Science.gov

Sample records for complementary hfet technology

  1. Complementary HFET technology for wireless digital and microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1996-09-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. Digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors has been shown to operate with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ. Power consumption is dominated by leakage currents of the p-channel FET, while performance is determined by the characteristics of 0.7 {mu}m gate length devices. As a microwave technology, the nJFET forms the basis of low-power cirucitry without any modification to the digital process. Narrow band amplification with a 0.7x100 {mu}m nJFET has been demonstrated at 2.1-2.4 GHz with gains of 8-10 dB at 1 mW power. These amplifiers showed a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. Next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {mu}m gate lengths have also been developed. Cutoff frequencies of 49 and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {mu}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable enhancements in both digital and microwave circuits.

  2. Complementary HFET technology for low-power mixed-mode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sloan, L.R.; Hafich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. An earlier digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors which operated with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ is reviewed. Then work demonstrating the applicability of the digital nJFET device as a low-power microwave transistor in a hybrid microwave amplifier without any modification to the digital process is presented. A narrow band amplifier with a 0.7 {times} 100 {micro}m nJFET as the active element was designed, constructed, and tested. At 1 mW operating power, the amplifier showed 9.7 dB of gain at 2.15 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. In addition, next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {micro}m gate lengths were developed. Cutoff frequencies, f{sub t} of 49 GHz and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable both digital and microwave circuits with enhanced performance.

  3. Development of chip shrink technology for lateral-type GaN based HFETs using SiO2/polyimide dual IMD layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung kyu; Ko, Hwa-Young; Jang, Taehoon; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-03-01

    This study examined chip shrink technology for lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs on 150 mm Si substrates fabricated with a bonding pad above the active area (BPAA) structure. The SiO2/polyimide layers were used as inter metal dielectric (IMD) layers, which yielded a very low leakage current of 0.58 nA/mm2 even at 1 kV and a good adhesion property after O2 plasma treatment. The fabricated AlGaN/GaN HFETs with the BPAA structure exhibited good device characteristics, such as a low leakage current of 7.1 nA at 1 kV and a drain current of 3.6 A at 2 V, which has the same value compared to that of the AlGaN/GaN HFETs without the BPAA structure, even though the BPAA structure reduced the size of chip by 40%. This suggests that the BPAA structure is a promising method for reducing the size and cost of the lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  5. a Gan on sic Hfet Device Technology for Wireless Infrastructure Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, B.; Henry, H.; Moore, K.; Abdou, J.; Lawrence, R.; Clayton, F.; Miller, M.; Crowder, J.; Mares, E.; Hartin, O.; Liu, C.; Weitzel, C.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents Freescale's baseline GaN device technology for wireless infrastructure applications. At 48 V drain bias and 2.1 GHz operating frequency 10-11 W/mm, 62-67% power-added efficiency (PAE) is realized on 0.3 mm devices and 74 W (5.9 W/mm), 55% PAE is demonstrated for 12.6 mm devices. A simple thermal model shows that a more than twofold increase in channel temperature is responsible for limiting the CW power density on the 12.6 mm compared to 0.3 mm devices. The addition of through wafer source vias to improve gain and tuning the device in a fixture optimized for efficiency yield an output power of 57W (4.7 W/mm), PAE of 66%, and a calculated channel temperature of approximately 137°C at a 28 V bias.

  6. Complementary heterojunction FET technology for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, George

    1993-01-01

    A 32-bit serial integer multiplier was designed to investigate the yield and performance of complementary heterojunction FET (CHFET) technology. This is the largest reported CHFET logic circuit. The maximum operating frequency was 500 MHz. Very low power dissipation of 3 mW was obtained at 5 MHz operation. Single-event upset (SEU) characteristics of CHFET devices and latches were also measured and indicates the potential for SEU hard circuits for space and military applications.

  7. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, , D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-12-31

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime.

  8. Scalability of the drain-current drive of AlGaN/GaN HFETs with gate-length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Md Jahirul; Valizadeh, Pouya

    2013-11-01

    The scaling-trend of the current-drive of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFETs) with gate-length is studied with the application of a realistic steady-state drift transport characteristics and an approximate purely-saturating drift transport characteristics. Findings show that due to an overwhelming presence of a region of negative differential mobility in the transport characteristics of GaN, a scaling-trend different from the one observed in mainstream silicon MOSFETs should be expected for AlGaN/GaN HFETs. The role of improvement in Ohmic contact technology on this scaling trend is also investigated.

  9. Temperature in HFETs when operating in DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Benito; Hernandez, Antonio; Garcia, Javier; del Pino, F. J.; Nunez, Antonio; Sendra, Jose R.

    2003-04-01

    This work analyses the DC response of an InGaAs channel PHFET when varying temperature. An analytic model for the drain current is derived from previous work, incorporating the extrinsic resistances. Experimental output characteristics at different temperatures are compared with those offered by the resulting model and numerical simulations. The DC drain current is obtained introducing the external voltages applied to the HFET terminals into an intrinsic model. The temperature range considered in this paper is between 300 and 400 K. In this range, the temperature dependence of the intrinsic electrical parameters is included in the model. For the temperature dependence of the extrinsic resistances, the HFET is numerically simulated with MINIMOS-NT. As far as we know, any influence of the electron transport through the AlGaAs/InGaAs heterojunction on the extrinsic resistances has not been already established. In our case, a termionic-field-emission (TFE) is used to simulate this effect (without TFE not only the drain current is underestimated, but also the temperature dependence predicted is opposite to the actual). As result, the extrinsic source resistence is nearly constant (7.5 ohms), and higher values are obtained for the extrinsic drain resistence, which has a linear and positive temperature dependence, raising as the transistor operates in saturation region. When the drain voltage diminishes, the influence of the TFE model on the extrinsic resistances vanishes, and RD tends to RS. The drain current predicted by the model, in linear and saturation region, shows a relative error between measured and modeled values smaller than 10%.

  10. CLEANSPACE 'Small Debris Removal By Laser Illumination And Complementary Technologies'

    SciTech Connect

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe

    2011-11-10

    Studies show that the number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Especially, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground based laser solution which can remove at low expense and in a non-destructive way hazardous debris of decimetric size around selected space assets appears as one highly promising answer. This solution will be studied in the frame of CLEANSPACE project which is a part of the FP7 space theme. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is threefold: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the CLEANSPACE project.

  11. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  12. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

    1998-01-01

    The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

  13. Nonpolar AlGaN/GaN HFETs with a normally off operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, M.; Kuroda, M.; Ueda, T.; Tanaka, T.

    2012-02-01

    Nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) with a normally off operation have been demonstrated. The nonpolar (1-120) a-plane's epitaxial layers are grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. We have found that a thicker AlN buffer layer achieves a GaN layer with a narrower full-width at half-maximum of the x-ray rocking curve and higher electron mobility. We have fabricated AlGaN/GaN HFETs with different gate directions. It is found that the drain current strongly depends on the gate directions, and higher drain current flows to the (0001) direction that is parallel to the hair-lined morphology. To realize a complete normally off operation, we have fabricated a-plane metal-insulator-semiconductor HFETs (MIS-HFETs) with a 2 nm-thick SiN as an insulator. The fabricated MIS-HFET exhibits a threshold voltage of +1.3 V with a high drain current of 112 mA mm-1. The presented MIS-HFETs will be desirable in next-generation power switching applications.

  14. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials.

  15. The Complementary Nature of Seismic and Infrasound Technologies in Regional Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Park, J.

    2013-12-01

    Under current CTBTO event detection and location operating conditions, signal detection is a station-centric decision (was an event phase detected at this station?), rather than a global hypothesis test. Currently, infrasound and seismic detection use signal detectors run independently on each technology. It is only after event formation that the observations and inferences are merged. Development of this independent processing is a result of the vastly different signal and noise characteristics of these two waveform technologies. However, for specific signals there may be a utility to a joint seismic-infrasound detector. For example, noise estimates from one technology may help characterize or identify the noise on another technology (wind couples to both infrasound and seismic). Back-projection methods for both seismic and infrasound could easily be combined to produce a common seismo-acoustic detection and associated event location. The opportunity exists to integrate detection and location into a single multi-disciplinary approach. One such example is the ongoing infrasound detection and location procedure that utilizes an adaptive F-detector as input into the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL, Modrak et al. 2010) procedure that provides an estimate of source location using assigned prior probabilities based on what is known of the propagation path and on the signal detector estimates (arrival time, phase velocity and azimuth). As the atmospheric model is better defined these priors may be changed, thus linking improved location estimates directly to improvements in atmospheric models. The final step following event location is identification. Seismic and infrasound observations and their interpretation for the recent set of North Korean nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, and 2013 provide a motivation for multiple disciplinary approach to this step as well. Seismic analysis of these tests have documented that for existing parameterized source models

  16. The Complementary Nature of Seismic and Infrasound Technologies in Regional Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Gao, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Under current CTBTO event detection and location operating conditions, signal detection is a station-centric decision (was an event phase detected at this station?), rather than a global hypothesis test. Currently, infrasound and seismic detection use signal detectors run independently on each technology. It is only after event formation that the observations and inferences are merged. Development of this independent processing is a result of the vastly different signal and noise characteristics of these two waveform technologies. However, for specific signals there may be a utility to a joint seismic-infrasound detector. For example, noise estimates from one technology may help characterize or identify the noise on another technology (wind couples to both infrasound and seismic). Back-projection methods for both seismic and infrasound could easily be combined to produce a common seismo-acoustic detection and associated event location. The opportunity exists to integrate detection and location into a single multi-disciplinary approach. One such example is the ongoing infrasound detection and location procedure that utilizes an adaptive F-detector as input into the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL, Modrak et al. 2010) procedure that provides an estimate of source location using assigned prior probabilities based on what is known of the propagation path and on the signal detector estimates (arrival time, phase velocity and azimuth). As the atmospheric model is better defined these priors may be changed, thus linking improved location estimates directly to improvements in atmospheric models. The final step following event location is identification. Seismic and infrasound observations and their interpretation for the recent set of North Korean nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, and 2013 provide a motivation for multiple disciplinary approach to this step as well. Seismic analysis of these tests have documented that for existing parameterized source models

  17. A Mathematics Teacher's Practice in a Technological Environment: A Case Study Analysis Using Two Complementary Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabach, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Integrating technology in school mathematics has become more and more common. The teacher is a key person in integrating technology into everyday practice. To understand teacher practice in a technological environment, this study proposes using two theoretical perspectives: the theory of technological pedagogical content knowledge to analyze…

  18. Gate leakage current induced trapping in AlGaN/GaN Schottky-gate HFETs and MISHFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Chia; Chen, Yan-Lun; Chen, Zheng-Xing; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Hsin, Yue-Ming

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the correlation between the off-state leakage current and dynamic on-resistance (RON) transients in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with and without a gate insulator under various stress conditions. The RON transients in a Schottky-gate HFET (SGHFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor HFET (MISHFET) were observed after applying various amounts of drain-source bias stress. The gate insulator in the MISHFET effectively reduced the electron injection from the gate, thereby mitigating the degradation in dynamic switching performance. However, at relaxation times exceeding 10 ms, additional detrapping occurred in both the SGHFET and MISHFET when the applied stress exceeded a critical voltage level, 50 V for the SGHFET and 60 V for MISHFET, resulting in resistive leakage current build-up and the formation of hot carriers. These high-energy carriers acted as ionized traps in the channel or buffer layers, which subsequently caused additional trapping and detrapping to occur in both HFETs during the dynamic switching test conducted.

  19. Gate leakage current induced trapping in AlGaN/GaN Schottky-gate HFETs and MISHFETs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the correlation between the off-state leakage current and dynamic on-resistance (RON) transients in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with and without a gate insulator under various stress conditions. The RON transients in a Schottky-gate HFET (SGHFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor HFET (MISHFET) were observed after applying various amounts of drain-source bias stress. The gate insulator in the MISHFET effectively reduced the electron injection from the gate, thereby mitigating the degradation in dynamic switching performance. However, at relaxation times exceeding 10 ms, additional detrapping occurred in both the SGHFET and MISHFET when the applied stress exceeded a critical voltage level, 50 V for the SGHFET and 60 V for MISHFET, resulting in resistive leakage current build-up and the formation of hot carriers. These high-energy carriers acted as ionized traps in the channel or buffer layers, which subsequently caused additional trapping and detrapping to occur in both HFETs during the dynamic switching test conducted. PMID:25258601

  20. A Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Wen; Chang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chia; Chen, Huey-Ing; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2016-10-01

    Based on an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach, a Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) is fabricated and investigated at higher temperatures. The Pt/AlGaN interface with nearly oxide-free is verified by an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) depth profile for the studied EPD-HFET. This result substantially enhances device performance at room temperature (300 K). Experimentally, the studied EPD-HFET exhibits a high turn-on voltage, a well suppression on gate leakage, a superior maximum drain saturation current, and an excellent extrinsic transconductance. Moreover, the microwave performance of an EPD-HFET is demonstrated at room temperature. Consequentially, this EPD-gate approach gives a promise for high-performance electronic applications.

  1. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for... kilogram of hydrogen. (1) If only one set of FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy values...

  2. Large scale meta-analysis of fragment-based screening campaigns: privileged fragments and complementary technologies.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lindvall, Mika K; Wright, S Kirk; Ottl, Johannes; Jacob, Jaison; Scheufler, Clemens; Marzinzik, Andreas; Brooijmans, Natasja; Glick, Meir

    2015-06-01

    A first step in fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) often entails a fragment-based screen (FBS) to identify fragment "hits." However, the integration of conflicting results from orthogonal screens remains a challenge. Here we present a meta-analysis of 35 fragment-based campaigns at Novartis, which employed a generic 1400-fragment library against diverse target families using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. By statistically interrogating the multidimensional FBS data, we sought to investigate three questions: (1) What makes a fragment amenable for FBS? (2) How do hits from different fragment screening technologies and target classes compare with each other? (3) What is the best way to pair FBS assay technologies? In doing so, we identified substructures that were privileged for specific target classes, as well as fragments that were privileged for authentic activity against many targets. We also revealed some of the discrepancies between technologies. Finally, we uncovered a simple rule of thumb in screening strategy: when choosing two technologies for a campaign, pairing a biochemical and biophysical screen tends to yield the greatest coverage of authentic hits. PMID:25550355

  3. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Schimpff, S C

    1997-07-01

    Complementary medicine can be described as additional approaches to care outside of mainstream medical practice but frequently based on traditional practices of nonwestern cultures. These include acupuncture, meditation, massage, diet manipulation, and many others. Recent reviews demonstrate wide and frequent use of these measures, often without concurrent discussion with the patient's physician. One estimate is that more than $13 billion is spent annually on complementary techniques in the United States alone. Many patients with cancer turn to these techniques. Care givers need to recognize this trend, learn about complementary medicine, and guide patients in their proper application when appropriate.

  4. Effect of electron density on cutoff frequency of III-N HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas; Morkoç, Hadis

    2014-03-01

    Advances in frequency performance of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of dissipative processes. The conditions for fastest dissipation coincide reasonably well with those for fastest operation and slowest device degradation. The correlation has its genesis in dissipation of the hot-phonon heat accumulated by non-equilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons. The hot-phonon heat causes defect formation and additional electron scattering in a different manner as compared with the effects due to conventional heat accumulated by acoustic phonons. The desirable ultrafast conversion of hot phonons into acoustic phonons is assisted by plasmons as demonstrated through measurement of hot-phonon lifetime. Signatures of plasmons have been also resolved in hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, phase noise, and device reliability. The plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of hot-phonon heat explains the known necessity for application a stronger negative gate bias to a channel with higher as-grown electron density.

  5. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone living with PD, this section focuses on herbs, vitamins and supplements. If you are considering complementary ... product recommendations regarding such products. Key Points Most herbs and supplements have not been rigorously studied as ...

  6. Complementary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-19

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate ''complementary'' approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field and structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Shared Goals and Complementary Approaches. Technology in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H., Ed.; Chabay, Ruth W., Ed.

    The complementary, but distinct, approaches of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are first summarized, then followed by a collection of papers discussing shared issues toward which these complementary approaches are directed. The purpose of this book is to foster a mutual understanding of shared issues and…

  8. Evaluation of Seebeck coefficients in n- and p-type silicon nanowires fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Younghoon; Park, Youngsam; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Jaehyeon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2012-10-12

    Silicon-based thermoelectric nanowires were fabricated by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. 50 nm width n- and p-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were manufactured using a conventional photolithography method on 8 inch silicon wafer. For the evaluation of the Seebeck coefficients of the silicon nanowires, heater and temperature sensor embedded test patterns were fabricated. Moreover, for the elimination of electrical and thermal contact resistance issues, the SiNWs, heater and temperature sensors were fabricated monolithically using a CMOS process. For validation of the temperature measurement by an electrical method, scanning thermal microscopy analysis was carried out. The highest Seebeck coefficients were - 169.97 μV K(-1) and 152.82 μV K(-1) and the highest power factors were 2.77 mW m(-1) K(-2) and 0.65 mW m(-1) K(-2) for n- and p-type SiNWs, respectively, in the temperature range from 200 to 300 K. The larger power factor value for n-type SiNW was due to the higher electrical conductivity. The total Seebeck coefficient and total power factor for the n- and p-leg unit device were 157.66 μV K(-1) and 9.30 mW m(-1) K(-2) at 300 K, respectively.

  9. Complementary corner.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Interest in nutritional health products stems from a number of observations. These include documented nutritional/vitamin deficiencies even in early stages of HIV infection and malnutrition associated with increased risk of HIV disease progression. There is great controversy, however, over whether or not using supplements is always a good idea and if it provides benefits in the long run. There has also been long-standing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to managing HIV infection and various conditions associated with HIV. The CAMs most commonly used by people living with HIV are not drugs, herbs or other pharmacologic agents, but rather things like meditation, massage, energy healing, acupuncture and the like. The following article contains summary highlights of studies of nutritional health products and CAM approaches in the setting of HIV presented at the World AIDS Conference in Barcelona.

  10. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.206-12 Calculation and use of...

  11. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.206-12 Calculation and use of...

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  15. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  16. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission values shall be arithmetically averaged. The resultant fuel economy values, rounded to the nearest 0.0001 mile per gallon, are the FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy values for the... values for the vehicle configuration. (3)(i) For the purpose of determining average fuel economy...

  17. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon... hot transient phase of the FTP test. For vehicles with more than one source of propulsion energy, one... Administrator determines may have a rechargeable energy source, whose charge can vary during the test,...

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Optimization of the δ-doped layer in P-HFETs at medium/high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, B.; Hernández, A.; García, J.; del Pino, J.; Sendra, J. R.; Nunez, A.

    2000-04-01

    The use of icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> -doping in HFET processes has made the development of transistor circuits and logic gates possible, for very high-frequency/speed or low-power applications. This behaviour of the PHFET device is due to fast quantum well conduction. However, the effect of the operating temperature range is critical. This range depends on the transistor and circuit activity, the packaging technique, and the external operating conditions. Temperature strongly affects the device ability to confine the current flow into the quantum well channel. In this paper the effect of temperature and icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> -doping concentration on the performance of the device is investigated by means of simulated experiments. The results are analytically and qualitatively discussed, showing how to fine tune the icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> -doping concentration in order to optimize the P-HFET behaviour from medium- to high-temperature conditions, [300, 500] K.

  19. Complementary and Other Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of ADHD Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Carrying Your ... and Other Interventions Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Complementary and ...

  20. Complementary media of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    The concept of complementary media, which cause negative refraction and make perfect lenses, was first introduced to electromagnetic waves. This paper extends it to general waves by expressing the complementarity in terms of a transfer matrix. As an example, complementary media of electrons are discussed theoretically. An application of complementary media to subsurface imaging by scanning tunnelling microscopy is described. For realistic materials the formulation of complementary media is extended to take account of the scattering at interfaces, and effectively complementary systems formed by interfaces are discussed. Interfaces of the graphitic lattice forming complementary systems are designed.

  1. Design of complementary LDMOS in 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology for smart integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelatta-Ebrahim, M.; Gontrand, C.; Zekry, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an nLDMOS and a pLDMOS are developed by slight modifications of the base process steps of 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Extra two masks are used for the formation of the body region and the drift region with slightly added thermal budget and without resorting to high-tilt implants. The specific ON-resistance (RON,SP) and the OFF-state breakdown voltage (BV) are 1.5 mΩ cm2 and 60 V, for the nLDMOS and 3.0 mΩ cm2 and 160 V, for the pLDMOS, so the devices can typically be operated around 42 V supply voltage, which is suitable for the new automotive applications. An isolation mechanism between the power devices is suggested using a deep trench filled with silicon dioxide and undoped polysilicon. The polysilicon has a nearly perfect conformal deposition, that is, both step coverage and bottom coverage are 100%. A simple subcircuit model is built using a two module approach, one for the intrinsic MOS area and the other for the drift region. The Spice model parameters of the intrinsic MOS part are extracted using a system that links the ICCAP extraction tool with the results of the ISE-TCAD tools. The simulation results using the Spice model are compared to the results provided by ISE-TCAD tools, and the accuracy at room temperature is less than 5% for the whole voltage domain. An interface circuit, to convert 0/3.3 V to 0/42 V, suitable for automotive applications, is proposed.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  3. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  4. The effect of gate length variation on InAlGaN/GaN HFET device characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketteniss, N.; Behmenburg, H.; Lecourt, F.; Defrance, N.; Hoel, V.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Heuken, M.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.

    2012-03-01

    InAlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) with a nearly lattice-matched barrier layer (thickness tbar = 8.3 nm) are investigated. The focus is set on resolving the systematic dependence of device characteristics on the gate length LG. Therefore, five different gate length devices with LG ranging from 75 nm to 2 µm have been realized. Peak values of 460 mS mm-1 and 100 GHz for transconductance gm and unity current gain cut-off frequency fT are obtained for the 75 nm device. DC characteristics as well as the cut-off frequency fT show systematic scaling with the gate length LG. Nevertheless, short-channel effects appear for the short gate length devices in both DC and RF operation, and a critical minimum aspect ratio LG/tbar of 27 is identified for the investigated barrier composition of xIn = 0.11; yAl = 0.63 and zGa = 0.26.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  6. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  7. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  8. Impact of complementary therapies via mobile technologies on Icelandic same day surgical patients' reports of anxiety, pain and self-efficacy in healing: a randomized controlled trial in process.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Therapies (CAT) are increasingly being utilized in conjunction with conventional medicine. Health Information Technology (HIT) and CAT are being scrutinized for evidence based health outcomes. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if the use of mobile technologies delivering CAT, specifically relaxation technique (RT), medical music intervention (MMI), nature landscape applications with (NLAM) and without music (NLAWM) compared with no intervention (control group) will assist in decreasing pre- and post-surgical patients' anxiety and pain levels while increasing post-operative healing self-efficacy levels.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  11. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  12. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  13. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  14. Complementary medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Karen; Rampes, Hagen; Richardson, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted.

  15. Shamanism and complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    1997-10-01

    Shamanism is an ancient tradition which may offer profound insights into the healing process and to our whole understanding of health. It has an extensive historical and geographical distribution, and may contain elements essential to our understanding of humanity. This paper outlines the origin and nature of shamanic practice, and considers its implications for a number of current healing issues. Several areas of potential relevance to complementary practitioners are explored. These include the shamanic concepts of illness, change and growth; illness and healing as rites of passage; death and dying; and the use of imagery in healing. This paper suggests that complementary practitioners may find some shamanic principles highly congruent with their own practice.

  16. Shamanism and complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    2000-11-01

    Shamanism is an ancient tradition which may offer profound insights into the healing process and to our whole understanding of health. It has an extensive historical and geographical distribution, and may contain elements essential to our understanding of humanity. This paper outlines the origin and nature of shamanic practice, and considers its implications for a number of current healing issues. Several areas of potential relevance to complementary practitioners are explored. These include the shamanic concepts of illness, change and growth; illness and healing as rites of passage; death and dying; and the use of imagery in healing. This paper suggests that complementary practitioners may find some shamanic principles highly congruent with their own practice.

  17. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) currently being used by millions of Americans. ... conventional care. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), part of NIH since 1999, funds and ...

  18. In-line and real-time process monitoring of a freeze drying process using Raman and NIR spectroscopy as complementary process analytical technology (PAT) tools.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Vercruysse, P; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Ouyang, J; Zhang, X; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the complementary properties of Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as PAT tools for the fast, noninvasive, nondestructive and in-line process monitoring of a freeze drying process. Therefore, Raman and NIR probes were built in the freeze dryer chamber, allowing simultaneous process monitoring. A 5% (w/v) mannitol solution was used as model for freeze drying. Raman and NIR spectra were continuously collected during freeze drying (one Raman and NIR spectrum/min) and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Raman spectroscopy was able to supply information about (i) the mannitol solid state throughout the entire process, (ii) the endpoint of freezing (endpoint of mannitol crystallization), and (iii) several physical and chemical phenomena occurring during the process (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization). NIR spectroscopy proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor the critical aspects during drying: (i) endpoint of ice sublimation and (ii) monitoring the release of hydrate water during storage. Furthermore, via NIR spectroscopy some Raman observations were confirmed: start of ice nucleation, end of mannitol crystallization and solid state characteristics of the end product. When Raman and NIR monitoring were performed on the same vial, the Raman signal was saturated during the freezing step caused by reflected NIR light reaching the Raman detector. Therefore, NIR and Raman measurements were done on a different vial. Also the importance of the position of the probes (Raman probe above the vial and NIR probe at the bottom of the sidewall of the vial) in order to obtain all required critical information is outlined. Combining Raman and NIR spectroscopy for the simultaneous monitoring of freeze drying allows monitoring almost all critical freeze drying process aspects. Both techniques do not only complement each other, they also

  19. April 25, 2003, FY2003 Progress Summary and FY2002 Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers,and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Bibeau, C

    2005-10-25

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, synergistic effort to develop inertial fusion energy (IFE). This program is building a physics and technology base to complement the laser-fusion science being pursued by DOE Defense programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The current LLNL proposal is a companion document to the one submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. The NRL and LLNL proposals also jointly pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, target physics, materials and power plant economics. This proposal requests continued funding in FY03 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1 kW, 100 J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser, as well as research into high gain fusion target design, fusion chamber issues, and survivability of the final optic element. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments. The HAPL Program pursues technologies needed for laser-driven IFE. System level considerations indicate that a rep-rated laser technology will be needed, operating at 5-10 Hz. Since a total energy of {approx}2 MJ will ultimately be required to achieve suitable target gain with direct drive targets, the architecture must be scaleable. The Mercury Laser is intended to offer such an architecture. Mercury is a solid state laser that incorporates diodes, crystals and gas cooling technologies.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Analytical charge control model for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HFETs including an undepleted barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenghui, Lu; Jiangfeng, Du; Qian, Luo; Qi, Yu; Wei, Zhou; Jianxin, Xia; Mohua, Yang

    2010-09-01

    An analytical charge control model considering the insulator/AlGaN interface charge and undepleted Al-GaN barrier layer is presented for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors (MIS-HFETs) over the entire operation range of gate voltage. The whole process of charge control is analyzed in detail and partitioned into four regions: I—full depletion, II—partial depletion, III—neutral region and IV—electron accumulation at the insulator/AlGaN interface. The results show that two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) saturates at the boundary of region II/III and the gate voltage should not exceed the 2DEG saturation voltage in order to keep the channel in control. In addition, the span of region II accounts for about 50% of the range of gate voltage before 2DEG saturates. The good agreement of the calculated transfer characteristic with the measured data confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  1. FY2002 Progress Summary Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R; Behrendt, B; Ebbers, C; Latkowski, J; Meier, W; Payne, S; Perkins, J; Schaffers, K; Skulina, K; Ditmire, T; Kelly, J; Waxer, L; Rudi, P; Randles, M; Witter, D; Meissner, H; Merissner, O

    2001-12-13

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, coordinated effort to develop a high-energy, repetitively pulsed laser system for Inertial Fusion Energy and other DOE and DOD applications. This program is building a laser-fusion energy base to complement the laser-fusion science developed by DOE Defense programs over the past 25 years. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and LLNL. The current LLNL proposal is a companion proposal to that submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. Aside from the driver development aspect, the NRL and LLNL companion proposals pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, materials and power plant economics. This report requests continued funding in FY02 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1kW, 100J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser. In addition, research in high gain laser target design, fusion chamber issues and survivability of the final optic element will be pursued. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments.

