk we will discuss our theoretical modeling and application of an array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques for low-temperature plasmas. These are cw laser collisionally induced fluorescence (LCIF), cw optogalvanic effect (OGE), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). We will briefly present an overview of our investigation of neon positive column plasmas for reduced axial electrical fields ranging from 3x10-17 Vcm^2 to 2x10-16 Vcm^2 (3-20 Td), detailing our determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients involving the fifteen lowest levels, the ^1S0 ground state and the 1s and 2p excited states (in Paschen notation), hence information on several energy regions of the electron distribution function (EDF). The discussion will be extended to show the new results obtained from analysis of the argon positive column over similar reduced fields. Future work includes application of our multi-diagnostic technique to move complex systems, including the addition of molecules for EDF determination.

  12. Complementary compressive imaging for the telescopic system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Yun; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Conventional single-pixel cameras recover images only from the data recorded in one arm of the digital micromirror device, with the light reflected to the other direction not to be collected. Actually, the sampling in these two reflection orientations is correlated with each other, in view of which we propose a sampling concept of complementary compressive imaging, for the first time to our knowledge. We use this method in a telescopic system and acquire images of a target at about 2.0 km range with 20 cm resolution, with the variance of the noise decreasing by half. The influence of the sampling rate and the integration time of photomultiplier tubes on the image quality is also investigated experimentally. It is evident that this technique has advantages of large field of view over a long distance, high-resolution, high imaging speed, high-quality imaging capabilities, and needs fewer measurements in total than any single-arm sampling, thus can be used to improve the performance of all compressive imaging schemes and opens up possibilities for new applications in the remote-sensing area. PMID:25060569

  13. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-03-16

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering.

  14. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  15. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology. PMID:27991594

  16. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-19

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  17. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics. PMID:27762321

  18. Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine in Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beuth, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Summary Complementary medicine is currently widely debated by the oncologic community, because the required scientific proof of safety and effectiveness for most of the therapeutic approaches ha s not yet been met with definite results. In the past years, basic research and clinical evaluation of defined complementary therapeutic concepts in oncology have been intensified in an attempt to integrate these procedures into evidence-based medicine. According to definition, scientifically-based therapies of complementary medicine cannot replace the well-studied conventional cancer-destructive therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy. Complementary approaches in oncology that are recommended as an addition to standard cancer-destructive therapies claim to optimize this therapy. A great body of data emerging from scientifically sound clinical trials prove that defined complementary procedures are beneficial for the patients. PMID:20877679

  19. Complementary versus companion diagnostics: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Bryan, Crystal; Garafalo, Steven; McKiernan, Marie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several major problems that have plagued biopharmaceutical development since the end of the 1990s, but two in particular have reached the point where they are impacting the economic viability of the industry: the lack of efficacy of new drugs and increasing competition among therapeutics that broadly attack certain common diseases and disease areas. The US FDA has noted that the era of one-size-fits-all treatment may well be reaching its end days as companies increasingly adopt approaches that involve biomarkers (there are now commercial databases that purport to track over 11,000 of them). Pharmacogenomic biomarkers in particular are used to create diagnostics that help to differentiate or stratify the likely outcomes a patient will experience with a drug, which can now be said to be targeted or tailored to patients with particular traits (i.e., personalized), leading to an era of so-called precision medicine. As more is understood about diseases and the why and how of their effects on people through advances in biomarkers and genomics, personalized medicine is becoming a natural result of biomedical science and a natural trajectory for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry. The focus of this article is to examine an apparent divergence in that trajectory engendered by a growing differentiation in the approaches to personalized medicines in terms of their accompanying diagnostics: companion diagnostics are typically linked to a specific drug within its approved label, while complementary diagnostics are associated more broadly, usually not with a specific drug but with a class of drugs, and not confined to specific uses by labeling, with consequent ramifications for economic, regulatory and strategic considerations.

  20. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm.

  1. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries - Lessons from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6-23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6-23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  2. Complementary structure sensitive and insensitive catalytic relationships.

    PubMed

    Van Santen, Rutger A

    2009-01-20

    reactions such as hydrogenation typically show particle-size-independent behavior. The rate-limiting step for these class III reactions is the recombination of an adsorbed hydrogen atom with the surface alkyl intermediate and the formation of a sigma-type bond. Herein is our molecular theory explaining the three classes of structure sensitivity. We describe how reactions with rates that are independent of particle size and reactions with a positive correlation between size and rate are in fact complementary phenomena. The elucidation of a complete theory explaining the size dependence of transition metal catalysts will assist in the rational design of new catalytic systems and accelerate the evolution of the field of nanotechnology.

  3. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  4. Use of complementary veterinary medicine in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ed

    2002-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.

  5. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process. PMID:28134291

  6. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed.

  7. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process.

  8. Unipolar Complementary Circuits Using Double Electron Layer Tunneling Tansistors

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.

    1998-10-19

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of 2D-2D interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor - in addition to exhibiting a welldefined negative-differential-resistance can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and band-bending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series.

  9. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  10. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  12. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  13. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe.

  14. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  15. Complementary system vaporizes subcooled liquid, improves transformer efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketaily, E. C.

    1966-01-01

    Complementary system converts subcooled liquid hydrogen or nitrogen to gas. The inherent induction heat losses of an electrical transformer are used in the vaporizing process. Transformer efficiency is improved in the process.

  16. The Challenge of Educating Physicians about Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that most physicians are not prepared to respond knowledgeably about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) modalities and suggests incorporating systematic presentation of CAM information into the curricula of medical schools. (EV)

  17. Critical review of complementary therapies in haemato-oncology.

    PubMed

    Joske, D J L; Rao, A; Kristjanson, L

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence of the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine by Australians diagnosed with cancer. Given the increasing desire of cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine, it is important that clinicians have a good understanding of the evidence available in this field. This critical review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence pertaining to a range of complementary therapies that are used in a supportive role in the treatment of cancer patients. Treatment methods considered are acupuncture, music therapy, massage and touch therapies and psychological interventions. The efficacy of these complementary therapies in terms of improvement in symptoms and quality of life is examined. Evidence that relates to an effect on immune function and survival is also investigated.

  18. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures.

  19. RNA-catalysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Szostak, Jack W.

    1989-06-01

    The Tetrahymena ribozyme can splice together multiple oligonucleotides aligned on a template strand to yield a fully complementary product strand. This reaction demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-catalysed RNA replications.

  20. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  1. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  2. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong'an; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Jang, Sei-Hum; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-09-23

    An understanding of structure-property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  3. Evaluating the economics of complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.(1) (-) (4) The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion-11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.(1) However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an "add on" expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  4. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    PubMed

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  5. 78 FR 10184 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Studies of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: March 14, 2013. Time:...

  6. 77 FR 10540 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

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  7. 77 FR 52751 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

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  8. 75 FR 6041 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

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  9. 76 FR 27651 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-12

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  10. 75 FR 11186 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine..., the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the public to attend.... Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in...

  11. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the.... Seating is limited. Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)...

  12. 76 FR 30735 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

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  13. 76 FR 17140 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

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  14. 75 FR 26260 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: May 4, 2010....

  15. 76 FR 6806 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-02-08

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  16. 78 FR 37836 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

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  17. 76 FR 79201 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-12-21

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  18. 78 FR 56238 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-09-12

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  19. 77 FR 58402 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-09-20

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  20. 76 FR 12744 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine,...

  1. 78 FR 34664 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  2. 75 FR 6039 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special.... 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes...

  3. 76 FR 10913 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-02-28

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  4. 77 FR 1940 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  5. 75 FR 1796 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-01-13

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  6. 78 FR 66755 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-11-06

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  7. 75 FR 57970 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-09-23

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  8. 76 FR 38404 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-30

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  9. 78 FR 47328 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-05

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  10. 78 FR 21381 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-04-10

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  11. 76 FR 16433 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-23

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  12. 77 FR 24971 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-26

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  13. 75 FR 65498 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

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  14. 77 FR 31862 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  15. 75 FR 35075 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

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  16. 76 FR 35227 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

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  17. 76 FR 59707 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

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  18. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2016-07-01

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  19. A Survey of Hospices Use of Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice; Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Andrews, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    As people live longer with chronic illnesses, the need for hospice services will increase. Complementary therapies have been shown to increase ease, relieve pain, and improve quality of life; all relevant for people with chronic illness at the end of their lives. The first aim of this study was to identify complementary therapy services available to, and provided for, clients receiving hospice care in Nevada and Montana. The second aim was to identify differences in those therapies for urban and rural hospice clients. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from surveys sent to all hospice administrators in Nevada and Montana (N=54). A 50% (n=27) response rate was obtained. Most (70.4%, n=19) of the participating hospices offered complementary therapy; slightly more than half (52.9%, n=9) provided the services for less than 25% of their clients. No significant differences were found between rural and urban hospices. PMID:19756253

  20. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term “Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641

  1. Integrative oncology: managing cancer pain with complementary and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Seright, Teresa

    2012-08-01

    For the projected 1,638,910 patients with a diagnosis of cancer this year, the great majority of them (75-90 %) will experience cancer-related pain. A growing number of these patients will turn to complementary and alternative therapies to assist with the management of their pain and other cancer-related symptoms. The World Health Organization's suggested approach to pain management begins with the use of time honored opioids, but recommends the use of adjuvant therapies early in the management process. Complementary and alternative therapies are being used by more patients each year to assist with the management of their pain. Practitioners and researchers must be aware of the evidence that exists to support or refute the use of these therapies. In this manuscript we review evidence from the recent past on complementary and alternative therapies for pain with emphasis on more common modalities including acupuncture, bio-energy, massage, and music.

  2. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client.

  3. [The regulatory framework for complementary and alternative medicines in Europe].

    PubMed

    Knöss, Werner; Stolte, F; Reh, K

    2008-07-01

    Medicinal products from complementary and alternative medicine are in Germany a regular part of the health care system. Herbal, homeopathic, anthroposophic and traditional medicinal products are highly accepted by the population. The German Medicines Act obliged the competent authorities to consider the particular characteristics of complementary and alternative medicines. The European regulatory framework defined the status of herbal medicinal products, traditional herbal medicinal products and homeopathic medicinal products within the directive 2001/83/EC. The committee for herbal medicinal products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency in London (EMEA); for homeopathic medicinal products there is a specific working group established by the Heads of Medicines Agencies. Harmonisation of medicinal products from complementary and alternative and traditional medicine in Europe was enforced by implementation of directive 2001/83/EC in national legislations of member states. The provisions of this directive will substantially influence the development of the European market during the forthcoming years.

  4. Complementary-structure catadioptric omnidirectional sensor design for resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lidong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Maojun; Bao, Weidong; Zhang, Xin

    2011-03-01

    Considering the problem of low and nonuniform resolution in omnidirectional imaging, a complementary catadioptric imaging method is proposed by using multiple mirrors. Due to the reflection of mirrors, each spatial object has two imaging positions, in the inner and outer of sampled omnidirectional images, respectively, which are generated from two different optical paths. For instance, a prototype of omnidirectional sensor based on complementary double imaging is designed, which contains two convex mirrors (cone and hyperboloid) in conjunction with a plane mirror. The design constraints and optical geometric model of imaging are analyzed in detail. By mathematical analysis, two improvements of resolution have been achieved: (1) more uniform distribution of resolution and (2) complementary resolution distribution in the radial and tangential directions between the inner and outer. To prove and demonstrate the remarkable complementarity, a simple fusion experiment based on wavelet decomposition and reconstruction is performed on a pair of cylindrical panoramic images unwrapped from an omnidirectional image.

  5. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  6. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one’s right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., ‘hand-shaking’) irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  7. Optimal advertising and pricing decisions for complementary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Charmchi, Masoud

    2015-02-01

    Cooperative advertising is an agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer to share advertising cost at the local level. Previous studies have not investigated cooperative advertising for complementary products and their main focus was only on one good. In this paper, we study a two-echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer with two complementary goods. The demand of each good is influenced not only by its price but also by the price of the other product. We use two game theory approaches to model this problem; Stackelberg manufacturer and Stackelberg retailer.

  8. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  9. A complementary logic partitioning algorithm for a library-free logic synthesis paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Masry, Hisham; Al-Khalili, Dhamin

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for technology partitioning in a library free paradigm based on the use of virtual cells. Previous methods for library free logic partitioning rely on creating the largest possible partitions from a user defined criteria, predominately the stack length of the transistor level implementation. However, these methods can cause conflicting structures, defying the AND-OR-INVERT (AOI) and OR-AND-INVERT (OAI) representations that are used as templates for the virtual cells. The Complementary Logic Partitioning (CLP) algorithm, defines a partition as consisting of only two hierarchical levels of complementary nodes (AND and OR), as well as using the logical effort model for the migration of inputs to optimize the partitions to meet both the user defined limiting criteria and minimize the delay of the inputs. The CLP algorithm is compared against Synopsys' Design Compiler using Artisan standard cell library for a set of MCNC '91 benchmarks. Preliminary simulation results based on TSMC's 0.18 micron CMOS technology, show a reduction of more than 50% in the critical path delay can be achieved with CLP.

  10. Flexible complementary metal oxide semiconductor microelectrode arrays with applications in single cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajouhi, H.; Jou, A. Y.; Jain, R.; Ziabari, A.; Shakouri, A.; Savran, C. A.; Mohammadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    A highly flexible microelectrode array with an embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation amplifier suitable for sensing surfaces of biological entities is developed. The array is based on ultrathin CMOS islands that are thermally isolated from each other and are interconnected by meandered nano-scale wires that can adapt to cellular surfaces with micro-scale curvatures. CMOS temperature sensors are placed in the islands and are optimally biased to have high temperature sensitivity. While no live cell thermometry is conducted, a measured temperature sensitivity of 0.15 °C in the temperature range of 35 to 40 °C is achieved by utilizing a low noise CMOS lock-in amplifier implemented in the same technology. The monolithic nature of CMOS sensors and amplifier circuits and their versatile flexible interconnecting wires overcome the sensitivity and yield limitations of microelectrode arrays fabricated in competing technologies.

  11. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section 3405.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS...

  12. [Relaxation, a complementary approach for mental health nurses].

    PubMed

    Besnier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Relaxation is arousing growing interest in mental health. Its positive effects are in line with an active approach which brings together body and mind and place the individual back on the path of self-awareness. The relationship with the patient constitutes the "therapeutic we" ensuring its therapeutic importance. It represents a complementary and original approach to caring.

  13. The discrete complementary variational principle and optimal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    A discrete complementary variational principle is developed and applied to linear and nonlinear discrete-time optimal control systems. Using the variational approach, a primal-dual relationship is established. This relationship provides a precise measure of system suboptimality independent of any a priori knowledge of the optimal solution.

  14. Disciplinary Regimes of "Care" and Complementary Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In schools, the notion of "care" is often synonymous with welfare and disciplinary regimes. Drawing on Foucault, and a study of alternative education (AE) across the UK, and looking in depth at two cases of complementary AE, we identify three types of disciplinary regimes at work in schools: (1) dominant performative reward and…

  15. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: An Evidence-Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has experienced a dramatic growth in use and acceptability over the last 20 years. CAM is a diverse collection of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered a component of conventional medicine. CAM traditionally has been practiced by informally educated…

  16. Complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease: a spect study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhuo, Ying; Wik, Gustav

    2010-02-01

    We studied cerebral effects of complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measures of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-TRODAT-4, before and after five weeks of treatment. Ten patients were randomly assigned to receive levodopa alone (controls) or levodopa and complementary scalp electro-acupuncture. Before treatment, no hemispheric regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) differences were found, whereas striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) activity was lower in the most affected hemisphere. Treatment with levodopa alone did not change rCBF, whereas it increased basal ganglion DAT activity in the most affected hemisphere. Patients who received levodopa and complementary acupuncture had increased rCBF in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe, the basal ganglion, and the cerebellum in the most affected hemisphere as compared to baseline, but there were no changes in basal ganglia DAT levels. Thus, complementary acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's disease may affect rCBF but not basal ganglion DAT.

  17. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  18. Complementary Alternation Discourse Constructions in English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iza Erviti, Aneider

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the essential features of a group of constructions that belong to the family of complementary alternation discourse constructions in English. In this group of constructions, X and Y are two situations such that Y is less likely (or more likely) to happen than X. Each member of this group (X Let Alone Y, X Much Less Y, X Never…

  19. Polarization dependent enhanced infrared transmission through complementary nanostructured gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Gangadhar; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-05-01

    A pair of complementary-structured gold films, with periodic rectangular nanoscale patches and rectangular holes in the complementary layer arranged in a stretched hexagonal lattice and spaced apart by 200 nm of a photoresist film, were fabricated by laser interference lithography and subsequent physical vapor deposition of gold. The pair of complementary films showed a polarization-dependent extraordinary transmission (EOT) at mid-infrared frequencies, evidenced by a resonant dip in reflectance and strong enhancement of the transmittance for light polarized perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular structures. Numerical simulations confirm the enhanced transmission and indicate the involvement of the TE01 wave-guide mode resonance of the rectangular structures in the resonant transmittance. The enhanced transmittance in the complementary pair of structured films separated by sub-wavelength distances, which is otherwise be expected to be opaque, is surprising. The Poynting vector maps show that the energy flow weaves across the openings in the two structured films. Dependence on the metal thickness and period of the structures have been investigated. Sensitivity of the EOT peak to the surrounding medium's refractive index is studied by simulations to reveal its potential for sensor applications.

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  2. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into the Health Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sheila M.; Graf, Helen M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches in health education, suggesting a proposed CAM course for health education professional preparation and offering a course outline which can be used as a self- standing course or integrated into existing courses. It includes a proposed course description and goals,…

  3. A Complementary Ecological Model of the Coordinated School Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A complementary ecological model of the coordinated school health program (CSHP) reflecting 20 years of evolved changes is proposed. Ecology refers to the complex interrelationship between intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes and primary groups, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy. Methods: Public…

  4. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group. PMID:26047131

  5. Complementary Waveforms for Sidelobe Suppression and Radar Polarimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    at all delays other than zero. Almost a decade after their invention, Welti rediscovered complementary sequences (there are his D-codes) [6] and... Welti , “Quaternary codes for pulsed radar,” IRE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-6, no. 3, pp. 400–408, June 1960. [7] M. R. Ducoff and B. W. Tietjen

  6. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section 3405.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3405.8...

  7. The Complementary Use of Cluster and Factor Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Bernard S.; Primavera, Louis H.

    1983-01-01

    Factor and cluster analyses are distinctly different multivariate procedures with different goals. However, when used in a complementary fashion, each set of methods can be used to enhance the interpretation of results found in the other set of methods. Simple examples illustrating the joint use of the methods are provided. (Author)

  8. Negotiating Language, Culture and Pupil Agency in Complementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytra, Vally

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…

  9. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnik, Allison E.; Ireland, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest over half of children with autism are using complementary alternative medicine (CAM). In this study, physicians responded (n = 539, 19% response rate) to a survey regarding CAM use in children with autism. Physicians encouraged multi-vitamins (49%), essential fatty acids (25%), melatonin (25%) and probiotics (19%) and…

  10. Development of an Attitudes towards Complementary Therapies Scale for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lee-Ann; White, Katherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This study designed and tested a scale to measure psychologists' attitudes towards complementary and alternative therapies. The scale, derived from existing measures for medical professionals, was tested on a sample of psychology students (N = 163) using an online survey. The data were factor analysed and three correlated subscales were…

  11. High performance printed N and P-type OTFTs enabling digital and analog complementary circuits on flexible plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, S.; Abdinia, S.; Benwadih, M.; Bablet, J.; Chartier, I.; Gwoziecki, R.; Cantatore, E.; van Roermund, A. H. M.; Maddiona, L.; Tramontana, F.; Maiellaro, G.; Mariucci, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Palmisano, G.; Coppard, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a printed organic complementary technology on flexible plastic substrate with high performance N and P-type Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs), based on small-molecule organic semiconductors in solution. Challenges related to the integration of both OTFT types in a common complementary flow are addressed, showing the importance of surface treatments. Stability on single devices and on an elementary complementary digital circuit (ring oscillator) is studied, demonstrating that a robust and reliable flow with high electrical performances can be established for printed organic devices. These devices are used to manufacture several analog and digital building blocks. The design is carried out using a model specifically developed for this technology, and taking into account the parametric variability. High-frequency measurements of printed envelope detectors show improved speed performance, resulting from the high mobility of the OTFTs. In addition, a compact dynamic flip-flop and a low-offset comparator are demonstrated, thanks to availability of both n-type and p-type OTFTs in the technology. Measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. The circuits presented establish a complete library of building blocks for the realization of a printed RFID tag.

  12. An extremely stable, self-complementary hydrogen-bonded duplex

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Huang; Yang, Xiaowu; Brown, A L.; Martinovic, Suzana; Smith, Richard D.; Gong, Bing

    2003-07-30

    This paper describes the design, synthesis and characterization of a self-complementary six-H-bonded duplex with an association constant greater than 10{sup 9}/M in CHCl3. Numerous unnatural self-assembly systems have been developed in recent years. Most of these previously described systems are case-dependent, i.e., the individual components carry the information that defines only the formation of the specific assembly. An alternative approach involves the design of highly specific and highly stable recognition units (modules)that are compatible with a variety of structural components. Such recognition modules or ''molecular glues'' then direct the assembly of these structural components. In this regard,hydrogen-bonded complexes based on rigid heterocycles with multiple H-bonding donor (D) and acceptor (A) sites have received the most attention in recent years. Other complexes, most based on H-bonding interactions, have also been reported. Highly stable, self-complementary H-bonded complexes are particularly attractive for developing supramolecular homopolymers of very high molecular weights. In spite of the intriguing perspective, only a very small number of self-complementary H-bonded complexes with high stabilities are known. The best known examples involve two pairs of quadruply H-bonded, self-complementary complexes, both based on the AADD-DDAA array, and with association constants greater than 10{sup 7}/M. We report here the design and characterization of our first six-H-bonded, self-complementary duplex that contains the AADADD-DDADAA array.

  13. Multi-band terahertz active device with complementary metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Linlin; Sun, Han; Xu, Gaiqi; Zhao, Yuncheng; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-09-28

    We describe a multi-band terahertz-active device using a composite structure made of complementary metamaterial and doped silicon that can be dynamically controlled. This special complementary metamaterial exhibits three resonances that produce three pass-bands. The pass-bands can be uniformly manipulated by exploiting the photoinduced characteristics of the doped silicon. Simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic field and surface current distributions. The simulation results agree well with experimental results obtained from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Using an 808-nm-wavelength laser beam, a modulation depth of up to 80% was obtained. In numerical simulations, we used a conductivity mode to characterize photoinduction. The development of multi-band terahertz-active devices has many potential applications, for example, in filters, modulators, switches, and sensors.