  2. Complementary therapies in health care.

    PubMed

    van der Riet, Pamela

    2011-03-01

    In the past two decades, complementary therapies have grown in popularity in Western countries. The interest in complementary therapies could be explained by a "new consciousness" and the shift to a postmodern society. These therapies, embracing holistic practice, are derived from traditions of Eastern healing. There are many advantages of the complementary therapies that are playing a therapeutic role in the health care of individuals and, through the use of such therapies, nursing is developing a richness in holistic care. However, there are still barriers to be overcome; namely, the reluctance to accept complementary therapies in many contemporary healthcare settings. Through research and education, these barriers can be overcome.

  3. [Complementary care approaches, towards more humanity].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Modern medicine, with its cutting-edge technology, questions the notions of dehumanisation, over-medicalisation, the relationship to care. It seems to be aimed more at the disease than the patient. Complementary care approaches, which also encompass conventional medicine, guide and support the patient. Today, they have a role in giving back to the patient a feeling of being present in the world and testify to different approaches.

  4. [Integrating complementary medicines into care].

    PubMed

    Graz, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    More and more research is being carried out into complementary medicines. It is no longer possible to say that these treatments have no scientific basis, as for some, their efficacy has been proven by clinical studies. Health services must move beyond ideological arguments and integrate safe and cost-effective complementary medicines.

  5. [Integrating complementary medicines into care].

    PubMed

    Graz, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    More and more research is being carried out into complementary medicines. It is no longer possible to say that these treatments have no scientific basis, as for some, their efficacy has been proven by clinical studies. Health services must move beyond ideological arguments and integrate safe and cost-effective complementary medicines. PMID:27063880

  6. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  8. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  9. FY2005 Progress Summary and FY2006 Program Plan Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C

    2006-03-24

    The primary focus this year was to operate the system with two amplifiers populated with and pumped by eight high power diode arrays. The system was operated for extended run periods which enabled average power testing of components, diagnostics, and controls. These tests were highly successful, with a demonstrated energy level of over 55 joules for 4 cumulative hours at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (average power 0.55 kW). In addition, high average power second harmonic generation was demonstrated, achieving 227 W of 523.5 nm light (22.7 J, 10 Hz, 15 ns, 30 minutes) Plans to achieve higher energy levels and average powers are in progress. The dual amplifier system utilizes a 4-pass optical arrangement. The Yb:S-FAP slabs were mounted in aerodynamic aluminum vane structures to allow turbulent helium gas flow across the faces. Diagnostic packages that monitored beam performance were deployed during operation. The laser experiments involved injecting a seed beam from the front end into the system and making four passes through both amplifiers. Beam performance diagnostics monitored the beam on each pass to assess system parameters such as gain and nearfield intensity profiles. This year, an active mirror and wavefront sensor were procured and demonstrated in an off-line facility. The active mirror technology can correct for low order phase distortions at user specified operating conditions (such as repetition rates different than 10 Hz) and is a complementary technology to the static phase plates used in the system for higher order distortions. A picture of the laser system with amplifier No.2 (foreground) and amplifier No.1 (background) is shown in Fig. 1.0.1.1. The control system and diagnostics were recently enhanced for faster processing and allow remote operation of the system. The growth and fabrication of the Yb:S-FAP slabs constituted another major element of our program objectives. Our goal was to produce at least fourteen 4x6 cm2 crystalline slabs. These

  10. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  11. A Drosophila complementary DNA resource

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Gerald M.; Hong, Ling; Brokstein, Peter; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Stapleton, Mark; Harvey, Damon A.

    2000-03-24

    Collections of nonredundant, full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for each of the model organisms and humans will be important resources for studies of gene structure and function. We describe a general strategy for producing such collections and its implementation, which so far has generated a set of cDNAs corresponding to over 40% of the genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  12. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  13. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information FAQs about OCCAM Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips ... your health care provider(s) about your complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use during and after your cancer care. ...

  14. Conjectured strong complementary information tradeoff.

    PubMed

    Renes, Joseph M; Boileau, Jean-Christian

    2009-07-10

    We conjecture a new entropic uncertainty principle governing the entropy of complementary observations made on a system given side information in the form of quantum states, generalizing the entropic uncertainty relation of Maassen and Uffink [Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988)]. We prove a special case for certain conjugate observables by adapting a similar result found by Christandl and Winter pertaining to quantum channels [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 3159 (2005)], and discuss possible applications of this result to the decoupling of quantum systems and for security analysis in quantum cryptography. PMID:19659187

  15. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  16. Adequacy of family foods for complementary feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that complementary foods be introduced to all infants at age 6 mo and that breastfeeding be continued until age 18–24 mo. Beginning at age 6 mo, complementary foods should be pureed, mashed, or semisolid, but by age 12 mo the child should be able to eat solid foods that are consum...

  17. Ultrasonography and electrodiagnosis: are they complementary techniques?

    PubMed

    Boon, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    In this review, the role of high-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease as a tool complementary to electrodiagnostic techniques will be discussed, including indications, advantages, limitations, and potential for future research. Ultrasound-guided needle placement can be used to increase accuracy and safety of nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography. Ultrasound imaging of nerve and muscle can provide additional diagnostic information when performed in conjunction with nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography in the setting of nerve entrapment, nerve inflammation, and muscle disease. Its unique features include the ability to image structures dynamically in real time and the technique of sonopalpation. Because neuromuscular ultrasound is a rapidly evolving diagnostic tool with significant changes in technology, which facilitates its increased use, there is a steadily growing body of literature in this area. However, there remains an ongoing need for high-quality studies that evaluate the role and cost-effectiveness of neuromuscular ultrasound, both when used alone and in combination with electrodiagnosis.

  18. Risk, pregnancy and complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary

    2010-05-01

    Since the 1990's sociologists such as Giddens and Beck have highlighted the complexities of contemporary western societies in relation to risk. The "risk society" is one in which the advantages of scientific and technological developments are overshadowed with risks and dangers: leading to a world dominated by anxiety and uncertainty. Although a complex set of interrelated phenomena the risk society can be summarised under three main changes: including globalisation, scepticism about expert knowledge, Thompson: 27 and the degree of autonomy individuals have in our detraditionalised society to determine their own life choices (Beck: 13). The discourses of the "risk society" inevitably impact on women during pregnancy and the potential influence this discourse may have in relation to healthcare choices, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are explored. In this paper it is argued that the apparently growing use of CAM during pregnancy and childbirth could be interpreted as a response by women to these discourses, that decisions made with regard to CAM may signify a desire for personal fulfilment and a need for autonomy and active participation in healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:20347843

  19. Risk, pregnancy and complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary

    2010-05-01

    Since the 1990's sociologists such as Giddens and Beck have highlighted the complexities of contemporary western societies in relation to risk. The "risk society" is one in which the advantages of scientific and technological developments are overshadowed with risks and dangers: leading to a world dominated by anxiety and uncertainty. Although a complex set of interrelated phenomena the risk society can be summarised under three main changes: including globalisation, scepticism about expert knowledge, Thompson: 27 and the degree of autonomy individuals have in our detraditionalised society to determine their own life choices (Beck: 13). The discourses of the "risk society" inevitably impact on women during pregnancy and the potential influence this discourse may have in relation to healthcare choices, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are explored. In this paper it is argued that the apparently growing use of CAM during pregnancy and childbirth could be interpreted as a response by women to these discourses, that decisions made with regard to CAM may signify a desire for personal fulfilment and a need for autonomy and active participation in healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth.

  20. Shielded silicon gate complementary MOS integrated circuit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.; Hayes, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    An electrostatic shield for complementary MOS integrated circuits was developed to minimize the adverse effects of stray electric fields created by the potentials in the metal interconnections. The process is compatible with silicon gate technology. N-doped polycrystalline silicon was used for all the gates and the shield. The effectiveness of the shield was demonstrated by constructing a special field plate over certain transistors. The threshold voltages obtained on an oriented silicon substrate ranged from 1.5 to 3 V for either channel. Integrated inverters performed satisfactorily from 3 to 15 V, limited at the low end by the threshold voltages and at the high end by the drain breakdown voltage of the n-channel transistors. The stability of the new structure with an n-doped silicon gate as measured by the shift in C-V curve under 200 C plus or minus 20 V temperature-bias conditions was better than conventional aluminum gate or p-doped silicon gate devices, presumably due to the doping of gate oxide with phosphorous.

  1. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  2. Feasibility study of optical/e-beam complementary lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohle, Christoph; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Freitag, Martin; Gutsch, Manuela; Jaschinsky, Philipp; Kahlenberg, Frank; Klein, Christof; Klikovits, Jan; Paul, Jan; Rudolph, Matthias; Thrun, Xaver

    2012-03-01

    Using electron beam direct write (EBDW) as a complementary approach together with standard optical lithography at 193nm or EUV wavelength has been proposed only lately and might be a reasonable solution for low volume CMOS manufacturing and special applications as well as design rule restrictions. Here, the high throughput of the optical litho can be combined with the high resolution and the high flexibility of the e-beam by using a mix & match approach (Litho- Etch-Litho-Etch, LELE). Complementary Lithography is mainly driven by special design requirements for unidirectional (1-D gridded) Manhattan type design layouts that enable scaling of advanced logic chips. This requires significant data prep efforts such as layout splitting. In this paper we will show recent results of Complementary Lithography using 193nm immersion generated 50nm lines/space pattern addressing the 32nm logic technology node that were cut with electron beam direct write. Regular lines and space arrays were patterned at GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden and have been cut in predefined areas using a VISTEC SB3050DW e-beam direct writer (50KV Variable Shaped Beam) at Fraunhofer Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT), Dresden, as well as on the PML2 tool at IMS Nanofabrication, Vienna. Two types of e-beam resists were used for the cut exposure. Integration issues as well as overlay requirements and performance improvements necessary for this mix & match approach will be discussed.

  3. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  4. Meditation as a complementary therapy in cancer.

    PubMed

    Tacón, Anna M

    2003-01-01

    The number of cancer patients seeking complementary therapies to deal with their disease has increased steadily in recent decades. Complementary therapies can be helpful to cancer patients because they address some of the pervasive psychosocial difficulties associated with this disease. One mind-body technique is meditation. While programs using meditation have been developed for specific health populations, such as heart disease and addictions, an equivalent, well-established program for cancer patients is lacking. This article reviews the literature and proposes a complementary meditation program designed specifically for use with cancer patients.

  5. Single-pixel complementary compressive sampling spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ruo-Ming; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Yu, Wen-Kai; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2016-05-01

    A new type of compressive spectroscopy technique employing a complementary sampling strategy is reported. In a single sequence of spectral compressive sampling, positive and negative measurements are performed, in which sensing matrices with a complementary relationship are used. The restricted isometry property condition necessary for accurate recovery of compressive sampling theory is satisfied mathematically. Compared with the conventional single-pixel spectroscopy technique, the complementary compressive sampling strategy can achieve spectral recovery of considerably higher quality within a shorter sampling time. We also investigate the influence of the sampling ratio and integration time on the recovery quality.

  6. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  7. Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Allergic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Grine, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy. PMID:27545740

  8. Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, some people combine yoga with meditation. Physical (body) therapies Physical, or body, therapies include such activities as ... with specific health problems. Complementary therapies can include physical therapies (such as yoga and acupuncture), relaxation techniques (such ...

  9. Homogenization analysis of complementary waveguide metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Nathan; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the properties of complementary metamaterials as effective inclusions patterned into the conducting walls of metal waveguide structures. We show that guided wave metamaterials can be homogenized using the same retrieval techniques used for volumetric metamaterials, leading to a description in which a given complementary element is conceptually replaced by a block of material within the waveguide whose effective permittivity and permeability result in equivalent scattering characteristics. The use of effective constitutive parameters for waveguide materials provides an alternative point-of-view for the design of waveguide and microstrip based components, including planar lenses and filters, as well as devices with derived from a bulk material response. In addition to imparting effective constitutive properties to the waveguide, complementary metamaterials also couple energy from waveguide modes into radiation. Thus, complementary waveguide metamaterials can be used to modify and optimize a variety of antenna structures.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  11. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms. PMID:27657370

  12. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms.

  13. Complementary computer generated holography for aesthetic watermarking.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christophe; Lemonnier, Olivier; Laulagnet, Fabien; Fargeix, Alain; Tissot, Florent; Armand, Marie Françoise

    2012-02-27

    We present herein an original solution for the watermarking of holograms in binary graphic arts without unaesthetic diffractive effect. It is based on the Babinet principle of complementary diffractive structures adapted to Lohmann-type computer generated holograms. We introduce the concept and demonstrate its interest for anti-counterfeiting applications with the decoding of a hidden data matrix. A process of thermal lithography is used for the manufacturing of binary graphic arts containing complementary computer generated holograms.

  14. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Expanding Horizons of Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is this year celebrating 10 years of ... This year, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) celebrates its 10th anniversary. We explore complementary ...

  16. Progress in complementary and alternative medicine research: Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Millet, John D

    2010-09-01

    Integrative Medicine at Yale and the Yale Center for Continuing Medical Education (CME) sponsored the Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine in March 2010 at the university's School of Medicine. Delivering the keynote address, Dr. Josephine P. Briggs, Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), highlighted recent progress made in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

  17. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  18. [Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology].

    PubMed

    Hübner, J

    2013-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine are frequently used by cancer patients. The main benefit of complementary medicine is that it gives patients the chance to become active. Complementary therapy can reduce the side effects of conventional therapy. However, we have to give due consideration to side effects and interactions: the latter being able to reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy and so to jeopardise the success of therapy. Therefore, complementary therapy should be managed by the oncologist. It is based on a common concept of cancerogenesis with conventional therapy. Complement therapy can be assessed in studies. Alternative medicine in contrast rejects common rules of evidence-based medicine. It starts from its own concepts of cancerogenesis, which is often in line with the thinking of lay persons. Alternative medicine is offered as either "alternative" to recommended cancer treatment or is used at the same time but without due regard for the interactions. Alternative medicine is a high risk to patients. In the following two parts of the article, the most important complementary and alternative therapies cancer patients use nowadays are presented and assessed according to published evidence.

  19. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  20. Integrative medicine: complementary therapies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Gubili, Jyothirmai; Simon Yeung, K

    2009-04-01

    Many patients with cancer or other urologic disorders use complementary therapies in an effort to control symptoms and to prevent and treat disease. Complementary modalities are adjuncts to mainstream treatment. These safe, evidence-based therapies reduce symptoms associated with treatment of urologic cancers and other illnesses. They are to be distinguished from 'alternative therapies', which are unproven, potentially harmful, and often promoted as substitutes for mainstream medical care. Accumulating evidence supports the beneficial impact of complementary therapies, such as acupuncture, yoga, meditation and physical activity, on physical and emotional symptoms associated with cancer treatment, for which there are few effective standard interventions. Herbs and other dietary supplements are unlikely to be beneficial, and might be problematic or dangerous when taken during cancer treatment.

  1. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  2. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  3. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  4. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  5. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  6. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  7. Complementary and integrative treatments: adenotonsillar disease.

    PubMed

    Billings, Kathleen R; Maddalozzo, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize the otolaryngologist with complementary and integrative treatment options for the management of sore throat and tonsillitis. A review of the available literature will provide insight into available treatment options with these therapies. Current medical and surgical approaches to therapy for adenotonsillar disease will be reviewed.

  8. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  9. Complementary Schools, Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Complementary schools for immigrant and ethnic minority children in the UK have been an important socio-political, educational movement in the country for nearly half a century. They have made a major impact on the lives of thousands of children of different ethnic backgrounds, attracted public debates vis-a-vis the government's involvement in…

  10. Thinking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Copy This booklet covers: What complementary and alternative medicine is (CAM) is and why people use it The different types of CAM (mind-body methods, biologically based practices, body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole medical systems. How to talk ...

  11. Vacuum arc deposition as a complementary technology to laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinin, N. F.; Glebovsky, V. G.; Straumal, B. B.; Gust, W.; Brongersma, H.

    1997-02-01

    Vacuum arc deposition unifies the advantages of laser ablation and magnetron sputtering. The evaporation of the target in the arc discharge permits to deposit the refractory materials with a high rate. The evaporation products are highly ionized and the possibility exists to control the discharge with a magnetic field. The deposition rate, Rd, of Mo films produced by vacuum arc deposition on Cu and silica glass substrates has been studied. The target of purified Mo has been made by high-vacuum electron beam melting. Rd depends critically on the angle between the substrate and the cathode surfaces being maximal when they are parallel. The adhesion of the Mo coating to Cu is much higher than to silica glass substrate. Rd as high as 15 nm/s has been reached. Rd increases with increasing deposition power. It decreases with increasing distance from the cathode slower than in the case of magnetron sputtering. The microparticles forming by the vacuum arc evaporation incorporate in the layer during the deposition procedure increasing the deposition rate.

  12. Complementary Proteomic Analysis of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Miteva, Yana; Conlon, Frank L.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic characterization of protein complexes leverages the versatile platform of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular and cellular signaling processes underlying the dynamic regulation of macromolecular assemblies. Here, we describe a complementary proteomic approach optimized for immunoisolated protein complexes. As the relative complexity, abundance, and physiochemical properties of proteins can vary significantly between samples, we have provided (1) complementary sample preparation workflows, (2) detailed steps for HPLC and mass spectrometric method development, and (3) a bioinformatic workflow that provides confident peptide/protein identification paired with unbiased functional gene ontology analysis. This protocol can also be extended for characterization of larger complexity samples from whole cell or tissue Xenopus proteomes. PMID:22956100

  13. [Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hidehisa; Machino, Akihiko; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-06-01

    Frequency of insomnia is increasing with age. Benzodiazepine receptor agonist has been prescribed for insomnia in the elderly, but there are some patients who complain the effect is not sufficient. Adherence for sleeping pills is very low in elderly Japanese, because there has been strong stigma against sleeping pills. Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia is widely used in elderly Japanese. Sedative antidepressants, novel antipsychotics, anti-histamine drugs, and supplements are used for insomnia as complementary and alternative medicine. But evidence of these drugs for insomnia is insufficient. In this paper, we outline the previous reports such as the advantages and disadvantages of these drugs for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly. PMID:26065137

  14. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  15. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  16. Some realizable joint measurements of complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Paul

    1987-09-01

    Noncommuting quantum observables, if considered as unsharp observables, are simultaneously measurable. This fact is exemplified for complementary observables in two-dimensional state spaces. Two proposals of experimentally feasible joint measurements are presented for pairs of photon or neutron polarization observables and for path and interference observables in a photon split-beam experiment. A recent experiment proposed and performed by Mittelstaedt, Prieur, and Schieder in Cologne is interpreted as a partial version of the latter example.

  17. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  18. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  19. Predictors of College Students' Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Neill, Kweethai; Fogle, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the use of complementary and alternative medicine among college students (N=913), the relationships between health locus of control with use of complementary and alternative medicine, and health local of control with attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and what predicts their use. A majority (66%, n-913) of…

  20. Complementary split ring resonator arrays for electromagnetic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavikia, Babak; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2015-07-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of Ground-backed Complementary Split-Ring Resonator (G-CSRR) arrays with significant power conversion efficiency and bandwidth enhancement in comparison to the technology used in current electromagnetic energy harvesting systems. Through numerical full-wave analysis, we demonstrated correlation between either the resonance frequency or the input impedance of G-CSRR cells with the periodicity of the array. A comparative study of power harvesting efficiency through numerical analysis and laboratory measurement was presented where an array of G-CSRRs is compared to an array of microstrip patch antennas. We demonstrated that a G-CSRR array yields power conversion efficiency of 92%, which represents a significant improvement in comparison to the single G-CSRR reported in our earlier work.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Menopause.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Maida

    2015-09-01

    Given the persistent confusion about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy since 2002 and the first publication from the Women's Health Initiative's primary findings, women and health care providers are increasingly motivated to find effective, nonhormonal approaches to treat menopause-related symptoms. Complementary and alternative medicine has grown increasingly popular in the last decade. A wide array of botanic medicines is offered as an alternative approach to hormone therapy for menopause, but data documenting efficacy and safety are limited. None of the available botanicals is as effective as hormone therapy in the management of vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26316247

  2. Complementary and alternative treatments in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A; Gloyer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Many patients suffering from pain and dysfunction attributable to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of both the quantity and quality of CAM treatments for specific musculoskeletal conditions. Many CAM treatments are used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, but may be more commonly used for specific conditions. This article addresses the use of CAM for specific musculoskeletal conditions, followed by a review of other CAM treatments and their potential indications for a multitude of conditions, based on the current medical literature and traditional use.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  4. Complementary Flavonoid Prenylations by Fungal Indole Prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang; Yu, Xia; Xie, Xiulan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-09-25

    Flavonoids are found mainly in plants and exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities, which can often be enhanced by prenylations. In plants, such reactions are catalyzed by membrane-bound prenyltransferases. In this study, the prenylation of nine flavonoids from different classes by a soluble fungal prenyltransferase (AnaPT) involved in the biosynthesis of the prenylated indole alkaloid acetylaszonalenin is demonstrated. The behavior of AnaPT toward flavonoids regarding substrate acceptance and prenylation positions clearly differs from that of the indole prenyltransferase 7-DMATS. The two enzymes are therefore complementary in flavonoid prenylations.

  5. Complementary and alternative methods in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, William L

    2009-10-01

    There are no published studies specifically addressing complementary and alternative treatments in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). However, national surveys of adults with chronic disabilities document that a majority of them use such treatments, that they are willing to pay out of pocket, if necessary, and that they believe that pursuing such treatment relieves pain, reduces stress and anxiety, and leads to improved feelings of fitness and well-being. Individuals enjoy taking charge of their own health care decisions, and frequently feel more in control with these therapies than with more traditional methods. In contrast to adults, there is some information on complementary and alternative methods (CAM) in children with CP. This article discusses some of the CAM used in children that may be carried over into adulthood, as well as the pitfalls for patients and conventional physicians as they try to sort out what might be helpful and what might be harmful in this arena. Practitioners of both conventional and CAM therapies believe that exercise can be beneficial; accordingly, activities such as recreational sports, yoga, and hippotherapy may be continued from childhood into adulthood. General treatments for stress and anxiety, through such activities as yoga and meditation, though not directed at CP per se, may be more popular for adults than children. Research in this area should first identify what methods are being utilized and then subject these methods to well-designed outcome studies that take into account any associated risks.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine: impact on dentistry.

    PubMed

    Little, James W

    2004-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represent a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not considered to be part of conventional medicine. Biofeedback, acupuncture, herbal medication, massage, bioelectromagnetic therapy, meditation, and music therapy are examples of CAM treatments. Some dentists in the United States have used some of these treatments and products in their practices. Complementary medicines include herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines, and essential oils. There has been an increase in the use of herbal medicines in the US over the last 15-20 years. There is a public belief that these medicines are safe because they are made from natural sources. However, some of these products have associated adverse effects including toxicity and drug interactions. The health history taken by the dentist should include questions regarding the taking of herbal and over-the-counter medications. The dentist needs to be informed regarding the herbal and over-the-counter products that may impact the delivery of safe and effective dental treatment. In addition, the use of CAM treatments in dentistry should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.

  7. Complementary therapy and survival in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mulpur, Bhageeradh H.; Nabors, L. Burt; Thompson, Reid C.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; LaRocca, Renato V.; Thompson, Zachary; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complementary therapy (CAM) is common in cancer patients. We undertook this study to assess the association of complementary therapy usage with mortality in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods The analysis was based on 470 patients. Information on current use of CAM was collected in structured interviews conducted a median of 6 weeks following GBM diagnosis. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for GBM-related death according to the use of individual supplements with multivariate adjustment for known prognostic factors including age, KPS, and extent of tumor resection (ESR). Results Use of CAM agents was common, with 77% of the cohort reporting CAM usage. No mortality association was observed with the use of multivitamins (HR = 0.91; P = .40) or omega-3 fatty acids (HR = 1.07; P = .69). Patients taking vitamin D as an individual supplement (containing higher dosages than in a multivitamin) had reduced mortality when compared with nonusers (age-adjusted HR = 0.68; P = .02). However, the association was diminished after adjustment for KPS and ESR (HR = 0.74; P = .09). Use of herbal supplements was also associated with reduced mortality (HR = 0.58; P = .04). Vitamin E users had a nonsignificantly higher mortality when compared with nonusers (HR = 1.54; P = .09). Conclusions Use of CAM is common in GBM patients. These exploratory analyses suggest no mortality association with the use of multivitamins or omega-3 fatty acids. Associations observed with vitamins D and E merit further investigation. PMID:26649185

  8. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  9. Antimonide superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Yang, Baohua; Lee, Mike C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Höglund, Linda; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-05-01

    The nearly lattice-matched InAs/GaSb/AlSb (antimonide) material system offers tremendous flexibility in realizing high-performance infrared detectors. Antimonide-based superlattice infrared absorbers can be customized to have cutoff wavelengths ranging from the short-wave infrared (SWIR) to the very long-wave infrared (VLWIR). They can be used in constructing sophisticated heterostructures to enable advanced infrared photodetector designs. In particular, they facilitate the construction of unipolar barriers, which can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. Unipolar barriers are used to implement the barrier infrared detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. We report our recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in antimonide superlattice based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors using a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design.

  10. Alternative, complementary and traditional medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, N

    2006-09-01

    This paper sets out the practice of traditional, alternative and/or complementary medicine in Malaysia. It gives an overview of the types of alternative medicine available, and the legal regulation, or lack of it within the current setting. The relevant policies and governmental action in this area are highlighted. Relevant case law decisions in this area are also included. The practice of spiritual healing as one form of traditional medicine, and its role within the spectrum of alternative medicine is dealt with briefly. The significant question of integration of alternative medicine within the existing allopathic system is addressed. The paper concludes that as interest in, and usage of alternative medicine is not likely to decrease, certain measures must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure among others, the safety and efficacy of these medicines.

  11. Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sita

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins (vitamin D), minerals (magnesium), coenzyme Q, butterbur, and melatonin. Acupuncture, stimulation, physical therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations (TENS) or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) may also be useful in selected patients. The efficacy of all these therapeutic alternatives in pediatric headache is presented here. Primary care providers, neurologists, and headache specialists alike need to be informed of such interventions and integrate these approaches, when appropriate, in the management of children with headaches. PMID:27017022

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Tillisch, Kirsten

    2007-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a growing area of public interest. With increasing numbers of patients using these modalities, it is essential that Western medical practitioners become familiar with the available CAM literature to facilitate better patient care. While the volume of CAM research in gastrointestinal disorders has increased, there are still few modalities for which definitive conclusions can be made. This review will provide an overview of current knowledge of CAM therapies for functional gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. An understanding of this evolving literature is useful in discussing these therapies with patients who use, or are considering using, them. As we learn more about these CAM modalities, integration of those shown to be effective into our conventional practice and avoidance of those shown to be risky or of little use will be of benefit both to patients and practitioners.