  14. Complementary and alternative approaches to pain relief during labor.

    PubMed

    Tournaire, Michel; Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-12-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief During Labor

    PubMed Central

    Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness. PMID:18227907

  16. Asteroid models from photometry and complementary data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    I discuss inversion methods for asteroid shape and spin reconstruction with photometry (lightcurves) and complementary data sources such as adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data. These are essentially different sampling modes (generalized projections) of plane-of-sky images. An important concept in this approach is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. The maximum compatibility estimate, a multi-modal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, can be used for this purpose. I discuss the fundamental properties of lightcurve inversion by examining the two-dimensional case that, though not usable in our three-dimensional world, is simple to analyze, and it shares essentially the same uniqueness and stability properties as the 3-D case. After this, I review the main aspects of 3-D shape representations, lightcurve inversion, and the inclusion of complementary data.

  17. Complementary roles of interventional radiology and therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Ray, David M; Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Vilmann, Peter; McCowan, Timothy C; Patel, Akash M

    2017-01-01

    Acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tubes and luminal strictures are some of the common reasons for gastroenterology service. While surgery was initially considered the main treatment modality, the advent of both therapeutic endoscopy and interventional radiology have resulted in the paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In this paper, we discuss the patient’s work up, indications, and complementary roles of endoscopic and angiographic management in the settings of gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tube placement and luminal strictures. These conditions often require multidisciplinary approaches involving a team of interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. Further, the authors also aim to describe how the fields of interventional radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are overlapping and complementary in the management of these complex conditions.

  18. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  19. Subnanowatt carbon nanotube complementary logic enabled by threshold voltage control.

    PubMed

    Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; McMorrow, Julian J; Xu, Weichao; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Everaerts, Ken; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-10-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate thin-film single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices with subnanowatt static power consumption and full rail-to-rail voltage transfer characteristics as is required for logic gate cascading. These results are enabled by a local metal gate structure that achieves enhancement-mode p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) with widely separated and symmetric threshold voltages. These complementary SWCNT TFTs are integrated to demonstrate CMOS inverter, NAND, and NOR logic gates at supply voltages as low as 0.8 V with ideal rail-to-rail operation, subnanowatt static power consumption, high gain, and excellent noise immunity. This work provides a direct pathway for solution processable, large area, power efficient SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems.

  20. Polarization-independent transparency window induced by complementary graphene metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Bing; Liu, Ji Long; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-01-01

    A fourfold symmetric graphene-based complementary metasurface featuring a polarization-independent transparency window is proposed and numerically analysed in this paper. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of a monolayer graphene perforated with a cross and four identical split-ring resonators deposited on a substrate. Our analysis shows that the transparency window can be interpreted as a plasmonic analogy of Autler-Townes splitting. The polarization independence is achieved due to the fourfold symmetry of graphene’s complementary structure. In addition, the frequency range of the transparency window can be dynamically tuned over a broad band by changing the chemical potential of graphene, and the width of the transparency window can also be controlled by changing the split-gap orientation. This work may lead to potential applications in many area, such as slow-light devices and optical sensing.

  1. Toward a Complementary Neuroscience: Metastable Coordination Dynamics of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, J. A. Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    Metastability has been proposed as a new principle of behavioral and brain function and may point the way to a truly complementary neuroscience. From elementary coordination dynamics we show explicitly that metastability is a result of a symmetry-breaking caused by the subtle interplay of two forces: the tendency of the components to couple together and the tendency of the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. The metastable regime reconciles the well-known tendencies of specialized brain regions to express their autonomy (segregation) and the tendencies for those regions to work together as a synergy (integration). Integration ~ segregation is just one of the complementary pairs (denoted by the tilde [~] symbol) to emerge from the science of coordination dynamics. We discuss metastability in the brain by describing the favorable conditions existing for its emergence and by deriving some predictions for its empirical characterization in neurophysiological recordings.

  2. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits.

    PubMed

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-19

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  3. Complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.; Farison, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between the complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming is demonstrated through a geometric approach in a Hilbert space setting. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such a principle is given in the case of a convex functional constrained by linear dynamics. Its relationship to the Kuhn-Tucker saddle point theory is indicated. Applications to various programming and control problems are discussed.

  4. Quality improvement and quality management: Complementary or contradictory

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, M.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Quality improvement processes (QIP's) and quality management systems (QMS's) are becoming part of manufacturing and service company language. In some cases, there are perceived differences between the concepts of continuous improvement and documented systems to ensure quality. The author has seen examples of QIP's and QMS's working in a complementary fashion to improve existing manufacturing and administrative processes. These examples show that quality improvement activities are compatible with and can enhance the effectiveness of QMS's if the two are integrated properly.

  5. Complementary optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Cai, Xian-Ming; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M; Wabnitz, Stefan; Baronio, Fabio

    2016-03-21

    We investigate the resonant interaction of two optical pulses of the same group velocity with a pump pulse of different velocity in a weakly dispersive quadratic medium and report on the complementary rogue wave dynamics which are unique to such a parametric three-wave mixing. Analytic rogue wave solutions up to the second order are explicitly presented and their robustness is confirmed by numerical simulations, in spite of the onset of modulation instability activated by quantum noise.

  6. The leadership team: complementary strengths or conflicting agendas?

    PubMed

    Miles, Stephen A; Watkins, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Senior leadership teams whose members play complementary roles have been chronicled as far back as Homer's account of the Trojan War: Although King Agamemnon commanded the Greek army, Achilles, Odysseus, and Nestor each played a distinct role in defeating Troy. Today, complementary-leadership structures are common and, in some cases, even institutionalized. Think of a CEO concerned mainly with external issues and a COO who focuses internally. The authors describe four kinds of complementarity: task, expertise, cognitive, and role. The two top executives at the software company Adobe Systems, for example, represent the second kind. As CEO, Bruce Chizen draws on his sales and marketing knowledge, while COO Shantanu Narayen adds his engineering and product development expertise. Roberto Goizueta, formerly the CEO of Coca-Cola, and Douglas Ivester, his COO (who later became CEO), were famous examples of the fourth type: Goizueta, the diplomat, maintained good relations with external stakeholders; Ivester, the warrior, drove the company to defeat the competition. Bringing together two or more people with complementary strengths can compensate for the natural limitations of each. But with the benefits comes the risk of confusion, disagreement about priorities, and turf battles. Leadership succession also presents substantial challenges, especially when a COO or president who has worked in a complementary fashion with the CEO moves into the top role. An organization's board of directors and CEO can manage the risks by fostering a shared vision, common incentives, communication, and trust. They can also ensure smooth succession processes in various ways, such as brokering a gradual transfer of responsibilities or allowing the CEO and the COO to share duties as long as they maintain the logic of complementarity.

  7. The bioinformatics of psychosocial genomics in alternative and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E

    2003-06-01

    The bioinformatics of alternative and complementary medicine is outlined in 3 hypotheses that extend the molecular-genomic revolution initiated by Watson and Crick 50 years ago to include psychology in the new discipline of psychosocial and cultural genomics. Stress-induced changes in the alternative splicing of genes demonstrate how psychosomatic stress in humans modulates activity-dependent gene expression, protein formation, physiological function, and psychological experience. The molecular messengers generated by stress, injury, and disease can activate immediate early genes within stem cells so that they then signal the target genes required to synthesize the proteins that will transform (differentiate) stem cells into mature well-functioning tissues. Such activity-dependent gene expression and its consequent activity-dependent neurogenesis and stem cell healing is proposed as the molecular-genomic-cellular basis of rehabilitative medicine, physical, and occupational therapy as well as the many alternative and complementary approaches to mind-body healing. The therapeutic replaying of enriching life experiences that evoke the novelty-numinosum-neurogenesis effect during creative moments of art, music, dance, drama, humor, literature, poetry, and spirituality, as well as cultural rituals of life transitions (birth, puberty, marriage, illness, healing, and death) can optimize consciousness, personal relationships, and healing in a manner that has much in common with the psychogenomic foundations of naturalistic and complementary medicine. The entire history of alternative and complementary approaches to healing is consistent with this new neuroscience world view about the role of psychological arousal and fascination in modulating gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing via the psychosocial and cultural rites of human societies.

  8. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  9. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  10. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Complementary and alternative medicine deserves scientific scrutiny as patients with glaucoma often lose vision despite adequate medical or surgical treatment. Most glaucomatologists abstain from recommending alternative medicine as there is little evidence to support most of the recommendations for complementary and alternate management (CAM) use in glaucoma. Megavitamin supplementation has not been shown to have a long-term beneficial effect on glaucoma. In a glaucomatous eye, a very modest benefit of IOP-lowering may be offset by the temporary elevation in IOP that accompanies exercise. There is little evidence to support the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch for the treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can have a profound lowering of IOP, but the low response rate, short half-life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Future research must be carried out to document the effect of CAM not only on IOP, but also on perimetric tests or other objective parameters, such as ocular blood fow and nerve fiber layer thickness. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):54-57. PMID:26997809

  11. Complementary feeding in the MENA region: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, L; Zeidan, M N; Naja, F; Hwalla, N

    2012-10-01

    Suboptimal feeding patterns during the first two years of life are key determinants of malnutrition in children and constitute an important predictor of health in later years. Early-childhood nutritional factors, stunting, and obesity have been highlighted as prominent core underlying factors of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) development whereas the improvement of complementary feeding practices has been cited as one of the most effective preventive strategies for reducing malnutrition and adult NCDs. In the MENA region NCD prevalence shows very high rates and the limited available studies show that current practices fall behind global recommendations. Common to all countries of this region are practices of mixed breast and bottle-feeding as early as the first month, as well as the premature introduction of complementary foods. Early introduction of non-milk fluids, such as sweetened water and herbal teas, has been described as a common practice in the region and the premature introduction of complementary foods has been reported in as high as 80% of infants in several of the countries. Thus, enhancing infant/young child health can significantly reduce morbidities and mortalities, as well as adult-onset diseases, ultimately decreasing the region's overall burden of disease.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicines, embodied subjectivity and experiences of healing.

    PubMed

    Sointu, Eeva

    2013-09-01

    Despite a paucity of scientific evidence, complementary and alternative medicines have been found to give rise to feelings of control, empowerment, and agency. These healing experiences call for the development of analytical frameworks beyond biomedical ideas of scientific effect. This article is premised on a phenomenological understanding of embodied subjectivity as paving way for more nuanced understanding into experiences of healing. As such, this article contends that ill health transcends the biomedical body. Healing experiences are also entwined with the values and ideals that are normalized in the complementary health sphere. Discourses of health and wellness thus also play a role in the generation of healing experiences. I draw on qualitative research with clients and practitioners involved in complementary and alternative medicines in England. I will first introduce phenomenological ideals of the body, and the methods underlying the data that are drawn on. I will then turn to interviewee perspectives on the interconnectedness of the mind and the body, before outlining client experiences of alternative health practices. I argue that ideals, such as awareness, that are emphasized in the holistic health domain are important for the generation of healing experiences. Healing experiences also, however, emerge through the caring touch of trusted practitioners. This article will finally turn to the intersections between embodied experience and social inscription.

  13. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  14. Complementary hemispheric specialization for language production and visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-22

    Language production and spatial attention are the most salient lateralized cerebral functions, and their complementary specialization has been observed in the majority of the population. To investigate whether the complementary specialization has a causal origin (the lateralization of one function causes the opposite lateralization of the other) or rather is a statistical phenomenon (different functions lateralize independently), we determined the lateralization for spatial attention in a group of individuals with known atypical right hemispheric (RH) lateralization for speech production, based on a previous large-scale screening of left-handers. We show that all 13 participants with RH language dominance have left-hemispheric dominance for spatial attention, and all but one of 16 participants with left-hemispheric language dominance are RH dominant for spatial attention. Activity was observed in the dorsal fronto-parietal pathway of attention, including the inferior parietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, the frontal eye-movement field, and the inferior frontal sulcus/gyrus, and these regions functionally colateralized in the hemisphere dominant for attention, independently of the side of lateralization. Our results clearly support the Causal hypothesis about the complementary specialization, and we speculate that it derives from a longstanding evolutionary origin. We also suggest that the conclusions about lateralization based on an unselected sample of the population and laterality assessment using coarse functional transcranial Doppler sonography should be interpreted with more caution.

  15. Geographically distributed complementary content-based image retrieval systems for biomedical image informatics.

    PubMed

    Antani, Sameer K; Deserno, Thomas M; Long, L Rodney; Thoma, George R

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant increase in the use of medical images in clinical medicine, disease research, and education. While the literature lists several successful systems for content-based image retrieval and image management methods, they have been unable to make significant inroads in routine medical informatics. This can be attributed to the following: (i) the challenging nature of medical images, (ii) need for specialized methods specific to each image type and detail, (iii) lack of advances in image indexing methods, and (iv) lack of a uniform data and resource exchange framework between complementary systems. Most systems tend to focus on varying degrees of the first two items, making them very versatile in a small sampling of the variety of medical images but unable to share their strengths. This paper proposes to overcome these shortcomings by defining a data and resource exchange framework using open standards and software to develop geographically distributed toolkits. As proof-of-concept, we describe the coupling of two complementary geographically separated systems: the IRMA system at Aachen University of Technology in Germany, and the SPIRS system at the U. S. National Library of Medicine in the United States of America.

  16. 76 FR 17659 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Stakeholder Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the public to a Stakeholder Roundtable. Attendees will meet the NCCAM... particularly encouraged to attend. Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  17. 77 FR 28396 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  18. 76 FR 29773 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 17, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth,...

  19. 78 FR 42528 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3456,...

  20. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Your Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ... is designed to help you talk with your health care provider(s) about your complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) ...

  1. The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Fu, Yiman; Han, Fengjuan; Kuang, Hongying; Hu, Min; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    About 10–15% of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point in their reproductive lives and thus have to seek specialist fertility care. One of the most commonly used treatment options is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its related expansions. Despite many recent technological advances, the average IVF live birth rate per single initiated cycle is still only 30%. Consequently, there is a need to find new therapies to promote the efficiency of the procedure. Many patients have turned to complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments as an adjuvant therapy to improve their chances of success when they undergo IVF treatment. At present, several CAM methods have been used in infertile couples with IVF, which has achieved obvious effects. However, biologically plausible mechanisms of the action of CAM for IVF have not been systematically reviewed. This review briefly summarizes the current progress of the impact of CAM on the outcomes of IVF and introduces the mechanisms. PMID:24527047

  2. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score < -2) and wasting (weight for height Z score < -2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children < 5 years of age. This comprises 21 % of all deaths in this age group worldwide. The incidence of stunting is the highest in the first two years of life especially after six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding alone cannot fulfill the energy needs of a rapidly growing child. Complementary feeding for an infant refers to timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breast-feeding (BF) i.e. clean and nutritionally rich additional foods introduced at about six months of infant age. Complementary feeding strategies encompass a wide variety of interventions designed to improve not only the quality and quantity of these foods but also improve the feeding behaviors. In this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of two most commonly applied strategies of complementary feeding i.e. timely provision of appropriate complementary foods (± nutritional counseling) and education to mothers about practices of complementary feeding on growth. Recommendations have been made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother

  3. 75 FR 52357 - Request for Comment: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... for Comment: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is developing its... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission...

  4. 75 FR 30039 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AT-01-001 ``Translational Tools For...

  5. 77 FR 69869 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, PAR 12-151: Centers of Excellence for Research on Complementary Alternative Medicine...

  6. 75 FR 54161 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; NCCAM Education Panel. Date... in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 30,...

  7. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition.

  8. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine: assessing the evidence for immunological benefits.

    PubMed

    Goldrosen, Martin H; Straus, Stephen E

    2004-11-01

    With words such as AIDS, allergy and autoimmunity embedded in the popular lexicon, we often equate health with the precision and the tenor of responses to allergens and microorganisms. This leads many people to seek their own solutions to sustain, restore or even boost their immune competence, hoping to live more comfortably and longer. Here, we consider the social and clinical contexts in which these promises of enhanced immunity are pursued through popular practices known as complementary and alternative medicine and the evidence that supports these.

  10. CMAT non-volatile spintronic computing: complementary MTJ logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joseph S.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have thoroughly demonstrated their utility as a non-volatile memory storage element, inspiring their application to a memory-in-logic computer that would overcome the von Neumann bottleneck. However, MTJ logic gates must be able to cause other MTJs to switch, thus ensuring the cascading capability fundamental to efficient computing. Complementary MTJ logic (CMAT) provides a simple circuit structure through which MTJs can be cascaded directly to perform logic operations. In this novel logic family, charge pulses resulting from MTJ switching create magnetic fields that switch other MTJs, providing impetus for further development of MTJs for computing applications.

  11. Complementary electric-LC resonator antenna for WLAN applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Bashir D.; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Murad, Noor Asniza

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a metamaterial antenna based on complementary electric-LC (CELC) resonator is proposed. The antenna consists of slot-loaded ELC on the ground plane as the main antennas radiating element and excited by a microstrip line. The CELC resonator is characterized by single-negative magnetic moment excited by coupling between the microstrip transmission line and slot-loaded CELC. The peak realized gain and efficiency of 2.63 dB and 86 % are obtained, respectively, at resonance frequency. Simulation and measurement results are presented to validate the design. The antenna is suitable for WLAN applications (2.39-2.48 GHz).

  12. Electrically small, complementary electric-field-coupled resonator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, H.; Teixeira, F. L.; Guney, D. O.

    2013-02-01

    We study the radiation properties of electrically small resonant antennas (ka <1) composed of electric-field-coupled (ELC) and complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) resonators and a monopole antenna. We use such parasitic ELC and CELC "metaresonators" to design various electrically small antennas. In particular, monopole-excited and bent-monopole-excited CELC resonator antennas are proposed that provide very low profiles on the order of λ0/20. We compare the performance of the proposed ELC and CELC antennas against more conventional designs based upon split-ring resonators.

  13. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2008-11-01

    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  14. Thermal stresses in composite tubes using complementary virtual work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.

  15. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Allison L.; Lio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, perhaps more than other dermatologic diseases, has garnered much attention in the realm of alternative medicine. This may be because its etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood, it is increasingly common, and it waxes and wanes often without clear precipitants, opening up many opportunities for misinterpretation. Herein we explore the evidence for a number of different alternative and complementary therapies, from textiles to vitamin supplements. By definition, none have enough data to be deemed “effective” in a conventional sense, but it is hopeful that some show promising evidence that may one day lead to mainstream acceptance with further research. PMID:26257817

  16. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.

  17. Toward complementary ionic circuits: the npn ion bipolar junction transistor.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Berggren, Magnus

    2011-07-06

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

  18. Single access laparoscopic surgery: Complementary or alternative to NOTES?

    PubMed Central

    Dapri, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, single access laparoscopic surgery (SALS) and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have gained interest from both clinical and industrial point of view, with the increased development of different laparoscopic instruments, production of various access ports, and improvement of operative endoscopes. The main advantages stimulating these two approaches are the cosmetic result, the rapid recovery of the patient, and the reduced need for pain killers. SALS and NOTES are in part complementary and in part alternative techniques. Currently, SALS is much simpler and technically easier than NOTES. PMID:21160876

  19. Distinct but complementary contributions of PPAR isotypes to energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Philippe; Staels, Bart

    2017-04-03

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate energy metabolism and hence are therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While they share anti-inflammatory activities, the PPAR isotypes distinguish themselves by differential actions on lipid and glucose homeostasis. In this Review we discuss the complementary and distinct metabolic effects of the PPAR isotypes together with the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, as well as the synthetic PPAR ligands that are used in the clinic or under development. We highlight the potential of new PPAR ligands with improved efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of complex metabolic disorders.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in women's health. Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.

  1. Emergence of Hierarchy on a Network of Complementary Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli, M.; Dos Santos, R. M. Zorzenon; Martins, J. S. Sá

    Complementarity is one of the main features underlying the interactions in biological and biochemical systems. Inspired by those systems we propose a model for the dynamical evolution of a system composed of agents that interact due to their complementary attributes rather than their similarities. Each agent is represented by a bit-string and has an activity associated to it; the coupling among complementary peers depends on their activity. The connectivity of the system changes in time respecting the constraint of complementarity. We observe the formation of a network of active agents whose stability depends on the rate at which activity of agents diffuses in the system. The model exhibits a nonequilibrium phase transition between the ordered phase, where a stable network is generated, and a disordered phase characterized by the absence of correlation among the agents. The ordered phase exhibits multi-modal distributions of connectivity and activity, indicating a hierarchy of interaction among different populations characterized by different degrees of activity. This model may be used to study the hierarchy observed in social organizations.

  2. [Touching cancer: shiatsu as complementary treatment to support cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.

  3. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Oddo, Calogero M.; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M. D.; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models. PMID:28374841

  4. The use of complementary medicine in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Muzaffer; Demir, Büşra; Yüksel, Sena; Çataklı, Serra Aydın; Yıldız, Rabia Sevda; Karaman, Ozcan; Taşan, Ertuğrul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health problem with serious complications. The chronic and progressive nature of the disease often leads patients to use complementary and integrative medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of use of alternative medicine by patients with DM and the products used. METHODS: Between September 2014 and May 2015, 301 patients with DM were selected from Bezmialem Foundation University Hospital Diabetes Clinic to participate in the study. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that 81 (26.9%) patients had tried alternative medicine, and 50 (16.6%) patients continued to use some form of alternative medicine product. A total of 43 (14.3%) patients used such products every day and 24 (8%) patients had used alternative medicine products for up to 6 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were significantly decreased in patients using alternative medicine products compared to the remainder of patients in the study (p=0.017). No other significant difference was found between the two groups. It was observed that among patients using alternative medicine products, only 10 (12%) had informed their physicians. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that patients with diabetes are very likely to use alternative medicine products. Additional studies are needed to further determine the efficacy of these products. Patients as well as health providers must be educated about complementary medicine and alternative products. PMID:28058383

  5. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, B J; Grasso, T

    2001-10-01

    Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown dramatically over the past several years. Cancer patients are always looking for new hope, and many have turned to nontraditional means. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients and what if any agents are being used. Approximately, 100 adult cancer patients in a private nonprofit South Florida hospital completed a descriptive cross-sectional survey questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 59 years; 42 patients were male and 58, female. According to survey results, 80% of patients reported using some type of CAM; 81% took vitamins, 54% took herbal products, 30% used relaxation techniques, 20% received massages, and 10% used home remedies. Among patients who took vitamins, 65% said they took a multivitamin, 39% took vitamin C, and 31%, vitamin E. The most common herbal remedies used were green tea, echinacea, shark cartilage, grape seed extract, and milk thistle. Meditation and deep breathing were the two most common relaxation techniques practiced. A large majority of cancer patients are using CAM. In light of the growing interest in CAM, health-care professionals need to be educated about the most common therapies used.

  6. Nanocrystal-based complementary inverters constructed on flexible plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaewon; Cho, Kyoungah; Yun, Junggwon; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a nanocrystal (NC)-based complementary inverter constructed on a flexible plastic substrate. The NC-based complementary inverter consists of n-type HgSe NC- and p-type HgTe NC-based thin-film transistors (TFTs). Solid films on a plastic substrate obtained from HgSe and HgTe nanocrystals by thermal transformation are utilized as the n- and p-channel layers in these TFTs, respectively. The electrical properties of these component TFTs on unstrained and strained substrates are characterized and the performance of the inverter on the flexible substrate is investigated. The inverter on the unstrained substrate exhibits a logic gain of about 8, a logic swing of 90%, and a noise margin of 2.0 V. The characteristics of the inverter are changed under tensile and compressive strains, but not very significantly. Moreover, a comparison of the electrical characteristics of the n- and p-channel TFTs and the inverter is made in this paper.