  13. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  14. Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

  15. COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE COMPLEMENTARY NATURE

    PubMed Central

    Engstrøm, David A.; Scott Kelso, JA

    2009-01-01

    Summary Niels Bohr’s maxim contraria sunt complementa indicated his strong suspicion that the complementarity interpretation of quantum mechanics might someday be expanded into a generalized principle. It now appears that such a principle has been found in metastability which appears at the scale of living things. Metastability has been proposed as a principle of brain~behavior, and is captured in the extended or ‘broken-symmetry’ version of the HKB model of coordination dynamics. The metastable regime of coordination dynamics reconciles the tendency of specialized brain regions to express autonomy (segregation) and their simultaneous tendency to work together as a synergetic whole (integration). There is growing evidence from recent studies in the brain and behavioral sciences that the complementary nature of integrating and segregating tendencies is essential to the way human brain~minds work. PMID:20634938

  16. Complementary therapies for osteoarthritis: are they effective?

    PubMed

    Shengelia, Rouzi; Parker, Samantha J; Ballin, Mary; George, Teena; Reid, M Carrington

    2013-12-01

    Increasing interest has focused on complementary management modalities, including tai chi, acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy, as treatments for osteoarthritis (OA). This review article synthesizes evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) that examined one or more of the above as treatments for OA. Medline, Pubmed, and Cinahl databases were searched to identify English-language articles using an RCT design or that conducted a SR of published studies and presented data on symptom or functional outcomes. Two authors independently abstracted relevant information (e.g., study sample, intervention characteristics, treatment effects, safety data). Retained articles (n = 29) included those that evaluated tai chi (8 RCTs, 2 SRs), acupuncture (11 RCTs, 4 SRs), yoga (2 RCTs), and massage therapy (2 RCTs). Available evidence indicates that tai chi, acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy are safe for use by individuals with OA. Positive short-term (≤6 months) effects in the form of reduced pain and improved self-reported physical functioning were found for all 4 treatments. Limited information exists regarding the relative effectiveness of the therapies (e.g., yoga vs. tai chi vs. acupuncture), as well as treatment effects in persons with joint involvement besides the knee and in distinct patient subgroups (e.g., older vs. younger adults, persons with mild vs. moderate vs. advanced disease). Complementary therapies can reduce pain and improve function in adults with OA. Research is needed to evaluate long-term benefits of the treatments, as well as their relative effects among diverse patient subgroups. PMID:24315281

  17. Complementary therapeutic practices in patients with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Krouse, H J; Krouse, J H

    1999-11-01

    Understanding patient use of alternative and complementary modalities to treat chronic health conditions is an important component to providing holistic care. This study sought to identify traditional and complementary therapies used by patients with chronic sinusitis. Eighty-one percent of patients with chronic sinusitis engaged in physical exercise to relieve symptoms. Additional complementary therapies utilized included herbal therapy (32%), chiropractic therapy (16%), biofeedback (13%), acupuncture (11%), and chelation therapy (7%). Medications were commonly used by patients (60%), especially those with severe symptoms. By recognizing and incorporating effective complementary therapies into care for chronic sinusitis, nurse practitioners may help patients to improve their clinical outcomes.

  18. Complementary ensemble clustering of biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Fodeh, Samah Jamal; Brandt, Cynthia; Luong, Thai Binh; Haddad, Ali; Schultz, Martin; Murphy, Terrence; Krauthammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly growing availability of electronic biomedical data has increased the need for innovative data mining methods. Clustering in particular has been an active area of research in many different application areas, with existing clustering algorithms mostly focusing on one modality or representation of the data. Complementary ensemble clustering (CEC) is a recently introduced framework in which Kmeans is applied to a weighted, linear combination of the coassociation matrices obtained from separate ensemble clustering of different data modalities. The strength of CEC is its extraction of information from multiple aspects of the data when forming the final clusters. This study assesses the utility of CEC in biomedical data, which often have multiple data modalities, e.g., text and images, by applying CEC to two distinct biomedical datasets (PubMed images and radiology reports) that each have two modalities. Referent to five different clustering approaches based on the Kmeans algorithm, CEC exhibited equal or better performance in the metrics of micro-averaged precision and Normalized Mutual Information across both datasets. The reference methods included clustering of single modalities as well as ensemble clustering of separate and merged data modalities. Our experimental results suggest that CEC is equivalent or more efficient than comparable Kmeans based clustering methods using either single or merged data modalities.

  19. Investigation of 152Sm by Complementary Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Christen, S.; Choudry, S. N.; Cline, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Jessen, K.; Jolie, J.; Kloezer, A.; Kudejova, P.; Kumar, A.; Lesher, S. R.; Linnemann, A.; Lisetskiy, A.; Martin, D.; Masur, M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Möller, O.; Mynk, M. G.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Pejovic, P.; Pissulla, T.; Regis, J.-M.; Schiller, A.; Teng, R.; Tonev, D.; Wu, C. Y.; Yates, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuclear structure of 152Sm, along with other N = 90 isotones, has long posed a challenge. A rapid transition in shape between the spherical N = 88 150Sm and well-deformed N = 92 154Sm is observed, along with strong evidence for shape coexistence. Competing ideas have been put forward over the decades, with the most recent being that N = 90 is at the critical point of a shape phase transition. Until recently, the lack of high-precision data has not allowed the competing models to be extensively tested. In a coordinated program of investigation, a series of complementary experiments, which include high-statistics β decay, multi-step Coulomb excitation, the 150Nd(α,2n) reaction, and the (n,n'γ) reaction, have been performed for 152Sm. These experiments have revealed the existence of a pairing-isomer band, a hexadecapole band, the lack of multi-phonon β vibrational bands, and the repetition of structures built on the first excited Kπ = 0+ as built on the ground state. The status of these coordinated studies is examined.

  20. Complementary therapies in pediatrics: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael H; Kemper, Kathi J

    2005-03-01

    Increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as chiropractic, massage therapy, and herbal medicine, raises questions about the clinically appropriate use of CAM in pediatrics. Nonjudicious use of CAM therapies may cause either direct harm or, by creating an unwarranted financial and emotional burden, indirect harm. When advising patients concerning CAM therapies, pediatricians face 2 major legal risks: medical malpractice and professional discipline. Pediatricians can incorporate these considerations into advising and clinical decision-making about CAM therapies to address the best interest of the pediatric patient while helping to manage potential liability risk. This article provides a suggested framework, including asking the following questions: (1) Do parents elect to abandon effective care when the child's condition is serious or life-threatening? (2) Will use of the CAM therapy otherwise divert the child from imminently necessary conventional treatment? (3) Are the CAM therapies selected known to be unsafe and/or ineffective? (4) Have the proper parties consented to the use of the CAM therapy? (5) Is the risk-benefit ratio of the proposed CAM therapy acceptable to a reasonable, similarly situated clinician, and does the therapy have at least minority acceptance or support in the medical literature? Such an approach ideally can help guide the pediatrician toward clinical conduct that is clinically responsible, ethically appropriate, and legally defensible. PMID:15741385

  1. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  2. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  3. Complementary therapies: the appeal to general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, H L

    2000-07-17

    Pragmatism--among consumers seeking a cure and among general practitioners seeking clinical results and more patients--is not a complete explanation for the burgeoning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Western societies. Instead, this growth is substantially a result of pervasive and rapid social change, alternatively termed 'globalisation' and 'postmodernisation'. Globalisation and postmodernisation are creating a new social reality, of which a prominent characteristic is the proliferation of consumer choice. GPs are enmeshed in this social change and subject to the trend to greater choice--both their patients' and their own. On the one hand, GPs are reacting to social change as "economic pragmatists", responding to consumers' increasing demand for CAM. On the other hand, GPs themselves are acting as agents of social change by acknowledging the limitations of orthodox biomedical treatments and promoting CAM as part of their service delivery. Lack of scientific validation of CAM has not prevented GPs' use of such therapies. The phrase "clinical legitimacy" can be seen as a trump card that overrides "scientific legitimacy". It is the shibboleth of a postmodern movement among GPs towards healing and the "art" of medicine, as opposed to the "science" of medicine per se. PMID:10937039

  4. Alkylation of complementary ribonucleotides in nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Angelico, Ruggero; Losito, Ilario; Cuomo, Francesca; Ceglie, Andrea; Palmisano, Francesco

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to provide experimental evidence that base pairing, commonly occurring between nucleic bases in more complex supramolecular arrangements, may affect the reaction pathways associated with the alkylation of bases themselves. In pursuit of this aim, dilute aqueous solutions of Cytidine- (CMP) and Guanosine-Mono-Phosphate (GMP) as single reactants or in an equimolar mixture were treated with the electrophilic alkylating agent 1,2-Dodecyl-Epoxide (DE), which was preventively dispersed into micellar solutions prepared with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In the early stage of the reaction, CTAB micelles acted as micro-heterogeneous nanoreactors, but as the reaction progressed the systems evolved toward the formation of polydisperse aggregates, whose size and surface-charge properties were monitored as a function of reaction time. From mass spectrometry analyses, it was found that the deamination of cytosine, a side reaction related to the alkylation of the amino group of CMP, was reduced when both the complementary ribonucleotides were present in the same reaction mixture. The involvement of specific sites able to establish C:G interactions (possibly via H-bonding or π-π stacking) could explain the reduced reactivity occurring at the level of some of the nucleophilic centers responsible for molecular recognition.

  5. Complementary and conventional medicine: a concept map

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carol M; Kroesen, Kendall; Trochim, William M; Bell, Iris R

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the substantive literature from survey research that has accumulated on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States and elsewhere, very little research has been done to assess conceptual domains that CAM and conventional providers would emphasize in CAM survey studies. The objective of this study is to describe and interpret the results of concept mapping with conventional and CAM practitioners from a variety of backgrounds on the topic of CAM. Methods Concept mapping, including free sorts, ratings, and multidimensional scaling was used to organize conceptual domains relevant to CAM into a visual "cluster map." The panel consisted of CAM providers, conventional providers, and university faculty, and was convened to help formulate conceptual domains to guide the development of a CAM survey for use with United States military veterans. Results Eight conceptual clusters were identified: 1) Self-assessment, Self-care, and Quality of Life; 2) Health Status, Health Behaviors; 3) Self-assessment of Health; 4) Practical/Economic/ Environmental Concerns; 5) Needs Assessment; 6) CAM vs. Conventional Medicine; 7) Knowledge of CAM; and 8) Experience with CAM. The clusters suggest panelists saw interactions between CAM and conventional medicine as a critical component of the current medical landscape. Conclusions Concept mapping provided insight into how CAM and conventional providers view the domain of health care, and was shown to be a useful tool in the formulation of CAM-related conceptual domains. PMID:15018623

  6. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  7. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  8. Complementary therapies: the appeal to general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, H L

    2000-07-17

    Pragmatism--among consumers seeking a cure and among general practitioners seeking clinical results and more patients--is not a complete explanation for the burgeoning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Western societies. Instead, this growth is substantially a result of pervasive and rapid social change, alternatively termed 'globalisation' and 'postmodernisation'. Globalisation and postmodernisation are creating a new social reality, of which a prominent characteristic is the proliferation of consumer choice. GPs are enmeshed in this social change and subject to the trend to greater choice--both their patients' and their own. On the one hand, GPs are reacting to social change as "economic pragmatists", responding to consumers' increasing demand for CAM. On the other hand, GPs themselves are acting as agents of social change by acknowledging the limitations of orthodox biomedical treatments and promoting CAM as part of their service delivery. Lack of scientific validation of CAM has not prevented GPs' use of such therapies. The phrase "clinical legitimacy" can be seen as a trump card that overrides "scientific legitimacy". It is the shibboleth of a postmodern movement among GPs towards healing and the "art" of medicine, as opposed to the "science" of medicine per se.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Frank J H M; Smolders, Joost; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable hair-loss condition. As there is no cure for alopecia areata and no effective conventional therapy, a substantial number of alopecia areata patients resort to complementary and alternative medical remedies and therapies (CAM). This review on the application of CAM in alopecia areata addresses two pertinent aspects. First, it provides a current overview of the published medical literature on CAM used in alopecia areata, and alopecia areata-related studies. Second, it presents a thorough assessment of the considerations and limitations of the use of CAM for the treatment of alopecia areata. A systematic MEDLINE search yielded 13 studies of the clinical use of CAM in the management of alopecia areata, all belonging to one of the five main categories of CAM. Methodological quality was analyzed using objective assessment scores (Wilson and Lawrence scores). Unfortunately, no study was of sufficient internal validity to provide robust evidence of the benefit of CAM. This might be attributable to several specific disease characteristics of alopecia areata, which require an especially solid trial design to properly assess the therapeutic effects of CAM. The review concludes with some recommendations for improving the quality of trials incorporating CAM in the treatment of alopecia areata. PMID:20000871

  10. [Alternative and complementary therapies in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Leweling, H; Meinck, H-M

    2005-08-01

    Most MS patients use unconventional therapies, usually as complementary measures in addition to the conventional treatment. Only a few adequate clinical trials exist in this field. By definition, the efficacy of these therapies is unproven. Moreover, the possible risks are also largely unknown. Some therapies rely on rational pathophysiological considerations, other must be regarded as potentially harmful. The influence of diet on MS is unproven. Possibly, unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. However, a few randomized trials yielded inconclusive results. Long-term supplementation of Vitamin D is associated with a decreased MS incidence. There is, however, insufficient evidence for an influence of Vitamin D on the course of the disease. Because of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in MS patients, prophylaxis with Vitamin D and Calcium is widely accepted. The effects of various minerals, selenium, antioxidant compounds, fish oil or vitamins remain speculative. Many patients use cannabis to alleviate spasticity and pain. Small series indicated positive effects, but randomized trials were negative for spasticity. However, many patients report subjective improvement under cannabis even if their objective parameters remain unchanged. Hyperbaric oxygenation was the subject of several small studies with heterogeneous results which, overall, do not support its use. Generally, physical therapies are perceived as an established therapy for MS. Short-term effects are probable, whereas the possible favourable long-term effects are unclear. PMID:16052439

  11. Complementary and integrative treatments: managing obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Billings, Kathleen R; Maddalozzo, John

    2013-06-01

    This article familiarizes the otolaryngologist with potential integrative and complementary treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The authors discuss current medical and surgical regimens, and then provide a review of the current literature on integrative and complementary approaches for treatment of this disorder.

  12. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  13. 49 CFR 37.127 - Complementary paratransit service for visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complementary paratransit service for visitors. 37... FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.127 Complementary paratransit service for visitors. (a) Each public entity required to provide...

  14. 49 CFR 37.131 - Service criteria for complementary paratransit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service criteria for complementary paratransit. 37... FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.131 Service criteria for complementary paratransit. The following service criteria apply to...

  15. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics. PMID:27762321

  16. Complementary and Integrative Medicine at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Wang, Shihan; Tian, Lin; Lee, Mark C; Do, Alexander; Cutshall, Susanne M; Li, Guangxi; Bauer, Brent A; Thomley, Barbara S; Chon, Tony Y

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained acceptance throughout the industrialized world. The present study was performed to provide information about the use of CAM at Mayo Clinic, an academic medical center in Northern Midwest of the US. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 2680 patients visiting the CAM program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, between 1 July 2006 and 31 March 2011. Services provided included acupuncture, massage, integrative medical consultations and executive stress management training. Data including age, gender, race, diagnosis and the number of treatment/consultation sessions were collected to describe the use of CAM in our institute over the last several years. It was found that the mean (standard deviation) age of patient was 52.6 (15.5) years. Of those, 73.1% were female and 26.9% were male. Most patients were white. The number of patients referred to CAM increased significantly from 2007 to 2010. The three most common diagnostic categories were back pain (12.9%), psychological disorders (11.8%), and joint pain (9.6%). Back pain was the most common diagnosis for patients receiving acupuncture, and fibromyalgia was the most common for patients receiving massage therapy. Psychological disorders (i.e., stress) were the major diagnosis referred to both integrative medical consults and executive stress management training. These results suggest that the diseases related to pain and psychological disorders are the main fields of CAM use. It also shows the increasing trend of the use of CAM at an academic medical center in the US.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rhee, D J; Katz, L J; Spaeth, G L; Myers, J S

    2001-01-01

    Given the recent interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), some patients may seek such treatments to supplement their traditional glaucoma management. The prevalence of CAM use for glaucoma is approximately 5%. We reviewed the literature to determine the potential benefit of various alternative treatments. Aside from a temporary osmotic effect from high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, there is no evidence that megavitamin supplementation has a beneficial effect on glaucoma. During exercise, autoregulation in healthy eyes seems to maintain a consistent blood flow rate to the optic nerve despite fluctuations in intraocular pressure (IOP). In a glaucomatous eye, the very modest IOP-lowering that follows exercise may be offset by the initial elevation in IOP that occurs when one first initiates exercise. At this time, there is no evidence to encourage or discourage the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch specifically for the treatment of glaucoma. Very little research has been done on the majority of herbal remedies with regard to their treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can cause a profound lowering of IOP, but the high nonresponse rate, short half life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Ginkgo biloba and some other Chinese herbal remedies do not affect IOP, but may improve blood flow to the optic nerve and, as such, may have a beneficial effect on glaucoma. These agents have recognized toxicities. Although there are some well-designed studies of alternative treatments, many of the recommendations for using alternative treatments are currently unsupported by the data provided.

  18. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. PMID:26866600

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Zahra Alsadat; Namjooyan, Forough; Khanifar, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: A systemic skeletal disease is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Asia has the highest increment in the elderly population; therefore, osteoporotic fracture should be a noticeable health issue. The incidence rate of hip fractures in Asia could rise to 45% by the year 2050. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of various medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered as part of formal medicine. CAMs have been described as “diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine as a holistic, subjective and various natural approaches to medical problems by contributing to a common whole, satisfying claims not met by orthodoxy, or diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine”. Methods: Peer-reviewed publications were identified through a search in Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google scholar using keywords “osteopenia”, “osteoporosis”, “menopause”, “CAM”, “phytoestrogens”, “phytotherapy” and “herbal medicine”. The search was completed in July 2015 and was limited to articles published in English. Relevant articles were identified based on the expertise and clinical experience of the authors. Results: We categorized our results in different classifications including: lifestyle modifications (cigarette, alcohol, exercise and food regimen), supportive cares (intake supplements including vitamin D, C and K), treatments synthetic (routine and newer options for hormone replacement and none hormonal therapies) and natural options (different types of CAM including herbal medicines, yoga and chiropractic). Conclusion: Established osteoporosis is difficult to treat because bone density has fallen below the fracture threshold and trabecular elements may have been lost. Antiresorptive agents can be used to prevent further

  20. Complementary therapy use among HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bates, B R; Kissinger, P; Bessinger, R E

    1996-02-01

    This study investigates factors associated with the self-reported use of complementary therapies, types of therapies used, and sources of complementary therapy information among HIV-positive patients attending a public, HIV outpatient clinic in New Orleans. A convenience sample of 287 clients (220 men and 67 women) was given a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Overall, complementary therapy use was 31%. Patients who used complementary therapy were more likely to be white (O.R., 2.5), female (O.R. 3.3), a high school graduate (O.R. 2.9), and to know another complementary therapy user (O.R. 7.8). Age, sexual orientation, CD4 cell count, injection drug use, living with another HIV-infected person, having pain, and HIV support group membership were not associated. Men were more likely than women, and whites were more likely than nonwhites, to use vitamins/minerals, imagery/meditation, and dietary regimens. Nonwhites were more likely than whites, and women more likely than men, to use spiritual healing. Of those using complementary therapy, men were more likely than women, and whites more likely than nonwhites, to get information about complementary therapy from HIV organizations, friends, and homosexual-oriented media. Doctors and nurses were the most frequently cited source of complementary therapy information for women. Frequency, type of therapies used, and source of information about complementary therapy among HIV-infected persons vary by race and gender. Clinicians should be educated about complementary therapies so that they can provide information to their patients and be aware of self-treatment behavior.

  1. Language as Capital, or Language as Identity? Chinese Complementary School Pupils' Perspectives on the Purposes and Benefits of Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Mau, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Pupils' experiences of complementary education are neglected in the research literature, yet they are highly important in terms of understanding complementary schools and their impact on pupils' educational and social identities. This article explores British-Chinese pupils' discursive constructions of the purposes and benefits of Chinese…

  2. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  3. Unipolar complementary circuits using double electron layer tunneling transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Blount, M.A.; Reno, J.L.; Hafich, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of two-dimensional{endash}two-dimensional interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor{emdash}in addition to exhibiting a well-defined negative-differential resistance{emdash}can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and bandbending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed.

  5. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed. PMID:26860798

  6. Unipolar Complementary Circuits Using Double Electron Layer Tunneling Tansistors

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.

    1998-10-19

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of 2D-2D interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor - in addition to exhibiting a welldefined negative-differential-resistance can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and band-bending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series.

  7. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  8. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. PMID:26711840

  9. The Challenge of Educating Physicians about Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that most physicians are not prepared to respond knowledgeably about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) modalities and suggests incorporating systematic presentation of CAM information into the curricula of medical schools. (EV)

  10. RNA-catalysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Szostak, Jack W.

    1989-06-01

    The Tetrahymena ribozyme can splice together multiple oligonucleotides aligned on a template strand to yield a fully complementary product strand. This reaction demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-catalysed RNA replications.

  11. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  13. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  14. Use of complementary and alternative therapies in children.

    PubMed

    Woolf, A D; Gardiner, P

    2010-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative therapies in children has recently shown explosive growth, despite little scientific evidence of benefit, a need for better regulatory oversight, and continuing gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of pediatric health professionals. PMID:20107449

  15. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  16. Use of complementary therapies by Australian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kremser, T; Evans, A; Moore, A; Luxford, K; Begbie, S; Bensoussan, A; Marigliani, R; Zorbas, H

    2008-08-01

    International research suggests complementary therapy usage is common in women with breast cancer. Comparable data do not exist for Australia. A self-completed questionnaire was used to survey Australian women with breast cancer about their usage of complementary therapies. The survey was mailed to members of two breast cancer consumer advocacy groups, and assessed type of therapy used, reasons for use, and sources of information about complementary therapies. Of 367 respondents with breast cancer, 87.5% had used complementary therapies, with many using four or more therapies. Most commonly used were vitamin supplements (54.2%), support groups (49.8%), massage (41.4%) and meditation (38.7%). Common reasons for use included improving physical (86.3%) and emotional (83.2%) wellbeing and boosting the immune system (68.8%). Women sought information about complementary therapies from a variety of sources. The range of therapies used and the diverse reasons for use emphasise the need for reliable, evidence-based information about complementary therapies for women and clinicians.

  17. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    PubMed

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  18. 76 FR 17140 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... and Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  19. 75 FR 35075 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review, National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  20. 77 FR 10540 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Shau, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  1. 76 FR 27651 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review, National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  2. 76 FR 79201 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, NIH,...

  3. 77 FR 28396 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 8,...

  4. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the.... Seating is limited. Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)...

  5. 77 FR 1940 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  6. 75 FR 63498 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of...

  7. 78 FR 37836 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18, 2013. Michelle...

  8. 78 FR 34664 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  9. 75 FR 54161 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Assistance Program No. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine,...

  10. 76 FR 6806 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  11. 76 FR 10913 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... of Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707...

  12. 78 FR 10184 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Studies of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: March 14, 2013. Time:...

  13. 75 FR 6041 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and...

  14. 76 FR 12744 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-08

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  15. 76 FR 35227 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  16. 75 FR 1796 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

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  17. 75 FR 6039 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

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  18. 78 FR 56238 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-09-12

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  19. 77 FR 58402 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  20. 75 FR 57970 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 77 FR 31862 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  2. 76 FR 30735 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ] Special... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  3. 78 FR 47328 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-05

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  4. 76 FR 16433 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 17, 2011. Jennifer...

  5. 77 FR 24971 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... . Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  6. 75 FR 26260 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: May 4, 2010....

  7. 78 FR 66755 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  8. 77 FR 52751 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 23, 2012. Jennifer...

  9. 76 FR 38404 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Shau, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  10. 78 FR 21381 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative...

  11. 76 FR 59707 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  12. 75 FR 65498 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 15, 2010. Jennifer...

  13. Evaluating the economics of complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.(1) (-) (4) The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion-11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.(1) However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an "add on" expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  14. Evaluating the economics of complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.(1) (-) (4) The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion-11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.(1) However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an "add on" expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  15. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2016-07-01

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the treatment of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Gary H

    2015-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a diverse set of practices and treatments that has seen a significant increase among Americans over the past decade. These approaches have been applied to a myriad of medical and mental health disorders with varying levels of efficacy. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine to address the growing numbers of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders. These approaches include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. This article will review some of the most widely used non-pharmacologic complementary and alternative medicine practices used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder such as recreational therapy, animal-assisted therapy, yoga, and acupuncture as well as alternative delivery methods for psychotherapy.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Freeman, Marlene P

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine therapies are increasingly sought out by people with psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we review the evidence for several commonly used CAM therapies (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosyl-methionine, St John's Wort, bright light therapy, exercise, massage, and acupuncture) in the treatment of perinatal depression. A number of these treatments may be reasonable to consider for women during pregnancy or postpartum, but the safety and efficacy of these relative to standard treatments must still be systematically determined. Evidence-based use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies treatments for perinatal depression is discussed. Adequately powered systematic studies are necessary to determine the role of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in the treatment of perinatal depression.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the treatment of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Gary H

    2015-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a diverse set of practices and treatments that has seen a significant increase among Americans over the past decade. These approaches have been applied to a myriad of medical and mental health disorders with varying levels of efficacy. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine to address the growing numbers of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders. These approaches include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. This article will review some of the most widely used non-pharmacologic complementary and alternative medicine practices used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder such as recreational therapy, animal-assisted therapy, yoga, and acupuncture as well as alternative delivery methods for psychotherapy. PMID:26073362

  19. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client. PMID:16648095

  20. A Survey of Hospices Use of Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice; Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Andrews, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    As people live longer with chronic illnesses, the need for hospice services will increase. Complementary therapies have been shown to increase ease, relieve pain, and improve quality of life; all relevant for people with chronic illness at the end of their lives. The first aim of this study was to identify complementary therapy services available to, and provided for, clients receiving hospice care in Nevada and Montana. The second aim was to identify differences in those therapies for urban and rural hospice clients. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from surveys sent to all hospice administrators in Nevada and Montana (N=54). A 50% (n=27) response rate was obtained. Most (70.4%, n=19) of the participating hospices offered complementary therapy; slightly more than half (52.9%, n=9) provided the services for less than 25% of their clients. No significant differences were found between rural and urban hospices. PMID:19756253

  1. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  2. Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Langmead, L; Rampton, D S

    2006-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional western medicine. Despite a lack of scientific data in the form of controlled trials for either efficacy or safety of complementary and alternative medicine, use by patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly of herbal therapies, is widespread and increasing. There is limited controlled evidence indicating efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata and bovine colostrum enemas in ulcerative colitis. Encouraging results have also been reported in small studies of acupuncture for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Contrary to popular belief, natural therapies are not necessarily safe: fatal hepatic and irreversible renal failure have occurred with some preparations and interactions with conventional drugs are potentially dangerous. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of complementary and alternative approaches in inflammatory bowel disease, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  3. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client.

  4. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one’s right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., ‘hand-shaking’) irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  5. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Goulet, Olivier; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Moreno, Luis; Puntis, John; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (<4 months) and late (>or=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount ( approximately 500 mL) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet. PMID:18162844

  6. Complementary and alternative medications for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fah Che

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is common, but rarely cured, thus patients seek both second opinions and alternative means of controlling their pain. Complementary and alternative medicine accounts for 11.2% of out-of-pocket medical expenditures for adults for all conditions in the United States. Although there are many treatments, rigorous testing and well-done randomized studies are lacking. Dietary changes and physical modalities such as physical therapy have often been included in the category of alternative medicine, but their use is now considered mainstream. This article concentrates on other sources of alternative and complementary medicine, such as dietary supplementation and acupuncture.

  7. Optimal advertising and pricing decisions for complementary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Charmchi, Masoud

    2015-02-01

    Cooperative advertising is an agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer to share advertising cost at the local level. Previous studies have not investigated cooperative advertising for complementary products and their main focus was only on one good. In this paper, we study a two-echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer with two complementary goods. The demand of each good is influenced not only by its price but also by the price of the other product. We use two game theory approaches to model this problem; Stackelberg manufacturer and Stackelberg retailer.

  8. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  9. The complementary brain: unifying brain dynamics and modularity.

    PubMed

    Grossberg

    2000-06-01

    How are our brains functionally organized to achieve adaptive behavior in a changing world? This article presents one alternative to the computer analogy that suggests brains are organized into independent modules. Evidence is reviewed that brains are in fact organized into parallel processing streams with complementary properties. Hierarchical interactions within each stream and parallel interactions between streams create coherent behavioral representations that overcome the complementary deficiencies of each stream and support unitary conscious experiences. This perspective suggests how brain design reflects the organization of the physical world with which brains interact. Examples from perception, learning, cognition and action are described, and theoretical concepts and mechanisms by which complementarity might be accomplished are presented.

  10. Design and implementation of waveguide bandpass filter using complementary metaresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Tanveer ul; Khan, M. F.; Siddiqui, O. F.

    2016-01-01

    During past few years, designing of complementary metamaterials-based microwave devices have extensively increased. In this paper, passband filter for rectangular waveguide is designed using complementary symmetric split-ring resonator (CSSRR). By varying different geometrical parameters of CSSRR, the passband frequency and bandwidth can be varied. Effect of design parameter on quality factor of filter is also calculated. By appropriate choice of CSSRR geometrical parameters, a filter is proposed which gives passband of 2 GHz. The results are calculated numerically using HFSS 14.0.

  11. Complementary and alternative medications for women's health issues.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kimberly Braxton; Hornsby, Lori B

    2009-01-01

    Women often seek alternative treatment options such as herbs, dietary supplements, and vitamins and minerals to treat women's health issues across the lifespan. Women may use complementary and alternative supplements for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, infertility, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, and symptoms of menopause. In general, there is a deficit of well-designed, randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medicine for these indications, which makes it difficult to provide evidence-based recommendations. This review outlines the evidence for efficacy and safety that is currently available for dietary supplement use by women to manage health conditions specific to the female patient.

  12. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnik, Allison E.; Ireland, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest over half of children with autism are using complementary alternative medicine (CAM). In this study, physicians responded (n = 539, 19% response rate) to a survey regarding CAM use in children with autism. Physicians encouraged multi-vitamins (49%), essential fatty acids (25%), melatonin (25%) and probiotics (19%) and…

  13. Negotiating Language, Culture and Pupil Agency in Complementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytra, Vally

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…

  14. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into the Health Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sheila M.; Graf, Helen M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches in health education, suggesting a proposed CAM course for health education professional preparation and offering a course outline which can be used as a self- standing course or integrated into existing courses. It includes a proposed course description and goals,…

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: An Evidence-Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has experienced a dramatic growth in use and acceptability over the last 20 years. CAM is a diverse collection of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered a component of conventional medicine. CAM traditionally has been practiced by informally educated…

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  18. Complementary Alternation Discourse Constructions in English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iza Erviti, Aneider

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the essential features of a group of constructions that belong to the family of complementary alternation discourse constructions in English. In this group of constructions, X and Y are two situations such that Y is less likely (or more likely) to happen than X. Each member of this group (X Let Alone Y, X Much Less Y, X Never…

  19. Integrative oncology: complementary therapies for pain, anxiety, and mood disturbance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2005-01-01

    Many people with cancer experience pain, anxiety, and mood disturbance. Conventional treatments do not always satisfactorily relieve these symptoms, and some patients may not be able to tolerate their side effects. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, massage, and other methods can help relieve symptoms and improve physical and mental well-being. Self-hypnosis and relaxation techniques help reduce procedural pain. Acupuncture is well documented to relieve chronic cancer pain. Massage and meditation improve anxiety and other symptoms of distress. Many dietary supplements contain biologically active constituents with effects on mood. However, not all complementary therapies are appropriate or useful, and even helpful complementary modalities may not be optimal under some circumstances. Situations when precaution is indicated include acute onset of symptoms and severe symptoms, which require immediate mainstream intervention. Dietary supplements are associated with serious negative consequences under some circumstances. The authors summarize the research on these modalities and discuss the rationale, expectation, and necessary precautions involved with combining complementary therapies and mainstream care. Practical clinical issues are addressed.

  20. Livestock Responses to Complementary Forages in Shortgrass Steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage gaps for livestock producers exist in the spring and fall in shortgrass steppe because of dominance by the perennial warm-season grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis). Livestock gains of yearling Hereford heifers were evaluated during 1996-1999 on two complementary forage grasses [‘Bozoisky-S...

  1. Livestock responses to complementary forages in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage gaps for livestock producers exist in the spring and fall in shortgrass steppe because of dominance by the perennial warm-season grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis). Livestock gains of yearling Hereford heifers were evaluated during 1996-1999 on two complementary forage grasses [‘Bozoisky-S...

  2. A Complementary Ecological Model of the Coordinated School Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A complementary ecological model of the coordinated school health program (CSHP) reflecting 20 years of evolved changes is proposed. Ecology refers to the complex interrelationship between intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes and primary groups, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy. Methods: Public…

  3. [Relaxation, a complementary approach for mental health nurses].

    PubMed

    Besnier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Relaxation is arousing growing interest in mental health. Its positive effects are in line with an active approach which brings together body and mind and place the individual back on the path of self-awareness. The relationship with the patient constitutes the "therapeutic we" ensuring its therapeutic importance. It represents a complementary and original approach to caring. PMID:27615697

  4. Complementary and alternative therapies in occupational health. Part One.

    PubMed

    Bascom, Angella

    2002-09-01

    Occupational health nurses have the opportunity to work effectively with employees in the area of complementary and alternative health care. The above Sidebar summarizes important points related to the occupational health nurse's role in this rapidly growing aspect of health care delivery.

  5. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group. PMID:26047131

  6. Disciplinary Regimes of "Care" and Complementary Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In schools, the notion of "care" is often synonymous with welfare and disciplinary regimes. Drawing on Foucault, and a study of alternative education (AE) across the UK, and looking in depth at two cases of complementary AE, we identify three types of disciplinary regimes at work in schools: (1) dominant performative reward and…

  7. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels.

  8. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group. PMID:26047131

  9. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  10. Development of an Attitudes towards Complementary Therapies Scale for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lee-Ann; White, Katherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This study designed and tested a scale to measure psychologists' attitudes towards complementary and alternative therapies. The scale, derived from existing measures for medical professionals, was tested on a sample of psychology students (N = 163) using an online survey. The data were factor analysed and three correlated subscales were…

  11. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section 3405.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3405.8...

  12. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section 3406.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description §...

  13. Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants Data on 79 953 children aged 6–23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003–2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15–49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6–23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6–8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Conclusions Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. PMID:26443657

  14. Hybrid Integration of Graphene Analog and Silicon Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Digital Circuits.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seul Ki; Kim, Choong Sun; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2016-07-26

    We demonstrate a hybrid integration of a graphene-based analog circuit and a silicon-based digital circuit in order to exploit the strengths of both graphene and silicon devices. This mixed signal circuit integration was achieved using a three-dimensional (3-D) integration technique where a graphene FET multimode phase shifter is fabricated on top of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (CMOS FET) ring oscillator. The process integration scheme presented here is compatible with the conventional silicon CMOS process, and thus the graphene circuit can successfully be integrated on current semiconductor technology platforms for various applications. This 3-D integration technique allows us to take advantage of graphene's excellent inherent properties and the maturity of current silicon CMOS technology for future electronics. PMID:27403730

  15. Flexible complementary metal oxide semiconductor microelectrode arrays with applications in single cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajouhi, H.; Jou, A. Y.; Jain, R.; Ziabari, A.; Shakouri, A.; Savran, C. A.; Mohammadi, S.

    2015-11-01

    A highly flexible microelectrode array with an embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation amplifier suitable for sensing surfaces of biological entities is developed. The array is based on ultrathin CMOS islands that are thermally isolated from each other and are interconnected by meandered nano-scale wires that can adapt to cellular surfaces with micro-scale curvatures. CMOS temperature sensors are placed in the islands and are optimally biased to have high temperature sensitivity. While no live cell thermometry is conducted, a measured temperature sensitivity of 0.15 °C in the temperature range of 35 to 40 °C is achieved by utilizing a low noise CMOS lock-in amplifier implemented in the same technology. The monolithic nature of CMOS sensors and amplifier circuits and their versatile flexible interconnecting wires overcome the sensitivity and yield limitations of microelectrode arrays fabricated in competing technologies.

  16. High performance printed N and P-type OTFTs enabling digital and analog complementary circuits on flexible plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, S.; Abdinia, S.; Benwadih, M.; Bablet, J.; Chartier, I.; Gwoziecki, R.; Cantatore, E.; van Roermund, A. H. M.; Maddiona, L.; Tramontana, F.; Maiellaro, G.; Mariucci, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Palmisano, G.; Coppard, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a printed organic complementary technology on flexible plastic substrate with high performance N and P-type Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs), based on small-molecule organic semiconductors in solution. Challenges related to the integration of both OTFT types in a common complementary flow are addressed, showing the importance of surface treatments. Stability on single devices and on an elementary complementary digital circuit (ring oscillator) is studied, demonstrating that a robust and reliable flow with high electrical performances can be established for printed organic devices. These devices are used to manufacture several analog and digital building blocks. The design is carried out using a model specifically developed for this technology, and taking into account the parametric variability. High-frequency measurements of printed envelope detectors show improved speed performance, resulting from the high mobility of the OTFTs. In addition, a compact dynamic flip-flop and a low-offset comparator are demonstrated, thanks to availability of both n-type and p-type OTFTs in the technology. Measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. The circuits presented establish a complete library of building blocks for the realization of a printed RFID tag.

  17. Asteroid models from photometry and complementary data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    I discuss inversion methods for asteroid shape and spin reconstruction with photometry (lightcurves) and complementary data sources such as adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data. These are essentially different sampling modes (generalized projections) of plane-of-sky images. An important concept in this approach is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. The maximum compatibility estimate, a multi-modal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, can be used for this purpose. I discuss the fundamental properties of lightcurve inversion by examining the two-dimensional case that, though not usable in our three-dimensional world, is simple to analyze, and it shares essentially the same uniqueness and stability properties as the 3-D case. After this, I review the main aspects of 3-D shape representations, lightcurve inversion, and the inclusion of complementary data.

  18. Complementary oppositions in the construal of self and others.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ehud

    2008-09-01

    In the construal of self and others, highly diverse, idiosyncratic, and evocative adjectival terms were manifested as contrasting, opposite terms for a set of supplied constructs rather than conventional antonyms. These "personal contrasts" are seen as a neglected companion to George Kelly's (The Psychology of Personal Constructs, 1955) conception of "personal constructs". These construct/contrast pairings are seen as representing connected, complementary aspects of an essential unity such that each side of a pair informs the meaning of the other. This complementarity, long recognized in an extensive literature on polar, dichotomous, and binary pairs in the physical and social worlds, is seen as having applicability to many descriptive adjectives. It is suggested that adjectival complementary pairings often involve unique associative linkages, the tracing of which could prove fruitful for understanding the construal of self and others. PMID:18521753

  19. Bent helix formation between RNA hairpins with complementary loops.

    PubMed

    Marino, J P; Gregorian, R S; Csankovszki, G; Crothers, D M

    1995-06-01

    The initial interaction between the ColE1 plasmid specific transcripts RNA I and RNA II, which function as antisense regulators of plasmid replication, comprises a transient complex between complementary loops found within the RNA secondary structures. Multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize complexes formed between model RNA hairpins having seven nucleotide complementary loops. Seven base pairs are formed in the loop-loop helix, with continuous helical stacking of the loop residues on the 3' side of their helical stems. A sharp bend in the loop-loop helix, documented by gel electrophoresis, narrows the major groove and allows bridging of the phosphodiester backbones across the major groove in order to close the hairpin loops at their 5'-ends. The bend is further enhanced by the binding of Rom, a ColE1 encoded protein that regulates replication. PMID:7539549

  20. Complementary and alternative therapies and health literacy in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dişsiz, Gülçin; Yilmaz, Medine

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to determine health literacy and the use of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) in patients with cancer and to investigate the relationship between CAT usage and health literacy. The study cohort consisted of 250 oncology patients. The Patient Interview Form and the Adult Literacy in Medicine Scale were used for collecting data. The use of at least one CAT was reported by 24% of the patients surveyed. Herbal therapies (32.6%) constituted the most popular method, and the most popular herbal therapy was Nigella sativa (54.6%). A total of 29.8% of the patients using CATs reported using herbal therapies for an enhanced immune system. Illiterate patients and those who live in rural areas/towns displayed low levels of health literacy. Healthcare professionals should investigate patients' use of complementary and alternative approaches, and health literacy should be improved so that patients can be informed regarding the possible benefits and disadvantages of CATs.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine and physical activity for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Taya L; Mark, Saralyn

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of all menopausal women seek medical attention to alleviate symptoms of menopause, a natural physiologic process. Severe symptoms and an overall decrease in quality of life have prompted many women to demand additional information and treatment. Although menopausal hormone therapy has been the standard, increasing evidence suggests that women are looking to complementary and alternative therapies for management and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Modalities such as physical activity, diet supplements, body work, and mind-body techniques are often used without evaluation or treatment by conventional health care providers. Many of these treatments may present varying risks and contraindications. Consequently, there is a great need for ongoing education and research to ensure alternative therapy use is not only effective, but also safe. This paper provides a systematic review of current complementary and alternative modalities and of physical activity used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  2. Complementary and alternative therapies and health literacy in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dişsiz, Gülçin; Yilmaz, Medine

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to determine health literacy and the use of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) in patients with cancer and to investigate the relationship between CAT usage and health literacy. The study cohort consisted of 250 oncology patients. The Patient Interview Form and the Adult Literacy in Medicine Scale were used for collecting data. The use of at least one CAT was reported by 24% of the patients surveyed. Herbal therapies (32.6%) constituted the most popular method, and the most popular herbal therapy was Nigella sativa (54.6%). A total of 29.8% of the patients using CATs reported using herbal therapies for an enhanced immune system. Illiterate patients and those who live in rural areas/towns displayed low levels of health literacy. Healthcare professionals should investigate patients' use of complementary and alternative approaches, and health literacy should be improved so that patients can be informed regarding the possible benefits and disadvantages of CATs. PMID:27157956

  3. Multi-band terahertz active device with complementary metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Linlin; Sun, Han; Xu, Gaiqi; Zhao, Yuncheng; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-09-28

    We describe a multi-band terahertz-active device using a composite structure made of complementary metamaterial and doped silicon that can be dynamically controlled. This special complementary metamaterial exhibits three resonances that produce three pass-bands. The pass-bands can be uniformly manipulated by exploiting the photoinduced characteristics of the doped silicon. Simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic field and surface current distributions. The simulation results agree well with experimental results obtained from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Using an 808-nm-wavelength laser beam, a modulation depth of up to 80% was obtained. In numerical simulations, we used a conductivity mode to characterize photoinduction. The development of multi-band terahertz-active devices has many potential applications, for example, in filters, modulators, switches, and sensors.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief During Labor

    PubMed Central

    Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness. PMID:18227907

  5. Bent helix formation between RNA hairpins with complementary loops.

    PubMed

    Marino, J P; Gregorian, R S; Csankovszki, G; Crothers, D M

    1995-06-01

    The initial interaction between the ColE1 plasmid specific transcripts RNA I and RNA II, which function as antisense regulators of plasmid replication, comprises a transient complex between complementary loops found within the RNA secondary structures. Multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize complexes formed between model RNA hairpins having seven nucleotide complementary loops. Seven base pairs are formed in the loop-loop helix, with continuous helical stacking of the loop residues on the 3' side of their helical stems. A sharp bend in the loop-loop helix, documented by gel electrophoresis, narrows the major groove and allows bridging of the phosphodiester backbones across the major groove in order to close the hairpin loops at their 5'-ends. The bend is further enhanced by the binding of Rom, a ColE1 encoded protein that regulates replication.

  6. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS2 inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS2) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  7. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  8. The growing acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Bodane, Carrie; Brownson, Kenneth

    2002-03-01

    Alternative and complementary medicine is becoming more popular among consumers and prescribed more by health care professionals. Alternative medicine can be traced back thousands of years, however, it wasn't introduced to the United States until the early 1900s. Alternative medicine encompasses a wide range of therapies including homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, massage and bodywork therapy, meditation, nutritional supplements, and herbal remedies. Understanding the background and benefits of these alternatives is important to all health care professionals.

  9. The bioinformatics of psychosocial genomics in alternative and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E

    2003-06-01

    The bioinformatics of alternative and complementary medicine is outlined in 3 hypotheses that extend the molecular-genomic revolution initiated by Watson and Crick 50 years ago to include psychology in the new discipline of psychosocial and cultural genomics. Stress-induced changes in the alternative splicing of genes demonstrate how psychosomatic stress in humans modulates activity-dependent gene expression, protein formation, physiological function, and psychological experience. The molecular messengers generated by stress, injury, and disease can activate immediate early genes within stem cells so that they then signal the target genes required to synthesize the proteins that will transform (differentiate) stem cells into mature well-functioning tissues. Such activity-dependent gene expression and its consequent activity-dependent neurogenesis and stem cell healing is proposed as the molecular-genomic-cellular basis of rehabilitative medicine, physical, and occupational therapy as well as the many alternative and complementary approaches to mind-body healing. The therapeutic replaying of enriching life experiences that evoke the novelty-numinosum-neurogenesis effect during creative moments of art, music, dance, drama, humor, literature, poetry, and spirituality, as well as cultural rituals of life transitions (birth, puberty, marriage, illness, healing, and death) can optimize consciousness, personal relationships, and healing in a manner that has much in common with the psychogenomic foundations of naturalistic and complementary medicine. The entire history of alternative and complementary approaches to healing is consistent with this new neuroscience world view about the role of psychological arousal and fascination in modulating gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing via the psychosocial and cultural rites of human societies.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine--a business opportunity?

    PubMed

    Hofgard, M W; Zipin, M L

    1999-01-01

    This desire for health and well-being is driving the rapid growth of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) industry and points to a new role for health care professionals, including business opportunities for medical groups. CAM represents the opportunity to grow practice revenues, expand a group's tool kit for assisting patients with health care issues, and retain or increase market share by proactively responding to consumers. With respect to CAM, physician practices can lead their market, follow it or ignore it.

  11. Gray tone image watermarking with complementary computer generated holography.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christophe; Laulagnet, Fabien; Lemonnier, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    We present herein an original approach for the watermarking of holograms in gray tone images for use in microscopic halftone image archiving. Our concept is based on the principle of complementary holography presented in a previous contribution. The efficiency of the concept is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate the interest of elliptical diffraction patterns as an alternative to the usual rectangular diffraction patterns and confirm the subsidiary role of the hologram amplitude in the hologram recovery process.

  12. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  13. Complementary health care services: a survey of general practitioners' views.

    PubMed Central

    Goldszmidt, M; Levitt, C; Duarte-Franco, E; Kaczorowski, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the referral practices, perceived usefulness, knowledge, prior training and desire for training of general practitioners (GPs) in Quebec with regard to complementary health care services such as acupuncture, chiropractic and hypnosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 200 GPs. Of the 146 who responded, 25 were excluded because they were no longer in practice; this left 121 (83%). OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported referral practices for complementary health care services, perceived usefulness and self-assessed knowledge of such services, and prior training and desire for training in these services. RESULTS: Sixty percent (72/121) of the GPs knew at least one practitioner of a complementary health care service for referral; 59% (70/119) reported referring patients to physicians who practise such services and 68% (80/118) to nonmedical practitioners. At least one of the three services studied were regarded as having some use by 83% (101/121). Overall, self-reported knowledge was poor: the proportions of GPs who reported knowing a lot about acupuncture, chiropractic and hypnosis were 11% (13/121), 10% (12/121) and 8% (10/121) respectively. Prior training was also lacking: only 8% (9/118) of the GPs had received previous training in acupuncture, 2% (2/111) in chiropractic and 3% (3/103) in hypnosis. In all, 48% (57/118) indicated that they would like further training in at least one of the services studied, and 13% (16/121) indicated that they currently provided one service. CONCLUSIONS: Referral of patients by GPs to practitioners of complementary health care services is common in Quebec. Although self-assessed knowledge about such services is relatively poor, interest in learning more about them is high. These findings identify a demand for future educational initiatives. PMID:7796373

  14. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated. Methods/Design A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months); neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months); and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial. Discussion Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will provide a strong rationale

  15. Complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.; Farison, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between the complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming is demonstrated through a geometric approach in a Hilbert space setting. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such a principle is given in the case of a convex functional constrained by linear dynamics. Its relationship to the Kuhn-Tucker saddle point theory is indicated. Applications to various programming and control problems are discussed.

  16. The leadership team: complementary strengths or conflicting agendas?

    PubMed

    Miles, Stephen A; Watkins, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Senior leadership teams whose members play complementary roles have been chronicled as far back as Homer's account of the Trojan War: Although King Agamemnon commanded the Greek army, Achilles, Odysseus, and Nestor each played a distinct role in defeating Troy. Today, complementary-leadership structures are common and, in some cases, even institutionalized. Think of a CEO concerned mainly with external issues and a COO who focuses internally. The authors describe four kinds of complementarity: task, expertise, cognitive, and role. The two top executives at the software company Adobe Systems, for example, represent the second kind. As CEO, Bruce Chizen draws on his sales and marketing knowledge, while COO Shantanu Narayen adds his engineering and product development expertise. Roberto Goizueta, formerly the CEO of Coca-Cola, and Douglas Ivester, his COO (who later became CEO), were famous examples of the fourth type: Goizueta, the diplomat, maintained good relations with external stakeholders; Ivester, the warrior, drove the company to defeat the competition. Bringing together two or more people with complementary strengths can compensate for the natural limitations of each. But with the benefits comes the risk of confusion, disagreement about priorities, and turf battles. Leadership succession also presents substantial challenges, especially when a COO or president who has worked in a complementary fashion with the CEO moves into the top role. An organization's board of directors and CEO can manage the risks by fostering a shared vision, common incentives, communication, and trust. They can also ensure smooth succession processes in various ways, such as brokering a gradual transfer of responsibilities or allowing the CEO and the COO to share duties as long as they maintain the logic of complementarity. PMID:17432156

  17. The bioinformatics of psychosocial genomics in alternative and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E

    2003-06-01

    The bioinformatics of alternative and complementary medicine is outlined in 3 hypotheses that extend the molecular-genomic revolution initiated by Watson and Crick 50 years ago to include psychology in the new discipline of psychosocial and cultural genomics. Stress-induced changes in the alternative splicing of genes demonstrate how psychosomatic stress in humans modulates activity-dependent gene expression, protein formation, physiological function, and psychological experience. The molecular messengers generated by stress, injury, and disease can activate immediate early genes within stem cells so that they then signal the target genes required to synthesize the proteins that will transform (differentiate) stem cells into mature well-functioning tissues. Such activity-dependent gene expression and its consequent activity-dependent neurogenesis and stem cell healing is proposed as the molecular-genomic-cellular basis of rehabilitative medicine, physical, and occupational therapy as well as the many alternative and complementary approaches to mind-body healing. The therapeutic replaying of enriching life experiences that evoke the novelty-numinosum-neurogenesis effect during creative moments of art, music, dance, drama, humor, literature, poetry, and spirituality, as well as cultural rituals of life transitions (birth, puberty, marriage, illness, healing, and death) can optimize consciousness, personal relationships, and healing in a manner that has much in common with the psychogenomic foundations of naturalistic and complementary medicine. The entire history of alternative and complementary approaches to healing is consistent with this new neuroscience world view about the role of psychological arousal and fascination in modulating gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing via the psychosocial and cultural rites of human societies. PMID:12853721

  18. [Complementary methods of rehabilitation in borderline mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Elfimov, M A; Kotenko, K V; Korchazhkina, N B; Filatova, E V; Portnov, V V; Chervinskaya, A V; Mikhailova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article covers treatment results of 417 patients (186 males and 231 females) aged 18 to 71 years, with borderline mental disorders. Findings are that using specified complementary methods, more when treatment complex is applied, causes better psycho-emotional state in patients with borderline mental disorders, that is supported by results of medical diagnostic tests including psychometry tests (abridged minnesota multiphasic personality inventory, Beck depression inventory, Spielberger-Hanin, test "feeling, activity, mood"). PMID:27164743

  19. Complementary/alternative medicine use among chronic pain clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Konvicka, James J; Meyer, Tricia A; McDavid, Andrew J; Roberson, Charles R

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies have enjoyed increasingly widespread use in recent years. Because of this trend, we were eager to obtain a better grasp on the actual number of people in our hospital's pain clinic who have used these modalities. In an effort to explore the use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) by patients seen in an anesthesiology chronic pain clinic, we conducted a study using a questionnaire. This questionnaire contained two sections, one covering complementary/alternative modalities and the other dealing with herbals or nutraceuticals. More than 400 patients were surveyed, 41% of whom were male and 59% of whom were female. Comparing alternative therapies by gender revealed no statistical difference in males versus females. The most commonly chosen modalities overall were nutraceuticals, massage therapy, and acupuncture. In terms of age, we found that the patients surveyed who were older than 60 years of age preferred nutraceuticals, and that the younger age group preferred more interactive relaxation techniques, such as meditation and massage.

  20. Complementary therapies: overview and state of the art.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, B R

    1999-02-01

    Studies to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients show international interest in a wide collection of therapies and a broad span of use, ranging from 7% to 64% of patients sampled. The absence of consistent results across studies is due primarily to differing definitions of unconventional cancer therapies from study to study. Treatments promoted as alternatives to mainstream cancer cures (e.g., the recently disproved "cancer cure" of Italy's Dr. Di Bella) should be distinguished from complementary therapies, which are applied as adjuncts to mainstream care in an integrated fashion. The latter include mind-body techniques and herbal remedies, among many other remedies, all aimed at symptom control and enhanced quality of life. This differentiation provides a clearer understanding of CAM activity and enables selective evaluation of CAM's clinical effects. It permits us to avoid accepting or rejecting all of CAM out of hand. Health care professionals as well as patients and their families have become increasingly knowledgeable about complementary therapies that can be helpful to patients with cancer. Many such therapies have been well studied (meditation, tai chi), and others remain highly questionable (homeopathy, electromagnetics). Their benefits and potential problems are reviewed.

  1. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  2. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Ichhpujani, Parul

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine deserves scientific scrutiny as patients with glaucoma often lose vision despite adequate medical or surgical treatment. Most glaucomatologists abstain from recommending alternative medicine as there is little evidence to support most of the recommendations for complementary and alternate management (CAM) use in glaucoma. Megavitamin supplementation has not been shown to have a long-term beneficial effect on glaucoma. In a glaucomatous eye, a very modest benefit of IOP-lowering may be offset by the temporary elevation in IOP that accompanies exercise. There is little evidence to support the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch for the treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can have a profound lowering of IOP, but the low response rate, short half-life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Future research must be carried out to document the effect of CAM not only on IOP, but also on perimetric tests or other objective parameters, such as ocular blood fow and nerve fiber layer thickness. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):54-57.

  3. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  4. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods. PMID:24707770

  5. Shared Decision Making in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Jansons, Lauren L.; Lynch, Rachel L.; LeBlanc, Annie; Tilburt, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper provides a structured approach for pediatricians responding to requests from patients and their families about the complementary medicine treatment options. Methods Using a case-based narrative review approach, the authors outline practical strategies for addressing conflict, uncertainty, and challenges in explaining alternative health paradigms in routine pediatric care. Reflections are drawn from the clinical experience of the authors, the literature, and recent high-profile cases in the United States. Results The discussion of common case-based scenarios illustrates a general guide for approaching conversations about complementary medicine in the care of the pediatric patient that is responsive to evidence and informed by patient and family values. Conclusions The principles of shared decision making can guide constructive conversations in this area in an effort to facilitate improved satisfaction for patient, family, and provider. Practice Implications Discussions of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics pose a specific challenge with regard to patient and/or family preferences and the duty of the provider to advocate for the safety of the child. The proposed structured approach is useful in navigating these important conversations. PMID:23205655

  6. [Bridge between scientific medicine and complementary medicine--utopia?].

    PubMed

    Nager, F

    1994-12-20

    In this keynote presentation on a complex and controversial subject, I attempt to answer the following questions: 1. What is scientific medicine, what is alternative medicine? 2. Why is there in our days an increasing trend in the population towards concepts and methods of alternative (complementary) medicine? 3. Why are many scientific physicians defensive, sceptical and opposed to alternative medicine? 4. Are traditional and alternative medicine fundamentally irreconcilable worlds? The author believes that complementary medicine is beneficial and justified especially in private practice, above all in the many patients suffering from psychosomatic, psychovegetative, neurotic, depressive, functional disorders, with feelings of ill-health and often with marked subjective symptoms but in which no severe organic disease is present. In these types of patients alternative methods are often 'more gentle' and cost-effective. The doctor's personality, his empathy, his willingness to communicate are decisive factors for their effectiveness. Certain methods of complementary medicine should be increasingly integrated into our hospitals and be learnt and critically assessed locally by the scientific physicians. Scientific medicine is and remains the indispensable solid foundation for correctly indicating the use of alternative therapeutic methods.