  7. Integrative Skin Care: Dermatology and Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bodeker, Gerard; Ryan, Terence J; Volk, Adva; Harris, Jahnavi; Burford Mbiochem, Gemma

    2017-04-14

    Skin problems and diseases are extremely common globally and, due to their visibility, often result in severe distress and stigma for sufferers. Traditional (i.e., indigenous or local) and complementary health systems are widely used and incorporate many treatment modalities suitable for skin care, and a body of evidence for their efficacy and safety has built up over many decades. These approaches are often used as part of a broader "integrative medicine" (IM) approach that may also include, for example, nutrition and mind-body approaches. This article presents an overview of current knowledge about traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) and IM principles and practices for skin health; reviews published epidemiologic studies, clinical trials, and wider literature; and discusses the challenges of conducting research into T&CM and IM. It also highlights the need for an innovative research agenda-one which is congruent with the principles of IM, as well as taking policy and public health dimensions into consideration.

  8. Dietary Patterns during Complementary Feeding and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations. High scores on the index were due to longer breastfeeding, and feeding more fruit and vegetables and less ready-prepared baby foods. The index scores were positively related to IQ and 'healthy' dietary patterns in childhood. In infancy four dietary patterns were derived from PCA at each age. Three occurred at both ages: 'HM traditional' (home-made meat, vegetables and desserts), 'discretionary' (processed adult foods) and 'RM baby foods' (commercial ready-made baby foods). A 'breastfeeding' pattern was derived at 6 months, with fruit and vegetables included. At 15 months, a 'HM contemporary' pattern included cheese, fish, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables. The 'discretionary' and 'RM baby foods' patterns at both ages were negatively associated, while the 'breastfeeding' and 'HM contemporary' patterns were positively associated with IQ. These results suggest that infant diet influences cognitive development in children and may set a trend for later eating patterns.

  9. The context and meaning of placebos for complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lewith, George; Barlow, Fiona; Eyles, Caroline; Flower, Andrew; Hall, Sue; Hopwood, Val; Walker, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Calls for placebo-controlled randomised trials in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are entirely reasonable. However, they present major methodological problems, particularly when we understand so little about the underlying biological mechanisms involved for many of these therapies. Designing a placebo in CAM is frequently dependent on unsubstantiated assumptions about the specificity of a particular CAM intervention. In this paper we address the development and application of placebos to clinical trials of homeopathy, acupuncture, kinesiology, Chinese herbal medicine and healing. Each therapy-based vignette is authored by a researcher from the Complementary and Integrated Medicine Research Unit at the University of Southampton who has specific expertise in the field. The essential research question within this review is; can we legitimately claim to have placebos for these particular CAM interventions? In some areas of CAM the debate has become very involved and sophisticated, for instance in acupuncture but for other areas, such as healing, our understanding of placebos is currently limited and very naïve. For instance, if acupuncture is not point specific, then many so-called 'placebo-controlled' acupuncture trials are both misconceived and misleading. We have addressed this debate in what we hope is a thoughtful and rigorous manner with a view to developing realistic, reliable and credible placebos for randomised controlled studies when and where possible. However, our conclusions suggest that we are some way from developing valid, credible and reliable placebos for most CAM therapies.

  10. Complementary N Uptake Strategies between Tree Species in Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Roggy, J C; Schimann, H; Sabatier, D; Molino, J F; Freycon, V; Domenach, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within tree communities, the differential use of soil N mineral resources, a key factor in ecosystem functioning, may reflect functional complementarity, a major mechanism that could explain species coexistence in tropical rainforests. Eperua falcata and Dicorynia guianensis, two abundant species cooccurring in rainforests of French Guiana, were chosen as representative of two functional groups with complementary N uptake strategies (contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures related to the δ (15)N of their soil N source, NO3 (-) or NH4 (+)). The objectives were to investigate if these strategies occurred under contrasted soil N resources in sites with distinct geological substrates representative of the coastal rainforests. Results showed that species displayed contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures on both substrates, confirming their complementary N uptake strategy. Consequently, their leaf (15)N can be used to trace the presence of inorganic N-forms in soils (NH4 (+) and NO3 (-)) and thus to indicate the capacity of soils to provide each of these two N sources to the plant community.

  11. Yoga as a Complementary Therapy for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, John; Fischer, Colleen; Peterson, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Yoga is being used by a growing number of youth and adults as a means of improving overall health and fitness. There is also a progressive trend toward use of yoga as a mind-body complementary and alternative medicine intervention to improve specific physical and mental health conditions. To provide clinicians with therapeutically useful information about yoga, the evidence evaluating yoga as an effective intervention for children and adolescents with health problems is reviewed and summarized. A brief overview of yoga and yoga therapy is presented along with yoga resources and practical strategies for clinical practitioners to use with their patients. The majority of available studies with children and adolescents suggest benefits to using yoga as a therapeutic intervention and show very few adverse effects. These results must be interpreted as preliminary findings because many of the studies have methodological limitations that prevent strong conclusions from being drawn. Yoga appears promising as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents. Further information about how to apply it most effectively and more coordinated research efforts are needed. PMID:20877530

  12. Complementary treatment in fibromyalgia: combination of somatic and abdominal acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Iannuccelli, Cristina; Mannocci, Franca; Guzzo, Maria Paola; Olivieri, Marta; Gerardi, Maria Chiara; Atzeni, Fabiola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Valesini, Guido; Di Franco, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome characterised by widespread pain associated with a variety of other signs and symptoms. The emerging consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Since acupuncture is a tool of traditional Chinese medicine increasingly used as an alternative or complementary therapy for the treatment of pain, the present study aimed to combine two different acupunctural methods (the somatic and abdominal one) in the treatment of 30 consecutive female FM patients and to evaluate the reduction of pain and the well-being state. The results showed a statistically significant reduction of the number of tender points and of pain. Moreover we observed a statistically significant reduction of FIQ, FAS, HAQ, disease activity VAS, ZSAS, ZSDS at the end of the treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that the combination of two types of acupuncture could be a useful complementary treatment in FM patients, not only to control pain but also to improve associated symptoms and quality of life. As a result, acupuncture could be very useful to relieve pain in a multidisciplinary setting.

  13. Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vogwill, T; Comfort, A C; Furió, V; MacLean, R C

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial persistence represents a simple of phenotypic heterogeneity, whereby a proportion of cells in an isogenic bacterial population can survive exposure to lethal stresses such as antibiotics. In contrast, genetically based antibiotic resistance allows for continued growth in the presence of antibiotics. It is unclear, however, whether resistance and persistence are complementary or alternative evolutionary adaptations to antibiotics. Here, we investigate the co-evolution of resistance and persistence across the genus Pseudomonas using comparative methods that correct for phylogenetic nonindependence. We find that strains of Pseudomonas vary extensively in both their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) and persistence following exposure to these antibiotics. Crucially, we find that persistence correlates positively to antibiotic resistance across strains. However, we find that different genes control resistance and persistence implying that they are independent traits. Specifically, we find that the number of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) in the genome of a strain is correlated to persistence, but not resistance. Our study shows that persistence and antibiotic resistance are complementary, but independent, evolutionary adaptations to stress and it highlights the key role played by TAs in the evolution of persistence.

  14. Molecular Cloning of Complementary DNA Encoding Maize Nitrite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lahners, Kristine; Kramer, Vance; Back, Eduard; Privalle, Laura; Rothstein, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA has been isolated that codes for maize nitrite reductase (NiR) by using the corresponding spinach gene (E Back et al. 1988 Mol Gen Genet 212:20-26) as a heterologous probe. The sequences of the complementary DNAs from the two species are 66% homologous while the deduced amino acid sequences are 86% similar when analogous amino acids are included. A high percentage of the differences in the DNA sequences is due to the extremely strong bias in the corn gene to have a G/C base in the third codon position with 559/569 codons ending in a G or C. Using a hydroponic system, maize seedlings grown in the absence of an exogenous nitrogen source were induced with nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate stimulated a rapid induction of the NiR mRNA in both roots and leaves. There is also a considerable induction of this gene in roots upon the addition of nitrite, although under the conditions used the final mRNA level was not as high as when nitrate was the inducer. There is a small but detectable level of NiR mRNA in leaves prior to induction, but no constitutive NiR mRNA can be seen in the roots. Analysis of genomic DNA supports the notion that there are at least two NiR genes in maize. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666376

  15. Complementary approaches to decreasing discomfort during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL).

    PubMed

    Ngee-Ming, Goh; Tamsin, Drake; Rai, B P; Somani, B K

    2014-06-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an established treatment for renal stones. Although non-invasive, it can cause significant pain and anxiety during the procedure. Our purpose was to review the literature to look at the effect of complimentary therapy in patients undergoing SWL and whether it led to a reduction in the requirement of analgesics and anxiolytics. A systematic review was performed on the use of acupuncture, auricular acupressure, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and music during SWL. Only prospective randomized controlled trials were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. Outcomes relating to analgesia requirement, anxiety and stone-free rates (SFR) were compared. Seven papers were identified reporting on 591 patients (acupuncture-3, TENS-1 and music-3). Pain control/analgesia requirement was significantly better in four studies (music-2, acupuncture-1, TENS-1). Significantly lower anxiety was noted in one study with music and two using acupuncture. No difference in SFR was noted with the use of complementary therapy. No major or minor side effects were noted. Complementary therapy for SWL can help lower analgesia requirement and the anxiety associated with it. However, it does not have any effect on the SFR.

  16. Complementary therapies to reduce physiological stress in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tiran, Denise; Chummun, Harry

    2004-08-01

    Pregnancy is a period of enormous physio-pathological and psychosocial adaptation in a woman's life. Although it is usually a time of joy and anticipation, many women experience some degree of anxiety, concern and fear regarding their own health and that of their babies, as well as the approaching labour. Worry about social, financial, occupational and relationship issues can often add to their stress levels which increases the possibility of pregnancy complications. However while mild to moderate stress facilitates successful adjustment to these demands, a significant increase in the levels of stress hormones may compromise the health of both mother and fetus. Complementary therapies are increasingly popular with expectant mothers and are gradually being integrated into conventional maternity care, primarily by midwives. However, there is debate about whether these therapies simply provide a form of relaxation for pregnant women with psychological stress or whether they could-or should-be used more constructively to deal with physio-pathological stress. This paper considers the physiological effects of certain complementary therapies in reducing the impact of stress in pregnancy.

  17. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – Lessons from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6–23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6–23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods. PMID:27800479

  18. Integrating complementary information for photorealistic representation of large-scale environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinhui

    2007-12-01

    A wealth of datasets from different sensors exists for environment representation. The key observations of this thesis are that the different datasets are complementary and that fusing information from complementary datasets reduces errors in processing each dataset. In addition, a fusion method benefits from the merit of each dataset, hence helps us to represent large-scale environments in an efficient and accurate way. This thesis presents a hybrid approach fusing information from four complementary datasets, LiDAR data, aerial images, ground images and videos, to photorealistically represent large-scale environments. LiDAR data samples are dense in surface points and they directly measure model heights with accuracy up to centimeters. However, edges from LiDAR data are jaggy due to the relatively low sampling rate (usually one meter) of the sensor and reconstruction results from LiDAR lack color information. On the other hand, aerial images provide detailed texture and color information in high-resolution, making them necessary for texture data and appealing for extracting detailed model features. However, reconstruction from stereo aerial images often generates sparse points, making them unsuitable for reconstruction of complex surfaces, such as curved surfaces and roofs with slopes. Ground images offer high-resolution texture information and details of model facades, but they are local, static and lack the capability to provide information of the most recent changes in the environment. Live videos are real-time, making them ideal for updating the information of the environment, however, they are often low-resolution. A natural conclusion is to combine the geometry, photometry, and other sensing sources to compensate for the shortcomings of each sensing technology and obtain a more detailed and accurate representation of the environment. In this thesis, we first fuse information from both LiDAR and an aerial image to create urban models with accurate surfaces

  19. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to these goals, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and, as a result, the need to provide information and support for pediatricians. From 2000 to 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened and charged the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine to address issues related to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and to develop resources to educate physicians, patients, and families. One of these resources is this report describing complementary and alternative medicine services, current levels of utilization and financial expenditures, and associated legal and ethical considerations. The subject of complementary and alternative medicine is large and diverse, and consequently, an in-depth discussion of each method of complementary and alternative medicine is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, this report will define terms; describe epidemiology; outline common types of complementary and alternative medicine therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for complementary and alternative medicine providers; provide resources for learning more about complementary and alternative medicine; and suggest communication strategies to use when discussing complementary and alternative medicine with patients and families.

  20. Scaling carbon nanotube complementary transistors to 5-nm gate lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xiao, Mengmeng; Yang, Yingjun; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-01-01

    High-performance top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT FETs) with a gate length of 5 nanometers can be fabricated that perform better than silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FETs at the same scale. A scaling trend study revealed that the scaled CNT-based devices, which use graphene contacts, can operate much faster and at much lower supply voltage (0.4 versus 0.7 volts) and with much smaller subthreshold slope (typically 73 millivolts per decade). The 5-nanometer CNT FETs approached the quantum limit of FETs by using only one electron per switching operation. In addition, the contact length of the CNT CMOS devices was also scaled down to 25 nanometers, and a CMOS inverter with a total pitch size of 240 nanometers was also demonstrated.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Provenzani, Umberto; Barale, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage. PMID:26064157

  2. Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Individuals With Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ju Young; Pohlig, Ryan T; Habermann, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is neurodegenerative and requires ongoing therapy. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to (a) describe the prevalence, types, and associated factors of complementary health approaches (CHA) used in individuals with PD; and (b) explore reasons for CHA use. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was used. The response rate was 61.9% (N = 135), and 74.1% of participants used CHA for either PD or general health. The most widely used CHA included exercise, yoga, massage, vitamins, coenzyme Q10, and coconut oil. Higher levels of education and treatment by a movement disorder specialist were significantly related to CHA use. Nurses and other health care professionals may have a role in providing safe care for individuals with PD. Further studies on effectiveness and safety of commonly used CHA are warranted. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 46-54.].

  3. Complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Nicholson, S. B.

    2015-08-01

    We present novel complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes. Specifically, by utilising path integral formulation, we derive statistical measures (entropy, information, and work) and investigate their dependence on variables (x, v), reference frames, and time. In particular, we show that the equilibrium state maximises the simultaneous information quantified by the product of the Fisher information based on x and v while minimising the simultaneous disorder/uncertainty quantified by the sum of the entropy based on x and v as well as by the product of the variances of the PDFs of x and v. We also elucidate the difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian entropy. Our theory naturally leads to Hamilton-Jacobi relation for forced-dissipative systems.

  4. Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, David M; Gutu, Andrian

    2006-01-01

    The acclimation of photosynthetic organisms to changes in light color is ubiquitous and may be best illustrated by the colorful process of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). During CCA, cyanobacterial cells change from brick red to bright blue green, depending on their light color environment. The apparent simplicity of this spectacular, photoreversible event belies the complexity of the cellular response to changes in light color. Recent results have shown that the regulation of CCA is also complex and involves at least three pathways. One is controlled by a phytochrome-class photoreceptor that is responsive to green and red light and a complex two-component signal transduction pathway, whereas another is based on sensing redox state. Studies of CCA are uncovering the strategies used by photosynthetic organisms during light acclimation and the means by which they regulate these responses.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Malaysian oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam

    2012-05-01

    The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies for Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Freeman, Marlene P.

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies are increasingly sought out by patients with psychiatric disorders. This article provides a review of the evidence for several commonly utilized CAM therapies (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe), St. John’s Wort, bright light therapy, exercise, massage, and acupuncture) in the treatment of perinatal depression. A number of these treatments may be reasonable to consider for women during pregnancy or the postpartum, but the safety and efficacy of these relative to standard treatments must still be systematically determined. Evidence based use of CAM treatments for perinatal depression is discussed. Adequately powered systematic studies are necessary to determine the role of CAM in the treatment of perinatal depression. PMID:24041861

  7. Tai Chi and yoga as complementary therapies in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Till

    2012-06-01

    Tai Chi and yoga are complementary therapies which have, during the last few decades, emerged as popular treatments for rheumatologic and musculoskeletal diseases. This review covers the evidence of Tai Chi and yoga in the management of rheumatologic diseases, especially osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hand, and rheumatoid arthritis. There is evidence that Tai Chi and yoga are safe, and some evidence that they have benefit, leading to reduction of pain and improvement of physical function and quality of life in patients. Recommendations for Tai Chi in knee osteoarthritis have recently been issued by the American College of Rheumatology. To allow broader recommendations for the use of Tai Chi and yoga in rheumatic diseases, there is a need to collect more evidence researched with larger randomised controlled trials.

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are frequently used for the treatment of sleep disorders, but in many cases patients do not discuss these therapies directly with their health care provider. There is a growing body of well-designed clinical trials using CAM that have shown the following: (1) Melatonin is an effective agent for the treatment of circadian phase disorders that affect sleep; however, the role of melatonin in the treatment of primary or secondary insomnia is less well established. (2) Valerian has shown a benefit in some, but not all clinical trials. (3) Several other modalities, such as Tai Chi, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, and meditation have improved sleep parameters in a limited number of early trials. Future work examining CAM has the potential to significantly add to our treatment options for sleep disorders in older adults.

  9. Uses of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Namjooyan, Foroogh; Ghanavati, Rahil; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Jokari, Shiva; Janbozorgi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, recurrent demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). It could affect different regions in the brain and spinal cord, and according to the domain which is affected, it could cause different symptoms such as motor, sensory, or visual impairment; fatigue; bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction; cognitive impairment; and depression. MS patients also face reduced quality of life. Drugs that are used in MS are not fully efficient and patients suffer from many symptoms and adverse effects. Today there is an increasing trend of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). People are more likely to use this type of treatment. Using appropriate lifestyle and CAM therapy can subside some of the symptoms and could improve the quality of life in these patients. Many people with MS explore CAM therapies for their symptoms. This review is aimed to introduce CAM therapies that could be used in MS patients. PMID:25161918

  10. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-09-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies.

  11. [Indications to complementary radiological exams for pathologies of the shoulder].

    PubMed

    Farron, Alain; Theumann, Nicolas

    2006-12-20

    Plain Xrays should stay in pole position for the evaluation of shoulder's pathologies. They allow frequently to make a diagnosis of the lesion. Indications to complementary exams are well established. CT-scan and MRI have to give responses to precise questions, which then will permit to manage the treatment. CT-scan allows to evaluate accurately bone structures. It is very useful for analysing complex fractures of the proximal humerus. It allows also to evaluate the amount of glenoid wear to correct before implanting a prosthesis. Arthro-MRI is used to study soft tissues, cartilage and bone. Therefore, it is the first choice exam to evaluate the rotator cuff tendons, as well as the labrum and ligaments in case of shoulder instability.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  13. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  14. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  15. Electroinductive waves in chains of complementary metamaterial elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beruete, M.; Falcone, F.; Freire, M. J.; Marqués, R.; Baena, J. D.

    2006-02-01

    Electronductive waves supported by chains of resonators drilled on a metallic plate are presented. Propagation of energy comes as a consequence of the electric coupling between these resonators. Therefore, these waves are termed as electroinductive waves. They can be interpreted as the dual counterpart of the so-called magnetoinductive waves, which are due to the mutual inductances along chains of resonators. In order to show their existence, some electromagnetic simulations and experiments have been carried out, using as resonators the complementary particle of the split ring resonator. The reported result opens the way to a high variety of applications in one- and two-dimensional devices, such as transducers, delay lines, bends, power dividers, couplers, antennas, lenses, etc.

  16. Spectral manipulation and complementary spectra with birefringence polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Pan-Feng; Han, Pin

    2017-03-01

    A polarization control method using crystal birefringence is suggested to manipulate polychromatic light. This scheme can be used with narrower bandwidth to produce various spectral effects, such as a notch filter, a flat top, and triangle-type, nipple-type, and central-frequency-dominant distributions. A modulated spectrum with greater bandwidth can be used as an optical frequency ruler, and phenomena called complementary spectra are also proposed, where the two spectral distributions, produced by rotating the polarizer, complement each other in the sense that the peaks and valleys in one spectrum are the reverse in the other. These results benefit the controlling of the spectral shape and the measurement of an unknown optical frequency.

  17. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  18. Hair: a complementary source of bioanalytical information in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Queiroz, João António

    2011-01-01

    Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing.

  19. Complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David

    2003-01-01

    The 13th International Prostate Cancer Update was held in Vail, Colorado, in February 2003. This article provides an overview of the high points in the areas of complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging that were discussed at this meeting. M. Scott Lucia, MD, addressed the use of various hormonal agents, antiproliferative or differentiating agents, antiinflammatory agents, and antioxidants in patients with prostate cancer. Wael A. Sakr, MD, provided an overview of prognostic markers for this disease. Arturo Mendoza-Valdes, MD, explored the potential role of exercise for patients with prostate cancer, and Bruce Sodee, MD, described some exciting new developments in prostate imaging. E. David Crawford, MD, discussed the ongoing Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

  20. The complementary niches of anthropocentric and biocentric conservationists.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Malcolm L; Redford, Kent H; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-06-01

    A divergence of values has become apparent in recent debates between conservationists who focus on ecosystem services that can improve human well-being and those who focus on avoiding the extinction of species. These divergent points of view fall along a continuum from anthropocentric to biocentric values, but most conservationists are relatively closer to each other than to the ends of the spectrum. We have some concerns with both positions but emphasize that conservation for both people and all other species will be most effective if conservationists focus on articulating the values they all share, being respectful of divergent values, and collaborating on common interests. The conservation arena is large enough to accommodate many people and organizations whose diverse values lead them to different niches that can, with good will and foresight, be far more complementary than competitive.

  1. Complicated cholecystitis: the complementary roles of sonography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Charalel, Resmi A; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Shin, Lewis K

    2011-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the Western world. Unless treated promptly, patients with acute cholecystitis may develop complications such as gangrenous, perforated, or emphysematous cholecystitis. Because of the increased morbidity and mortality of complicated cholecystitis, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, complicated cholecystitis may pose significant challenges with cross-sectional imaging, including sonography and computed tomography (CT). Interpreting radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of sonographic findings seen with complicated cholecystitis and as well as understand the complementary role of CT. Worrisome imaging findings for complicated cholecystitis include intraluminal findings (sloughed mucosa, hemorrhage, abnormal gas), gallbladder wall abnormalities (striations, asymmetric wall thickening, abnormal gas, loss of sonoreflectivity and contrast enhancement), and pericholecystic changes (echogenic fat, pericholecystic fluid, abscess formation). Finally, diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis by sonography and CT can guide alternative treatments including minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic options.