  7. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Complementary and alternative medicine deserves scientific scrutiny as patients with glaucoma often lose vision despite adequate medical or surgical treatment. Most glaucomatologists abstain from recommending alternative medicine as there is little evidence to support most of the recommendations for complementary and alternate management (CAM) use in glaucoma. Megavitamin supplementation has not been shown to have a long-term beneficial effect on glaucoma. In a glaucomatous eye, a very modest benefit of IOP-lowering may be offset by the temporary elevation in IOP that accompanies exercise. There is little evidence to support the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch for the treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can have a profound lowering of IOP, but the low response rate, short half-life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Future research must be carried out to document the effect of CAM not only on IOP, but also on perimetric tests or other objective parameters, such as ocular blood fow and nerve fiber layer thickness. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):54-57. PMID:26997809

  8. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine perspectives for complementary and alternative medicine research in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shan S; Nahin, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 by the US Congress to conduct and support basic and applied research and research training and disseminate information with respect to identifying, investigating, and validating complementary and alternative therapies. Because of limited appropriations, NCCAM prioritizes its research programs according to the relative use of a modality, the evidence supporting its value and safety, and opportunities to advance the relevant fields of science. While NCCAM's top priority is supporting clinical trials of alternative therapeutics, increasingly it is supporting basic and preclinical research. To accomplish its mission, NCCAM encourages the research community to undertake high-quality and rigorous research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In the area of cardiovascular diseases, NCCAM is supporting clinical trials, specialized centers, research training, and investigator-initiated projects. Virtually all aspects of CAM modalities are open for investigation. Current NCCAM projects are investigating Tai Chi (Taiji) exercise, hawthorn, phytoestrogens, biofeedback, Ayurvedic herbals, acupuncture, qigong, Reiki, meditation, spirituality, Ginkgo biloba, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid chelation therapy, and special diets.

  9. 76 FR 17659 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Stakeholder Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the public to a Stakeholder Roundtable. Attendees will meet the NCCAM... particularly encouraged to attend. Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  10. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Your Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ... is designed to help you talk with your health care provider(s) about your complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) ...

  11. 78 FR 42528 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3456,...

  12. 76 FR 29773 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 17, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth,...

  13. Complementary therapy use by cancer patients. Physicians' perceptions, attitudes, and ideas.

    PubMed Central

    O'Beirne, Maeve; Verhoef, Marja; Paluck, Elan; Herbert, Carol

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore family physicians' perceptions of their cancer patients' use of complementary therapy. DESIGN: Qualitative pilot study. SETTING: British Columbia and Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Rural and urban family physicians. METHOD: Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 participants. Content analysis of focus group transcripts. MAIN FINDINGS: Eight themes were identified: definition of complementary therapies, importance of holistic health, role of evidence, attitudes toward complementary therapies, perceptions of cancer patients' use of complementary therapies, patient-physician communication, perceptions of family physicians' role with respect to complementary therapies, and concerns about complementary therapies. Family physicians believed that many of their patients were using complementary therapies and that patients and physicians needed to communicate about this practice. CONCLUSION: The study increased understanding of physicians'perspectives on communication about complementary therapies and exposed issues that need to be addressed through education and research. PMID:15233371

  14. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score < -2) and wasting (weight for height Z score < -2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children < 5 years of age. This comprises 21 % of all deaths in this age group worldwide. The incidence of stunting is the highest in the first two years of life especially after six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding alone cannot fulfill the energy needs of a rapidly growing child. Complementary feeding for an infant refers to timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breast-feeding (BF) i.e. clean and nutritionally rich additional foods introduced at about six months of infant age. Complementary feeding strategies encompass a wide variety of interventions designed to improve not only the quality and quantity of these foods but also improve the feeding behaviors. In this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of two most commonly applied strategies of complementary feeding i.e. timely provision of appropriate complementary foods (± nutritional counseling) and education to mothers about practices of complementary feeding on growth. Recommendations have been made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother

  15. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score < -2) and wasting (weight for height Z score < -2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children < 5 years of age. This comprises 21 % of all deaths in this age group worldwide. The incidence of stunting is the highest in the first two years of life especially after six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding alone cannot fulfill the energy needs of a rapidly growing child. Complementary feeding for an infant refers to timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breast-feeding (BF) i.e. clean and nutritionally rich additional foods introduced at about six months of infant age. Complementary feeding strategies encompass a wide variety of interventions designed to improve not only the quality and quantity of these foods but also improve the feeding behaviors. In this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of two most commonly applied strategies of complementary feeding i.e. timely provision of appropriate complementary foods (± nutritional counseling) and education to mothers about practices of complementary feeding on growth. Recommendations have been made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother

  16. 77 FR 69869 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, PAR 12-151: Centers of Excellence for Research on Complementary Alternative Medicine...

  17. 75 FR 30039 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AT-01-001 ``Translational Tools For...

  18. The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Fu, Yiman; Han, Fengjuan; Kuang, Hongying; Hu, Min; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    About 10–15% of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point in their reproductive lives and thus have to seek specialist fertility care. One of the most commonly used treatment options is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its related expansions. Despite many recent technological advances, the average IVF live birth rate per single initiated cycle is still only 30%. Consequently, there is a need to find new therapies to promote the efficiency of the procedure. Many patients have turned to complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments as an adjuvant therapy to improve their chances of success when they undergo IVF treatment. At present, several CAM methods have been used in infertile couples with IVF, which has achieved obvious effects. However, biologically plausible mechanisms of the action of CAM for IVF have not been systematically reviewed. This review briefly summarizes the current progress of the impact of CAM on the outcomes of IVF and introduces the mechanisms. PMID:24527047

  19. Volatile resistance states in electrochemical metallization cells enabling non-destructive readout of complementary resistive switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hurk, Jan; Linn, Eike; Zhang, Hehe; Waser, Rainer; Valov, Ilia

    2014-10-01

    Redox-based resistive memory cells exhibit changes of OFF or intermediate resistance values over time and even ON states can be completely lost in certain cases. The stability of these resistance states and the time until resistance loss strongly depends on the materials system. On the basis of electrical measurements and chemical analysis we found a viable explanation for these volatile resistance states (VRSs) in Ag-GeSx-based electrochemical metallization memory cells and identified a technological application in the field of crossbar memories. Complementary resistive switches usually suffer from the necessity of a destructive read-out procedure increasing wear and reducing read-out speed. From our analysis we deduced a solution to use the VRS as an inherent selector mechanism without the need for additional selector devices.

  20. A novel circuit design for complementary resistive switch-based stateful logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Ping, Wang; Lin, Chen; Yi, Shen; Bo-Wen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that memristors can be utilized as logic operations and memory elements. In this paper, we present a novel circuit design for complementary resistive switch (CRS)-based stateful logic operations. The proposed circuit can automatically write the destructive CRS cells back to the original states. In addition, the circuit can be used in massive passive crossbar arrays which can reduce sneak path current greatly. Moreover, the steps for CRS logic operations using our proposed circuit are reduced compared with previous circuit designs. We validate the effectiveness of our scheme through Hspice simulations on the logic circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374150 and 11271146), the State Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61134012), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130142130012), and the Science and Technology Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140509162710496).

  1. Evaluating complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, B R

    1999-01-01

    "Complementary and alternative" therapies are actually a vast collection of disparate, unrelated regimens and products, ranging from adjunctive modalities that effectively enhance quality of life and promising antitumor herbal remedies now under investigation, to bogus therapies that claim to cure cancer and that harm not only directly, but also indirectly by encouraging patients to avoid or postpone effective cancer care. Complementary therapies such as music and massage, herbal teas to aid digestion and relieve nausea, yoga, tai chi, meditation, and the many other well-documented techniques that relieve stress and enhance well-being should be made available to patients to augment and ease the experience of cancer treatment and recovery. Many time-tested herbal and diet-based remedies are now being studied for their abilities to induce or extend remission without toxicity. At the same time, lack of government regulatory authority leaves consumers at the mercy of those who promote unproved remedies, scores of which the grocery store and pharmacy shelves. Many of these over-the-counter products contain harmful ingredients. Herb-drug interactions, only some of which are documented, occur with frequency and are sufficiently problematic to require that patients stop taking herbal remedies prior to surgery (to prevent interactions with anesthetics and anticoagulant effects); before radiation (due to potential for increased photosensitivity); and during courses of chemotherapy (to prevent product-drug interactions). Moreover, both good information and misinformation that appear in printed materials and on the Internet appeal to better educated consumers, who are, in fact, the most likely to try complementary and alternative methods.

  2. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  3. Evaluating complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, B R

    1999-01-01

    "Complementary and alternative" therapies are actually a vast collection of disparate, unrelated regimens and products, ranging from adjunctive modalities that effectively enhance quality of life and promising antitumor herbal remedies now under investigation, to bogus therapies that claim to cure cancer and that harm not only directly, but also indirectly by encouraging patients to avoid or postpone effective cancer care. Complementary therapies such as music and massage, herbal teas to aid digestion and relieve nausea, yoga, tai chi, meditation, and the many other well-documented techniques that relieve stress and enhance well-being should be made available to patients to augment and ease the experience of cancer treatment and recovery. Many time-tested herbal and diet-based remedies are now being studied for their abilities to induce or extend remission without toxicity. At the same time, lack of government regulatory authority leaves consumers at the mercy of those who promote unproved remedies, scores of which the grocery store and pharmacy shelves. Many of these over-the-counter products contain harmful ingredients. Herb-drug interactions, only some of which are documented, occur with frequency and are sufficiently problematic to require that patients stop taking herbal remedies prior to surgery (to prevent interactions with anesthetics and anticoagulant effects); before radiation (due to potential for increased photosensitivity); and during courses of chemotherapy (to prevent product-drug interactions). Moreover, both good information and misinformation that appear in printed materials and on the Internet appeal to better educated consumers, who are, in fact, the most likely to try complementary and alternative methods. PMID:11198952

  4. Considering complementary relationship of evaporation in Budyko's hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songjun; Shao, Weiwei

    2013-04-01

    In Budyko's hydrological model, actual evaporation was partitioned from precipitation as a function of the relative magnitude of precipitation and potential evaporation. In practice, both Penman equation and Priestley-Taylor equation have been used to estimate the potential evaporation with same Budyko curve, and they are not distinguished under Budyko framework. Nevertheless, according to the complementary relationship of evaporation, the definitions of Penman equation and Priestley-Taylor equation are absolutely different. When water availability is not limited, evaporation occurs at Priestley-Taylor's evaporation (Ew, referred to as wet environment evaporation). As the surface dries without changing the available energy, the actual and Penman's potential evaporation (Epen) rates depart from Ew with opposite changes in fluxes. So the question is: what is the difference of the Budyko's hydrological model with potential evaporation estimated by Penman or Priestley-Taylor equation? How to consider the complementary relationship in Budyko framework? In this study, for both long-term (multiyear) and annual values on water balances in the 29 non-humid catchments in the middle Yellow River Basin of China, the performances of Budyko's hydrological model with potential evaporation estimated by Epen and Ew were distinguished and compared. The catchments with larger value of Ep/Ew (ratio of Penman potential evaporation to Priestley-Taylor evaporation) are characterized with smaller evaporation ratios. The value of Ep/Ew can be served as another variable besides dryness index to partition actual evaporation from precipitation. With Priestley-Taylor equation as energy supply, an empirical formula for the parameter of the Budyko in terms of Ep/Ew and curve is proposed. Therefore, the complementary relationship of evaporation should be considered in the Budyko framework.

  5. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service

  6. Thermal stresses in composite tubes using complementary virtual work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.

  7. Nanofibers Self-assembled from Structural Complementary Borono-decapeptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Sheng; Ji, Tian-Jiao; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2010-11-01

    A series of structural complementary decapeptides with phenyl boronic acid tails or borono-decapeptides (BPs) were designed and synthesized for supramolecular self-assembly. After dissolving these borono-decapeptides in deionized (DI) water, well-defined nanofibers were formed in BP1 (B(OH)(2) VEKELVKEKL-OH) and BP3 (B(OH)(2) AELELARARL-OH). It was found that the self-assembled borono-decapeptide BP1 and BP3 have a parallel β-sheet conformation in the formed nanofibers. The strategy demonstrated here shows a great prospect in preparation of well-ordered nanofibers via rationally designing the molecular structures of peptides.

  8. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  9. Chromatic Complementary Adaptation (CCA) for the Exploration of Exoplanetary Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Alexidze, N. G.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of our research is develop an astrobiological model of possible living processes on exoplanets. Imitations of exoplanetary systems have significant theoretical and practical value. Modeling in astrobiology involves: Selection of exoplanets suitable for the origin of life; Theoretical modeling of exoplanetary environment with polarization-holography methods; Imitation of stellar spectra and experiments with Chromatic Complementary Adaptation; Laboratory modeling of the ecosystem and alien life. The main problem is the integration of investigations both in astrophysics and biotechnology. We have showed for the first time the possibility and expediency of such approach, for the solution of astrobiological problems.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bedlack, Richard S; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T; Paganoni, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-11-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease-modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation, and energy healing. This article reviews these in detail. The authors also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy, and shared decision making. Finally, the authors review a program called ALSUntangled, which uses shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  11. Mechanical Separation of the Complementary Strands of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essevaz-Roulet, B.; Bockelmann, U.; Heslot, F.

    1997-10-01

    We describe the mechanical separation of the two complementary strands of a single molecule of bacteriophage λ DNA. The 3' and 5' extremities on one end of the molecule are pulled progressively apart, and this leads to the opening of the double helix. The typical forces along the opening are in the range of 10-15 pN. The separation force signal is shown to be related to the local GC vs. AT content along the molecule. Variations of this content on a typical scale of 100-500 bases are presently detected.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bedlack, Richard S; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T; Paganoni, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-11-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease-modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation, and energy healing. This article reviews these in detail. The authors also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy, and shared decision making. Finally, the authors review a program called ALSUntangled, which uses shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS.

  13. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Allison L.; Lio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, perhaps more than other dermatologic diseases, has garnered much attention in the realm of alternative medicine. This may be because its etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood, it is increasingly common, and it waxes and wanes often without clear precipitants, opening up many opportunities for misinterpretation. Herein we explore the evidence for a number of different alternative and complementary therapies, from textiles to vitamin supplements. By definition, none have enough data to be deemed “effective” in a conventional sense, but it is hopeful that some show promising evidence that may one day lead to mainstream acceptance with further research. PMID:26257817

  14. Toward complementary ionic circuits: the npn ion bipolar junction transistor.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Berggren, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications. PMID:21598973

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine in women's health. Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.

  16. Complementary approaches to decreasing discomfort during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL).

    PubMed

    Ngee-Ming, Goh; Tamsin, Drake; Rai, B P; Somani, B K

    2014-06-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an established treatment for renal stones. Although non-invasive, it can cause significant pain and anxiety during the procedure. Our purpose was to review the literature to look at the effect of complimentary therapy in patients undergoing SWL and whether it led to a reduction in the requirement of analgesics and anxiolytics. A systematic review was performed on the use of acupuncture, auricular acupressure, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and music during SWL. Only prospective randomized controlled trials were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. Outcomes relating to analgesia requirement, anxiety and stone-free rates (SFR) were compared. Seven papers were identified reporting on 591 patients (acupuncture-3, TENS-1 and music-3). Pain control/analgesia requirement was significantly better in four studies (music-2, acupuncture-1, TENS-1). Significantly lower anxiety was noted in one study with music and two using acupuncture. No difference in SFR was noted with the use of complementary therapy. No major or minor side effects were noted. Complementary therapy for SWL can help lower analgesia requirement and the anxiety associated with it. However, it does not have any effect on the SFR.

  17. Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vogwill, T; Comfort, A C; Furió, V; MacLean, R C

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial persistence represents a simple of phenotypic heterogeneity, whereby a proportion of cells in an isogenic bacterial population can survive exposure to lethal stresses such as antibiotics. In contrast, genetically based antibiotic resistance allows for continued growth in the presence of antibiotics. It is unclear, however, whether resistance and persistence are complementary or alternative evolutionary adaptations to antibiotics. Here, we investigate the co-evolution of resistance and persistence across the genus Pseudomonas using comparative methods that correct for phylogenetic nonindependence. We find that strains of Pseudomonas vary extensively in both their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) and persistence following exposure to these antibiotics. Crucially, we find that persistence correlates positively to antibiotic resistance across strains. However, we find that different genes control resistance and persistence implying that they are independent traits. Specifically, we find that the number of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) in the genome of a strain is correlated to persistence, but not resistance. Our study shows that persistence and antibiotic resistance are complementary, but independent, evolutionary adaptations to stress and it highlights the key role played by TAs in the evolution of persistence.

  18. Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vogwill, T; Comfort, A C; Furió, V; MacLean, R C

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial persistence represents a simple of phenotypic heterogeneity, whereby a proportion of cells in an isogenic bacterial population can survive exposure to lethal stresses such as antibiotics. In contrast, genetically based antibiotic resistance allows for continued growth in the presence of antibiotics. It is unclear, however, whether resistance and persistence are complementary or alternative evolutionary adaptations to antibiotics. Here, we investigate the co-evolution of resistance and persistence across the genus Pseudomonas using comparative methods that correct for phylogenetic nonindependence. We find that strains of Pseudomonas vary extensively in both their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) and persistence following exposure to these antibiotics. Crucially, we find that persistence correlates positively to antibiotic resistance across strains. However, we find that different genes control resistance and persistence implying that they are independent traits. Specifically, we find that the number of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) in the genome of a strain is correlated to persistence, but not resistance. Our study shows that persistence and antibiotic resistance are complementary, but independent, evolutionary adaptations to stress and it highlights the key role played by TAs in the evolution of persistence. PMID:26999656

  19. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, B J; Grasso, T

    2001-10-01

    Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown dramatically over the past several years. Cancer patients are always looking for new hope, and many have turned to nontraditional means. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients and what if any agents are being used. Approximately, 100 adult cancer patients in a private nonprofit South Florida hospital completed a descriptive cross-sectional survey questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 59 years; 42 patients were male and 58, female. According to survey results, 80% of patients reported using some type of CAM; 81% took vitamins, 54% took herbal products, 30% used relaxation techniques, 20% received massages, and 10% used home remedies. Among patients who took vitamins, 65% said they took a multivitamin, 39% took vitamin C, and 31%, vitamin E. The most common herbal remedies used were green tea, echinacea, shark cartilage, grape seed extract, and milk thistle. Meditation and deep breathing were the two most common relaxation techniques practiced. A large majority of cancer patients are using CAM. In light of the growing interest in CAM, health-care professionals need to be educated about the most common therapies used.

  20. Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Vossenaar, M

    2013-05-01

    The paradigm of the first 1000 days of life, the period from conception to the second birthday, has been advanced as a critical window of opportunity to save a life and a child's future. Infancy and toddler life, through the first 24 months after birth, is a unique period during which human milk is recommended as either the exclusive source of nutrition (6 months) or a variable component thereof. After the maternal delivery of milk is accounted for, the remainder of the energy and nutrients needs come from complementary foods. There is an intrinsic gap left by the maternal milk supply in volume and micronutrient content in relation to expanding infant and toddler needs. The nutrient density approach provides us with a mathematical framework to manage the closing of the nutrient gap. The intrinsic nutrient content of the unprocessed foods appropriate for young children is limited. The most problematic nutrients are calcium, iron and zinc. Some manner to enhance the nutrient density of the complementary foods is an incontestable necessity. The nutrient density consideration, which identifies for us the nature of the problem, offers a tool for the titrating of the fortification to an adequate--but safe--addition.

  1. Laramide block uplifts and complementary basins in southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, G.H.; Seager, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    During the Laramide orogeny the foreland area of south-central and southwestern New Mexico was broken into several major, basement-cored, block uplifts and complementary basins. Geometry of the structures is similar in overall style to the Wind River and Owl Creek uplifts and Wind River basin of Wyoming. The southern New Mexico uplifts trend uniformly northwesterly and are asymmetric: they have narrow thrust- or reverse-faulted northeastern margins and much broader, gently dipping southwestern flanks. The sense of tectonic transport is toward the northeast with few exceptions. Complementary basins are filled with as much as 2100 m (6800 ft) of synorogenic and postorogenic clastic strata. The postorogenic strata, essentially of Eocene age, overlap and partly bury the uplifts, and the strata record erosional unroofing of the uplifts, locally down the Precambrian. In southwestern New Mexico, uplift-boundary thrust and reverse faults probably have an important component of right- and/or left-lateral slip. Complex structure along these faults, including low-angle thrust faulting, may be a product of convergent wrench faulting.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Damevska, Katerina; Neloska, Lence; Nikolovska, Suzana; Gocev, Gorgi; Duma, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing attention on safety and efficacy of conventional treatments, there is little information available on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in psoriasis. In order to collect comprehensive information on CAM use, we conducted a face-to-face interview with 122 patients with psoriasis. All unconventional treatments for psoriasis used in the last 12 months were recorded. Fifty-seven patients (46.7%) used one of the CAM methods in the previous year, including topical and systemic antipsoriatics, dietary supplements, and diet. Forty-one different nonconventional topical treatments were used. Seven patients (5.7%) took nonconventional systemic medication, and 15.5% used dietary supplements. There were three patients who reported current adherence to a diet as treatment of psoriasis. Clinicians are often not informed that their patients are using complementary therapies. CAM may offer benefits as well as risks to patients with psoriasis. It is important to remind patient to report all ongoing and past topical and systemic treatments. The use of medications with unknown composition, efficiency, and safety should be discouraged.

  3. Complementary contributions of indeterminism and signaling to quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Michael J. W.

    2010-12-15

    Simple quantitative measures of indeterminism and signaling, I and S, are defined for models of statistical correlations. It is shown that any such model satisfies a generalized Bell-type inequality, with tight upper bound B(I,S). This upper bound explicitly quantifies the complementary contributions required from indeterminism and signaling, for modeling any given violation of the standard Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality. For example, all models of the maximum quantum violation must either assign no more than 80% probability of occurrence to some underlying event, and/or allow a nonlocal change of at least 60% in an underlying marginal probability of one observer in response to a change in measurement setting by a distant observer. The results yield a corresponding complementarity relation between the numbers of local random bits and nonlocal signaling bits required to model a given violation. A stronger relation is conjectured for simulations of singlet states. Signaling appears to be a useful resource only if a 'gap' condition is satisfied, corresponding to being able to nonlocally flip some underlying marginal probability p to its complementary value 1-p.

  4. Orthogonal Ambipolar Semiconductor Nanostructures for Complementary Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiguo; Markwart, Jens C; Briseno, Alejandro L; Hayward, Ryan C

    2016-09-27

    We report orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors that exhibit hole and electron transport in perpendicular directions based on aligned films of nanocrystalline "shish-kebabs" containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and N,N'-di-n-octyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as p- and n-type components, respectively. Polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements reveal a high degree of in-plane alignment. Relying on the orientation of interdigitated electrodes to enable efficient charge transport from either the respective p- or n-channel materials, we demonstrate semiconductor films with high anisotropy in the sign of charge carriers. Films of these aligned crystalline semiconductors were used to fabricate complementary inverter devices, which exhibited good switching behavior and a high noise margin of 80% of 1/2 Vdd. Moreover, complementary "NAND" and "NOR" logic gates were fabricated and found to exhibit excellent voltage transfer characteristics and low static power consumption. The ability to optimize the performance of these devices, simply by adjusting the solution concentrations of P3HT and PDI, makes this a simple and versatile method for preparing ambipolar organic semiconductor devices and high-performance logic gates. Further, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to mixtures of PDI with another conjugated polymer, poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene]) (PBTTT), with better hole transport characteristics than P3HT, opening the door to orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors with higher performance.

  5. Diet, exercise, and complementary therapies after primary treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2006-12-01

    Every year, more than 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer worldwide. In view of the substantial improvements in early detection and treatment, even more patients can expect to be alive 5 years after diagnosis. With improvements in longevity, the late-occurring adverse effects of cancer and its treatment are becoming increasingly apparent. Healthy lifestyle behaviours that encompass regular exercise, weight control, healthy nutrition, and some complementary practices--eg, support groups, imagery--have the potential to greatly reduce cancer-treatment-associated morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors and can enhance quality of life. Here, we aim to review the strength of evidence for recommendations for exercise, weight management, nutritional practices, and related complementary therapies; assess the perceived needs of cancer survivors for health information and how they can access this information; and discuss the resources available to oncology care providers and patients about healthy lifestyle behaviours. Overall, this review provides important information to oncology care providers who counsel their patients on preventive lifestyle practices to maximise health and longevity after a diagnosis of cancer.

  6. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use.

  7. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use. PMID:25681264

  8. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – Lessons from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6–23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6–23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods. PMID:27800479

  9. Measuring Differential Beliefs in Complementary Therapy Research: An Exploration of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Beliefs Inventory (CAMBI)

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Quandt, Sara A.; Lang, Wei; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The Complementary and Alternative Medicine Beliefs Inventory (CAMBI) was developed to provide a comprehensive measure of beliefs believed to differentiate complementary therapy (CT) users from nonusers. The initial evaluation of the CAMBI was based on a relatively homogeneous sample of CT users, which raises questions about its applicability in more generalized samples. This study uses data from a community-based sample of older adults (N=200) to evaluate the utility of the CAMBI in more diverse samples. Results indicated substantial variation in responses to items with each of a-priori belief domains (i.e., perceived value of natural treatments, preference for participation in treatments, and orientation toward holistic health) and modest inter-correlation among items within each belief domain. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated the a-priori measurement structure provided a poor fit to obtained data. Post-hoc analyses indicated that African Americans and those with less education had less consistent responses to items within each belief domain. Revision and additional development of the CAMBI is needed to enable its use in more diverse research samples. PMID:22305249

  10. Integrative and complementary therapies for patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lucille

    2014-07-01

    In integrative medicine, well-being is emphasized, and in palliative care, quality of life (QOL) is a similar concept or goal. Both can occur despite advanced cancer. Integrative medicine serves to combine the best of alternative, complementary and conventional therapies to optimize well-being and QOL, whether or not a person is at the end of their life. When integrative medicine is combined with palliative care modalities, the toolbox to provide symptom control and well-being or QOL is increased or broadened. Palliative care and integrative medicine are best provided early in the trajectory of illness such as cancer, and increase in amount as the illness progresses toward end of life. In cancer care, symptoms of the cancer, as well as symptoms produced by cancer therapies, are addressed with conventional and integrative therapies. Goals of care change as the disease progresses, and a patient's unique situation creates a different balance of integrative and conventional therapies. Integrative therapies such as music, aromatherapy, and massage might appeal to more patients than more specific, less common integrative therapies that might be more expensive, or seem more unusual such as Ayurvedic medicine and energy modalities. Each person may be drawn to different integrative modalities depending on factors such as cultural traditions, beliefs, lifestyle, internet information, advice from family and friends, books, etc. This review focuses on how integrative and complementary modalities can be included in comprehensive palliative care for patients with advanced malignancies. Nutrition and movement, often neglected in conventional treatment strategies, will also be included in the larger context of integrative and palliative modalities. Both conventional and integrative modalities in palliative care help patients live with empowerment, hope, and well-being no matter how long their lives last. A comprehensive review of all integrative and complementary therapies is

  11. Shamanism as a healing paradigm for complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    2001-08-01

    Any healing process--whether recovery from infection, physical trauma, or psychological distress--must entail the stimulation and direction of the body's own restorative functions. In former times these functions were called the vis mediatrix naturae. Arguably best articulated within traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Reid 1993), many complementary therapies have identified this principle. The immune system is implicated in the operation of these healing processes, and immune system functions are modulated by both internal and external variables. External variables include the nature of the infection or trauma. Internal variables include the meaning of the illness to the patient or the patient's imagery surrounding the illness. It follows that any modulation of internal variables that increases immune function will therefore be highly beneficial in the healing process. Sometimes such modulation happens spontaneously, when it may be referred to as the placebo effect, or a good bedside manner, or spontaneous remission. Sometimes such modulation may be brought about intentionally either by the patient or by a therapist or healer. One body of technique for such modulation is shamanism, which pays particular attention to bridging the internal world of the patient to the external world where the problem originates. Shamanic practice is specifically focused on this healing task, and has its own toolkit of techniques for the modification of consciousness, the manipulation of imagery and meaning, and the generation of a healing milieu and therapeutic images from its mythic content. Early concerns about the mental health of shamanic practitioners are now thoroughly resolved (e.g. Stephen & Suryani 2000). Indeed, the relevance of shamanism to positive mental health is currently being explored (e.g. Money 1994, Singh 1999). Its relevance to social work (Voss et al. 1999) and to the near death experience (Green 1998) are also subjects of academic inquiry. The shamanic corpus

  12. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible fabrication and characterization of parylene-C covered nanofluidic channels with integrated nanoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Riehn, Robert; Austin, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Nanochannels offer a way to align and analyze long biopolymer molecules such as DNA with high precision at potentially single basepair resolution, especially if a means to detect biomolecules in nanochannels electronically can be developed. Integration of nanochannels with electronics will require the development of nanochannel fabrication procedures that will not damage sensitive electronics previously constructed on the device. We present here a near-room-temperature fabrication technology involving parylene-C conformal deposition that is compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronic devices and present an analysis of the initial impedance measurements of conformally parylene-C coated nanochannels with integrated gold nanoelectrodes.