  2. Complementary and alternative (CAM) dietary therapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Sheila

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies include a wide spectrum of dietary practices, some of which are claimed to cure cancer. Observational studies have shown consistently that predominantly plant-based diets reduce the risk for some adult type cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies form the basis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) nutritional guidelines. Many CAM diets prescribe a similar low fat, high fiber, high fruit and vegetable type diet, but also add detoxification and many different supplements to the basic diet which is then claimed to cure cancer. The potential advantages and disadvantages of CAM diets are discussed. Many aspects can be potentially harmful, particularly to the child with cancer. Advantages include involvement of the child and family in decision-making and care. There is no evidence to support the claims that CAM dietary therapies cure cancer.

  3. A Public Health Agenda for Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bodeker, Gerard; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2002-01-01

    Traditional medicine (a term used here to denote the indigenous health traditions of the world) and complementary and alternative medicine (T/CAM) have, in the past 10 years, claimed an increasing share of the public’s awareness and the agenda of medical researchers. Studies have documented that about half the population of many industrialized countries now use T/CAM, and the proportion is as high as 80% in many developing countries. Most research has focused on clinical and experimental medicine (safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action) and regulatory issues, to the general neglect of public health dimensions. Public health research must consider social, cultural, political, and economic contexts to maximize the contribution of T/CAM to health care systems globally. PMID:12356597

  4. Complementary and Conventional Medicine Use Among Youth With Recurrent Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J.; Gombojav, Narangerel; Koch, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence and patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among youth with recurrent headaches (HA) and evaluate associations with co-occurring health problems and limitations as well as with the use and expenditures for conventional medical care. METHODS: Variables were constructed for youth aged 10 to 17 by using linked data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and the 2008 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. Bivariate, logistic, and 2-part regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Of the 10.6% of youth experiencing HA, 29.6% used CAM, rising to 41% for the many HA sufferers who also experienced difficulties with emotions, concentration, behavior, school attendance, or daily activities. Biologically based products (16.2%) and mind-body therapies (13.3%) were most commonly used, especially by the 86.4% of youth with HA experiencing at least 1 other chronic condition. Compared with non-CAM users, youth with HA who used CAM also had higher expenditures for and use of most types of conventional care. CONCLUSIONS: CAM use is most common among youth with HA experiencing multiple chronic conditions and difficulties in daily functioning. Associations among CAM use, multiple chronic conditions, and higher use of conventional care highlight the need for medical providers to routinely ask about CAM use to meet the complex health needs of their patients and facilitate the optimal integration of care. Research is needed to identify models for coordinating complementary and conventional care within a medical home and to understand the health benefits or risks associated with CAM use in conjunction with conventional treatments for patients with HA. PMID:24127466

  5. Pathways to Healing: Person-centered Responses to Complementary Services

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sharon W.; Fermon, Barbara; Coleman, Julie Foley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This research study assessed perceived changes in quality-of-life measures related to participation in complementary services consisting of a variety of nontraditional therapies and/or programs at Pathways: A Health Crisis Resource Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Design: Survey data were used to assess perceived changes participants ascribed to their experience with complementary services at Pathways. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using participant demographics together with participant ratings of items from the “Self-Assessment of Change” (SAC) measure developed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on written responses to an additional survey question: “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Setting/Location: Pathways offers a variety of services, including one-to-one sessions using nontraditional healing therapies, support groups, educational classes, and practice groups such as yoga and meditation for those facing serious health challenges. These services are offered free of charge through community financial support using volunteer practitioners. Participants: People (126) diagnosed with serious health challenges who used Pathways services from 2007 through 2009. Interventions: Participation in self-selected Pathways services. Measures: Responses to items on the SAC measure plus written responses to the question, “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Results: Quantitative findings: Participants reported experiencing significant changes across all components of the SAC measure. Qualitative findings: Responses to the open-ended survey question identified perspectives on the culture of Pathways and a shift in participants' perceptions of well-being based on their experience of Pathways services. Conclusions: Participation in services provided by the Pathways organization improved perceptions of

  6. Tibetan medicine: a complementary science of optimal health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Joseph J; Blackhall, Leslie J; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2009-08-01

    Traditional medical systems are challenging because their theories and practices strike many conventionally trained physicians and researchers as incomprehensible. Should modern medicine dismiss them as unscientific, view them as sources of alternatives hidden in a matrix of superstition, or regard them as complementary sciences of medicine? We make the latter argument using the example of Tibetan medicine. Tibetan medicine is based on analytic models and methods that are rationally defined, internally coherent, and make testable predictions, meeting current definitions of "science." A ninth century synthesis of Indian, Chinese, Himalayan, and Greco-Persian traditions, Tibetan medicine is the most comprehensive form of Eurasian healthcare and the world's first integrative medicine. Incorporating rigorous systems of meditative self-healing and ascetic self-care from India, it includes a world-class paradigm of mind/body and preventive medicine. Adapting the therapeutic philosophy and contemplative science of Indian Buddhism to the quality of secular life and death, it features the world's most effective systems of positive and palliative healthcare. Based on qualitative theories and intersubjective methods, it involves predictions and therapies shown to be more accurate and effective than those of modern medicine in fields from physiology and pharmacology to neuroscience, mind/body medicine, and positive health. The possibility of complementary sciences follows from the latest view of science as a set of tools--instruments of social activity based on learned agreement in aims and methods--rather than as a monolith of absolute truth. Implications of this pluralistic outlook for medical research and practice are discussed.

  7. Speciation and bioavailability of lead in complementary medicines.

    PubMed

    Bolan, S; Naidu, R; Kunhikrishnan, A; Seshadri, B; Ok, Y S; Palanisami, T; Dong, M; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Complementary medicines have associated risks which include toxic heavy metal(loid) and pesticide contamination. The objective of this study was to examine the speciation and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in selected complementary medicines. Six herbal and six ayurvedic medicines were analysed for: (i) total heavy metal(loid) contents including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), Pb and mercury (Hg); (ii) speciation of Pb using sequential fractionation and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques; and (iii) bioavailability of Pb using a physiologically-based in vitro extraction test (PBET). The daily intake of Pb through the uptake of these medicines was compared with the safety guidelines for Pb. The results indicated that generally ayurvedic medicines contained higher levels of heavy metal(loid)s than herbal medicines with the amount of Pb much higher than the other metal(loid)s. Sequential fractionation indicated that while organic-bound Pb species dominated the herbal medicines, inorganic-bound Pb species dominated the ayurvedic medicines. EXAFS data indicated the presence of various Pb species in ayurvedic medicines. This implies that Pb is derived from plant uptake and inorganic mineral input in herbal and ayurvedic medicines, respectively. Bioavailability of Pb was higher in ayurvedic than herbal medicines, indicating that Pb added as a mineral therapeutic input is more bioavailable than that derived from plant uptake. There was a positive relationship between soluble Pb fraction and bioavailability indicating that solubility is an important factor controlling bioavailability. The daily intake values for Pb as estimated by total and bioavailable metal(loid) contents are likely to exceed the safe threshold level in certain ayurvedic medicines. This research demonstrated that Pb toxicity is likely to result from the regular intake of these medicines which requires further investigation.

  8. Thermal property measurement of thin fibers by complementary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Troy Robert

    To improve measurement reliability and repeatability and resolve the orders of magnitude discrepancy between the two different measurements (via reduced model transient electrothermal and lock-in IR thermography), this dissertation details the development of three complementary methods to accurately measure the thermal properties of the natural and synthetic Nephila (N.) clavipes spider dragline fibers. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the dragline silk of the (N.) clavipes spider has been characterized by one research group to be 151-416 W m-1 K-1 and 6.4-12.3 x 10-5 m2 s -1, respectively, for samples with low to high strains (zero to 19.7%). Thermal diffusivity of the dragline silk of a different spider species, Araneus diadematus, has been determined by another research group as 2 x 10-7 m2 s-1 for un-stretched silk. This dissertation seeks to resolve this discrepancy by three complementary methods. The methods detailed are the transient electrothermal technique (in both reduced and full model versions), the 3o method (for both current and voltage sources), and the non-contact, photothermal, quantum-dot spectral shape-based fluorescence thermometry method. These methods were also validated with electrically conductive and non-conductive fibers. The resulting thermal conductivity of the dragline silk is 1.2 W m-1 K-1, the thermal diffusivity is 6 x 10-7 m2 s -1 and the volumetric heat capacity is 2000 kJ m-3 K-1, with an uncertainty of about 12% for each property.

  9. Binding interactions with the complementary subunit of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Blum, Angela P; Van Arnam, Ethan B; German, Laurel A; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-03-08

    The agonist-binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) spans an interface between two subunits of the pentameric receptor. The principal component of this binding site is contributed by an α subunit, and it binds the cationic moiety of the nicotinic pharmacophore. The other part of the pharmacophore, a hydrogen bond acceptor, has recently been shown to bind to the complementary non-α subunit via the backbone NH of a conserved Leu. This interaction was predicted by studies of ACh-binding proteins and confirmed by functional studies of the neuronal (CNS) nAChR, α4β2. The ACh-binding protein structures further suggested that the hydrogen bond to the backbone NH is mediated by a water molecule and that a second hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the water molecule and the backbone CO of a conserved Asn, also on the non-α subunit. Here, we provide new insights into the nature of the interactions between the hydrogen bond acceptor of nicotinic agonists and the complementary subunit backbone. We studied both the nAChR of the neuromuscular junction (muscle-type) and a neuronal subtype, (α4)2(β4)3. In the muscle-type receptor, both ACh and nicotine showed a strong interaction with the Leu NH, but the potent nicotine analog epibatidine did not. This interaction was much attenuated in the α4β4 receptor. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for a functionally significant interaction with the backbone carbonyl of the relevant Asn in either receptor with an array of agonists.

  10. Telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means on behalf of the disabled.

    PubMed

    Puig de la Bellacasa, R

    1980-01-01

    It took the author eleven months (1-3-1979 to 31-1-1980) to carry out the first part of a study and coordinate a number of working sessions in which he examined the state of the arts and put forward a program for the application of telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means to the welfare of the disabled. The five areas of study are described in the present article: blindness, deaf-blindness and visual impairment; disability in the family; home-boundness due to disability, chronic illness or advanced age; speech impairments due to non-auditory causes; mental illness and related disorders. The study was carried out as a part of the activities of the "Foundation for the Development of the Social Function of Communications" (Fundacion para el Desarrollo de la Funcion Social de las Comunicaciones) and tries to open up a new perspective in Spain on technological applications for the handicapped. The main feature of the study is the proposal of Rehabilitation Engineering and Technical Aids Centre for the Disabled which starting from the telecommunications area, intends to make available to the handicapped the possibilities offered by technology.

  11. Potential influences of complementary therapy on motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Evatt, Marian L

    2009-10-01

    Nearly two-thirds of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use vitamins or nutritional supplements, and many more may use other complementary therapies, yet <50% of patients have discussed the use of these complementary therapies with a healthcare professional. Physicians should be aware of the complementary therapies their patients with PD are using, and the possible effects of these therapies on motor and non-motor symptoms. Complementary therapies, such as altered diet, dietary supplements, vitamin therapy, herbal supplements, caffeine, nicotine, exercise, physical therapy, massage therapy, melatonin, bright-light therapy and acupuncture, may all influence the symptoms of PD and/or the effectiveness of dopaminergic therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests complementary therapy also may influence non-motor symptoms of PD, such as respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, mood disorders, sleep and orthostatic hypotension. Whenever possible, clinicians should ensure that complementary therapy is used appropriately in PD patients without reducing the benefits of dopaminergic therapy.

  12. Prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E.

    2000-01-01

    Reported are the results of a systematic review of the prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine. Computerized literature searches were carried out in four databases. Twelve surveys thus found were selected because they dealt with the utilization of complementary/alternative medicine in random or representative samples of the general population. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized way. Prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine ranged from 9% to 65%. Even for a given form of treatment such as chiropractic, as used in the USA, considerable discrepancies emerged. The data suggest that complementary/alternative therapies are used frequently and increasingly. Prevalence of use seemed to depend critically on factors that were poorly controlled in surveys of complementary/alternative medicine. The true prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:10743298

  13. Identification of membrane-associated proteins from Campylobacter jejuni strains using complementary proteomics technologies.

    PubMed

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Len, Alice C L; Touma, Rachel G; Scott, Nichollas E; Falconer, Linda; Jones, David; Connolly, Angela; Crossett, Ben; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food- and water-borne illness world-wide. The membrane-associated proteome of a recent C. jejuni gastrointestinal isolate (JHH1) was generated by sodium carbonate precipitation and ultracentrifugation followed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS as well as 2-DLC (strong cation exchange followed by RP chromatography) of trypsin digests coupled to MS/MS (2-DLC/MS/MS). 2-DE/MS identified 77 proteins, 44 of which were predicted membrane proteins, while 2-DLC/MS/MS identified 432 proteins, of which 206 were predicted to be membrane associated. A total of 453 unique proteins (27.4% of the C. jejuni theoretical proteome), including 187 bona fide membrane proteins were identified in this study. Membrane proteins were also compared between C. jejuni JHH1 and ATCC 700297 to identify factors potentially associated with increased gastrointestinal virulence. We identified 28 proteins that were significantly (>two-fold) more abundant in, or unique to, JHH1, including eight proteins involved in chemotaxis signal transduction and flagellar motility, the amino acid-binding surface antigens CjaA and CjaC, and four outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of unknown function (Cj0129c, Cj1031, Cj1279c, and Cj1721c). Immunoblotting using convalescent patient sera generated post-gastrointestinal infection revealed 13 (JHH1) and 12 (ATCC 700297) immunoreactive proteins. These included flagellin (FlaA) and CadF as well as Omp18, Omp50, Cj1721c, PEB1A, PEB2, and PEB4A. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane-associated proteins from C. jejuni.

  14. Demonstration of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor device fabrication on the same sapphire substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. J.; De La Houssaye, P. R.; Russell, S. D.; Garcia, G. A.; Clayton, S. R.; Ruby, W. S.; Lee, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the first fabrication of active semiconductor and high-temperature superconducting devices on the same substrate. Test structures of complementary MOS transistors were fabricated on the same sapphire substrate as test structures of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) flux-flow transistors, and separately, Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting quantum interference devices utilizing both biepitaxial and step-edge Josephson junctions. Both semiconductor and superconductor devices were operated at 77 K. The cofabrication of devices using these disparate yet complementary electronic technologies on the same substrate opens the door for the fabrication of true semiconductive/superconductive hybrid integrated circuits capable of exploiting the best features of each of these technologies.

  15. Pursuit and practice of complementary therapies by cancer patients receiving conventional treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Downer, S. M.; Cody, M. M.; McCluskey, P.; Wilson, P. D.; Arnott, S. J.; Lister, T. A.; Slevin, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine what proportion of oncology patients receiving conventional medical treatment also use complementary treatments; to assess which complementary treatments are the most popular and to assess patients' motivation for using them; to evaluate associated advantages and risks. DESIGN--Postal screening questionnaire followed by semistructured interview. SETTING--Two hospitals in inner London. SUBJECTS--600 unselected oncology patients aged 18 or over who had known their diagnosis of cancer for at least three months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence and demography of use of complementary therapies; patients' motivation and expectations of complementary therapies; areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction associated with conventional and complementary therapies. RESULTS--415 (69%) patients returned the questionnaire. 16% had used complementary therapies. The most popular were healing, relaxation, visualisation, diets, homoeopathy, vitamins, herbalism, and the Bristol approach. Patients using complementary therapies tended to be younger, of higher social class, and female. Three quarters used two or more therapies. Therapies were mostly used for anticipated antitumour effect. Ill effects of diets and herb treatments were described. Satisfaction with both conventional and complementary therapies was high, although diets often caused difficulties. Patients using complementary therapies were less satisfied with conventional treatments, largely because of side effects and lack of hope of cure. Benefits of complementary therapies were mainly psychological. CONCLUSIONS--A sizeable percentage of patients receiving conventional treatments for cancer also use complementary therapies. Patient satisfaction with complementary therapies, other than dietary therapies, was high even without the hoped for anticancer effect. Patients reported psychological benefits such as hope and optimism. PMID:8038672

  16. Complementary medicine as a path toward empowerment of Arab-Palestinian women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Palestinians in Israel compose a traditional minority population that previously relied on traditional folk medicine and religious healing. Today some among this minority population are adopting imported complementary medicine. We interviewed Arab-Palestinians of the first generation of complementary medicine practitioners. Their decision to study complementary medicine constitutes a path toward empowerment, providing healers with an aura of modernity, enabling integration into the predominantly Jewish Israeli medical establishment to gain professional recognition as experts, and to acquire a sense of belonging. Practicing complementary medicine provides financial independence, liberation, and self-fulfillment and an opportunity to help female patients break through constraining barriers.

  17. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  18. Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Force, A; Lynch, M; Pickett, F B; Amores, A; Yan, Y L; Postlethwait, J

    1999-01-01

    The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication. Under the classical model for the evolution of duplicate genes, one member of the duplicated pair usually degenerates within a few million years by accumulating deleterious mutations, while the other duplicate retains the original function. This model further predicts that on rare occasions, one duplicate may acquire a new adaptive function, resulting in the preservation of both members of the pair, one with the new function and the other retaining the old. However, empirical data suggest that a much greater proportion of gene duplicates is preserved than predicted by the classical model. Here we present a new conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of duplicate genes that may help explain this conundrum. Focusing on the regulatory complexity of eukaryotic genes, we show how complementary degenerative mutations in different regulatory elements of duplicated genes can facilitate the preservation of both duplicates, thereby increasing long-term opportunities for the evolution of new gene functions. The duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model predicts that (1) degenerative mutations in regulatory elements can increase rather than reduce the probability of duplicate gene preservation and (2) the usual mechanism of duplicate gene preservation is the partitioning of ancestral functions rather than the evolution of new functions. We present several examples (including analysis of a new engrailed gene in zebrafish) that appear to be consistent with the DDC model, and we suggest several analytical and experimental approaches for determining whether the complementary loss of gene subfunctions or the acquisition of novel functions are likely to be the primary mechanisms for the preservation of gene duplicates. For a newly duplicated paralog, survival depends on the outcome of the race between

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education for Medical Profession: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Quartey, Nana K.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To help integrate traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) into health systems, efforts are being made to educate biomedical doctors (BMD) and medical students on TCAM. We systematically evaluated the effect of TCAM education on BMD and medical students' attitude, knowledge, and behavior towards TCAM utilization and integration with biomedical medicine. Methods. Evaluative studies were identified from four databases. Methodological quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Study outcomes were classified using Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. Results. 3122 studies were identified and 12 studies of mediocre quality met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed usage of diverse approaches including didactic, experiential learning, varying length, teacher background and intensity of exposure. More positive attitudes and improved knowledge after intervention were noted especially when teachers were BM trained. However, few studies assessed behavior change objectively. Finally, longer-term objective outcomes such as impact on patient care were not assessed. Conclusions. Lack of use of objective and reliable instruments preclude firm conclusion on the effect of TCAM education on study participants. However, positive changes, although mostly subjectively reported, were noted in most studies. Future evaluation should use validated or objective outcome assessments, and the value of using dual trained instructors. PMID:22619692

  20. Complementary Spiritist Therapy: Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra L. Granero; Bassi, Rodrigo M.; Nobre, Marlene Rossi Severino

    2011-01-01

    Spiritism is the third most common religion in Brazil, and its therapies have been used by millions worldwide. These therapies are based on therapeutic resources including prayer, laying on of hands, fluidotherapy (magnetized water), charity/volunteering, spirit education/moral values, and disobsession (spirit release therapy). This paper presents a systematic review of the current literature on the relationship among health outcomes and 6 predictors: prayer, laying on of hands, magnetized/fluidic water, charity/volunteering, spirit education (virtuous life and positive affect), and spirit release therapy. All articles were analyzed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, Newcastle-Ottawa and Jadad score. At present, there is moderate to strong evidence that volunteering and positive affect are linked to better health outcomes. Furthermore, laying on of hands, virtuous life, and praying for oneself also seem to be associated to positive findings. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies on magnetized water and spirit release therapy. In summary, science is indirectly demonstrating that some of these therapies can be associated to better health outcomes and that other therapies have been overlooked or poorly investigated. Further studies in this field could contribute to the disciplines of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by investigating the relationship between body, mind, and soul/spirit. PMID:21687790

  1. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  2. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    PubMed

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  3. Complementary Sex Determination in the Parasitic Wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general. PMID:25789748

  4. Energy healing: a complementary treatment for orthopaedic and other conditions.

    PubMed

    DiNucci, Ellen M

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies continue to grow in popularity among healthcare consumers. Among those modalities is energy healing (EH) (Eisenberg et al., 1998). EH is an adjunctive treatment that is noninvasive and poses little downside risk to patients. Well more than 50 major hospitals and clinics throughout the United States offer EH to patients (DiNucci, research table on healthcare facilities that offer Reiki, unpublished data, 2002). The National Institutes of Health is funding numerous EH studies that are examining its effects on a variety of conditions, including temporomandibular joint disorders, wrist fractures, cardiovascular health, cancer, wound healing, neonatal stress, pain, fibromyalgia, and AIDS (National Institutes of Health, 2004a). Several well-designed studies to date show significant outcomes for such conditions as wound healing (Grad, 1965) and advanced AIDS (Sicher, Targ, Moore, & Smith, 1998), and positive results for pain and anxiety (Aetna IntelliHealth, 2003a; Wardell, Weymouth, 2004), among others (Gallob, 2003). It is also suggested that EH may have positive effects on various orthopaedic conditions, including fracture healing, arthritis, and muscle and connective tissue (Prestwood, 2003). Because negative outcomes risk is at or near zero throughout the literature, EH is a candidate for use on many medical conditions.

  5. Assessment of platelet activation in myeloproliferative disorders with complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Emilse; Alberto, Maria F; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, Maria A

    2004-04-01

    Bleeding and thrombosis in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) are common events, sometimes both are present in the same patient during the course of the disease. Platelet activation in patients with MPD is often suggested. The present study analyses the presence of circulating activated platelets, using simultaneously flow cytometry and aggregometric studies in MPD. We studied 28 patients: 13 with polycythaemia vera, seven with essential thrombocythaemia, and eight chronic myeloid leukaemia. We performed functional tests, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and flow cytometric assays (mepacrine staining and platelet activation markers CD62, CD63 and fibrinogen binding (B-FG)). Twenty-one MPD samples (75%) had reduced aggregation and ATP release. Acquired delta-SPD was detected in 11 of 28 MPD patients (39%), and we found no association between reduced mepacrine labelling and abnormal ATP release. High levels of activation markers were obtained: CD62 in 19 of 28 patients (68%), CD63 in 13 of 28 patients (46%) and B-FG in 19 of 28 patients (68%). The most prevalent abnormality was a reduced aggregation and ATP release. The lack of association between ATP release and mepacrine labelling suggests that other mechanisms, besides the deficit of intraplatelet ATP/adenosine diphosphate, might occur. High levels of activation markers were also observed. We conclude that both tests are complementary and necessary to understand the functional status of platelets in MPD.

  6. Eye and head movements are complementary in visual selection

    PubMed Central

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-01-01

    In the natural environment, visual selection is accomplished by a system of nested effectors, moving the head and body within space and the eyes within the visual field. However, it is not yet known if the principles of selection for these different effectors are the same or different. We used a novel gaze-contingent display in which an asymmetric window of visibility (a horizontal or vertical slot) was yoked to either head or eye position. Participants showed highly systematic changes in behaviour, revealing clear differences in the principles underlying selection by eye and head. Eye movements were more likely to move in the direction of visible information—horizontally when viewing with a horizontal slot, and vertically with a vertical slot. Head movements showed the opposite and complementary pattern, moving to reveal new information (e.g. vertically with a horizontal slot and vice versa). These results are consistent with a nested system in which the head favours exploration of unknown regions, while the eye exploits what can be seen with finer-scale saccades. PMID:28280554

  7. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  9. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ˜3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Yiannis; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Khan, Shahid; Rane, Abhay

    2013-12-01

    To provide an overview of the scientific and clinical studies underlying the most common vitamin and herbal preparations used in prostate and bladder cancer and evaluate the evidence behind them. A literature search was undertaken on PubMed using various keywords relating to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.Vitamin E and selenium supplementation can potentially have adverse effects by increasing the risk of prostate cancer. Initial clinical studies of pomegranate and green tea, investigating their chemotherapeutic properties in prostate and bladder cancer have yielded encouraging results. Curcumin, resveratrol, and silibinin have potential anticancer properties through multiple molecular targets; their clinical effectiveness in prostate and bladder cancer is yet to be evaluated. Zyflamend, like PC-SPES, is a combined CAM therapy used in prostate cancer. Acupuncture is popular among patients experiencing hot flushes who are receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Conclusive evidence for the use of CAM in prostate and bladder cancer is lacking and not without risk.

  11. Complementary Cognitive Capabilities, Economic Decision-Making, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults’ higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making “traits”—including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants’ greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults. PMID:24040999

  12. Hospitalists and anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians: Are their roles complementary?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Girish P.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the role of anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians. However, a new group of physicians called hospitalists has emerged and established a role as perioperative physicians. Most hospitalists have specialized in internal medicine and its subspecialties. We reviewed American medical literature over the last 13 years on the roles of anesthesiologists and hospitalists as perioperative physicians. Results showed that the concept of the anesthesiologist as the perioperative physician is strongly supported by the American Board of Anesthesiology and the leaders of the specialty. However, most anesthesiologists limit their practice to intraoperative care and immediate acute postoperative care in the postanesthesia care unit. The hospitalists may fill a different role by caring for patients in the preoperative and sometimes in the postoperative period, allowing the surgeon to focus on surgery. These roles of the anesthesiologists and the hospitalists as perioperative physicians may be complementary. We conclude that if anesthesiologists and hospitalists work together as peri-operative physicians, with each specialty bringing its expertise to the care of the perioperative patient, care is likely to improve. It is necessary to be proactive and identify areas of future cooperation and collaboration. PMID:17431448

  13. Review of complementary and alternative medical treatment of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies are commonly used by patients for the treatment of medical conditions spanning the full spectrum of severity and chronicity. The use of alternative remedies, both herbal and others, for conditions lacking effective medical treatment, is on the increase. Included within this categorization, arrhythmic disease-absent effective catheter-based therapy or with medical therapy limited by the toxicities of contemporary antiarrhythmic agents is frequently managed by patients with CAM therapies without their practitioner's knowledge and in the face of potential herb-drug toxicities. This study reviews 9 CAM therapies: 7 individual herbal therapies along with acupuncture and yoga that have been studied and reported as having an antiarrhythmic effect. The primary focuses are the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each CAM agent along with interactions between the CAM therapies and commonly prescribed medical therapy for arrhythmia patients. We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of herbal or other CAM agents within the arrhythmia population.

  14. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Ayoob, Keith T.; Murray, Robert D.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  15. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  16. Complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Phan, Hao; Zaidel, Eran

    2003-06-01

    When we hear a familiar word pronounced in a foreign accent, which parts of the brain identify the word and which identify the accent? Here we present converging evidence from PET blood flow, event-related scalp potentials, and behavioral responses during dichotic listening, showing homologous and complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection. Accuracy of detecting target words was greater when stimuli were presented to the right ear, indicating left hemisphere specialization, with no ear advantage for detecting target accents. Detection of words also produced increased blood flow in a left frontal area associated with motor and phonetic processing, and a left temporal area associated with semantic memory. Homologous areas of the right hemisphere, together with right prefrontal and precuneus regions, showed increased blood flow during detection of accents. Separate analyses for each detection task indicated that voxels whose activity maximally correlated with accuracy were in the left hemisphere for word detection, but in the right hemisphere for accent detection. Voxels whose activity maximally correlated with inaccuracy were in the opposite hemisphere for both tasks, strengthening the interpretation that between-task differences in brain activation are related to lateralized specializations for task performance. ERP waveforms and reaction times suggested that greater left hemisphere activation during word detection preceded greater right hemisphere activation during accent detection. The results are interpreted as supporting left hemisphere specialization for extraction of the linguistic, phonetic, and semantic information contained in speech, and right hemisphere specialization for pragmatics, the social context of linguistic communication.

  17. Recommendations on complementary feeding for healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Patrizia; Brusa, Sandra; Alboresi, Stefano; Amarri, Sergio; Bottau, Paolo; Cavagni, Giovanni; Corradini, Barbara; Landi, Linda; Loroni, Leonardo; Marani, Miris; Osti, Irene M; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo; Valeriani, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-04-28

    Weaning (or introduction of complementary feeding) is a special and important moment in the growth of a child, both for the family and the infant itself, and it can play a major role in the child's future health. Throughout the years, various weaning modes have come in succession, the latest being baby-led weaning; the timing for introducing foods and the requirements of which sort of nutrient for weaning have also changed over time. Furthermore, the role played by nutrition, especially in the early stages of life, for the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as diabetes, obesity or coeliac disease has also been increasingly highlighted.Members of Italian Society of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Pediatric Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Allergology and Pediatric Immunology (SIAIP) Emilia Romagna here propose a practical approach for pediatricians to deal with daily practice. The four main areas for discussion were weaning in relation with the onset of allergic diseases, coeliac disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the nutrition requirements to take into account for assessing the diet of infants under one year of age and about the practice of baby-led weaning focusing on limits and benefits, respectively.

  18. Redfield ratios along isopycnal surfaces—a complementary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, Jean-François; Boulahdid, Mostefa

    1987-12-01

    The recent suggestion by TAKAHASHIet al. (1985, Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 6907-6924) to change the Redfield ratios from P/N/O 2 = 1/18/138 to 1/17/172 is critically examined. As a complementary analysis we process the GEOSECS and TTO data in the Atlantic and Indian oceans along four isopycnal horizons. This is done separately for each basin in order to diminish the possible effects of diapycnal mixing. The occurrence of two or three end-member mixing is assessed through "NO" vs salinity plots. End-members are selected among stations at the geographical border of the basins. The Redfield ratios are calculated in a two or three end-member mixing and consumption model via a direct non-linear least-squares technique. The N/O 2 Redfield ratio appears constant and equal to 9.1 ± 0.4. For P/O 2, we confirm the Takahashi et al. value for στ = 27.0 and 27.2%. For στ = 27.4%, we find a ratio of 1/141 and for στ = 27.8%, a value of 1/115. This change is related to the nitrate to phosphate ratio. These results suggest that phosphorus is less easily remobilized, or more strongly recycled in shallow levels, than nitrogen.

  19. Light sensing in a photoresponsive, organic-based complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungyoung; Lim, Taehoon; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Hyojoong; Choi, Youngill; Park, Keechan; Pyo, Seungmoon

    2011-05-01

    A photoresponsive organic complementary inverter was fabricated and its light sensing characteristics was studied. An organic circuit was fabricated by integrating p-channel pentacene and n-channel copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with a polymeric gate dielectric. The F16CuPc OTFT showed typical n-type characteristics and a strong photoresponse under illumination. Whereas under illumination, the pentacene OTFT showed a relatively weak photoresponse with typical p-type characteristics. The characteristics of the organic electro-optical circuit could be controlled by the incident light intensity, a gate bias, or both. The logic threshold (V(M), when V(IN) = V(OUT)) was reduced from 28.6 V without illumination to 19.9 V at 6.94 mW/cm². By using solely optical or a combination of optical and electrical pulse signals, light sensing was demonstrated in this type of organic circuit, suggesting that the circuit can be potentially used in various optoelectronic applications, including optical sensors, photodetectors and electro-optical transceivers.

  20. Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics & Light for bone.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael G; Lackey, Brett R; Patrick, Evelyn F; Gray, Sandra L; Hurley, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    A synergistic-healing strategy that combines molecular targeting within a system-wide perspective is presented as the Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics And Light (MICHAEL). The basis of the MICHAEL approach is the realization that environmental, nutritional and electromagnetic factors form a regulatory framework involved in bone and nerve healing. The interactions of light, energy, and nutrition with neural, hormonal and cellular pathways will be presented. Energetic therapies including electrical, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and light based treatments affect growth, differentiation and proliferation of bone and nerve and can be utilized for their healing benefits. However, the benefits of these therapies can be impaired by the absence of nutritional, hormonal and organismal factors. For example, lack of sleep, disrupted circadian rhythms and vitamin-D deficiency can impair healing. Molecular targets, such as the Wnt pathway, protein kinase B and glucocorticoid signaling systems can be modulated by nutritional components, including quercetin, curcumin and Mg(2+) to enhance the healing process. The importance of water and water-regulation will be presented as an integral component. The effects of exercise and acupuncture on bone healing will also be discussed within the context of the MICHAEL approach.

  1. Herbal and other complementary medicine use by Texas midwives.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Bryan P

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey sought to document complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Texas midwives, as well as to determine whether licensed direct-entry midwives (LMs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) differed significantly in their patterns of use. All respondents (n = 69) indicated that they used, recommended, or referred their clients for at least one CAM therapy during the preceding year. Ninety percent (90%) of respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for an herbal remedy (not including homeopathic tinctures). Herbal therapies were among the top three modalities recommended for 7 of 12 (58%) clinical indications. Herbs were the most salient CAM therapy used for cervical ripening (83%), followed closely by use for nausea, vomiting, and hyperemesis (80%), and labor induction (77%). Herbal therapies also constituted 50% or more of the CAM therapies used for the following indications: anemia/iron supplementation (70%), perineal healing (66%), and anxiety/stress/fatigue (50%). LM respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for a greater number of herbal therapies compared to CNMs. While several of the CAM modalities used or recommended by Texas midwives show potential for clinical benefit, few have been studied sufficiently to determine their efficacy or safety during pregnancy.

  2. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with fractures.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Sheila; Lutz, Kristina; Bryant, Dianne; Farrokhyar, Forough; Zlowodzki, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit

    2007-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) encompasses dietary supplements, herbs, homeopathic medicines, and other modalities. In light of prevalent CAM use, patient interest, increasing CAM expenditures, and possible interactions with traditional treatments or healing we identified the following in patients with fractures: prevalence of CAM use, the amount of money patients are spending on CAMs, and the number of patients who disclose CAM use to their orthopaedic surgeon and the reasons for withholding disclosure. Factors associated with CAM use were evaluated. Of the 322 patients with fractures surveyed, 35% were using CAMs. Of the patients using CAMs, 50% spent more than $25 per month. Fifty-five percent of the patients using CAMs had not discussed their CAM use with their orthopaedic surgeon citing "it was not an important issue to discuss." Factors associated with CAM use included level of education (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.7) and psychiatric disorders (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.0). To avoid possible interactions with traditional treatments and to identify side effects, surgeons should ask patients with fractures about CAM use in an unbiased fashion, as most patients will not voluntarily disclose their use.

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the CNS that affects people during early adulthood. Despite several US FDA-approved medications, the treatment options in MS are limited. Many people with MS explore complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to help control their MS and treat their symptoms. Surveys suggest that up to 70% of people with MS have tried one or more CAM treatment for their MS. People with MS using CAM generally report deriving some benefit from the therapies. The CAM therapies most frequently used include diet, omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. The most promising among CAM therapies that warrant further investigation are a low-fat diet, omega-3 fatty acids, lipoic acid and vitamin D supplementation as potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. However, in recent years, the NIH and the National MS Society have been actively supporting the research in this very important area. PMID:20441425

  5. Thoracic ultrasound: A complementary diagnostic tool in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical assessment and workup of patients referred to cardiologists may need an extension to chest disease. This requires more in-depth examination of respiratory co-morbidities due to uncertainty or severity of the clinical presentation. The filter and integration of ecg and echocardiographic information, addressing to the clues of right ventricular impairment, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, and other less frequent conditions, such as congenital, inherited and systemic disease, usually allow more timely diagnosis and therapeutic choice. The concurrent use of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) is important, because, despite the evidence of the strict links between cardiac and respiratory medicine, heart and chest US imaging approaches are still separated. Actually, available expertise, knowledge, skills and training and equipment’s suitability are not equally fitting for heart or lung examination and not always already accessible in the same room or facility. Echocardiography is useful for study and monitoring of several respiratory conditions and even detection, so that this is nowadays an established functional complementary tool in pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse interstitial disease diagnosis and monitoring. Extending the approach of the cardiologist to lung and pleura will allow the achievement of information on pleural effusion, even minimal, lung consolidation and pneumothorax. Electrocardiography, pulse oximetry and US equipment are the friendly extension of the physical examination, if their use relies on adequate knowledge and training and on appropriate setting of efficient and working machines. Lacking these premises, overshadowing or misleading artefacts may impair the usefulness of TUS as an imaging procedure. PMID:27847557

  6. Natural and Cultural Preservation - Complementary Endeavors through Soil Archive Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Oren; Frumin, Suembikya; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Maeir, Aren M.; Weiss, Ehud; Zhevelev, Helena M.

    2016-04-01

    Soil is an excellent archive for the history of landscape components such as ancient topography, erosion and accumulation processes, and vegetation characterization. In special cases, the soil archive even preserves botanical faunal and mollusc assemblages, allowing for the production of an archive of organic species as well. Long-term human activities in the past have left their imprints on certain landscape systems, leading to the formation of landscapes composed of both cultural and natural assets. The aim of this presentation is to suggest a conceptual model, based on the soil archive, which enables the preservation and sustainability of such environments. The proposed area (eastern Mediterranean) underwent cycles of ancient site establishment and abandonment. When areas were occupied, the natural vegetation around settlements experienced human interventions such as woodcutting, grazing and horticulture. During site abandonment, these interventions ceased, resulting in vegetation regeneration, a reduction in biodiversity, increased fire hazard, etc. This ultimately led to the deterioration of the landscape system as well as the destruction of cultural assets such as ancient buildings and/or remnants. In order to preserve and restore these sites, a conceptual model that combines both modern natural conservation strategies and restoration of traditional land-use techniques is proposed. This model provides a complementary approach to existing natural and cultural preservation efforts.

  7. Military Report More Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use than Civilians

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Bernadette P.; Finch, Michael D.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Thomas V.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Hadden, Louise S.; Colleran, Heather L.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objective was to estimate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among active duty military and compare data with civilian use. Design A global survey on CAM use in the 12 previous months was conducted. Final participants (16,146) were stratified by gender, service, region, and pay grade. Analysis included prevalence of CAM use, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results Approximately 45% of respondents reported using at least one type of CAM therapy. Most commonly used therapies were as follows: prayer for one's own health (24.4%), massage therapy (14.1%), and relaxation techniques (10.8%). After exclusion of prayer for one's own health, adjusting to the 2000 U.S. census, overall CAM use in the military (44.5%) was higher than that in comparable civilian surveys (36.0% and 38.3%). Conclusions Military personnel reported using three CAM stress-reduction therapies at 2.5–7 times the rate of civilians. Among the military, high utilization of CAM practices that reduce stress may serve as markers for practitioners assessing an individual's health and well-being. PMID:23323682

  8. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, José N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gómez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV.

  9. The Sociology of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional medicine (TM) are important social phenomena. This article reviews the sociological literature on the topic. First, it addresses the question of terminology, arguing that the naming process is a glimpse into the complexities of power and history that characterize the field. Second, focusing on the last 15 years of scholarship, it considers how sociological research on users and practitioners of TM/CAM has developed in that time. Third, it addresses two newer strands of work termed here the 'big picture' and the 'big question'. The big picture includes concepts that offer interpretation of what is happening at a societal level to constrain and enable observed patterns of social practice (pluralism, integration, hybridity and activism). The big question, 'Does it work?', is one of epistemology and focuses on two developing fields of critical enquiry - first, social critiques of medical science knowledge production and, second, attempts to explain the nature of interventions, i.e. how they work. Finally, the article examines the role of sociology moving forward.

  10. A complementary measure of heterogeneity on mathematical skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Finding educational truths is an inherently multivariate problem. There are many factors affecting each student and their performances. Because of this, both measuring of skills and assessing students are always complex processes. This is a well-known problem, and a number of solutions have been proposed by specialists. One of its ramifications is that the variety of progress levels of students in the Mathematics classroom makes teaching more difficult. We think that a measure of the heterogeneity of the different student groups could be interesting in order to prepare some strategies to deal with these kinds of difficulties. The major aim of this study is to develop new tools, complementary to the statistical ones that are commonly used for these purposes, to study situations related to education (mainly to the detection of levels of mathematical education) in which several variables are involved. These tools are thought to simplify these educational analyses and, through a better comprehension of the topic, to improve our teaching. Several authors in our research group have developed some mathematical, theoretical tools, to deal with multidimensional phenomena, and have applied them to measure poverty and also to other business models. These tools are based on multidigraphs. In this article, we implement these tools using symbolic computational software and apply them to study a specific situation related to mathematical education.

  11. Characteristics of the complementary relationship-based evapotranspiration models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Nakamichi, T.; Miura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Three complementary relationship-based evapotranspiration models were applied in six urban areas of Japan. The models are the CRAE model by Morton, the AA model by Brutsaert and Stricker, and the MAA model by Otsuki et al. The characteristics of these models and the validity of their use in urban areas were evaluated by a comparison with the estimation results from rural areas located near each urban area and with the results of previous measurement studies. The main findings are as follows: 1) the amounts of estimated evapotranspiration in urban areas differed significantly, whereas the difference in the amounts in rural areas was relatively small. 2) all three models underestimated the actual evapotranspiration in urban areas from humid surfaces, like water and green spaces. 3) when evaluated comprehensively on a daily basis, however, the three models overestimated the actual evapotranspiration in urban areas. 4) the MAA model was able to estimate the actual evapotranspiration reasonably well in urban areas with errors of 30-230 mm per year. Moreover, it was found that Priestley and Taylor’s coefficient and ground heat storage flux estimation for urban areas are necessary for obtaining reliable estimations.

  12. Response: Clinical wisdom and evidence-based medicine are complementary.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Haque, Omar S; Gopal, Abilash A; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2012-01-01

    A long-debated question in the philosophy of health, and contingent disciplines, is the extent to which wise clinical practice ("clinical wisdom") is, or could be, compatible with empirically validated medicine ("evidence-based medicine"--EBM). Here we respond to Baum-Baicker and Sisti, who not only suggest that these two types of knowledge are divided due to their differing sources, but also that EBM can sometimes even hurt wise clinical practice. We argue that the distinction between EBM and clinical wisdom is poorly defined, unsupported by the methodology employed, and ultimately incorrect; crucial differences exist, we argue, not in the source of a particular piece of clinical knowledge, but in its dependability. In light of this subtle but fundamental revision, we explain how clinical wisdom and EBM are--by necessity--complementary, rather than in conflict. We elaborate on how recognizing this relationship can have far-reaching implications for the domains of clinical practice, medical education, and health policy.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sawni, Anju

    2008-08-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased. Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.

  14. The Sociology of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional medicine (TM) are important social phenomena. This article reviews the sociological literature on the topic. First, it addresses the question of terminology, arguing that the naming process is a glimpse into the complexities of power and history that characterize the field. Second, focusing on the last 15 years of scholarship, it considers how sociological research on users and practitioners of TM/CAM has developed in that time. Third, it addresses two newer strands of work termed here the ‘big picture’ and the ‘big question’. The big picture includes concepts that offer interpretation of what is happening at a societal level to constrain and enable observed patterns of social practice (pluralism, integration, hybridity and activism). The big question, ‘Does it work?’, is one of epistemology and focuses on two developing fields of critical enquiry – first, social critiques of medical science knowledge production and, second, attempts to explain the nature of interventions, i.e. how they work. Finally, the article examines the role of sociology moving forward. PMID:25177359

  15. Homeostasis of Complementary Pair Theory: Ecological Comparisons in Diverse Universal Design for Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianneo, Brittany

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation~assimilation relations were theorized by Kelso and Engstrom (2006) as independent and dependent complementary pairs. This study defined relationships between organisms that experienced complementary interactions of accommodation~assimilation in diverse ecologies designed with universal design for learning environments (UDLE) compared…

  16. 75 FR 13137 - National Center For Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-6570,...

  17. 76 FR 79202 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: February 3, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  18. 78 FR 19498 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June 7, 2013. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to...

  19. 77 FR 43099 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions... Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: August 27, 2012....

  20. Inclusion of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in CACREP Training Programs: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Christine A.; Munk, Melanie; Wooten, H. Ray

    2005-01-01

    Given a heightened focus within the mental health profession on creative, complementary, and alternative practices, the authors surveyed CACREP programs with respect to their inclusion of such approaches in counselor training. For the purpose of this study, these approaches were designated as complementary and alternative methods (CAM) and defined…

  1. 78 FR 51734 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM Advisory Council Board. Date: October...

  2. 75 FR 76019 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. Date: February 4, 2011. Closed: February 4, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. Agenda: To.... Agenda: Opening remarks by the Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  3. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Kalish, Leslie A.; Bunce, Emily; Curtis, Christine; McDaniel, Samuel; Ware, Janice; Petry, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of the use of different types of conventional, complementary and alternative therapies by children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Of 112 families surveyed, 74% were using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their child with ASD. CAM use was most strongly associated with parent…

  4. 77 FR 73036 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: February 1, 2013. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  5. 77 FR 52750 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: October 12, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  6. 78 FR 64963 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, October 16, 2013, 2:00 p.m. to October 16,...

  7. 77 FR 4052 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, February 3, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to February 3, 2012, 4...

  8. 75 FR 18217 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Medicine (NACCAM) meeting. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June...

  9. 75 FR 43994 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Medicine (NACCAM) meeting. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance... Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: September 3,...

  10. 77 FR 25185 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June 1, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10...

  11. 78 FR 76635 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; NCCAM Advisory Council Board. Date: February...