  13. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to these goals, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and, as a result, the need to provide information and support for pediatricians. From 2000 to 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened and charged the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine to address issues related to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and to develop resources to educate physicians, patients, and families. One of these resources is this report describing complementary and alternative medicine services, current levels of utilization and financial expenditures, and associated legal and ethical considerations. The subject of complementary and alternative medicine is large and diverse, and consequently, an in-depth discussion of each method of complementary and alternative medicine is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, this report will define terms; describe epidemiology; outline common types of complementary and alternative medicine therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for complementary and alternative medicine providers; provide resources for learning more about complementary and alternative medicine; and suggest communication strategies to use when discussing complementary and alternative medicine with patients and families.

  14. A Public Health Agenda for Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bodeker, Gerard; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2002-01-01

    Traditional medicine (a term used here to denote the indigenous health traditions of the world) and complementary and alternative medicine (T/CAM) have, in the past 10 years, claimed an increasing share of the public’s awareness and the agenda of medical researchers. Studies have documented that about half the population of many industrialized countries now use T/CAM, and the proportion is as high as 80% in many developing countries. Most research has focused on clinical and experimental medicine (safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action) and regulatory issues, to the general neglect of public health dimensions. Public health research must consider social, cultural, political, and economic contexts to maximize the contribution of T/CAM to health care systems globally. PMID:12356597

  15. Visible transmission response of nanoscale complementary metamaterials for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Sun, Yimin; Yang, Haifang; Chen, Rongyan; Liu, Baoli; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-07-11

    Metamaterials (MMs) have shown huge potential in sensing applications by detecting their optical properties, which can be designed to operate at frequencies from visible to mid-IR. Here we constructed complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) based metamaterials in nanoscale with unit length of 100 nm and slit width of 30 nm, and observed obvious responses in the visible waveband from 600 to 900 nm. These visible responses show a good tunability with the structure's geometry, and are well suited for dielectric detection. We demonstrated good refractive index sensing of CSRR based metamaterials in the visible region under both 0° and 90° polarized incidence. Our results extend the study of CSRR based metamaterials to the visible region, which is expected to deepen the understanding of the response mechanism of CSRRs and benefit their sensing applications in the visible region.

  16. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  17. The complementary niches of anthropocentric and biocentric conservationists.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Malcolm L; Redford, Kent H; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-06-01

    A divergence of values has become apparent in recent debates between conservationists who focus on ecosystem services that can improve human well-being and those who focus on avoiding the extinction of species. These divergent points of view fall along a continuum from anthropocentric to biocentric values, but most conservationists are relatively closer to each other than to the ends of the spectrum. We have some concerns with both positions but emphasize that conservation for both people and all other species will be most effective if conservationists focus on articulating the values they all share, being respectful of divergent values, and collaborating on common interests. The conservation arena is large enough to accommodate many people and organizations whose diverse values lead them to different niches that can, with good will and foresight, be far more complementary than competitive. PMID:24779392

  18. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are frequently used for the treatment of sleep disorders, but in many cases patients do not discuss these therapies directly with their health care provider. There is a growing body of well-designed clinical trials using CAM that have shown the following: (1) Melatonin is an effective agent for the treatment of circadian phase disorders that affect sleep; however, the role of melatonin in the treatment of primary or secondary insomnia is less well established. (2) Valerian has shown a benefit in some, but not all clinical trials. (3) Several other modalities, such as Tai Chi, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, and meditation have improved sleep parameters in a limited number of early trials. Future work examining CAM has the potential to significantly add to our treatment options for sleep disorders in older adults.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine techniques available for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Esther K

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine in dentistry includes various treatment modalities. Many procedures are under scientific investigation to determine effectiveness. Dental patients request CAM therapy in an attempt to save money and to prevent invasive procedures. The Alternative Medical Systems are methods of alternative therapy different from Conventional/Western medicine. Mind-Body Interventions are methods of affecting body functions using prayer, meditation, mental imagery and creativity. Biologically-Based Therapy is the use of substances found in nature to promote healing and wellness. Manipulative and Body-Based Methods are based on the manipulation and/or movement of the body to treat for pain and wellness. Energy Therapy is based on manipulating energy fields of body. CAM procedures may eventually become standard practice after scientific verification of efficacy.

  1. Nurses' perceptions of complementary and alternative medical therapies.

    PubMed

    Brolinson, P G; Price, J H; Ditmyer, M; Reis, D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of nurses toward the effectiveness and safety, as well as their recommendations for and personal use of complementary and alternative medical therapies. A, random sample of 1000 nurses throughout the United States were surveyed using a three-wave mailing. About half of the respondents perceived there was conclusive evidence or preponderance of evidence that five therapies were effective: biofeedback, chiropractic, meditation/relaxation, multi-vitamins, and massage therapy. The same amount of nurses also perceived five therapies as definitely safe: hypnotherapy, chiropractic, acupressure, acupuncture, and healing touch. However, the nurses were most likely to recommend (regularly or periodically) four therapies: multivitamins, massage, meditation/relaxation, and pastoral/spiritual counseling. The vast majority (79%) of nurses perceived their professional preparation in this area to be fair or poor.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine use by psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Rajab, M Hasan; Marcus, Joel

    2005-02-01

    82 psychiatric inpatients hospitalized for acute care were interviewed about their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. The clinical diagnoses of respondents included Depressive Disorder (61%), Substance Abuse (26%), Schizophrenia (9%), and Anxiety Disorders (5%). Analysis indicated that 63% used at least one CAM modality within the previous 12 mo. The most frequently used modality was herbal therapies (44%), followed by mind-body therapies such as relaxation or mental imagery, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback (30%), and spiritual healing by another (30%). Physical modalities such as massage, chiropractic treatment, acupuncture, and yoga were used by 21% of respondents. CAM therapies were used for a variety of reasons ranging from treatment of anxiety and depression to weight loss. However, most respondents indicated they did not discuss such use with their psychiatrist or psychotherapist.

  3. Introducing alternative/complementary healing to allopathic medical students.

    PubMed

    Laken, M P; Cosovic, S

    1995-01-01

    We have designed a senior elective, Introduction to Alternative Medicine, to prepare our students better to practice in multicultural environments, and to expand their views of health and healing. We combined didactic lecture, films, first-hand experience with some methods, and observation of alternative practitioners in their offices/clinics. Students explored hypnosis, chiropractic, therapeutic touch, meditation, biofeedback, acupuncture, homeopathy, naturopathy, and massage therapy. Discussions of scientific efficacy, legal and ethical considerations, and the role of spirituality in health and healing focused on limitations of science-based approaches and reasons why alternative/complementary methods are popular with patients and allopathic physicians. We conclude that allopathic medical schools have an important role in reducing the isolation of their students from alternative health beliefs, practices, and systems of care that are common in our communities.

  4. Derivative benefits: exploring the body through complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Baarts, Charlotte; Pedersen, Inge Kryger

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1960s, in Western societies, there has been a striking growth of consumer interest in complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). In order to make this increased popularity intelligible this paper challenges stereotypical images of users' motives and the results of clinical studies of CAM by exploring bodily experiences of acupuncture, reflexology treatments, and mindfulness training. The study draws on 138 in-depth interviews with 46 clients, client diaries and observations of 92 clinical treatments in order to identify bodily experiences of health and care: experiences that are contested between forces of mastery, control and resistance. We discuss why clients continue to use CAM even when the treatments do not help or even after they have been relieved of their physiological or mental problems. The encounter between the client and CAM produces derivative benefits such as a fresh and sustained sense of bodily responsibility that induces new health practices.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  6. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Provenzani, Umberto; Barale, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage. PMID:26064157

  7. Complementary 45 GHz Observations of the MALT-90 Pilot Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Gary; Rathborne, Jill; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Walsh, Andrew; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James

    2009-10-01

    The MALT-90 pilot survey is mapping 200 sources selected from different "finder charts" of massive star forming cores. This pilot survey is designed to provide detection rates, typical line strengths, and source sizes for the various types of objects. Such information is crucial, along with an understanding of the nature of the sources observed, for a rational design of a complete 90 GHz MALT survey. In this proposal we request time to obtain 45 GHz spectra of all the targets in MALT-90 pilot. As well as providing observations of a complementary set of lines to the 90 GHz data, better constraining the properties of the sources, these observations will provide a link allowing a comparison of the results of the MALT-90 and the 45GHz ATCA galactic plane pilot projects.

  8. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  9. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Provenzani, Umberto; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage. PMID:26064157

  10. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Botvinnik, O. B.; Abudayyeh, O.; Birger, C.; Rosenbluh, J.; Shrestha, Y.; Abazeed, M. E.; Hammerman, P. S.; DiCara, D.; Konieczkowski, D. J.; Johannessen, C. M.; Liberzon, A.; Alizad-Rahvar, A. R.; Alexe, G.; Aguirre, A.; Ghandi, M.; Greulich, H.; Vazquez, F.; Weir, B. A.; Van Allen, E. M.; Tsherniak, A.; Shao, D. D.; Zack, T. I.; Noble, M.; Getz, G.; Beroukhim, R.; Garraway, L. A.; Ardakani, M.; Romualdi, C.; Sales, G.; Barbie, D. A.; Boehm, J. S.; Hahn, W. C.; Mesirov, J. P.; Tamayo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of relevant mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers; however, elucidating their functional consequences, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, is still a significant challenge. Here we introduce REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene-dependency of oncogenic pathways or the sensitivity to a drug treatment. We use REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:27088724

  11. Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, David M; Gutu, Andrian

    2006-01-01

    The acclimation of photosynthetic organisms to changes in light color is ubiquitous and may be best illustrated by the colorful process of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). During CCA, cyanobacterial cells change from brick red to bright blue green, depending on their light color environment. The apparent simplicity of this spectacular, photoreversible event belies the complexity of the cellular response to changes in light color. Recent results have shown that the regulation of CCA is also complex and involves at least three pathways. One is controlled by a phytochrome-class photoreceptor that is responsive to green and red light and a complex two-component signal transduction pathway, whereas another is based on sensing redox state. Studies of CCA are uncovering the strategies used by photosynthetic organisms during light acclimation and the means by which they regulate these responses.

  12. Complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Nicholson, S. B.

    2015-08-01

    We present novel complementary relations in non-equilibrium stochastic processes. Specifically, by utilising path integral formulation, we derive statistical measures (entropy, information, and work) and investigate their dependence on variables (x, v), reference frames, and time. In particular, we show that the equilibrium state maximises the simultaneous information quantified by the product of the Fisher information based on x and v while minimising the simultaneous disorder/uncertainty quantified by the sum of the entropy based on x and v as well as by the product of the variances of the PDFs of x and v. We also elucidate the difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian entropy. Our theory naturally leads to Hamilton-Jacobi relation for forced-dissipative systems.

  13. Complementary resistive switching behavior for conductive bridge random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Kai-Huang; Wang, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Lo, Ikai; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a structure of Pt/Cu18Si12O70/TiN has been investigated. By co-sputtering the Cu and SiO2 targets in the switching layer, we can measure the operation mechanism of complementary resistive switching (CRS). This differs from conventional conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) that tends to use Cu electrodes rather than Cu18Si12O70. By changing the voltage and compliance current, we can control device operating characteristics. Because Cu distributes differently in the device depending on this setting, the operating end can be located at either the top or bottom electrode. Device current-voltage (I-V) curves are used to demonstrate that the CRS in the CBRAM device is a double-electrode operation.

  14. Inelastic stress analyses at finite deformation through complementary energy approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Reed, K. W.

    1983-01-01

    A new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm, suitable for analyses of large, quasistatic, inelastic deformations, is presented. The algorithm is based upon a generalization of de Veubeke's (1972) complementary energy principle. The principal variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin, and the resulting finite element equations are discrete versions of the equations of compatibility and angular momentum balance. The algorithm produces true rates, time derivatives, as opposed to 'increments'. There results a boundary value problem (for stress rate and velocity) and an initial value problem (for total stress and deformation). A discussion of the numerical treatment of the boundary value problem is followed by a detailed examination of the numerical treatment of the initial value problem, covering the topics of efficiency, stability, and objectivity. The paper is closed with a set of examples, finite homogeneous deformation problems, which serve to bring out important aspects of the algorithm.

  15. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Elewonibi, Bilikisu Reni; BeLue, Rhonda

    2016-06-01

    Immigrants face barriers to accessing conventional health care systems. Hence, they are expected to have comparatively greater use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines the prevalence of and reason for CAM use in the U.S. population by citizenship status. Data on 34,483 U.S.-born, naturalized, and non-U.S. citizens from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey was used. CAM was categorized into four domains. Analyses controlling for socioeconomic variables were identified patterns of utilization and reasons for use. The prevalence of all CAM domains was lowest among non-U.S. citizens followed by naturalized citizens. The odds of using CAM were also higher for the immigrants who attained citizenship than for non-citizens. Individuals in all groups reported using more CAM for prevention. Factors related to cost, accessibility, or knowledge of CAM use may contribute to lower use of CAM by naturalized and non-U.S. citizens.

  16. Uses of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Namjooyan, Foroogh; Ghanavati, Rahil; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Jokari, Shiva; Janbozorgi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, recurrent demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). It could affect different regions in the brain and spinal cord, and according to the domain which is affected, it could cause different symptoms such as motor, sensory, or visual impairment; fatigue; bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction; cognitive impairment; and depression. MS patients also face reduced quality of life. Drugs that are used in MS are not fully efficient and patients suffer from many symptoms and adverse effects. Today there is an increasing trend of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). People are more likely to use this type of treatment. Using appropriate lifestyle and CAM therapy can subside some of the symptoms and could improve the quality of life in these patients. Many people with MS explore CAM therapies for their symptoms. This review is aimed to introduce CAM therapies that could be used in MS patients. PMID:25161918

  17. Pathways to Healing: Person-centered Responses to Complementary Services

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sharon W.; Fermon, Barbara; Coleman, Julie Foley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This research study assessed perceived changes in quality-of-life measures related to participation in complementary services consisting of a variety of nontraditional therapies and/or programs at Pathways: A Health Crisis Resource Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Design: Survey data were used to assess perceived changes participants ascribed to their experience with complementary services at Pathways. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using participant demographics together with participant ratings of items from the “Self-Assessment of Change” (SAC) measure developed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on written responses to an additional survey question: “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Setting/Location: Pathways offers a variety of services, including one-to-one sessions using nontraditional healing therapies, support groups, educational classes, and practice groups such as yoga and meditation for those facing serious health challenges. These services are offered free of charge through community financial support using volunteer practitioners. Participants: People (126) diagnosed with serious health challenges who used Pathways services from 2007 through 2009. Interventions: Participation in self-selected Pathways services. Measures: Responses to items on the SAC measure plus written responses to the question, “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Results: Quantitative findings: Participants reported experiencing significant changes across all components of the SAC measure. Qualitative findings: Responses to the open-ended survey question identified perspectives on the culture of Pathways and a shift in participants' perceptions of well-being based on their experience of Pathways services. Conclusions: Participation in services provided by the Pathways organization improved perceptions of

  18. Medical Student Attitudes toward Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Ryan B.; Hui, Ka-Kit; Hays, Ron D.; Mandel, Jess; Goldstein, Michael; Winegarden, Babbi; Glaser, Dale; Brunton, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    While the use of complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAIM) is substantial, it continues to exist at the periphery of allopathic medicine. Understanding the attitudes of medical students toward CAIM will be useful in understanding future integration of CAIM and allopathic medicine. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate an instrument and assess medical students' attitudes toward CAIM. The Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire (CAIMAQ) was developed by a panel of experts in CAIM, allopathic medicine, medical education and survey development. A total of 1770 CAIMAQ surveys (51% of US medical schools participated) were obtained in a national sample of medical students in 2007. Factor analysis of the CAIMAQ revealed five distinct attitudinal domains: desirability of CAIM therapies, progressive patient/physician health care roles, mind-body-spirit connection, principles of allostasis and a holistic understanding of disease. The students held the most positive attitude for the “mind-body-spirit connection” and the least positive for the “desirability of CAIM therapies”. This study provided initial support for the reliability of the CAIMAQ. The survey results indicated that in general students responded more positively to the principles of CAIM than to CAIM treatment. A higher quality of CAIM-related medical education and expanded research into CAIM therapies would facilitate appropriate integration of CAIM into medical curricula. The most significant limitation of this study is a low response rate, and further work is required to assess more representative populations in order to determine whether the relationships found in this study are generalizable. PMID:21826186

  19. Thermal property measurement of thin fibers by complementary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Troy Robert

    To improve measurement reliability and repeatability and resolve the orders of magnitude discrepancy between the two different measurements (via reduced model transient electrothermal and lock-in IR thermography), this dissertation details the development of three complementary methods to accurately measure the thermal properties of the natural and synthetic Nephila (N.) clavipes spider dragline fibers. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the dragline silk of the (N.) clavipes spider has been characterized by one research group to be 151-416 W m-1 K-1 and 6.4-12.3 x 10-5 m2 s -1, respectively, for samples with low to high strains (zero to 19.7%). Thermal diffusivity of the dragline silk of a different spider species, Araneus diadematus, has been determined by another research group as 2 x 10-7 m2 s-1 for un-stretched silk. This dissertation seeks to resolve this discrepancy by three complementary methods. The methods detailed are the transient electrothermal technique (in both reduced and full model versions), the 3o method (for both current and voltage sources), and the non-contact, photothermal, quantum-dot spectral shape-based fluorescence thermometry method. These methods were also validated with electrically conductive and non-conductive fibers. The resulting thermal conductivity of the dragline silk is 1.2 W m-1 K-1, the thermal diffusivity is 6 x 10-7 m2 s -1 and the volumetric heat capacity is 2000 kJ m-3 K-1, with an uncertainty of about 12% for each property.

  20. Complementary medicine in palliative care and cancer symptom management.

    PubMed

    Mansky, Patrick J; Wallerstedt, Dawn B

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients varies according to geographical area, gender, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients in the United States has been estimated to be between 7% and 54%. Most cancer patients use CAM with the hope of boosting the immune system, relieving pain, and controlling side effects related to disease or treatment. Only a minority of patients include CAM in the treatment plan with curative intent. This review article focuses on practices belonging to the CAM domains of mind-body medicine, CAM botanicals, manipulative practices, and energy medicine, because they are widely used as complementary approaches to palliative cancer care and cancer symptom management. In the area of cancer symptom management, auricular acupuncture, therapeutic touch, and hypnosis may help to manage cancer pain. Music therapy, massage, and hypnosis may have an effect on anxiety, and both acupuncture and massage may have a therapeutic role in cancer fatigue. Acupuncture and selected botanicals may reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and hypnosis and guided imagery may be beneficial in anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Transcendental meditation and the mindfulness-based stress reduction can play a role in the management of depressed mood and anxiety. Black cohosh and phytoestrogen-rich foods may reduce vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Most CAM approaches to the treatment of cancer are safe when used by a CAM practitioner experienced in the treatment of cancer patients. The potential for many commonly used botanical to interact with prescription drugs continues to be a concern. Botanicals should be used with caution by cancer patients and only under the guidance of an oncologist knowledgeable in their use.

  1. Leveraging the complementary nature of RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics are powerful high-throughput technologies for identifying and quantifying RNA transcripts and proteins respectively. With the increasing affordability of these technologies, many projects have started to apply both to the same samples to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. A major analytical challenge for such integrative projects is how to effectively leverage the complementary nature of RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics data. RNA-Seq provides comprehensive information on mRNA abundance, alternative splicing, nucleotide variation and structure alteration. Sample-specific protein databases derived from RNA-Seq data can better approximate the real protein pools in cell and tissue samples and thus improve protein identification. Meanwhile, proteomics data provides essential confirmation of the validity and functional relevance of novel findings from RNA-Seq data. At the quantitative level, mRNA and protein levels are only modestly correlated, suggesting strong involvement of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling gene expression. Here we review recent studies at the interface of RNA-Seq and proteomics data. We discuss goals, accomplishments and challenges in RNA-Seq-based proteogenomics. We also examine the current status and future potential of parallel transcriptome and proteome quantification in revealing post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25266668

  2. Potential influences of complementary therapy on motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Evatt, Marian L

    2009-10-01

    Nearly two-thirds of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use vitamins or nutritional supplements, and many more may use other complementary therapies, yet <50% of patients have discussed the use of these complementary therapies with a healthcare professional. Physicians should be aware of the complementary therapies their patients with PD are using, and the possible effects of these therapies on motor and non-motor symptoms. Complementary therapies, such as altered diet, dietary supplements, vitamin therapy, herbal supplements, caffeine, nicotine, exercise, physical therapy, massage therapy, melatonin, bright-light therapy and acupuncture, may all influence the symptoms of PD and/or the effectiveness of dopaminergic therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests complementary therapy also may influence non-motor symptoms of PD, such as respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, mood disorders, sleep and orthostatic hypotension. Whenever possible, clinicians should ensure that complementary therapy is used appropriately in PD patients without reducing the benefits of dopaminergic therapy.

  3. Prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E.

    2000-01-01

    Reported are the results of a systematic review of the prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine. Computerized literature searches were carried out in four databases. Twelve surveys thus found were selected because they dealt with the utilization of complementary/alternative medicine in random or representative samples of the general population. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized way. Prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine ranged from 9% to 65%. Even for a given form of treatment such as chiropractic, as used in the USA, considerable discrepancies emerged. The data suggest that complementary/alternative therapies are used frequently and increasingly. Prevalence of use seemed to depend critically on factors that were poorly controlled in surveys of complementary/alternative medicine. The true prevalence of use of complementary/alternative medicine in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:10743298

  4. Quasi-complementary codes - A new technique for MST radar sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The binary phase complementary code set has been used in stratospheric radar sounding. The quasi-complementary code technique presented here has nearly complementary properties and offers significant reduction of side lobes caused by imperfections in the radar transmitter. The new technique and its application are described; a simulation of the performance of the two techniques when certain imperfections are present in the transmitter is presented. The results are compared with the actual performance of the Arecibo 430-MHz radar transmitter.

  5. Beyond convention: describing complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Balneaves, L G; Kristjanson, L J; Tataryn, D

    1999-10-01

    Using a descriptive survey design, 52 women living with breast cancer were interviewed to explore their use of complementary therapy and the relationships between complementary therapy use and key demographic variables and health beliefs. Sixty-seven percent of the women reported complementary therapy use, with meditation/relaxation therapies, vitamins and spiritual healing being the three most frequently reported treatments. Women using complementary therapies were more likely to have completed post-secondary education than women using only conventional medical treatment (chi 2 = 7.1, P = 0.008). Preferred decisional role was found to be significantly associated with the use of complementary therapies (chi 2 = 11.7, P = 0.003); women using complementary therapies preferred a more active/collaborative role in treatment decisions than women using only conventional medical treatment. No significant associations were found between complementary therapy use and beliefs about cause of cancer, treatments, satisfaction with health care providers, and perceived quality of life. The findings point to the pervasiveness of complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer and contradict past research which has supported a distinct demographic profile of complementary therapy users and associated belief system.

  6. Micromachined vertical Hall magnetic field sensor in standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, M.; Ristic, Lj.

    1992-06-01

    A novel 2D micromachined vertical Hall magnetic field sensor structure has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 3 micron CMOS process. The device can detect two magnetic field components in the plane of the chip surface. The sensor exhibits a linear response and shows no cross-sensitivity between channels.

  7. Demonstration of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor device fabrication on the same sapphire substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. J.; De La Houssaye, P. R.; Russell, S. D.; Garcia, G. A.; Clayton, S. R.; Ruby, W. S.; Lee, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the first fabrication of active semiconductor and high-temperature superconducting devices on the same substrate. Test structures of complementary MOS transistors were fabricated on the same sapphire substrate as test structures of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) flux-flow transistors, and separately, Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting quantum interference devices utilizing both biepitaxial and step-edge Josephson junctions. Both semiconductor and superconductor devices were operated at 77 K. The cofabrication of devices using these disparate yet complementary electronic technologies on the same substrate opens the door for the fabrication of true semiconductive/superconductive hybrid integrated circuits capable of exploiting the best features of each of these technologies.

  8. Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Force, A; Lynch, M; Pickett, F B; Amores, A; Yan, Y L; Postlethwait, J

    1999-01-01

    The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication. Under the classical model for the evolution of duplicate genes, one member of the duplicated pair usually degenerates within a few million years by accumulating deleterious mutations, while the other duplicate retains the original function. This model further predicts that on rare occasions, one duplicate may acquire a new adaptive function, resulting in the preservation of both members of the pair, one with the new function and the other retaining the old. However, empirical data suggest that a much greater proportion of gene duplicates is preserved than predicted by the classical model. Here we present a new conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of duplicate genes that may help explain this conundrum. Focusing on the regulatory complexity of eukaryotic genes, we show how complementary degenerative mutations in different regulatory elements of duplicated genes can facilitate the preservation of both duplicates, thereby increasing long-term opportunities for the evolution of new gene functions. The duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model predicts that (1) degenerative mutations in regulatory elements can increase rather than reduce the probability of duplicate gene preservation and (2) the usual mechanism of duplicate gene preservation is the partitioning of ancestral functions rather than the evolution of new functions. We present several examples (including analysis of a new engrailed gene in zebrafish) that appear to be consistent with the DDC model, and we suggest several analytical and experimental approaches for determining whether the complementary loss of gene subfunctions or the acquisition of novel functions are likely to be the primary mechanisms for the preservation of gene duplicates. For a newly duplicated paralog, survival depends on the outcome of the race between

  9. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  10. Highly survivable communications: Complementary media packet switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, D.; Eken, F.; Karavassilis, N.

    1994-07-01

    The requirement for highly survivable communications (HSC) for essential command functions in military operations does not need any justification. The ability to communicate under extreme jamming levels and adverse propagation conditions, including high altitude nuclear events, is a very important requirement. There are also many natural disaster related requirements that also need such highly survivable communications. The prevalent and in a sense classical, approach to provide highly assured connectivity can be summarized as follows: Take a particular propagation medium and try to obtain the ultimate performance from it. There are many examples of this philosophy some successful, most not. Our approach, on the other hand, is to use complementary multi-media or mixed-media where communication links utilizing essentially commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment are integrated using packet radio (PR) techniques. There is also, in our view, an even more fundamental, recently discovered consideration why the expectation of continuous incremental refinement of a system using a given single media may be be achievable. This is derived from the theory of 'deterministic uncertainty' or more popularly known as 'theory of CHAOS', systems whose state space behavior has fractal characteristics. We will elaborate on this novel argument. Complementary multi-media approach has been the focus for all HSC communications activities at STC since 1982. The original STC studies and prototypes were in response to requirements of broadcasting (i.e., one-way transmission) information. A high frequency (HF)/meteorburst (MB) system was developed/prototyped/tested demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the approach. These results are reviewed. More recently, in 1992 STC has completed the development/test of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) HF packet radio protocol as no such open or non-proprietary protocol exists. This protocol has been fully tested, documented and made available to

  11. Simulation supported POD: Methodology and HFET validation case

    SciTech Connect

    Jenson, F.; Iakovleva, E.; Dominguez, N.

    2011-06-23

    Structure reliability guaranty requires prior evaluation of non destructive testing methods. The concept of Probability of Detection (POD) is generally used to quantitatively assess performances and reliability of testing operations. Such probabilistic approaches take into account the uncertainties that appear during inspections and that are responsible for the output variability. POD curve determination is based on costly and time consuming experimental campaigns. Increasing demand of NDT configurations requiring POD evaluation makes cost reduction of POD campaigns a major issue. A new trend is to apply simulation in the context of probabilistic approaches in order to replace some of the experimental data required to determine the POD with simulation results. This paper presents results of simulation based POD curves of a high frequency eddy current inspection procedure obtained with the new POD module of CIVA. The methodology used for describing uncertainties on the input simulation parameters is described and comparisons with experimental results are presented and discussed.

  12. Complementary Methodologies To Identify Specific Agrobacterium Strains †

    PubMed Central

    Bouzar, Hacene; Moore, Larry W.

    1987-01-01

    Serological techniques and restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of total DNA were used to differentiate strains of Agrobacterium spp. Forty-five wild-type and plasmid-cured Agrobacterium strains were tested by immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence against polyclonal antisera to a crude ribosome preparation from Agrobacterium strains K84, U11, B6, A323, NT1, and C58. In immunodiffusion gels, these antisera reacted only with water-phenol extracts of the homologous strain, producing a single, strain-specific precipitin line. In contrast, when the same antisera were used in immunofluorescence staining, cross-reactions occurred with a limited number of heterologous Agrobacterium strains. However, the cross-reacting heterologous cells fluoresced generally less brightly than the homologous cells. When the EcoRI-digested DNA profiles from the same Agrobacterium strains were compared, 34 distinct cleavage patterns were observed. The DNA profiles were the same for all strains sharing a common chromosomal background and correlated with the strain-specific serological reaction. The presence or absence of plasmid DNA did not alter the strain-specific serological reaction or the DNA cleavage patterns. Both the serological reaction and the restriction enzyme digestion of total DNA were complementary to each other. These methods were used successfully to identify A. radiobacter K84 strains which were recovered 6 months after being inoculated to young trees in the field. Images PMID:16347485

  13. Discrete neural substrates underlie complementary audiovisual speech integration processes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Pisoni, David B; James, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    The ability to combine information from multiple sensory modalities into a single, unified percept is a key element in an organism's ability to interact with the external world. This process of perceptual fusion, the binding of multiple sensory inputs into a perceptual gestalt, is highly dependent on the temporal synchrony of the sensory inputs. Using fMRI, we identified two anatomically distinct brain regions in the superior temporal cortex, one involved with processing temporal-synchrony, and one with processing perceptual fusion of audiovisual speech. This dissociation suggests that the superior temporal cortex should be considered a "neuronal hub" composed of multiple discrete subregions that underlie an array of complementary low- and high-level multisensory integration processes. In this role, abnormalities in the structure and function of superior temporal cortex provide a possible common etiology for temporal-processing and perceptual-fusion deficits seen in a number of clinical populations, including individuals with autism spectrum disorder, dyslexia, and schizophrenia. PMID:21195198

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  15. Undoing gender? The case of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Brenton, Joslyn; Elliott, Sinikka

    2014-01-01

    Despite a rich body of sociological research that examines the relationship between gender and health, scholars have paid little attention to the case of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). One recent study (Sointu 2011) posits that men and women who use CAM challenge traditional ascriptions of femininity and masculinity through the exploration of self-care and emotions, respectively. Drawing on 25 in-depth interviews with middle-class Americans who use CAM, this article instead finds that men and women interpret their CAM use in ways that reproduce traditional gendered identities. Men frame their CAM use in terms of science and rationality, while simultaneously distancing themselves from feminine-coded components of CAM, such as emotions. Women seek CAM for problems such as abusive relationships, low self-esteem, and body image concerns, and frame their CAM use as a quest for self-reinvention that largely reflects and reproduces conventional femininity. Further, the reproduction of gendered identities is shaped by the participants' embrace of neoliberal tenets, such as the cultivation of personal control. This article contributes to ongoing theoretical debates about the doing, redoing and undoing of gender, as well as the literature on health and gender.

  16. Investigation of {sup 152}Sm by Complementary Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P. E.; Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; Kumar, A.; Lesher, S. R.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mynk, M. G.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Christen, S.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jessen, K.; Jolie, J.; Kloezer, A.; Kudejova, P.

    2009-01-28

    Understanding the nuclear structure of {sup 152}Sm, along with other N = 90 isotones, has long posed a challenge. A rapid transition in shape between the spherical N = 88 {sup 150}Sm and well-deformed N = 92 {sup 154}Sm is observed, along with strong evidence for shape coexistence. Competing ideas have been put forward over the decades, with the most recent being that N = 90 is at the critical point of a shape phase transition. Until recently, the lack of high-precision data has not allowed the competing models to be extensively tested. In a coordinated program of investigation, a series of complementary experiments, which include high-statistics {beta} decay, multi-step Coulomb excitation, the {sup 150}Nd({alpha},2n) reaction, and the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction, have been performed for {sup 152}Sm. These experiments have revealed the existence of a pairing-isomer band, a hexadecapole band, the lack of multi-phonon {beta} vibrational bands, and the repetition of structures built on the first excited K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup +} as built on the ground state. The status of these coordinated studies is examined.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention and interest in the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has been reawakened globally. Evidence from studies carried out in different parts of the world has established that CAM use is very common and varies among populations. This study investigated the use of CAM among adults in Enugu urban, irrespective of their health status. It provided information on the prevalence of CAM use, forms of CAM remedies used and reasons for utilizing them Methods The study areas were three local government areas in Enugu urban of Enugu State. Cross-sectional survey using questionnaires were administered to randomly selected households. All consenting participants were used for the study Results 732 participants (37.2% males and 62.8% females) were used for the study. Ages ranged from 18 - 65 years. 620 (84.7%) of the adult population have used CAM ranging from one single type to twenty different types while 112 (15.3%) have not used any form of CAM. The most commonly used CAM product was the biological products, followed by prayer/faith healing. Major reasons for using CAM include their natural state and also for health promotion and maintenance. Conclusion There is need for adequate policy formulation and regulation to ensure safety and efficacy of CAM products. Measures to ensure rational use of CAM should be instituted. PMID:21375759

  18. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  19. A complementary measure of heterogeneity on mathematical skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Finding educational truths is an inherently multivariate problem. There are many factors affecting each student and their performances. Because of this, both measuring of skills and assessing students are always complex processes. This is a well-known problem, and a number of solutions have been proposed by specialists. One of its ramifications is that the variety of progress levels of students in the Mathematics classroom makes teaching more difficult. We think that a measure of the heterogeneity of the different student groups could be interesting in order to prepare some strategies to deal with these kinds of difficulties. The major aim of this study is to develop new tools, complementary to the statistical ones that are commonly used for these purposes, to study situations related to education (mainly to the detection of levels of mathematical education) in which several variables are involved. These tools are thought to simplify these educational analyses and, through a better comprehension of the topic, to improve our teaching. Several authors in our research group have developed some mathematical, theoretical tools, to deal with multidimensional phenomena, and have applied them to measure poverty and also to other business models. These tools are based on multidigraphs. In this article, we implement these tools using symbolic computational software and apply them to study a specific situation related to mathematical education.

  20. Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics & Light for bone.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael G; Lackey, Brett R; Patrick, Evelyn F; Gray, Sandra L; Hurley, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    A synergistic-healing strategy that combines molecular targeting within a system-wide perspective is presented as the Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics And Light (MICHAEL). The basis of the MICHAEL approach is the realization that environmental, nutritional and electromagnetic factors form a regulatory framework involved in bone and nerve healing. The interactions of light, energy, and nutrition with neural, hormonal and cellular pathways will be presented. Energetic therapies including electrical, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and light based treatments affect growth, differentiation and proliferation of bone and nerve and can be utilized for their healing benefits. However, the benefits of these therapies can be impaired by the absence of nutritional, hormonal and organismal factors. For example, lack of sleep, disrupted circadian rhythms and vitamin-D deficiency can impair healing. Molecular targets, such as the Wnt pathway, protein kinase B and glucocorticoid signaling systems can be modulated by nutritional components, including quercetin, curcumin and Mg(2+) to enhance the healing process. The importance of water and water-regulation will be presented as an integral component. The effects of exercise and acupuncture on bone healing will also be discussed within the context of the MICHAEL approach. PMID:26804592

  1. Complementary/alternative therapy use in older women with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of using complementary/alternative therapy (C/AT) in community-dwelling older women with arthritis. A descriptive qualitative approach using focus groups for data collection was conducted with a purposive sample of 27 older female C/AT users (mean age = 77.8, range = 65 to 93). Content analysis was used to identify themes, which included (a) acceptance of the incurable nature of arthritis, (b) high use of nutritional supplements, (c) use of multiple C/AT to manage symptoms, (d) physical symptoms and limited treatment options motivated C/AT use, (e) most C/AT were perceived as effective, (f) C/AT knowledge was limited among users, and (g) older women did not fully disclose their C/AT use to their primary care physician. Findings revealed that older women are motivated to use C/AT, particularly nutritional supplements, to manage arthritis symptoms without seeking medical advice from their physician. Strategies are needed to improve communication between health care providers and older patients on C/AT use for optimal management of arthritis and prevention of adverse events. PMID:22998661

  2. Structural selection of ionic-complementary peptides with electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei

    2010-09-01

    The structures of the peptides and their assembly are largely modulated by the environment. To discover the physical principles governing the structural modulations of peptides by the environment would be useful for many applications. As the typical examples, the structures of three kinds of ionic-complementary EAK16-family peptides under various environmental conditions are studied with simulations in this work. A model with intermediate resolution is used, in which both the backbone hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are explicitly considered. The thermodynamics of these peptides (including the free energy and heat capacity) are described for various strengths of the electrostatic interactions which reflect the variation of environment. With these results, the phase diagrams of these peptides related to the temperature and the strength of electrostatic interactions are presented and compared. Based on the differences in the phase structures of the peptide, the different aggregation behaviors are explained based on the monomeric structural features of the peptides. Through the analysis on the stability of various secondary structures of these peptides, it is demonstrated that the charge pattern is the basic reason of the different responses of the EAK16-family peptides to the environmental changes. These results provide some examples and insights for the principles of structural selection by environment and may be helpful for further analysis and designs of peptide systems. PMID:21230118

  3. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  4. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  5. Military Report More Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use than Civilians

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Bernadette P.; Finch, Michael D.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Thomas V.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Hadden, Louise S.; Colleran, Heather L.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objective was to estimate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among active duty military and compare data with civilian use. Design A global survey on CAM use in the 12 previous months was conducted. Final participants (16,146) were stratified by gender, service, region, and pay grade. Analysis included prevalence of CAM use, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results Approximately 45% of respondents reported using at least one type of CAM therapy. Most commonly used therapies were as follows: prayer for one's own health (24.4%), massage therapy (14.1%), and relaxation techniques (10.8%). After exclusion of prayer for one's own health, adjusting to the 2000 U.S. census, overall CAM use in the military (44.5%) was higher than that in comparable civilian surveys (36.0% and 38.3%). Conclusions Military personnel reported using three CAM stress-reduction therapies at 2.5–7 times the rate of civilians. Among the military, high utilization of CAM practices that reduce stress may serve as markers for practitioners assessing an individual's health and well-being. PMID:23323682

  6. Complementary alternative medicine practices used by religious professionals.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Katherine R B; Silton, Nava R; Galek, Kathleen; Montonye, Martin G

    2010-01-01

    Religious professionals completed an online survey of their use of health related practices currently known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). They indicated how often they engaged in these practices and how often they had used these practices when helping other people. The majority of religious professionals used at least one of the practices when alone and when helping other people. The most frequently used practices were meditation and deep breathing exercises used both when alone and when helping others. Female respondents were more likely to use these practices on their own and when helping others than were males, and older respondents were more likely to use multiple CAM practices than their younger counterparts. Other Faith/Humanists used the most CAM practices when alone and Jewish respondents used the fewest. In general, religious professionals used fewer practices when helping others than they used for themselves. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies for examining CAM practices among religious professionals are discussed.

  7. Highly sensitive self-complementary DNA nanoswitches triggered by polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jincai; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Yong; Du, Jie; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Dimerization of two homologous strands of genomic DNA/RNA is an essential feature of retroviral replication. Herein we show that a cationic comb-type copolymer (CCC), poly(L-lysine)-graft-dextran, accelerates the dimerization of self-complementary stem-loop DNA, frequently found in functional DNA/RNA molecules, such as aptamers. Furthermore, an anionic polymer poly(sodium vinylsulfonate) (PVS) dissociates CCC from the duplex shortly within a few seconds. Then single stem-loop DNA spontaneously transforms from its dimer. Thus we can easily control the dimer and stem-loop DNA by switching on/off CCC activity. Both polyelectrolytes and DNA concentrations are in the nanomole per liter range. The polyelectrolyte-assisted transconformation and sequences design strategy ensures the reversible state control with rapid response and effective switching under physiologically relevant conditions. A further application of this sensitive assembly is to construct an aptamer-type drug delivery system, bind or release functional molecules responding to its transconformation.

  8. Recommendations on complementary feeding for healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Patrizia; Brusa, Sandra; Alboresi, Stefano; Amarri, Sergio; Bottau, Paolo; Cavagni, Giovanni; Corradini, Barbara; Landi, Linda; Loroni, Leonardo; Marani, Miris; Osti, Irene M; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo; Valeriani, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-04-28

    Weaning (or introduction of complementary feeding) is a special and important moment in the growth of a child, both for the family and the infant itself, and it can play a major role in the child's future health. Throughout the years, various weaning modes have come in succession, the latest being baby-led weaning; the timing for introducing foods and the requirements of which sort of nutrient for weaning have also changed over time. Furthermore, the role played by nutrition, especially in the early stages of life, for the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as diabetes, obesity or coeliac disease has also been increasingly highlighted.Members of Italian Society of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Pediatric Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Allergology and Pediatric Immunology (SIAIP) Emilia Romagna here propose a practical approach for pediatricians to deal with daily practice. The four main areas for discussion were weaning in relation with the onset of allergic diseases, coeliac disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the nutrition requirements to take into account for assessing the diet of infants under one year of age and about the practice of baby-led weaning focusing on limits and benefits, respectively.

  9. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Ayoob, Keith T.; Murray, Robert D.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  10. Complementary Sex Determination in the Parasitic Wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general. PMID:25789748

  11. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    PubMed

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Tilburt, Jon C; Sood, Amit; Li, Guang-Xi; Wang, Shi-Han

    2016-06-01

    Pain afflflicts over 50 million people in the US, with 30.7% US adults suffering with chronic pain. Despite advances in therapies, many patients will continue to deal with ongoing symptoms that are not fully addressed by the best conventional medicine has to offer them. The patients frequently turn to therapies outside the usual purview of conventional medicine (herbs, acupuncture, meditation, etc.) called complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Academic and governmental groups are also starting to incorporate CAM recommendations into chronic pain management strategies. Thus, for any physician who care for patients with chronic pain, having some familiarity with these therapies-including risks and benefits-will be key to helping guide patients in making evidence-based, well informed decisions about whether or not to use such therapies. On the other hand, if a CAM therapy has evidence of both safety and efficacy then not making it available to a patient who is suffering does not meet the need of the patient. We summarize the current evidence of a wide variety of CAM modalities that have potential for helping patients with chronic pain in this article. The triad of chronic pain symptoms, ready access to information on the internet, and growing patient empowerment suggest that CAM therapies will remain a consistent part of the healthcare of patients dealing with chronic pain. PMID:27339090

  13. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  14. Complementary Cognitive Capabilities, Economic Decision-Making, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults’ higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making “traits”—including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants’ greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults. PMID:24040999

  15. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, José N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gómez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV.

  16. Complementary Spiritist Therapy: Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra L. Granero; Bassi, Rodrigo M.; Nobre, Marlene Rossi Severino

    2011-01-01

    Spiritism is the third most common religion in Brazil, and its therapies have been used by millions worldwide. These therapies are based on therapeutic resources including prayer, laying on of hands, fluidotherapy (magnetized water), charity/volunteering, spirit education/moral values, and disobsession (spirit release therapy). This paper presents a systematic review of the current literature on the relationship among health outcomes and 6 predictors: prayer, laying on of hands, magnetized/fluidic water, charity/volunteering, spirit education (virtuous life and positive affect), and spirit release therapy. All articles were analyzed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, Newcastle-Ottawa and Jadad score. At present, there is moderate to strong evidence that volunteering and positive affect are linked to better health outcomes. Furthermore, laying on of hands, virtuous life, and praying for oneself also seem to be associated to positive findings. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies on magnetized water and spirit release therapy. In summary, science is indirectly demonstrating that some of these therapies can be associated to better health outcomes and that other therapies have been overlooked or poorly investigated. Further studies in this field could contribute to the disciplines of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by investigating the relationship between body, mind, and soul/spirit. PMID:21687790

  17. Constructing maternal knowledge frameworks. How mothers conceptualize complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Pelto, Gretel H; Frongillo, Edward A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2012-10-01

    This ethnographic study examines maternal knowledge, and develops an emic framework to help explain and interpret maternal complementary feeding behaviors. In-depth interviews and home observations among 29 women with young children 6-18 mo were conducted in Morelos, Mexico. Transcripts were systematically reviewed to identify major themes related to feeding young children, and data were coded using a combination of preselected codes and codes that emerged from the identification of themes. Observations augmented the information that was obtained through verbal exchange. We identified eight concepts: (1) probaditas (the idea of introducing small tastes of foods), (2) preparing separate foods for infants, (3) readiness to eat solid foods, (4) appropriate consistency, (5) the value of variety, (6) child likes and dislikes, (7) money and food costs, and (8) healthiness of foods (positive and negative foods). There was strong evidence of cultural consensus (sharing of knowledge among the respondents), and the underlying motivation was to provide foods to ensure good growth and health. This knowledge framework guided practices. Mothers fed their children liquid and semi-liquid foods, and fruits, but few vegetables, meats, and legumes. Variation in the variety of children's diets was associated with household factors, which emerged in the ethnographic interviews. We conclude that elucidating maternal knowledge frameworks is crucial for explaining maternal behavior, and argue that these frameworks are the foundation for developing behavior-change interventions. PMID:22698974

  18. Natural and Cultural Preservation - Complementary Endeavors through Soil Archive Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Oren; Frumin, Suembikya; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Maeir, Aren M.; Weiss, Ehud; Zhevelev, Helena M.

    2016-04-01

    Soil is an excellent archive for the history of landscape components such as ancient topography, erosion and accumulation processes, and vegetation characterization. In special cases, the soil archive even preserves botanical faunal and mollusc assemblages, allowing for the production of an archive of organic species as well. Long-term human activities in the past have left their imprints on certain landscape systems, leading to the formation of landscapes composed of both cultural and natural assets. The aim of this presentation is to suggest a conceptual model, based on the soil archive, which enables the preservation and sustainability of such environments. The proposed area (eastern Mediterranean) underwent cycles of ancient site establishment and abandonment. When areas were occupied, the natural vegetation around settlements experienced human interventions such as woodcutting, grazing and horticulture. During site abandonment, these interventions ceased, resulting in vegetation regeneration, a reduction in biodiversity, increased fire hazard, etc. This ultimately led to the deterioration of the landscape system as well as the destruction of cultural assets such as ancient buildings and/or remnants. In order to preserve and restore these sites, a conceptual model that combines both modern natural conservation strategies and restoration of traditional land-use techniques is proposed. This model provides a complementary approach to existing natural and cultural preservation efforts.

  19. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Tilburt, Jon C; Sood, Amit; Li, Guang-Xi; Wang, Shi-Han

    2016-06-01

    Pain afflflicts over 50 million people in the US, with 30.7% US adults suffering with chronic pain. Despite advances in therapies, many patients will continue to deal with ongoing symptoms that are not fully addressed by the best conventional medicine has to offer them. The patients frequently turn to therapies outside the usual purview of conventional medicine (herbs, acupuncture, meditation, etc.) called complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Academic and governmental groups are also starting to incorporate CAM recommendations into chronic pain management strategies. Thus, for any physician who care for patients with chronic pain, having some familiarity with these therapies-including risks and benefits-will be key to helping guide patients in making evidence-based, well informed decisions about whether or not to use such therapies. On the other hand, if a CAM therapy has evidence of both safety and efficacy then not making it available to a patient who is suffering does not meet the need of the patient. We summarize the current evidence of a wide variety of CAM modalities that have potential for helping patients with chronic pain in this article. The triad of chronic pain symptoms, ready access to information on the internet, and growing patient empowerment suggest that CAM therapies will remain a consistent part of the healthcare of patients dealing with chronic pain.

  1. Rheumatologists' opinions towards complementary and alternative medicine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal conditions are high users of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the attitudes of rheumatologists towards CAM and to identify whether these attitudes are affected by the personal or practice characteristics of the rheumatologists. A systematic search of electronic databases identified five eligible studies and one supplementary abstract, published before 1 December 2012. Outcomes measuring rheumatologists' attitudes towards CAM were extracted, as were any analysis of correlations with characteristics of the rheumatologist. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist. Six studies from the USA, Canada and the Netherlands met inclusion criteria, with sample sizes ranging from 101 to 2,000. The studies were of variable methodological quality. Rheumatologists' opinions towards CAM varied according to therapy type. Many held favourable opinions towards bodywork and meditation, believed in their benefits and provided referrals for use. Other therapies, such as energy-based medicine, were regarded with scepticism. There were no demographic characteristics that consistently correlated with CAM attitudes or use. The limited data describing rheumatologist's attitudes to CAM is of varying quality but suggests that attitudes are influenced by the rheumatologist's familiarity with the CAM therapy and the degree to which a therapy has been assessed in a scientific manner. Given the high use of CAM amongst individuals seen in rheumatology clinics, physicians should undertake high-quality research to assess effectiveness of CAM therapy.

  2. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ˜3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  3. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  4. Review of complementary and alternative medical treatment of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies are commonly used by patients for the treatment of medical conditions spanning the full spectrum of severity and chronicity. The use of alternative remedies, both herbal and others, for conditions lacking effective medical treatment, is on the increase. Included within this categorization, arrhythmic disease-absent effective catheter-based therapy or with medical therapy limited by the toxicities of contemporary antiarrhythmic agents is frequently managed by patients with CAM therapies without their practitioner's knowledge and in the face of potential herb-drug toxicities. This study reviews 9 CAM therapies: 7 individual herbal therapies along with acupuncture and yoga that have been studied and reported as having an antiarrhythmic effect. The primary focuses are the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each CAM agent along with interactions between the CAM therapies and commonly prescribed medical therapy for arrhythmia patients. We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of herbal or other CAM agents within the arrhythmia population.

  5. Complementary cognitive capabilities, economic decision making, and aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U

    2013-09-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults' higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making "traits"--including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants' greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults.

  6. Complementary experiments to understand rapid flow in periglacial slope deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Angermann, Lisa; Allroggen, Niklas

    2015-04-01

    In structured soils we face limits of the porous-media assumptions for our measurements. Not only spatial heterogeneity and structures but also the large spread of process velocity impose considerable ambiguity to point observations and singular experiments. We present insights from complementary sprinkler experiments at the plot and hillslope scale on highly structured young soils on periglacial slope deposits. On the plot scale of 1 m2 we combined different tracers (Brilliant Blue and Bromide) with soil moisture monitoring and 3D time-lapse GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) with an sprinkling intensity of 50 mm for 1 h. At the hillslope scale we combined a soil moisture monitoring network (TDR boreholes) with four 2D time-lapse GPR profiles (GPR inferred trenches) for an irrigation of some 120m2 with about 100mm for 4.5 h. At both scales rapid flow in structures dominates in vertical as well as lateral direction with high spatial variability. The combination of methods chosen for the experiments turned out to be very useful to complement the respective assumptions and limitations of each single technique. As such we will present the main findings from the experiments and highlight the possibilities arising from GPR applications and how the observation of the same process with different techniques can be used to limit uncertainty and ambiguity.

  7. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding.

  8. Finite frequency external cloaking with complementary bianisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Gralak, Boris; McPhedran, Ross C; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2014-07-14

    We investigate the twofold functionality of a cylindrical shell consisting of a negatively refracting heterogeneous bianisotropic (NRHB) medium deduced from geometric transforms. The numerical simulations indicate that the shell enhances their scattering by a perfect electric conducting (PEC) core, whereas it considerably reduces the scattering of electromagnetic waves by closely located objects when the shell surrounds a bianisotropic core. The former can be attributed to a homeopathic effect, whereby a small PEC object scatters like a large one as confirmed by numerics, while the latter can be attributed to space cancellation of complementary bianisotropic media underpinning anomalous resonances counteracting the field emitted by small objects (external cloaking). Space cancellation is further used to cloak a NRHB finite size object located nearby a slab of NRHB with a hole of same shape and opposite refracting index. Such a finite frequency external cloaking is also achieved with a NRHB cylindrical lens. Finally, we investigate an ostrich effect whereby the scattering of NRHB slabs and cylindrical lenses with simplified parameters hide the presence of small electric antennas in the quasi-static limit. PMID:25090552

  9. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, José N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gómez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV. PMID:25138799

  10. The Sociology of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional medicine (TM) are important social phenomena. This article reviews the sociological literature on the topic. First, it addresses the question of terminology, arguing that the naming process is a glimpse into the complexities of power and history that characterize the field. Second, focusing on the last 15 years of scholarship, it considers how sociological research on users and practitioners of TM/CAM has developed in that time. Third, it addresses two newer strands of work termed here the ‘big picture’ and the ‘big question’. The big picture includes concepts that offer interpretation of what is happening at a societal level to constrain and enable observed patterns of social practice (pluralism, integration, hybridity and activism). The big question, ‘Does it work?’, is one of epistemology and focuses on two developing fields of critical enquiry – first, social critiques of medical science knowledge production and, second, attempts to explain the nature of interventions, i.e. how they work. Finally, the article examines the role of sociology moving forward. PMID:25177359

  11. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  12. Rheumatologists' opinions towards complementary and alternative medicine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal conditions are high users of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the attitudes of rheumatologists towards CAM and to identify whether these attitudes are affected by the personal or practice characteristics of the rheumatologists. A systematic search of electronic databases identified five eligible studies and one supplementary abstract, published before 1 December 2012. Outcomes measuring rheumatologists' attitudes towards CAM were extracted, as were any analysis of correlations with characteristics of the rheumatologist. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist. Six studies from the USA, Canada and the Netherlands met inclusion criteria, with sample sizes ranging from 101 to 2,000. The studies were of variable methodological quality. Rheumatologists' opinions towards CAM varied according to therapy type. Many held favourable opinions towards bodywork and meditation, believed in their benefits and provided referrals for use. Other therapies, such as energy-based medicine, were regarded with scepticism. There were no demographic characteristics that consistently correlated with CAM attitudes or use. The limited data describing rheumatologist's attitudes to CAM is of varying quality but suggests that attitudes are influenced by the rheumatologist's familiarity with the CAM therapy and the degree to which a therapy has been assessed in a scientific manner. Given the high use of CAM amongst individuals seen in rheumatology clinics, physicians should undertake high-quality research to assess effectiveness of CAM therapy. PMID:23990027

  13. Identity Projects in Complementary and Mainstream Schools: The Views of Albanian and Bulgarian Students in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Archer, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on complementary schools as sites of learning and social and cultural identification. We draw on a small-scale multi-method qualitative study conducted in Albanian and Bulgarian community schools in London to explore the agendas of "new" Eastern European complementary schools with respect to…

  14. Complementary halogen and hydrogen bonding: sulfur...iodine interactions and thioamide ribbons.

    PubMed

    Arman, Hadi D; Gieseking, Rebecca L; Hanks, Timothy W; Pennington, William T

    2010-03-21

    Complementary halogen bonding and hydrogen bonding coexist in co-crystals of organoiodines with molecules containing the thioamide functionality. Thiourea.organoiodine co-crystals are shown to exhibit a remarkably reliable synthon with complementary N-H...S ribbons and S...I interactions.