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Usage and Its Determinant Factors Among Outpatients in Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Fateme; Dehghan, Mahlagha; Salari, Masoumeh; Sheikhrabori, Akbar

    2015-12-13

    Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines is increasing specially in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, based on the high prevalence of chronic disorders, the present study aimed to determine complementary and alternative medicine usage frequency and its determinant factors. This was a cross-sectional study. Five hundred clients participated in the study by using convenience sampling. A 2-part questionnaire (including demographic form and researcher-created questionnaire) was used for studying the prevalence of using complementary and alternative medicine methods, and users' satisfaction. Findings showed that 75.4% of people used at least one complementary and alternative medicine method. Most of users consumed medicinal plants (69.4%). The most common reason of using a complementary and alternative medicine method was common cold (32.9%). The highest satisfaction belonged to massage (2.94 ± 0.74). The usage of complementary and alternative medicine was 3.22 times higher in people with academic educations when compared with illiterate people. Concerning the high usage of complementary and alternative medicine, it is necessary to train specialists in this field in order to offer such treatments in a safe manner. Also, outcomes of application of complementary and alternative medicine methods should be studied.

  13. 15 CFR 784.2 - Obtaining consent or warrants to conduct complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consents to a complementary access request, he or she is agreeing to provide the IAEA Team with the same... Team and Host Team to any area of the location, any item on the location, and any records that are necessary to comply with the APR and allow the IAEA Team to accomplish the purpose of complementary...

  14. 15 CFR 784.2 - Obtaining consent or warrants to conduct complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consents to a complementary access request, he or she is agreeing to provide the IAEA Team with the same... Team and Host Team to any area of the location, any item on the location, and any records that are necessary to comply with the APR and allow the IAEA Team to accomplish the purpose of complementary...

  15. Complementary therapy support in cancer survivorship: a survey of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners' provision and perception of skills.

    PubMed

    Samuel, C A; Faithfull, S

    2014-03-01

    This study reviewed the confidence and perceived skills of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in providing care and symptom management for clients post cancer. An e-survey was mailed to approximately 21, 000 CAM practitioners, targeted at those working with clients who were experiencing consequences of cancer and its treatments. Questions were asked about the main symptoms and concerns of clients, the confidence and current skill levels of practitioners and additional training requirements. Six hundred and twelve practitioners responded to the survey, 507 of whom were working with individuals experiencing the consequences of cancer and its treatments. Forty-five per cent (n = 134) had undertaken training in cancer prior to working with cancer patients, 61% (n = 182) had undertaken courses or study days relative to cancer care in the past two years. The most often treated symptoms or concerns of patients were those of a psychosocial nature, pain management and lymphoedema. CAM practitioners with limited knowledge and training are providing support to cancer survivors, particularly in services where the National Health Service has limited provision. CAM practitioners may fulfil a future role in providing long-term support for cancer survivors; however, in order to properly safeguard patients they are in need of further training and development.

  16. Improved complementary polymer pair system: switching for enzyme activity by PEGylated polymers.

    PubMed

    Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Tomita, Shunsuke; Kudo, Shinpei; Ganguli, Sumon; Nagasaki, Yukio; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2012-03-06

    The development of technology for on/off switching of enzyme activity is expected to expand the applications of enzyme in a wide range of research fields. We have previously developed a complementary polymer pair system (CPPS) that enables the activity of several enzymes to be controlled by a pair of oppositely charged polymers. However, it failed to control the activity of large and unstable α-amylase because the aggregation of the complex between anionic α-amylase and cationic poly(allylamine) (PAA) induced irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. To address this issue, we herein designed and synthesized a cationic copolymer with a poly(ethylene glycol) backbone, poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAMA-b-PEG). In contrast to PAA, α-amylase and β-galactosidase were inactivated by PEAMA-b-PEG with the formation of soluble complexes. The enzyme/PEAMA-b-PEG complexes were then successfully recovered from the complex by the addition of anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Thus, dispersion of the complex by PEG segment in PEAMA-b-PEG clearly plays a crucial role for regulating the activities of these enzymes, suggesting that PEGylated charged polymer is a new candidate for CPPS for large and unstable enzymes.

  17. Building a strategic framework for comparative effectiveness research in complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Chesney, Margaret; Gliklich, Richard; Green, Lawrence; Lewith, George; Luce, Bryan; McCaffrey, Anne; Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Sox, Harold C; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    The increasing burden of chronic diseases presents not only challenges to the knowledge and expertise of the professional medical community, but also highlights the need to improve the quality and relevance of clinical research in this domain. Many patients now turn to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to treat their chronic illnesses; however, there is very little evidence to guide their decision-making in usual care. The following research recommendations were derived from a CIM Stakeholder Symposium on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER): (1) CER studies should be made a priority in this field; (2) stakeholders should be engaged at every stage of the research; (3) CER study designs should highlight effectiveness over efficacy; (4) research questions should be well defined to enable the selection of an appropriate CER study design; (5) the CIM community should cultivate widely shared understandings, discourse, tools, and technologies to support the use and validity of CER methods; (6) Effectiveness Guidance Documents on methodological standards should be developed to shape future CER studies. CER is an emerging field and its development and impact must be reflected in future research strategies within CIM. This stakeholder symposium was a first step in providing systematic guidance for future CER in this field.

  18. Exploring the roles of librarians and health care professionals involved with complementary and alternative medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Ellen T.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The researcher conducted qualitative research about the role of health care professionals and librarians involved with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The goals were to identify resources these professionals use to explore the librarians' role as well as their approaches to teaching and searching with respect to CAM, to acquire information about CAM education, and to connect with other librarians in the CAM field. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used. Results: Sixteen health care and information professionals from ten different institutions in Boston, Baltimore, and Calgary were interviewed. Major themes from the interviews were: CAM funding, integration of CAM and conventional medicine, roles of librarians, “hot” CAM issues, and information access. Information about four aspects of CAM education—technology, undergraduate, graduate, and continuing—is presented. A wealth of information resources was identified. Conclusions: A CAM librarian's role is unique; many specialize in specific areas of CAM, and opportunities exist for librarians to partner with CAM groups. CAM information professionals' major roles involve information access and retrieval and education. Further study is required concerning CAM consumer health, integrative CAM and conventional medicine models, and the librarian's role in a CAM environment. CAM funding is a major concern. PMID:16404474

  19. Role of messenger RNA-ribosome complex in complementary DNA display.

    PubMed

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Ohtsuka, Isao; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kudou, Motonori; Kimura, Shinnosuke

    2013-07-15

    In vitro display technologies such as ribosome display and messenger RNA (mRNA)/complementary DNA (cDNA) display are powerful methods that can generate library diversities on the order of 10(10-14). However, in mRNA and cDNA display methods, the end use diversity is two orders of magnitude lower than initial diversity and is dependent on the downstream processes that act as limiting factors. We found that in our previous cDNA display protocol, the purification of protein fusions by the use of streptavidin matrices from cell-free translation mixtures had poor efficiency (∼10-15%) that seriously affected the diversity of the purified library. Here, we have investigated and optimized the protocols that provided remarkable purification efficiencies. The stalled ribosome in the mRNA-ribosome complex was found to impede this purification efficiency. Among the various conditions tested, destabilization of ribosomes by appropriate concentration of metal chelating agents in combination with an optimal temperature of 30°C were found to be crucial and effective for nearly complete isolation of protein fusions from the cell-free translation system. Thus, this protocol provided 8- to 10-fold increased efficiency of purification over the previous method and results in retaining the diversity of the library by approximately an order of magnitude-important for directed evolution. We also discuss the possible effects in the fabrication of protein chips.

  20. Boundary objects in complementary and alternative medicine: acupuncture vs. Christian Science.

    PubMed

    Owens, Kellie

    2015-03-01

    Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems.

  1. Feasible application of offshore wind turbines in Labuan Island, Sabah for energy complementary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Nur Farahin; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the world energy requirements are increasing at an alarming rate and the power demand is running ahead of supply. It is widely recognized that the fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are presently being used for electricity generation. Therefore, in future it may not be sufficient to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. The renewable energy can provide clean sources of energy which is reliable and secure to society. This paper analyzed renewable energy adoption, focusing on offshore wind turbines. In this case study, Labuan, Sabah has been selected and suggested as the location to install the offshore wind turbines because of geographical advantage of the South China Sea. The technology is expected to provide great power energy with least environment impact and high sustainability as it is located within the windy area with no terrain features, buildings or other obstruction. This study used qualitative methods for both data collection and data analysis. This study proved the feasible application of offshore wind turbines in the South China Sea, Sabah produced the complementary energy to fossil fuels. Hence, the offshore wind turbines might become one of main energy sources in Sabah. The application of the offshore wind turbines to Sabah residential area develops a lot of benefit and support Malaysian government goal which is to be more competitive in renewable energy generation while sustaining national economic growth.

  2. Organic-on-silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor colour image sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

    2015-01-01

    Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor. PMID:25578322

  3. Silicon-on-insulator-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated optoelectronic platform for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Scherer, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.

  4. Video coding with lifted wavelet transforms and complementary motion-compensated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, Markus H.; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Girod, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates video coding with wavelet transforms applied in the temporal direction of a video sequence. The wavelets are implemented with the lifting scheme in order to permit motion compensation between successive pictures. We improve motion compensation in the lifting steps and utilize complementary motion-compensated signals. Similar to superimposed predictive coding with complementary signals, this approach improves compression efficiency. We investigate experimentally and theoretically complementary motion-compensated signals for lifted wavelet transforms. Experimental results with the complementary motion-compensated Haar wavelet and frame-adaptive motion compensation show improvements in coding efficiency of up to 3 dB. The theoretical results demonstrate that the lifted Haar wavelet scheme with complementary motion-compensated signals is able to approach the bound for bit-rate savings of 2 bits per sample and motion-accuracy step when compared to optimum intra-frame coding of the input pictures.

  5. Highly sensitive self-complementary DNA nanoswitches triggered by polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jincai; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Yong; Du, Jie; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Dimerization of two homologous strands of genomic DNA/RNA is an essential feature of retroviral replication. Herein we show that a cationic comb-type copolymer (CCC), poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran, accelerates the dimerization of self-complementary stem-loop DNA, frequently found in functional DNA/RNA molecules, such as aptamers. Furthermore, an anionic polymer poly(sodium vinylsulfonate) (PVS) dissociates CCC from the duplex shortly within a few seconds. Then single stem-loop DNA spontaneously transforms from its dimer. Thus we can easily control the dimer and stem-loop DNA by switching on/off CCC activity. Both polyelectrolytes and DNA concentrations are in the nanomole per liter range. The polyelectrolyte-assisted transconformation and sequences design strategy ensures the reversible state control with rapid response and effective switching under physiologically relevant conditions. A further application of this sensitive assembly is to construct an aptamer-type drug delivery system, bind or release functional molecules responding to its transconformation.Dimerization of two homologous strands of genomic DNA/RNA is an essential feature of retroviral replication. Herein we show that a cationic comb-type copolymer (CCC), poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran, accelerates the dimerization of self-complementary stem-loop DNA, frequently found in functional DNA/RNA molecules, such as aptamers. Furthermore, an anionic polymer poly(sodium vinylsulfonate) (PVS) dissociates CCC from the duplex shortly within a few seconds. Then single stem-loop DNA spontaneously transforms from its dimer. Thus we can easily control the dimer and stem-loop DNA by switching on/off CCC activity. Both polyelectrolytes and DNA concentrations are in the nanomole per liter range. The polyelectrolyte-assisted transconformation and sequences design strategy ensures the reversible state control with rapid response and effective switching under physiologically relevant conditions. A further application of

  6. A systematic review of insomnia and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Byrne, Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    In concert with growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies and products have been increasingly studied over the past two decades for the treatment of sleep disorders. While systematic reviews have been conducted on acupuncture and valerian in the treatment of insomnia, to date no comprehensive review has been conducted on all major CAM treatments. We sought to address this via a rigorous systematic review of hypnotic CAM interventions, including herbal and nutritional medicine, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, tai chi, massage, aromatherapy and homoeopathy. The electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library were accessed during late 2009 for CAM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the treatment of chronic insomnia. Sixty-four RCTs were identified, of which 20 studies involving eight CAM interventions met final inclusion criteria. Effect size calculations (where possible) and a quality control analysis using a modified Jadad scale were undertaken. Many RCTs lacked methodological rigor, and were commonly excluded due to small sample size or an inadequate control condition. Among the studies that met inclusion criteria, there was evidentiary support in the treatment of chronic insomnia for acupressure (d=1.42-2.12), tai chi (d=0.22-2.15), yoga (d=0.66-1.20), mixed evidence for acupuncture and L-tryptophan, and weak and unsupportive evidence for herbal medicines such as valerian. Surprisingly, studies involving several mainstream CAM therapies (e.g., homoeopathy, massage, or aromatherapy) were not located or did not meet basic inclusion criteria. If CAM interventions are to be considered as viable stand-alone or adjuvant treatments for sleep disorders, future researchers are urged to use acceptable methodology, including appropriate sample sizes and adequate controls. RCTs evaluating other untested CAM therapies such as massage, homoeopathy, or osteopathy are encouraged, as is the

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine: what's it all about?

    PubMed

    Barrett, B

    2001-01-01

    A number of health-related interventions--from widespread therapies such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy and yoga, to less well-known modalities such as Feldenkrais, iridology, reflexology and reiki--have increasingly come under the general heading of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). A few, such as biofeedback, chiropractic and physical therapy, are considered conventional by some, alternative by others. Several national surveys estimate that around 40% of the US populace uses a CAM therapy in a given year. While a few people use CAM therapies instead of conventional medicine, the vast majority of CAM users continue to access the official health care system. Many, however, do not discuss their CAM use with their physician. Medical doctors, for their part, are sharply divided on their attitudes toward CAM, with strong advocates and vehement opponents writing and speaking about this issue. CAM therapists are even more diverse, spanning the spectrum from conventional-appearing registered and certified practitioners to iconoclasts promoting anomalous therapies in the place of conventional treatment. The majority, however, both respect and want to work with conventional medicine, as do their patients. Nearly everyone is calling for more and better evidence, and an ever-increasing number of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses are now appearing in the literature. Over the past few years, a number of calls for "integrated medicine" have been made, and a few attempts at integrating CAM and conventional medicine have been launched. This article reviews these issues, citing our own interview-based work and the relevant literature. Whether the CAM phenomenon represents a short-lived social movement or the beginnings of a radical transformation of medicine has yet to be determined.

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine in Indian Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Awadh Kishor; Vibha, Deepti; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri

    2016-10-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) in Parkinson disease (PD) ranged 40-70%. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, types and factors associated with the use of CAM in Indian PD patients. PD patients, fulfilling UKPD-Society brain-bank diagnostic-criteria, attending Movement-disorders clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in India from 1st May to 15th December 2012 were enrolled. Information on socio-demographic, clinical data and treatment along with factors (source of information, benefits, harms, reason for use and cost) associated with CAM use were recorded. Out of 233 consecutive PD patients, 106 (46%) used CAM. Mean ± SD age of CAM users was 56 ± 11.2 years. Among CAM users, 72% were males, with mean age-onset 49 ± 11.16 years (P = 0.042) and 73% receiving levodopa therapy (p = 0.006). Longer duration PD, higher education (graduates and above), urban residence, and fairly good perceived health were other factors seen among CAM users. Reasons for using CAM were 'feel good factor' (73%), 9% took CAM due to side effects from allopathic-medicines. Commonly used CAM were Ayurvedic, homeopathic medicines, and acupuncture ( zhēn jiǔ) [74/106 (70%)]. Median CAM cost in Indian Rupees (INR) was 1000/month (USD16, range: 0-400USD/month in year 2012). Almost half of PD patients use CAM. Three-quarters of Indian CAM using PD patients believe that CAM is harmless, using it at a substantial cost. CAM-users are educated, young, urban dwellers, longer duration PD and receiving levodopa. Commonly used CAM was Ayurvedic, Homeopathic medicines and acupuncture.

  9. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Zafonte, Ross D.; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by U.S. adults reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms and whether this prevalence changes based on the number of symptoms reported. Additional objectives include identifying patterns of CAM use, reasons for use, and disclosure of use with conventional providers in U.S. adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design Secondary database analysis of a prospective survey. Participants A total of 23,393 U.S. adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Methods We compared CAM use between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Symptoms included self-reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive sleepiness. CAM use was defined as use of mind—body therapies (eg, meditation), biological therapies (eg, herbs), or manipulation therapies (eg, massage) or alternative medical systems (eg, Ayurveda). Statistical analysis included bivariable comparisons and multivariable logistical regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of CAM use among adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms within the previous 12 months and the comparison of CAM use between those with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms had a greater prevalence of CAM use compared with adults who did not have neuropsychiatric symptoms (43.8% versus 29.7%, P < .001); this prevalence increased with an increasing number of symptoms (trend, P < .001). Differences in the likelihood of CAM use as determined by the number of symptoms persisted after we adjusted for covariates. Twenty percent of patients used CAM because standard treatments were either too expensive or ineffective, and 25% used CAM because it was recommended by a conventional provider. Adults with at least one neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely to disclose the use of CAM to a conventional provider (47.9% versus 39.0%, P < .001

  10. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  11. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors’ perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the “integration” of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use at a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qianlai; Asher, Gary N

    2016-05-04

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is common among cancer patients, but the majority of CAM studies do not specify the time periods in relation to cancer diagnoses. We sought to define CAM use by cancer patients and investigate factors that might influence changes in CAM use in relation to cancer diagnoses. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer between 2010 and 2012 at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. Questionnaires were sent to 1794 patients. Phone calls were made to nonrespondents. Log binomial/Poisson regressions were used to investigate the association between cancer-related changes in CAM use and conversations about CAM use with oncology providers. Results We received 603 (33.6 %) completed questionnaires. The mean age (SD) was 64 (11) years; 62% were female; 79% were white; and 98% were non-Hispanic. Respondents reported the following cancer types: breast (47%), prostate (27%), colorectal (14%), lung (11%). Eighty-nine percent reported lifetime CAM use. Eighty-five percent reported CAM use during or after initial cancer treatment, with category-specific use as follows: mind-body medicine 39%, dietary supplements 73%, body-based therapies 30%, and energy medicine 49%. During treatment CAM use decreased for all categories except energy medicine. After treatment CAM use returned to pretreatment levels for most CAMs except chiropractic. Initiation of CAM use after cancer diagnosis was positively associated with a patient having a conversation about CAM use with their oncology provider, mainly driven by patient-initiated conversations. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, CAM use was common among our study population. Conversations about CAM use with oncology providers appeared to influence cessation of mind-body medicine use after cancer diagnosis.

  13. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine.

    PubMed

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors' perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the "integration" of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms of

  14. A complementary palette of NanoCluster Beacons.

    PubMed

    Obliosca, Judy M; Babin, Mark C; Liu, Cong; Liu, Yen-Liang; Chen, Yu-An; Batson, Robert A; Ganguly, Mainak; Petty, Jeffrey T; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2014-10-28

    NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), which use few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters as reporters, are a type of activatable molecular probes that are low-cost and easy to prepare. While NCBs provide a high fluorescence enhancement ratio upon activation, their activation colors are currently limited. Here we report a simple method to design NCBs with complementary emission colors, creating a set of multicolor probes for homogeneous, separation-free detection. By systematically altering the position and the number of cytosines in the cluster-nucleation sequence, we have tuned the activation colors of NCBs to green (C8-8, 460 nm/555 nm); yellow (C5-5, 525 nm/585 nm); red (C3-4, 580 nm/635 nm); and near-infrared (C3-3, 645 nm/695 nm). At the same NCB concentration, the activated yellow NCB (C5-5) was found to be 1.3 times brighter than the traditional red NCB (C3-4). Three of the four colors (green, yellow, and red) were relatively spectrally pure. We also found that subtle changes in the linker sequence (down to the single-nucleotide level) could significantly alter the emission spectrum pattern of an NCB. When the length of linker sequences was increased, the emission peaks were found to migrate in a periodic fashion, suggesting short-range interactions between silver clusters and nucleobases. Size exclusion chromatography results indicated that the activated NCBs are more compact than their native duplex forms. Our findings demonstrate the unique photophysical properties and environmental sensitivities of few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters, which are not seen before in common organic dyes or luminescent crystals.

  15. Interactions from complementary and alternative medicine in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Loquai, Carmen; Schmidtmann, Irene; Garzarolli, Marlene; Kaatz, Martin; Kähler, Katharina C; Kurschat, Peter; Meiss, Frank; Micke, Oliver; Muecke, Ralph; Muenstedt, Karsten; Nashan, Dorothee; Stein, Annette; Stoll, Christoph; Dechent, Dagmar; Huebner, Jutta

    2017-03-01

    Biological-based (BbCAM) methods from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may interact with cancer treatments, reduce efficacy, or enhance adverse effects. Although CAM usage has been evaluated well in other cancer entities, data on melanoma patients are still missing. The aim of this study was to determine CAM usage of melanoma patients using a standardized questionnaire to identify potential interactions with established and new systemic melanoma therapies. This multicenter study was carried out in seven German skin cancer centers. During routine care contact, CAM usage of former and current melanoma treatment was assessed in melanoma patients. The probability of interaction was classified into four categories ranging from 'interaction unlikely' (I), 'possible' (II), 'likely' (III), or 'no data' (IV). The questionnaire was filled out by 1157 patients, of whom 1089 were eligible for evaluation. CAM usage was reported by 41% of melanoma patients, of whom 63.1% took BbCAM such as vitamins, trace elements, supplements, or phytotherapeuticals. Of 335 patients with former or current therapy, 28.1% used BbCAM. The melanoma treatment included interferon, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, BRAF-inhibitor, or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ipilimumab. On the basis of our model of likelihood of interaction, we found that 23.9% of those on cancer therapy and 85.1% of those also using BbCAM were at some risk of interactions. The main limitation of our study is that no reliable and comprehensive database on clinical relevant interactions with CAM in oncology exists. Most patients receiving a melanoma-specific treatment and using BbCAM methods are at risk for interactions, which raises concerns on the safety and treatment efficacy of these patients. To protect melanoma patients from potential harm by the combination of their cancer treatment and CAM usage, patients should systematically be encouraged to report their CAM use, while oncologists should be trained on

  16. Determinants of public trust in complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, public trust in conventional medicine is relatively high. There is reason to believe that public trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is rated lower. The aim of this study is to gain insight into public trust in CAM and the determinants that lie at the root of it. We hypothesized that public trust in CAM is related to (perceived) institutional guarantees, media information on CAM, information from people's social network, personal experiences, the role of general practitioners (GPs) and trust in conventional medicine. Methods A postal questionnaire on public trust in CAM was mailed to 1358 members of the Health Care Consumer Panel. 65% of the questionnaires were returned. Data were analysed using frequencies, ANOVA, post hoc testing and linear regression analyses. Results In the total sample, the level of public trust in CAM was a 5.05 on average on a scale of 1-10. 40.7% was CAM user (current or past) and displayed significantly higher levels of trust toward CAM than CAM non users. In the total sample, public trust in CAM was related to institutional guarantees, negative media information, positive and negative information reported by their social network and people's personal experiences with CAM. For non users, trust is mostly associated with institutional guarantees. For users, personal experiences are most important. For both users and non users, trust levels in CAM are affected by negative media information. Public trust in CAM is for CAM users related to positive information and for non users to negative information from their network. Conclusions In the Netherlands, CAM is trusted less than conventional medicine. The hypotheses on institutional guarantees, media information, information from the network and people's personal experiences are confirmed by our study for the total sample, CAM non users and users. The other hypotheses are rejected. PMID:20226015

  17. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Chronic Liver Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Bell, Beth P.; Dhotre, Kathy B.; Manos, M. Michele; Terrault, Norah A.; Zaman, Atif; Murphy, Rosemary C.; VanNess, Grace R.; Thomas, Ann R.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Desai, Mayur M.; Sofair, Andre N.

    2013-01-01

    Goals To examine a wide range of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as potential predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among chronic liver disease (CLD) patients, with a focus on CAM therapies with the greatest potential for hepatotoxicity and interactions with conventional treatments. Background There is some evidence that patients with CLD commonly use CAM to address general and CLD-specific health concerns. Study Patients enrolled in a population-based surveillance study of persons newly diagnosed with CLD between 1999 and 2001 were asked about current use of CAM specifically for CLD. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from interviews and medical records. Predictors of CAM use were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1040 participants, 284 (27.3%) reported current use of at least 1 of 3 CAM therapies of interest. Vitamins or other dietary supplements were the most commonly used therapy, reported by 188 (18.1%) patients. This was followed by herbal medicine (175 patients, 16.8%) and homeopathy (16 patients, 1.5%). Several characteristics were found to be independent correlates of CAM use: higher education and family income, certain CLD etiologies (alcohol, hepatitis C, hepatitis C and alcohol, and hepatitis B), and prior hospitalization for CLD. Conclusions Use of CAM therapies that have the potential to interact with conventional treatments for CLD was quite common among this population-based sample of patients with CLD. There is a need for patient and practitioner education and communication regarding CAM use in the context of CLD. PMID:19779363

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine education in dietetics programs: existent but not consistent.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Connie E; Cotugna, Nancy

    2006-06-01

    This descriptive survey was undertaken to determine the inclusion of complementary and alternative medicine topics into undergraduate didactic dietetics education. The response rate was 34% (n=92) of all directors (N=273) of didactic and coordinated dietetics programs. Almost all programs (n=81; 88%) include complementary and alternative medicine instruction in some form in their curricula; the majority of content is integrated into already existing nutrition courses. The nutrition courses most often containing complementary and alternative medicine were medical nutrition therapy, advance nutrition, and community nutrition. Topics addressed were varied and included herbal supplements, functional foods, Native-American healing, and quackery in medicine. Most directors indicated that complementary and alternative medicine is an important component of dietetics education, yet many indicated that students are not being adequately prepared in this area. The mean familiarity of program directors with complementary and alternative medicine competencies for dietetics practice was 6 on a scale, with 10 being the most knowledgeable. Respondents also identified whether complementary and alternative medicine and dietary supplement competencies were being addressed at all in their curricula. Lack of time seemed to be the limiting factor to incorporation of complementary and alternative medicine topics into the curricula. Evidence from this study indicates that current curricula are providing some complementary and alternative medicine content, but a core of knowledge is lacking. The complementary and alternative medicine competencies for entry-level dietetics practice anticipated by 2006 will be useful in helping educators adequately meet the needs of future professionals in the area of complementary and alternative medicine.

  20. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding.

  1. Celebratory health technology.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrea Grimes; Harper, Richard; Grinter, Rebecca E

    2011-03-01

    There are numerous everyday health technologies (applications designed for people to use in their daily lives) that promote healthy eating habits. From educational games to monitoring applications, these systems often take a corrective approach in that they are designed to fix the problematic aspects of people's interactions with, and thoughts about, food. We propose a complementary approach, termed celebratory health technology design, in which systems promote healthy eating by highlighting positive food interactions, meanings, and values. We present a case study from our research to show the benefit and feasibility of designing celebratory health applications. Our goal is to encourage a more comprehensive approach to everyday health technology design, one that encompasses not only corrective systems, but celebratory applications as well.

  2. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Maximization-Complementary Superiority (LCMCS) Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]′), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal. PMID:26213935

  3. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Maximization-Complementary Superiority (LCMCS) Method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu

    2015-07-23

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal.

  4. Overview of the miniaturization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, Robert O., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This overview paper will cover the miniaturization technologies as applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) or micromanufacturing. Technologies reviewed will include bulk and surface micromachining of silicon, the high-aspect ratio technologies including deep X-ray lithography (LIGA) and photo sensitive polyimide, and the complementary processes which include micro-drilling, milling, turning, and electrical discharge machining, laser based micromachining and focussed ion beam micromachining. Examples of each of the process technologies will be given and a capabilities comparison among the technologies will be presented. A historical comparison of MEMS with the vlsi industry will be made and the current status and market forecast for these technologies will be presented. A brief comparison of US research with current research in Japan and Europe will be made along with comments about the status of US research, including current research projects at the Institute for Micromanufacturing.

  5. Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), responds to opportunities presented by NASA space missions and systems, and seeds commerical applications of the emerging robotics technology. The scope of the JPL Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program comprises three major segments of activity: NASA robotic systems for planetary exploration, robotic technology and terrestrial spin-offs, and technology for non-NASA sponsors. Significant technical achievements have been reached in each of these areas, including complete telerobotic system prototypes that have built and tested in realistic scenarios relevant to prospective users. In addition, the program has conducted complementary basic research and created innovative technology and terrestrial applications, as well as enabled a variety of commercial spin-offs.

  6. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Expenditure on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Sherman, Laura M.; Davis, Roger B.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Shenton, Martha E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults. These symptoms are often refractory to standard therapies, and patients may consequently opt for complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM). We sought to determine the demand for CAM by those with neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to those without neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by out-of-pocket expenditure. Method We compared CAM expenditure between US adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 23,393) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Symptoms included depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss. CAM was defined per guidelines from the National Institutes of Health as mind-body therapies, biological therapies, manipulation therapies, or alternative medical systems. Expenditure on CAM by those without neuropsychiatric symptoms was compared to those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Of the adults surveyed, 37% had ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom and spent $ 14.8 billion out-of-pocket on CAM. Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely than those without neuropsychiatric symptoms to spend on CAM (27.4% vs 20.3%, P < .001). Likelihood to spend on CAM increased with number of symptoms (27.2% with ≥ 3 symptoms, P < .001). After adjustment was made for confounders using logistic regression, those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom remained more likely to spend on CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.22–1.48), and the likelihood increased to 1.55 (95% Cl, 1.34–1.79) for ≥ 3 symptoms. Anxiety (OR = 1.40 [95% Cl, 1.22–1.60]) and excessive sleepiness (OR=1.36 [95% Cl, 1.21–1.54]) were the most closely associated with CAM expenditure. Conclusions Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom had disproportionately higher demand for CAM than those without symptoms. Research regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of CAM is limited; therefore, future research should evaluate

  7. Two Complementary Strategies for New Physics Searches at Lepton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hooberman, Benjamin Henry

    2009-07-06

    In this thesis I present two complementary strategies for probing beyond-the-Standard Model physics using data collected in e+e- collisions at lepton colliders. One strategy involves searching for effects at low energy mediated by new particles at the TeV mass scale, at which new physics is expected to manifest. Several new physics scenarios, including Supersymmetry and models with leptoquarks or compositeness, may lead to observable rates for charged lepton-flavor violating processes, which are forbidden in the Standard Model. I present a search for lepton-flavor violating decays of the Υ(3S) using data collected with the BABAR detector. This study establishes the 90% confidence level upper limits BF(Υ(3S) → eτ) < 5.0 x 10-6 and BF(Υ(3S) → μτ) < 4.1 x 10-6 which are used to place constraints on new physics contributing to lepton-flavor violation at the TeV mass scale. An alternative strategy is to increase the collision energy above the threshold for new particles and produce them directly. I discuss research and development efforts aimed at producing a vertex tracker which achieves the physics performance required of a high energy lepton collider. A small-scale vertex tracker prototype is constructed using Silicon sensors of 50 μm thickness and tested using charged particle beams. This tracker achieves the targeted impact parameter resolution of σLP = (5⊕10 GeV/pT) as well as a longitudinal vertex resolution of (260 ± 10) μm, which is consistent with the requirements of a TeV-scale lepton collider. This detector research and development effort must be motivated and directed by simulation studies of physics processes. Investigation of a dark matter-motivated Supersymmetry scenario is presented, in which the dark matter is composed of Supersymmetric neutralinos. In this scenario, studies of the e+e- → H0A0 production process allow for

  8. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John’s wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve

  9. Complementary and alternative pain therapy in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James N; Knapp, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    One primary reason patients go to emergency departments is for pain relief. Understanding the physiologic dynamics of pain, pharmacologic methods for treatment of pain, as well CAM therapies used in treatment of pain is important to all providers in emergency care. Asking patients about self-care and treatments used outside of the emergency department is an important part of the patient history. Complementary and alternative therapies are very popular for painful conditions despite the lack of strong research supporting some of their use. Even though evidenced-based studies that are double blinded and show a high degree of interrater observer reliability do not exist, patients will likely continue to seek out CAM therapies as a means of self-treatment and a way to maintain additional life control. Regardless of absolute validity of a therapy for some patients, it is the bottom line: "it seems to help my pain." Pain management distills down to a very simple endpoint, patient relief, and comfort. Sham or science, if the patient feels better, feels comforted, feels less stressed, and more functional in life and their practices pose no health risk, then supporting their CAM therapy creates a true wholistic partnership in their health care.CAM should be relatively inexpensive and extremely safe. Such is not always the case, as some patients have discovered with the use of botanicals. It becomes an imperative that all providers be aware of CAM therapies and informed about potential interactions and side effects when helping patients manage pain and explore adding CAM strategies for pain relief. The use of regulated breathing, meditation, guided imagery, or a massage for a pain sufferer are simple but potentially beneficial inexpensive aids to care that can be easily employed in the emergency department. Some CAM therapies covered here, while not easily practiced in the emergency department, exist as possibilities for exploration of patients after they leave, and may

  10. Shape reconstruction of irregular bodies with multiple complementary data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen, M.; Viikinkoski, M.; Carry, B.; Durech, J.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Marchis, F.; Hestroffer, D.

    2011-10-01

    Irregularly shaped bodies with at most partial in situ data are a particular challenge for shape reconstruction and mapping. We have created an inversion algorithm and software package for complementary data sources, with which it is possible to create shape and spin models with feature details even when only groundbased data are available. The procedure uses photometry, adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, and interferometry as main data sources, and we are extending it to include range-Doppler radar and thermal infrared data as well. The data sources are described as generalized projections in various observable spaces [2], which allows their uniform handling with essentially the same techniques, making the addition of new data sources inexpensive in terms of computation time or software development. We present a generally applicable shape support that can be automatically used for all surface types, including strongly nonconvex or non-starlike shapes. New models of Kleopatra (from photometry, adaptive optics, and interferometry) and Hermione are examples of this approach. When using adaptive optics images, the main information from these is extracted from the limb and terminator contours that can be determined much more accurately than the image pixel brightnesses that inevitably contain large errors for most targets. We have shown that the contours yield a wealth of information independent of the scattering properties of the surface [3]. Their use also facilitates a very fast and robustly converging algorithm. An important concept in the inversion is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. We have developed a mathematicallly rigorous scheme for this purpose. The resulting maximum compatibility estimate [3], a multimodal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, ensures that the actual information content of each source is properly taken into account, and that the resolution scale of the ensuing model can be reliably estimated

  11. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  12. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease. PMID:28100990

  13. Numerical Study of Complementary Nanostructures for Light Trapping in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jue; Xiong, Qiuyang; Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Wang, Xihua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated two complementary nanostructures, nanocavity and nanopillar arrays, for light absorption enhancement in depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. A facile complementary fabrication process is demonstrated for patterning these nanostructures over the large area required for light trapping in photovoltaic devices. The simulation results show that both proposed periodic nanostructures can effectively increase the light absorption in CQD layer of the solar cell throughout the near-infrared region where CQD solar cells typically exhibit weak light absorption. The complementary fabrication process for implementation of these nanostructures can pave the way for large-area, inexpensive light trapping implementation in nanostructured solar cells. PMID:28335183

  14. Development of the adult and child complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. They filled the void for large-scale, nationally representative, publicly available datasets on the out-of-pocket costs, prevalence, and reasons for use of complementary medicine in the U.S. Despite their wide use, this is the first article describing the multi-faceted and largely qualitative processes undertaken to develop the surveys. We hope this in-depth description enables policy makers and researchers to better judge the content validity and utility of the questionnaires and their resultant publications. PMID:24267412

  15. Complementary addressed modification and cleavage of a single stranded DNA fragment with alkylating oligonucleotide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V V; Zarytova, V F; Kutiavin, I V; Mamaev, S V; Podyminogin, M A

    1986-01-01

    A single stranded DNA fragment was modified with alkylating derivatives of oligonucleotides complementary to a certain nucleotide sequences in the fragment. The derivatives carried aromatic 2-chloroethylamino groups at their 3'- or 5'-terminal nucleotide residues. Some of the derivatives carried both alkylating group and intercalating phenazine group which stabilized complementary complexes. It was found that these oligonucleotide derivatives modify the DNA fragment in a specific way near the target complementary nucleotide sequences, and the DNA fragment can be cleaved at the alkylated nucleotides positions. Alkylating derivatives carrying phenazine groups were found to be the most efficient in reaction with the DNA fragment. Images PMID:3714471

  16. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease.

  17. Development of the adult and child complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Stussman, Barbara J; Bethell, Christina D; Gray, Caroline; Nahin, Richard L

    2013-11-23

    The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. They filled the void for large-scale, nationally representative, publicly available datasets on the out-of-pocket costs, prevalence, and reasons for use of complementary medicine in the U.S. Despite their wide use, this is the first article describing the multi-faceted and largely qualitative processes undertaken to develop the surveys. We hope this in-depth description enables policy makers and researchers to better judge the content validity and utility of the questionnaires and their resultant publications.

  18. Detection of surface and subsurface cracks in metallic and non-metallic materials using a complementary split-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Albishi, Ali; Ramahi, Omar M

    2014-10-16

    Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented.

  19. Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Albishi, Ali; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented. PMID:25325340

  20. Complementary characterization data in support of uniaxially aligned electrospun nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Samaneh; Staiger, Mark P.; Buunk, Neil; Fessard, Alison; Tucker, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents complementary data corresponding to characterization tests done for our research article entitled “Uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers for advanced nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system” (Karimi et al., 2016) [1]. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and epoxy resin were selected as a model system and the effect of electrospun fiber loading on polymer properties was examined in conjunction with two manufacturing methods. A novel electrospinning technology for production of uniaxially aligned nanofiber arrays was used. A conventional wet lay-up fabrication method is compared against a novel, hybrid electrospinning–electrospraying approach. The structure and thermomechanical properties of resulting composite materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile testing. For discussion of obtained results please refer to the research paper (Karimi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977430

  1. Complementary characterization data in support of uniaxially aligned electrospun nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Samaneh; Staiger, Mark P; Buunk, Neil; Fessard, Alison; Tucker, Nick

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents complementary data corresponding to characterization tests done for our research article entitled "Uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers for advanced nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system" (Karimi et al., 2016) [1]. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and epoxy resin were selected as a model system and the effect of electrospun fiber loading on polymer properties was examined in conjunction with two manufacturing methods. A novel electrospinning technology for production of uniaxially aligned nanofiber arrays was used. A conventional wet lay-up fabrication method is compared against a novel, hybrid electrospinning-electrospraying approach. The structure and thermomechanical properties of resulting composite materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile testing. For discussion of obtained results please refer to the research paper (Karimi et al., 2016) [1].

  2. Reconstruction of complementary images in second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Jin, Lei; Xue, Ping; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yi; Ma, Hui; Chen, Dieyan

    2006-05-01

    Second harmonic generation microscopy(SHGM) has become widely used to image biological samples. Due to the complexity of biological samples, more and more effort has been put on polarization imaging in SHGM technology to uncover their structures. In this work, we put forward a novel stitching method based on careful mathematical calculation, and accomplish it by rotating laser polarization. We first show its validity in imaging a perfectly synthesized bio-origin polymer poly (3-hyroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx). Then, we test its power by getting a true image of fibrillar collagen structure of rat-tail tendon.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Dermatology in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Erin T.; Davis, Scott A.; Taylor, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has an increasing presence in dermatology. Complementary therapies have been studied in many skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Objectives: This study sought to assess oral CAM use in dermatology relative to medicine as a whole in the United States, using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Design: Variables studied include patient demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and CAM documented at the visits. A brief literature review of the top 5 CAM treatments unique to dermatology visits was performed. Results: Most CAM users in both dermatology and medicine as a whole were female and white and were insured with private insurance or Medicare. Fish oil, glucosamine, glucosamine chondroitin, and omega-3 were the most common complementary supplements used in both samples. Conclusions: CAM use in dermatology appears to be part of a larger trend in medicine. Knowledge of common complementary therapies can help dermatologists navigate this expanding field. PMID:24517329

  4. Conversion of allylic alcohols to stereodefined trisubstituted alkenes: a complementary process to the Claisen rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Justin K; Micalizio, Glenn C

    2008-12-17

    A stereoselective method for the conversion of allylic alcohols to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes is presented. Overall, the reaction sequence described is stereochemically complementary to related Claisen rearrangement reactions--processes that typically deliver the stereoisomeric trisubstituted alkene containing products.

  5. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Provider: A Workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  6. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with your Health Care Provider: A workbook and tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  7. Talking about complementary and alternative medicine with your health care provider: A workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  8. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  9. Promotion and advocacy for improved complementary feeding: can we apply the lessons learned from breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Piwoz, Ellen G; Huffman, Sandra L; Quinn, Victoria J

    2003-03-01

    Although many successes have been achieved in promoting breastfeeding, this has not been the case for complementary feeding. Some successes in promoting complementary feeding at the community level have been documented, but few of these efforts have expanded to a larger scale and become sustained. To discover the reasons for this difference, the key factors for the successful promotion of breastfeeding on a large scale were examined and compared with the efforts made in complementary feeding. These factors include definition and rationale, policy support, funding, advocacy, private-sector involvement, availability and use of monitoring data, integration of research into action, and the existence of a well-articulated series of steps for successful implementation. The lessons learned from the promotion of breastfeeding should be applied to complementary feeding, and the new Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding provides an excellent first step in this process.

  10. Regional Variation in Use of Complementary Health Approaches by U.S. Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... approach uses that are presented in this report. Definitions Complementary health approaches : Include acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation ... testing and input from expert panels ( 6 ), the definitions of certain modalities were modified to reduce false- ...

  11. Improved methods of forming monolithic integrated circuits having complementary bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannon, R. O., Jr.; Cashion, W. F.; Stehlin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Two new processes form complementary transistors in monolithic semiconductor circuits, require fewer steps /infusions/ than previous methods, and eliminate such problems as nonuniform h sub FE distribution, low yield, and large device formation.

  12. Pain Gains for Complementary and Integrative Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Pain Gains for Complementary and Integrative Medicine Winter 2017 ... NCCIH's work and what you've learned about pain? We see all sorts of clinical problems with ...

  13. Safe Use of Complementary Health Products and Practices for Anxiety | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... mask anxiety symptoms or make them worse. Research studies funded by the NIH's National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) have investigated several natural products and mind and body practices for anxiety. As with any ...

  14. The Mind-Body Connection - Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health Past ... To Find Out More At medlineplus.gov , type "mind-body" or "emotions" into the Search box. There is ...

  15. Predicted efficacy of the Palestinian wheat flour fortification program: complementary analysis of biochemical and dietary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to 1) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and 2) assess the suitabi...

  16. Young women’s experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs

    PubMed Central

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A.; Steeves, Richard H.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20–39 years) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women’s narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including: awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use. PMID:23820874

  17. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use.

  18. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  19. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at <3 months (two studies), 4 months (2 studies) or 20 weeks (one study) was associated with a higher BMI in childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight.

  20. Complementary medicine use among Moroccan patients with cancer: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; El M'rabet, Fatema Zahra; Benbrahim, Zineb; Akesbi, Yusra; Amine, Berraho; Nejjari, Chakib; El Mesbahi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine. As cancer incidence rates and survival time increase, use of CAM will likely increase. However, little is known about the use of CAM in cancer patients, specifically in emerging countries. Methods We conducted a study in the medical oncology department at the University Hospital of Fez on the use of complementary medicine among cancer patient. The aims of this study were to estimate and describe the reasons of use of complementary medicine (CM) in patients with a cancer treated in a Moroccan oncology department. A specially designed questionnaire was completed for patient during treatment or follow-up in the oncology department after formal consent was obtained. It was a descriptive study among 100 patients over a period of 6 months between September 2008 and February 2009. Results A total of 100 patients participated in the study, 46 of them were identified as users of complementary medicine. The most substances used were plants 24%, pure honey 13% and water of Zem Zem (holy water from Mecca) 11%. Concerning techniques, religious practices 37%, special diets 22% and recourse to traditional healers 11% were most commonly used. No specific user profile was observed depending of different sociodemograhics and clinical parameters. The majority of the users of complementary medicine were not revealing their habits to their oncologist because the question was not raised in consultation. Conclusion It seems that medical doctors should ask patients about their use of complementary medicine when they obtain medical history and they need to know more about complementary medicine to offer better consultation. Complementary medicine must benefit, as well as conventional medicine, from scientific studies to evaluate potential benefits, toxicity and interactions with the

  1. Measuring What Medical Students Think about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): A Pilot Study of the "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Survey"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Ann W.; Sierpina, Victor S.; Boisaubin, Eugene V.; Bulik, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    With increasing national and international support for the development of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) curricula in American medical schools, it is essential to measure what learners know and believe about CAM in order to assess outcomes of new teaching efforts. This paper describes the development and initial results of a survey…

  2. Telediagnosis through internet on the field of complementary and alternative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Iwane; Yamada, Yoshiya; Yagi, Yoko

    2005-04-01

    In the field of oriental traditional medicine, precise analysis of tongue and skin condition such as color, moisture, bulging or swelling, and/or pulse condition such as palpation amplitude and stiffness is very important to reach reliable diagnosis. Such "live" inspection before the "live" objects is most desirable. However, if it can be obtained "virtually" using information technologies, physicians may diagnose their patients distantly. In twenty-five patients of oriental traditional medicine, as well as usual physical examination from modern medicine, specific examination from oriental traditional medicine were performed. Patients were indicated to take their tongue and/or skin by high resolution digital camera or CCD camera attached to the cell phone and send to the clinic from their home through internet. Then we analyzed both "virtual" and "live" images personally. As for the information of color and moisture from images of tongue and skin, it did not show much difference between the images from "live" and "virtual". As for the property of three-dimensional information such as bulging or swelling of tongue and/or skin surface, it was too hard to judge precisely from two-dimensional information. The images from "virtual" inspection were thought to be enough for diagnosis of the patient condition even for the oriental traditional medicine. We suggested the reliability on application of tele-diagnosis even on the field of complementary and alternative medicine. For further study, we plan to evaluate three-dimensional information of tongue and/or skin surface and haptic information of pulse palpation.

  3. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene: a complementary alternative to PDMS for nanoimprint stamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Andrew I. M.; Vasiev, Iskandar; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-04-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used by many for nanoimprint applications due to its affordability, ease of preparation, mechanical flexibility, compatibility with imprint resists and transparency to UV light. However PDMS is notoriously flexible, tacky and permeable to air. Here fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) is considered as a viable and versatile alternative material for nanoimprint stamps. FEP possesses many of the desirable nanoimprint attributes associated with PDMS but crucially also features a range of complementary characteristics, including an order of magnitude more mechanical strength allowing it to handle higher loads than PDMS, an intrinsically non-stick surface and is compatible with oxygen sensitive resists. Unlike elastomeric polymers, FEP is glassy so patterning may be realised via hot embossing. Not only is this a facile and rapid means of physical structuring but it also facilitates combinatorial patterning, providing a versatility beyond that of traditional casting materials. Due to the intrinsically slow creep of FEP both micro- and nanopatterning are successfully performed sequentially. Feature sizes from 45 nm were successfully realised via the hot-embossing method. To further demonstrate the potential of the material, a modified computer numerical control machine is used. It is capable of photo-, nanoimprint- and laser lithography in conjunction with patterned FEP foils. The tool is used to perform pattern transfer into a developmental nanoimprint resist from Micro Resist Technology, mr-NIL210 XP, and Nano SU-8 3005 negative tone photo resist from MicroChem. Ultimately three-tier lithography is performed in unison and advantageous step-and-repeat performance is achieved with fabricated FEP imprint stamps as they demould more compliantly and resist pressure and contamination better than PDMS.

  4. Disclosure of Complementary Health Approaches among Low Income and Racially Diverse Safety Net Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, MT; Handley, MA; Quan, J; Sarkar, U; Ratanawongsa, N; Schillinger, D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-provider communication about complementary health approaches can support diabetes self-management by minimizing risk and optimizing care. We sought to identify sociodemographic and communication factors associated with disclosure of complementary health approaches to providers by low-income patients with diabetes. Methods We used data from San Francisco Health Plan's SMARTSteps Program, a trial of diabetes self-management support for low-income patients (n=278) through multilingual automated telephone support. Interviews collected use and disclosure of complementary health approaches in the prior month, patient-physician language concordance, and quality of communication. Results Among racially, linguistically diverse participants, half (47.8%) reported using complementary health practices (n=133), of whom 55.3% disclosed use to providers. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, income, and health literacy were not associated with disclosure. In adjusted analyses, disclosure was associated with language concordance (AOR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.67), physicians' interpersonal communication scores (AOR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.19), shared decision making (AOR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.29), and explanatory-type communication (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Conclusion Safety net patients with diabetes commonly use complementary health approaches and disclose to providers with higher patient-rated quality of communication. Practice Implications Patient-provider language concordance and patient-centered communication can facilitate disclosure of complementary health approaches. PMID:26146238

  5. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    PubMed

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants.

  6. Complementary feeding patterns in Europe with a special focus on Italy.

    PubMed

    Caroli, M; Mele, R M; Tomaselli, M A; Cammisa, M; Longo, F; Attolini, E

    2012-10-01

    Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The commonest risk factors for early introduction of solid foods have been shown to be smoking mothers of young age, low SES and no breastfeeding. The foods most frequently introduced as first solids are fruit and cereals followed by other foods that vary depending on the country of residence and the infants' type of feeding. Insufficient updated information has been made available in Europe in terms of infants' nutrient intake during complementary feeding, as well as on the potential acute metabolic effects of complementary feeding. Websites, e-forums and blogs on complementary feeding are widely spread in the web. The recipes and daily menus published in food industry websites are often nutritionally incorrect. Baby led-weaning (BLW) is based on the principle that babies, upon being started on complementary foods, should be allowed to eat whatever food they want (regular family foods included) in its normal shape. No nutrient intake and metabolic data are nevertheless available about BLW. The current scenario in terms of our understanding of complementary feeding in Europe opens several new research avenues. Not using and not improving our current knowledge of nutrition to improve children's health represents an infringement of children's rights.

  7. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  8. Nuclear medicine and complementary modalities in renal trauma.

    PubMed

    Berg, B C

    1982-07-01

    The diagnosis of renal trauma for many years was achieved through history, clinical findings, the performance of a survey film of the abdomen, urinalysis, excretory urography, aortography, and selective renal artery arteriography. The development of the scintillation camera and the availability of 99mTc, as well as 99mTc labeled pharmaceuticals, approximately fifteen years ago has widened this diagnostic horizon. Exquisite new imaging modalities have become available recently. As a result of constantly improving technology, these techniques--including computed tomography, sonography, with real time enhancement, and digital video subtraction angiography--are utilized more and more frequently. The full impact of these newest wonders is not yet realized. Cost-effectiveness, radiation exposure, accumulative drug side-effects, availability of facilities and personnel and professional and technical training have become major considerations.

  9. Nuclear medicine and complementary modalities in renal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, B.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnosis of renal trauma for many years was achieved through history, clinical findings, the performance of a survey film of the abdomen, urinalysis, excretory urography, aortography, and selective renal artery arteriography. The development of the scintillation camera and the availability of /sup 99m/Tc, as well as /sup 99m/Tc labeled pharmaceuticals, approximately fifteen years ago has widened this diagnostic horizon. Exquisite new imaging modalities have become available recently. As a result of constantly improving technology, these techniques--including computed tomography, sonography, with real time enhancement, and digital video subtraction angiography--are utilized more and more frequently. The full impact of these newest wonders is not yet realized. Cost-effectiveness, radiation exposure, accumulative drug side-effects, availability of facilities and personnel and professional and technical training have become major considerations.

  10. NASA Automated Fiber Placement Capabilities: Similar Systems, Complementary Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Jackson, Justin R.; Pelham, Larry I.; Stewart, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    New automated fiber placement systems at the NASA Langley Research Center and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provide state-of-art composites capabilities to these organizations. These systems support basic and applied research at Langley, complementing large-scale manufacturing and technology development at Marshall. These systems each consist of a multi-degree of freedom mobility platform including a commercial robot, a commercial tool changer mechanism, a bespoke automated fiber placement end effector, a linear track, and a rotational tool support structure. In addition, new end effectors with advanced capabilities may be either bought or developed with partners in industry and academia to extend the functionality of these systems. These systems will be used to build large and small composite parts in support of the ongoing NASA Composites for Exploration Upper Stage Project later this year.

  11. Transport properties of silicon complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor quantum well field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naquin, Clint Alan

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into silicon (Si) transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has proven challenging, yet has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated Si devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary MOS processing. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (VG) spacing between NDTCs. The VG spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background. A folding amplifier frequency multiplier circuit using a single QW NMOS transistor to generate a folded current-voltage transfer function via a NDTC was demonstrated. Time domain data shows frequency doubling in the kHz range at room temperature, and Fourier analysis confirms that the output is dominated by the second harmonic of the input. De-embedding the circuit response characteristics from parasitic cable and contact impedances suggests that in the absence of parasitics the doubling bandwidth could be as high as 10 GHz in a monolithic integrated circuit, limited by the transresistance magnitude of the QW NMOS. This is the first example of a QW device fabricated by mainstream Si CMOS technology being used in a circuit application and establishes the feasibility

  12. Limited Health Knowledge as a Reason for Non-Use of Four Common Complementary Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Complementary health practices are an important element of health/healthcare seeking behavior among adults in the United States. Reasons for use include medical need, prevention and wellness promotion, and cultural relevance. Survey studies published over the past several decades have provided important information on the use of complementary health practices, such as acupuncture and yoga. A review of the literature, however, reveals an absence of studies looking specifically at who does not use these approaches, and why not. Methods To explore this issue two samples were created using data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement. Of particular interest was the relationship between lack of health knowledge, as a reason for non-use, and key independent variables. The first sample was comprised of individuals who had never used any of four common complementary health practices -- acupuncture, chiropractic, natural products, and yoga. The second was a subset of those same non-users who had also reported low back pain, the most frequently cited health concern related to use of complementary therapies. Results A hypothesized association between lack of health knowledge, lower educational attainment, and other key socioeconomic indicators was supported in the findings. Although it was hypothesized that low back pain would be associated with greater information seeking, regardless of level of education, that hypothesis was not supported. Conclusion Lack of knowledge was found to affect utilization of common complementary health practices, regardless of the potentially motivating presence of back pain. Disparities in the utilization of complementary medicine, related to educational attainment and other socioeconomic factors, may negatively affect quality of care for many Americans. Creative approaches are needed to help reduce inequities in understanding and improve access to care for underserved

  13. Complementary exams in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Paula, Natália Aparecida de; Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Soares, Killarney Ataíde; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition.

  14. Complementary exams in the diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; de Paula, Natália Aparecida; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Soares, Killarney Ataíde; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition. PMID:25184908

  15. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  16. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations.

    PubMed

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  17. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  18. The use of complementary medications by cancer patients attending an outpatient pain and symptom clinic.

    PubMed

    Oneschuk, D; Fennell, L; Hanson, J; Bruera, E

    1998-01-01

    Complementary medications appear to be gaining popularity among cancer patients. When we surveyed 143 advanced cancer patients attending an outpatient pain and symptom clinic at a regional cancer centre as to their use of complementary medications and nutritional supplements, we found 37% (53/143) to be making use of complementary medications. Users tended to be younger (mean age 53.3 years) and have a preference for purchase from health stores, with 61% of complementary medications being bought there. Health store staff were the primary recommenders for both men and women and especially for those over 60 years of age. Of the 197 complementary medications purchased, 78 (39.6%) were herbs, 67 (32.5%) were vitamins, 13 (6.6%) were minerals, 21 (10.7%) were other medications including shark cartilage, and 21 (10.7%) could not be identified. Both anticancer effect and the promotion of well-being were prominent among the stated reasons for using these medications.

  19. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients.

  20. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies used to manage diabetic foot in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid; Wilson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 patients with diabetes who have used complementary therapies to treat diabetic foot problems. These 68 persons represented a subgroup of the study population surveyed using a questionnaire, to the effect of investigating diabetic foot treatments provided in Jordan. Informants were recruited from eight healthcare facilities established in the southern part of Jordan plus from one hospital established in the Jordanian capital. The study was approved by the Boards of Ethics of the participating healthcare facilities. Content analysis yielded the category "Complementary Therapies Used", which included a range of household items (olive oil, sesame oil, honey, and vinegar), and also some indigenous Jordanian herbs (Wormwood, Myrrh, Caper, and Henna among others). The remedies were used either as a monotherapy or as mixtures, to the common goal of treating diabetic foot problems. Other interventions like Al-cowy were also sought from traditional healers. Educational campaigns are required to increase the awareness of patients and their families on possible hazards of unwise complementary therapy use. The decisions on the use of such therapies should be made in agreement with the attending healthcare professionals.

  1. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  2. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children up to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts of energy and micronutrients required from complementary foods have been estimated as the difference between the total physiological requirements of these food components and the amounts transferred to the child in breast milk. Recommendations for the energy density of complementary foods and their frequency of feeding have also been proposed. Intakes of several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, calcium, selected B vitamins and (in some settings) vitamin A, remain problematic because commonly available, low-cost foods contain inadequate amounts of these nutrients to provide the shortfall in breast milk. Alternative strategies to provide these nutrients include adding animal source foods to the diet, providing fortified, processed complementary foods, administering micronutrient supplements, or offering some combination of these approaches. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible risks of these different strategies are discussed.

  3. Chapter 5 mantram repetition: an evidence-based complementary practice for military personnel and veterans in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Jill E; Weinrich, Sally; Allard, Carolyn B; Beck, Danielle; Johnson, Brian D; Holt, Lindsay Cosco

    2014-01-01

    Today in the digital age, with our advances in modern technology and communication, there are additional stressors for our military personnel and Veterans. Constant dangers exist both on and off the battlefield, unlike prior wars that had clearly-defined war zones. In addition, medical advances have assisted in saving the lives of many more gravely injured troops than ever previously possible. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan come to an end, large numbers of service men and women are returning home with multiple injuries. This group of Veterans has significantly higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury than ever before reported. Although existing PTSD therapies have been found to be highly effective for many Veterans, there is a substantial minority unsatisfactorily treated. Mantram repetition, an innovative, complementary, evidence-based treatment, is proving to be successful for these new Veterans. When used regularly it helps with "road rage, impatience, anger, frustration, and being out of control." A mantram is a brief, sacred word or phrase that embodies divine power or the greatest positive energy one can imagine (Easwaran, 2008a). Mantram repetition is a simple, quick, personal, portable, and private complementary practice that may be used as an adjunct to current treatments for PTSD. Growing research evidence supports mantram repetition's value for dissemination and adoption in the 21st century. This chapter summarizes Mantram Program research conducted from 2003 to 2014. It describes the health-related benefits of the Mantram Program in various populations. The current research focuses on benefits for managing psychological distress and promoting quality of life in Veterans. Future areas for research are suggested.

  4. Automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) through aggressive space mapping (ASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selga, Jordi; Rodríguez, Ana; Orellana, Marco; Boria, Vicente; Martín, Ferran

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the application of space mapping optimization to the automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). These structures are of interest for the implementation of resonant-type metamaterial transmission lines and for the design of planar microwave circuits based on such complementary resonators. The paper presents a method to generate the layouts of CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded microstrip lines from the elements of their equivalent circuit models. Using the so-called aggressive space mapping, a specific implementation that uses quasi-Newton type iteration, we have developed synthesis algorithms that are able to provide the topology of these CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded lines in few steps. The most relevant aspect, however, is that this synthesis process is completely automatic, i.e., it does not require any action from the designers, other than initiating the algorithm. Moreover, this technique can be translated to other electrically small planar elements described by lumped element equivalent circuit models.

  5. A Three-Stage Inverter-Based Stacked Power Amplifier in 65 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiumarsi, Hamid; Mizuochi, Yutaka; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A three-stage inverter-based stacked power amplifier (PA) in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is proposed to overcome low breakdown voltage problem of scaled CMOS technologies. Unlike previous reported stacked PAs which radio frequency choke (RFC) was inevitable, we proposed stacked nMOS and pMOS transistors which effectively eliminates use of RFC. By properly setting self-biased circuits' and transistors' parameters, output impedance could reach up to 50 Ω which together with not employing the RFC makes this topology very appealing for the scalable PA realization. As a proof of concept, a three-stage PA using 65 nm CMOS technology is implemented. With a 6 V power supply for the third stage, the fabricated PA shows a small-signal gain of 36 dB, a saturated output power of 16 dBm and a maximum power added efficiency of 10% at 1 GHz. Using a 7.5 V of power supply, saturated output power reaches 18 dBm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported inverter-based stacked PA.

  6. Identification of putative human T cell receptor delta complementary DNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, S.; Brenner, M.B.; Krangel, M.S.

    1987-10-30

    A novel T cell receptor (TCR) subunit termed TCR delta, associated with TCY ..gamma.. and CD3 polypeptides, were recently found on a subpopulation of human T lymphocytes. T cell-specific complementary DNA clones present in a human TCR..gamma..delta T cell complementary DNA library were obtained and characterized in order to identify candidate clones encoding TCR delta. One cross-hybridizing group of clones detected transcripts that are expressed in lymphocytes bearing TCR ..gamma..delta but not in other T lymphocytes and are encoded by genes that are rearranged in TCR ..gamma..delta lymphocytes but deleted in other T lymphocytes. Their sequences indicate homology to the variable, joining, and constant elements of other TCR and immunoglobulin genes. These characteristics are strong evidence that the complementary DNA clones encode TCR delta.

  7. Self-electroforming and high-performance complementary memristor based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. B.; Yau, H. M.; Li, Z. W.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-08-01

    Complementary resistive switching (CRS) has potential applications in ultra-high density three-dimensional crossbar arrays for resistive random access memories and Logic-in-Memories. For real applications, the good stability and electroforming-free character have become essential pre-requisites. In this work, we investigate the resistance switching behaviors of a CRS device based on two anti-serial Au/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs). This FTJ-based CRS device shows a stable butterfly-like resistance-voltage hysteresis, as well as self-electroforming, multi-switching, and good performance complementary switching behaviors. The present work presents a convincing demonstration of the complementary multi-switching states modulated by remnant ferroelectric polarization, making the FTJ structure good potentials for high-performance CRS memristors.

  8. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  9. Complementary dreams: a window to the subconscious processes of countertransference and subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Favero, Marcus; Ross, Donald R

    2002-01-01

    The British psychoanalysts were the first to be interested in reciprocal and interpersonal interactions of psychotherapy. The Freudian mirror model was progressively questioned in the 1940s and 1950s. Throughout the 1950s, positions and terms were created that either defended or attacked the use of subjectivity and countertransference in psychodynamic psychotherapy. The objective of this article is to discuss the participation of the therapist's subconscious mind, as it is involved in communication with the patient's subconscious mind during psychodynamic treatment. Specifically, this takes the form of complementary dreams, a clinical phenomenon that I will describe as secondary to the therapist identification with the patient infantile object relations. Complementary dreams will be discussed as a helpful therapeutic tool used to understand the subjective communication that happened between patient and therapist in two separate cases. Complementary dreams will be presented as a helpful therapeutic instrument in containing countertransference enactment.

  10. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  11. Group-complementary code sets for implementing pulse compression with desirable range resolution properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, G.; Holliday, E. M.

    This paper describes the structure and properties of a waveform design technique intended to provide desirable range resolution properties in radar sensor systems. The waveform design, called group-complementary coding, consists of groups of binary sequences which can be used for bi-phase coding of a radar carrier pulsed waveform. When pulse compression processing is extended to include the composite of a number of pulses through coherent integration, then group-complementary coding provides the often desirable property of complete range sidelobe cancellation (for zero Doppler shift).

  12. Complementary acupuncture treatment increases cerebral metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhuo, Ying; Tang, Anwu; Wik, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) and the 18-flourodeoxyglucose tracer to study cerebral effects of complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease. Five patients received scalp-acupuncture and Madopa, while the other five had Madopa only. PET scans before and after 5 weeks of complementary acupuncture treatment show increased glucose metabolisms in parietal, temporal, occipital lobes, the thalamus, and the cerebellum in the light-diseased hemisphere, and in parietal and occipital lobes of the severe-diseased hemisphere. No changes were observed in the Madopa-only group. Acupuncture in combination with Madopa may improve cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Patterning effect mitigation using complementary data for NRZ wavelength conversion with a SOA-MZI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuelin; Weng, Qiwei; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-12-01

    A novel scheme of Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) all-optical wavelength conversion is proposed using a semiconductor optical amplifier based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI), where the complementary NRZ data is used to mitigate SOA patterning effect. The performances of the wavelength converters are numerically evaluated in terms of the waveform, eye-diagram and Q factor of the output signals at 40 Gb/s, using a time-domain SOA model. It is shown that the new complementary scheme significantly improves the Q factor of the converted signal from 3.8 to 8.1, compared with the traditional scheme.

  14. Healing the heart: integrating complementary therapies and healing practices into the care of cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Snyder, Mariah

    2002-01-01

    Complementary therapies and healing practices have been found to reduce stress, anxiety, and lifestyle patterns known to contribute to cardiovascular disease. Promising therapies include imagery and hypnosis, meditation, yoga, tai chi, prayer, music, exercise, diet, and use of dietary supplements. Many of these complementary approaches to healing have been within the domain of nursing for centuries and can readily be integrated into the care of patients with cardiovascular disease. While individual complimentary modalities hold considerable merit, it is critical that the philosophy underlying these therapies--caring, holism, and harmony--also be understood and honored.

  15. Gain-Scheduled Complementary Filter Design for a MEMS Based Attitude and Heading Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Suk; Hong, Sung Kyung; Yoon, Hyok Min; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a robust and simple algorithm for an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) based on low-cost MEMS inertial and magnetic sensors. The proposed approach relies on a gain-scheduled complementary filter, augmented by an acceleration-based switching architecture to yield robust performance, even when the vehicle is subject to strong accelerations. Experimental results are provided for a road captive test during which the vehicle dynamics are in high-acceleration mode and the performance of the proposed filter is evaluated against the output from a conventional linear complementary filter. PMID:22163824

  16. Gain-scheduled complementary filter design for a MEMS based attitude and heading reference system.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae Suk; Hong, Sung Kyung; Yoon, Hyok Min; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a robust and simple algorithm for an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) based on low-cost MEMS inertial and magnetic sensors. The proposed approach relies on a gain-scheduled complementary filter, augmented by an acceleration-based switching architecture to yield robust performance, even when the vehicle is subject to strong accelerations. Experimental results are provided for a road captive test during which the vehicle dynamics are in high-acceleration mode and the performance of the proposed filter is evaluated against the output from a conventional linear complementary filter.

  17. International cooperation in support of homeopathy and complementary medicine in developing countries: the Tuscan experience.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elio; Di Stefano, Mariella; Baccetti, Sonia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Verdone, Marco; Facchini, Mario; Stambolovich, Vuk; Viña, Martha Perez; Caldés, Maria José

    2010-10-01

    Health is a fundamental human right which contributes to reducing poverty, and encourages social development, human safety, and economic growth. International initiatives have fallen far short of their goals. This paper describes collaboration between the region of Tuscany and Cuba, Western Sahara, Senegal and Serbia. These have introduced various forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, including homeopathy and Traditional Chinese Medicine into primary healthcare particularly obstetrics, and into veterinary medicine. Complementary and traditional medicine can represent a useful and sustainable resource in various fields of health care. Inclusion in the public health system must go hand in hand with scientific evaluation.

  18. A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Hinds, L A; Deane, E M; Deakin, J E

    2012-06-01

    Marsupials are born without a functioning adaptive immune system, into a non-sterile environment where they continue to develop. This review examines the extent of exposure of pouch young to microorganisms and describes the protective mechanisms that are complementary to adaptive immunity in the developing young. Complementary protective mechanisms include the role of the innate immune system and maternal protection strategies, such as immune compounds in milk, prenatal transfer of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial compounds secreted in the pouch, and chemical or mechanical cleaning of the pouch and pouch young.

  19. Regional Variation in Use of Complementary Health Approaches by U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peregoy, Jennifer A.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Jones, Lindsey I.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Nahin, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Complementary health approaches are defined as “a group of diverse medical and health care interventions, practices, products, or disciplines that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine” (1). They range from practitioner-based approaches, such as chiropractic manipulation and massage therapy, to predominantly self-care approaches, such as nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements, meditation, and yoga. This report presents estimates of the four most commonly used complementary health approaches among adults aged 18 and over in nine geographic regions, using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey adult alternative medicine supplement (2). PMID:24750666

  20. A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine for asthma self-management.

    PubMed

    George, Maureen; Topaz, Maxim

    2013-03-01

    This article is a systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine use for pediatric and adult asthma self-management. The aim of the review was to summarize the existing body of research regarding the types and patterns of, adverse events and risky behaviors associated with, and patient-provider communication about complementary therapies in asthma. This evidence serves as the basis for a series of recommendations in support of patient-centered care, which addresses both patient preferences for integrated treatment and patient safety.