  15. 76 FR 79202 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: February 3, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  16. 75 FR 76019 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. Date: February 4, 2011. Closed: February 4, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. Agenda: To.... Agenda: Opening remarks by the Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  17. 78 FR 19498 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June 7, 2013. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to...

  18. 75 FR 18217 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June 3-4... Alternative Medicine, presentation of a new research initiative, and other business of the Council....

  19. 75 FR 13137 - National Center For Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-6570,...

  20. Inclusion of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in CACREP Training Programs: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Christine A.; Munk, Melanie; Wooten, H. Ray

    2005-01-01

    Given a heightened focus within the mental health profession on creative, complementary, and alternative practices, the authors surveyed CACREP programs with respect to their inclusion of such approaches in counselor training. For the purpose of this study, these approaches were designated as complementary and alternative methods (CAM) and defined…

  1. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Kalish, Leslie A.; Bunce, Emily; Curtis, Christine; McDaniel, Samuel; Ware, Janice; Petry, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of the use of different types of conventional, complementary and alternative therapies by children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Of 112 families surveyed, 74% were using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their child with ASD. CAM use was most strongly associated with parent…

  2. 78 FR 51734 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM Advisory Council Board. Date: October...

  3. 77 FR 43099 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions... Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: August 27, 2012....

  4. Complementing the Mainstream: An Exploration of Partnership Work between Complementary Alternative Provisions and Mainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennacchia, Jodie; Thomson, Pat

    2016-01-01

    In the English context, complementary alternative provisions (APs) can make specific positive contributions for young people at risk of exclusion from mainstream school. Whilst recognising the potential value of all complementary AP that is carefully selected and of high quality, we problematise the "repair and return" rationale that…

  5. 78 FR 76635 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; NCCAM Advisory Council Board. Date: February...

  6. 77 FR 25185 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: June 1, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10...

  7. 77 FR 73036 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: February 1, 2013. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  8. 77 FR 52750 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to... Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: October 12, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m....

  9. 78 FR 64963 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, October 16, 2013, 2:00 p.m. to October 16,...

  10. 75 FR 43994 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Medicine (NACCAM) meeting. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance... Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: September 3,...

  11. 77 FR 4052 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Federal Register on December 21, 2011, 76 FR 79202. This meeting has been amended so that the open session... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, February 3, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to February 3, 2012, 4...

  12. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Multicompetence: Code- and Modeswitching by Minority Ethnic Children in Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the multilingual and multimodal practices of British Chinese children in complementary school classes from a multicompetence perspective. Using classroom interaction data from a number of Chinese complementary schools in 3 different cities in England, the article argues that the multicompetence perspective enables a holistic…

  13. Parents' and Teachers' Constructions of the Purposes of Chinese Complementary Schooling: "Culture", Identity and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Mau, Ada

    2010-01-01

    User perceptions and experiences of complementary education are neglected in the research literature, yet they are important in providing understanding concerning complementary schools and their impact on educational and social identities. This paper explores the constructions of parents of pupils attending these schools, and of teachers at these…

  14. Highly sensitive self-complementary DNA nanoswitches triggered by polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jincai; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Yong; Du, Jie; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Dimerization of two homologous strands of genomic DNA/RNA is an essential feature of retroviral replication. Herein we show that a cationic comb-type copolymer (CCC), poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran, accelerates the dimerization of self-complementary stem-loop DNA, frequently found in functional DNA/RNA molecules, such as aptamers. Furthermore, an anionic polymer poly(sodium vinylsulfonate) (PVS) dissociates CCC from the duplex shortly within a few seconds. Then single stem-loop DNA spontaneously transforms from its dimer. Thus we can easily control the dimer and stem-loop DNA by switching on/off CCC activity. Both polyelectrolytes and DNA concentrations are in the nanomole per liter range. The polyelectrolyte-assisted transconformation and sequences design strategy ensures the reversible state control with rapid response and effective switching under physiologically relevant conditions. A further application of this sensitive assembly is to construct an aptamer-type drug delivery system, bind or release functional molecules responding to its transconformation.Dimerization of two homologous strands of genomic DNA/RNA is an essential feature of retroviral replication. Herein we show that a cationic comb-type copolymer (CCC), poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran, accelerates the dimerization of self-complementary stem-loop DNA, frequently found in functional DNA/RNA molecules, such as aptamers. Furthermore, an anionic polymer poly(sodium vinylsulfonate) (PVS) dissociates CCC from the duplex shortly within a few seconds. Then single stem-loop DNA spontaneously transforms from its dimer. Thus we can easily control the dimer and stem-loop DNA by switching on/off CCC activity. Both polyelectrolytes and DNA concentrations are in the nanomole per liter range. The polyelectrolyte-assisted transconformation and sequences design strategy ensures the reversible state control with rapid response and effective switching under physiologically relevant conditions. A further application of

  15. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  16. Academic education in complementary medicine: a tuscan methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea A

    2007-09-01

    The implementation of complementary medicine (CM) involves a large number of persons in Italy, and in the nineties, the percentage of Italian citizens adopting the most frequent and relevant practices of CM almost doubled. Appropriate academic education in CM is an important and fascinating challenge for current didactic systems in the Italian University. Already in 2004, the Joint Italian Conference of the Deans of the Faculties of Medicine and of the Presidents of Medical Degree Courses released an official statement regarding the relationship between CM and health area degree courses. The main teaching objectives embedded in the institutional framework proposed by the Joint Italian Conference are now finding specific implementation modalities in the University of Florence. For many years, the Florence Medical School has had strong and fruitful contacts with institutional bodies in Tuscany and, together with these institutions, has established a continuous dialogue with the world of CM. This exchange has given rise to various teaching activities within the academic setting. With specific reference to the undergraduate curriculum in Medicine and Surgery, a methodological course regarding CM has been designed and conducted, with selective attention being given to the CM practices having an enhanced rate of supportive scientific evidence, such as herbal medicine and acupuncture. With regard to the postgraduate curriculum, a Master degree in Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine and a Master in Clinical Phytotherapy are already active in the University of Florence and are having a remarkable success among the attending health professionals. This high degree of satisfaction well documents the importance, need and feasibility of structured academic education in CM and, in particular, of a methodological didactics such as those currently implemented in the Florence Medical School.

  17. A complementary palette of NanoCluster Beacons.

    PubMed

    Obliosca, Judy M; Babin, Mark C; Liu, Cong; Liu, Yen-Liang; Chen, Yu-An; Batson, Robert A; Ganguly, Mainak; Petty, Jeffrey T; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2014-10-28

    NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), which use few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters as reporters, are a type of activatable molecular probes that are low-cost and easy to prepare. While NCBs provide a high fluorescence enhancement ratio upon activation, their activation colors are currently limited. Here we report a simple method to design NCBs with complementary emission colors, creating a set of multicolor probes for homogeneous, separation-free detection. By systematically altering the position and the number of cytosines in the cluster-nucleation sequence, we have tuned the activation colors of NCBs to green (C8-8, 460 nm/555 nm); yellow (C5-5, 525 nm/585 nm); red (C3-4, 580 nm/635 nm); and near-infrared (C3-3, 645 nm/695 nm). At the same NCB concentration, the activated yellow NCB (C5-5) was found to be 1.3 times brighter than the traditional red NCB (C3-4). Three of the four colors (green, yellow, and red) were relatively spectrally pure. We also found that subtle changes in the linker sequence (down to the single-nucleotide level) could significantly alter the emission spectrum pattern of an NCB. When the length of linker sequences was increased, the emission peaks were found to migrate in a periodic fashion, suggesting short-range interactions between silver clusters and nucleobases. Size exclusion chromatography results indicated that the activated NCBs are more compact than their native duplex forms. Our findings demonstrate the unique photophysical properties and environmental sensitivities of few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters, which are not seen before in common organic dyes or luminescent crystals.

  18. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine.

    PubMed

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors' perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the "integration" of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms of

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine use by older Australians.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L; Lin, Vivian; Story, David F

    2007-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Australians is substantial and increasing, but little is known about its use by the elderly. We here present the findings for the elderly cohort in our recently conducted national survey on CAM use by adult Australians. In May and June 2005, computer-assisted telephone interviews, using random-digit telephone dialing, were employed to gather data on CAM use in the last 12 months. Of 1067 adult participants interviewed, 178 were 65 or older. More than half of these (57.8%; 95% CI, 50.7%-64.9%) had used at least one of 17 common forms of CAM and 60.4% of the CAM users had consulted CAM practitioners. Clinical nutrition, chiropractic, massage therapy, meditation, and herbal medicine were the most common forms of CAM used by the elderly. A higher proportion of the elderly had always used both CAM and conventional medical treatments (37.9%) than had those aged 18-34 (15.7%) and 35-64 (26.9%). Elderly CAM users (60.2%) were more likely than younger users to discuss their use with their doctors. Of those who did not do so, 24.1% were not asked by their doctors and 16.0% considered that their doctor would disapprove. In conclusion, we found that a substantial proportion of older Australians use CAM. The elderly are also more likely than younger adults to discuss their use of CAM with their doctors, but doctors need to play a more active role in initiating such communication.

  20. Use of complementary therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients with chronic medical conditions use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at a higher rate than the general population. Despite recent interest in CAM for cardiovascular disease, few data are available regarding patterns of use in patients with cardiovascular disease in the United States. This study used the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and analyzed data on CAM use in 10,572 respondents with cardiovascular disease. Among those with cardiovascular disease, 36% had used CAM (excluding prayer) in the previous 12 months. The most commonly used therapies were herbal products (18%) and mind-body therapies (17%). Among herbs, echinacea, garlic, ginseng, ginkgo biloba, and glucosamine with or without chondroitin were most commonly used. Among mind-body therapies, deep-breathing exercises and meditation were most commonly used. Overall, CAM was used most frequently for musculoskeletal complaints (24% of respondents who used mind-body therapies, 22% who used herbs, 45% who used any CAM). Mind-body therapies were also used for anxiety or depression (23%) and stress or emotional health and wellness (16%). Herbs were commonly used for head and chest colds (22%). Fewer respondents (10%) used CAM specifically for their cardiovascular conditions (5% for hypertension, 2% for coronary disease, 3% for vascular insufficiency, < 1% for heart failure or stroke). Most, however, who used CAM for their cardiovascular condition perceived the therapies to be helpful (80% for herbs, 94% for mind-body therapies). CAM use was more common in younger respondents, women, Asians, and those with more education and greater incomes. In conclusion, CAM use, particularly herbs and mind-body therapies, is common in the United States in patients with cardiovascular disease and mirrors use in the general population. CAM use specifically to treat cardiovascular conditions, however, is less common.

  1. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors’ perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the “integration” of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms

  2. [Cytogenetic and FISH findings are complementary in childhood ALL].

    PubMed

    Haltrich, Irén; Csóka, Monika; Kovács, Gábor; Fekete, György

    2008-09-01

    Primary genetic abnormalities of leukemia cells have important prognostic significance in childhood acute leukemia. In the last two years 30 newly diagnosed or recurrent childhood ALL bone marrow samples were analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities with conventional G-banding and interphase-fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) using probes to detect BCR/ABL fusions, cryptic TEL/AML1 and MLL rearrangements and p16(9p21) tumor suppressor gene deletions. G-banded karyotype analysis found clonal chromosomal aberrations in 50% of cases. With the use of complementary I-FISH techniques, ALL-specific structural and numerical changes could be identified in 70% of the patients. Nine cases (30%) had subtle chromosomal aberrations with prognostic importance that had not been detected in G-banded analysis. Conventional G-banding yielded additional information (rare and complex structural aberrations) in 19% of patients. The most common aberration (30%) was AML1 copy number increase present in G-banded hyperdiploid karyotype as a chromosome 21 tetrasomy in the majority of cases; one case displayed 5-6 copies and in another case amplification of AML1 gene on der(21) was combined with TEL/AML1 fusion of the homologue AML1 gene and deletion of the remaining TEL allele. High hiperdiploidy was detected in 6 cases, in one patient with normal G-banding karyotype. TEL/AML1 fusion signals were identified in four patients. Deletion of p16 locus was found in eight cases (23%), of which only two had cytogenetically visible rearrangements. G-banding in combination with I-FISH has produced major improvements in the sensitivity and accuracy of cytogenetic analysis of ALL patients and this method helps to achieve a more precise identification of different risk categories in order to choose the optimal treatment. PMID:18845499

  3. A Complementary Palette of NanoCluster Beacons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), which use few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters as reporters, are a type of activatable molecular probes that are low-cost and easy to prepare. While NCBs provide a high fluorescence enhancement ratio upon activation, their activation colors are currently limited. Here we report a simple method to design NCBs with complementary emission colors, creating a set of multicolor probes for homogeneous, separation-free detection. By systematically altering the position and the number of cytosines in the cluster-nucleation sequence, we have tuned the activation colors of NCBs to green (C8–8, 460 nm/555 nm); yellow (C5–5, 525 nm/585 nm); red (C3–4, 580 nm/635 nm); and near-infrared (C3–3, 645 nm/695 nm). At the same NCB concentration, the activated yellow NCB (C5–5) was found to be 1.3 times brighter than the traditional red NCB (C3–4). Three of the four colors (green, yellow, and red) were relatively spectrally pure. We also found that subtle changes in the linker sequence (down to the single-nucleotide level) could significantly alter the emission spectrum pattern of an NCB. When the length of linker sequences was increased, the emission peaks were found to migrate in a periodic fashion, suggesting short-range interactions between silver clusters and nucleobases. Size exclusion chromatography results indicated that the activated NCBs are more compact than their native duplex forms. Our findings demonstrate the unique photophysical properties and environmental sensitivities of few-atom DNA-templated silver clusters, which are not seen before in common organic dyes or luminescent crystals. PMID:25299363

  4. Reference trajectory generation for rehabilitation robots: complementary limb motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-02-01

    For gait rehabilitation robots, an important question is how to ensure stable gait, while avoiding any interaction forces between robot and human in case the patient walks correctly. To achieve this, the definition of "correct" gait needs to adapted both to the individual patient and to the situation. Recently, we proposed a method for online trajectory generation that can be applied for hemiparetic subjects. Desired states for one (disabled) leg are generated online based on the movements of the other (sound) leg. An instantaneous mapping between legs is performed by exploiting physiological interjoint couplings. This way, the patient generates the reference motion for the affected leg autonomously. The approach, called Complementary Limb Motion Estimation (CLME), is implemented on the LOPES gait rehabilitation robot and evaluated with healthy subjects in two different experiments. In a previously described study, subjects walk only with one leg, while the robot's other leg acts as a fake prosthesis, to simulate complete loss of function in one leg. This study showed that CLME ensures stable gait. In a second study, to be presented in this paper, healthy subjects walk with both their own legs to assess the interference with self-determined walking. Evaluation criteria are: Power delivered to the joints by the robot, electromyography (EMG) distortions, and kinematic distortions, all compared to zero torque control, which is the baseline of minimum achievable interference. Results indicate that interference of the robot is lower with CLME than with a fixed reference trajectory, mainly in terms of lowered exchanged power and less alteration of EMG. This implies that subjects can walk more naturally with CLME, and they are assisted less by the robot when it is not needed. Future studies with patients are yet to show whether these properties of CLME transfer to the clinical domain.

  5. Recent Patents of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L; Fung, Ching K; Leung, Alexander K C; Lam, Hung S; Lee, So L

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease affecting both adults and children worldwide. Affected patients may experience nasal congestion/stuffiness, rhinorrhea (anterior and/or posterior), nasal/ nasopharyngeal itching and sneezing. Allergen avoidance is the principal step in the management. Nasal saline irrigation to remove allergen (s) in the nose is a useful adjunctive therapy in the management of moderate to severe AR. Symptomatic relief and improved quality of life may be achieved in the majority of patients with appropriate pharmacotherapy. Mild-to-moderate cases are usually managed with either an oral second generation antihistamine or an intranasal corticosteroid. More severe cases may require treatment with an intranasal corticosteroid in combination with various oral medications. Patients who require medications for more than 6 months per year or have intolerable side effects from pharmacotherapy can be considered for immunotherapy. A wide range of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have also been proposed. This overview evaluates the evidence of use of CAM for AR. Some methods including acupuncture and herbal medicine have supportive evidence, but the efficacy of other CAM is controversial. Conversely, possible side effects of different modalities are often inadequately documented. The herbal formulae include Butterbur, Nigella sativa, Shi-Bi-Lin, Polyherbal formula, Grapeseed extract, Rosmarinic acid, Spirulina, Biminne, and Bhu-zhong-yi-qi-tong. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy and safety before they are employed in treating AR. This review article also discusses recent CAM patents for use in AR, which are exclusively traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concoctions primarily for oral consumption but two as topical spray. Only 8 pertinent patents, all TCM compositions for treating AR and registered in 2014, were obtained. Description about their efficacy is impressive but objective outcome evaluation tools are

  6. Comments on complementary and alternative medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reilly, D

    2001-01-01

    Despite the advances in Western medicine, up to one in three people in populations served by this medical system are seeking some form of unorthodox care each year, and Europe is no exception. Patients have driven this change, to the point where complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the second biggest growth industry in Europe. Often patients have to rely on the growing numbers of CAM practitioners with a variable standard of care that ranges from excellent to dangerous. Many practitioners work without regulation or even work illegally. Many orthodox health care professionals have shared their patients' concerns. Over the last 15 years, these practitioners have moved from silent interest to open enquiry and growing use. For example, approximately one in five of Scotland's general practitioners have received basic training in integrating homeopathy with orthodox practice. The demand for CAM is in part a search for a broader range of therapies, but is also a call for a different approach to care, with less emphasis on drugs, and a more whole-person approach. Mostly, people look to CAM when orthodoxy has failed. But CAM is also increasingly becoming a first-line intervention for some, because of the worry about the side effects of conventional treatments and a perception that orthodoxy has become dehumanized. With some exceptions, research is still in its early stages and lacks infrastructure. Patient satisfaction, empirical clinical outcome, and cost are beginning to be emphasized over mechanism of action or explanatory models. Recent official reports are calling for national and European-level enquiry and response. Future development is likely to emphasize integrative care. The challenge is to create better medical systems, with a whole-person emphasis, calling on a broader range of approaches than is currently orthodox. We seem to need a reunion of the art and science of medicine.

  7. Recent Patents of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L; Fung, Ching K; Leung, Alexander K C; Lam, Hung S; Lee, So L

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease affecting both adults and children worldwide. Affected patients may experience nasal congestion/stuffiness, rhinorrhea (anterior and/or posterior), nasal/ nasopharyngeal itching and sneezing. Allergen avoidance is the principal step in the management. Nasal saline irrigation to remove allergen (s) in the nose is a useful adjunctive therapy in the management of moderate to severe AR. Symptomatic relief and improved quality of life may be achieved in the majority of patients with appropriate pharmacotherapy. Mild-to-moderate cases are usually managed with either an oral second generation antihistamine or an intranasal corticosteroid. More severe cases may require treatment with an intranasal corticosteroid in combination with various oral medications. Patients who require medications for more than 6 months per year or have intolerable side effects from pharmacotherapy can be considered for immunotherapy. A wide range of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have also been proposed. This overview evaluates the evidence of use of CAM for AR. Some methods including acupuncture and herbal medicine have supportive evidence, but the efficacy of other CAM is controversial. Conversely, possible side effects of different modalities are often inadequately documented. The herbal formulae include Butterbur, Nigella sativa, Shi-Bi-Lin, Polyherbal formula, Grapeseed extract, Rosmarinic acid, Spirulina, Biminne, and Bhu-zhong-yi-qi-tong. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy and safety before they are employed in treating AR. This review article also discusses recent CAM patents for use in AR, which are exclusively traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concoctions primarily for oral consumption but two as topical spray. Only 8 pertinent patents, all TCM compositions for treating AR and registered in 2014, were obtained. Description about their efficacy is impressive but objective outcome evaluation tools are

  8. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  9. Are blur and disparity complementary cues to depth?

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Siciliano, Ryan A

    2015-02-01

    The image blur and binocular disparity of a 3D scene point both increase with distance in depth away from fixation. Perceived depth from disparity has been studied extensively and is known to be most precise near fixation. Perceived depth from blur is much less well understood. A recent experiment (Held, R. T, Cooper, E. A., & Banks, M. S. (2012). Current Biology, 22, 426-431) which used a volumetric stereo display found evidence that blur and disparity are complementary cues to depth, namely the disparity cue dominates over the blur cue near the fixation depth and blur dominates over disparity at depths that are far from fixation. Here we present a similar experiment but which used a traditional 3D display so that blur was produced by image processing rather than by the subjects' optics. Contrary to Held et al., we found that subjects did not rely more on blur to discriminate depth at distances far from fixation, even though a sufficient level of blur was available to do so. The discrepancy between the findings of the two studies can be explained in at least two ways. First, Held et al.'s subjects received trial-to-trial feedback in a training phase and may have learned how to perform the task using blur discrimination. Second, Held et al.'s volumetric stereo display may have provided other optical cues that indicated that the blur was real rather than rendered. The latter possibility would have significant implications about how depth is perceived from blur under different viewing conditions.

  10. Use of complementary therapies and non-prescribed medication in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, P; Johnson, M; Wallis, P

    2002-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease resort to complementary therapy and non-prescribed medication in the hope of improving their quality of life. In the US 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease reported the use of at least one form of complementary therapy for Parkinson's disease. Data for the UK are limited. A structured questionnaire was administered to consecutive patients attending a Parkinson's disease clinic. Patients were excluded if they were cognitively impaired, if they were living in an institution, or if they declined to take part. The participants were asked about current and previous use of complementary therapy in general and Parkinson's disease in particular and were presented with an extensive list of complementary therapies and non-prescribed medications. The response rate was 90% and 80 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty four per cent (n=44) reported the use of at least one form of complementary therapy or non-prescribed medication either for Parkinson's disease or for some other indication, of whom 31 (38.7% of the total sample) used it solely for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used complementary therapies for Parkinson's disease were massage (n=9) and aromatherapy (n=8). Non-prescribed medication was mainly used for indications other than Parkinson's disease and the commonest drugs used were simple analgesics (n=7), cod liver oil (n=5), and multivitamins (n=4). The use of complementary therapy for Parkinson's disease correlated significantly (Pearson's r=0.44, p=0.01) with a younger age at diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Comorbidity correlated significantly with complementary therapy use for indications other than Parkinson's disease (Pearson's r=0.29, p= 0.01). The use of complementary therapy for Parkinson's disease in this UK based clinic closely mimics that in the US. Non-pharmacological complementary therapy is mainly used for Parkinson's disease, while non-prescribed medication is more commonly used for

  11. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding. PMID:26364791

  12. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding.

  13. Analysis of multibeam's scalable column for complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enden D.; Tran, Cong; Prescop, Ted; Lam, David K.

    2012-03-01

    We present an analysis of the performance of an all electro-static electron-beam column designed for CEBL (Complementary Electron Beam Lithography). To meet the requirements of CEBL at advanced technology nodes (16 nm half-pitch and beyond), a beam size of < 20 nm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) and overlay accuracy of < 4 nm are needed. Beam current and beam energy must be optimized to achieve these specifications while meeting throughput requirements. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of the resolution of Multibeam's electron beam column as a function of beam energy. We focus on an analysis of beam energy below 30 keV, to avoid wafer heating and improve overlay accuracy. The beam size is analyzed with respect to aperture size and current. Spherical aberrations, chromatic aberrations and other effects at various beam energy levels are analyzed. At 7.5 or 5 keV beam energy, the 2 dominating factors in the beam spot size are the image size of the virtual source of the TFE (thermal field emitter) electron gun, chromatic and spherical aberrations. Performance of the column and process window to meet patterning requirements will be discussed.

  14. Improved complementary polymer pair system: switching for enzyme activity by PEGylated polymers.

    PubMed

    Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Tomita, Shunsuke; Kudo, Shinpei; Ganguli, Sumon; Nagasaki, Yukio; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2012-03-01

    The development of technology for on/off switching of enzyme activity is expected to expand the applications of enzyme in a wide range of research fields. We have previously developed a complementary polymer pair system (CPPS) that enables the activity of several enzymes to be controlled by a pair of oppositely charged polymers. However, it failed to control the activity of large and unstable α-amylase because the aggregation of the complex between anionic α-amylase and cationic poly(allylamine) (PAA) induced irreversible denaturation of the enzyme. To address this issue, we herein designed and synthesized a cationic copolymer with a poly(ethylene glycol) backbone, poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAMA-b-PEG). In contrast to PAA, α-amylase and β-galactosidase were inactivated by PEAMA-b-PEG with the formation of soluble complexes. The enzyme/PEAMA-b-PEG complexes were then successfully recovered from the complex by the addition of anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Thus, dispersion of the complex by PEG segment in PEAMA-b-PEG clearly plays a crucial role for regulating the activities of these enzymes, suggesting that PEGylated charged polymer is a new candidate for CPPS for large and unstable enzymes.

  15. Boundary objects in complementary and alternative medicine: acupuncture vs. Christian Science.

    PubMed

    Owens, Kellie

    2015-03-01

    Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems.

  16. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.

    PubMed

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

  17. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits

    PubMed Central

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (Vout) versus input (Vin) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of ≈45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239

  18. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon nanowire biofield-effect transistors as affinity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuexin; Rajan, Nitin K; Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Reed, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Affinity biosensors use biorecognition elements and transducers to convert a biochemical event into a recordable signal. They provides the molecule binding information, which includes the dynamics of biomolecular association and dissociation, and the equilibrium association constant. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon (Si) nanowires configured as a field-effect transistor (NW FET) have shown significant advantages for real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of biomolecules. Most research has focused on reducing the detection limit of Si-NW FETs but has provided less information about the real binding parameters of the biomolecular interactions. Recently, Si-NW FETs have been demonstrated as affinity biosensors to quantify biomolecular binding affinities and kinetics. They open new applications for NW FETs in the nanomedicine field and will bring such sensor technology a step closer to commercial point-of-care applications. This article summarizes the recent advances in bioaffinity measurement using Si-NW FETs, with an emphasis on the different approaches used to address the issues of sensor calibration, regeneration, binding kinetic measurements, limit of detection, sensor surface modification, biomolecule charge screening, reference electrode integration and nonspecific molecular binding.

  19. Holographic optical tweezers: microassembling of shape-complementary 2PP building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Mattern, Manuel; Köhler, Jannis; Aumann, Andreas; Zyla, Gordon; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Based on an ongoing trend in miniaturization and due to the increased complexity in MEMS-technology new methods of assembly need to be developed. Recent developments show that particularly optical forces are suitable to meet the requirements. The unique advantages of optical tweezers (OT) are attractive due to their contactless and precise manipulation forces. Spherical as well as non-spherical shaped pre-forms can already be assembled arbitrarily by using appropriate beam profiles generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM), resulting in a so called holographic optical tweezer (HOT) setup. For the fabrication of shape-complementary pre-forms, a two-photon-polymerization (2PP) process is implemented. The purpose of the process combination of 2PP and HOT is the development of an optical microprocessing platform for assembling arbitrary building blocks. Here, the optimization of the 2PP and HOT processes is described in order to allow the fabrication and 3D assembling of interlocking components. Results include the analysis of the dependence of low and high qualities of 2PP microstructures and their manufacturing accuracy for further HOT assembling processes. Besides, the applied detachable interlocking connections of the 2PP building blocks are visualized by an application example. In the long-term a full optical assembly method without applying any mechanical forces can thus be realized.

  20. Organic-on-silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor colour image sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Jeong; Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sul, Sangchul; Na, Kyoungwon; Lee, Gae Hwang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Bulliard, Xavier; Satoh, Ryu-Ichi; Yagi, Tadao; Ro, Takkyun; Im, Dongmo; Jung, Jungkyu; Lee, Myungwon; Lee, Tae-Yon; Han, Moon Gyu; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sangyoon

    2015-01-01

    Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) colour image sensors are representative examples of light-detection devices. To achieve extremely high resolutions, the pixel sizes of the CMOS image sensors must be reduced to less than a micron, which in turn significantly limits the number of photons that can be captured by each pixel using silicon (Si)-based technology (i.e., this reduction in pixel size results in a loss of sensitivity). Here, we demonstrate a novel and efficient method of increasing the sensitivity and resolution of the CMOS image sensors by superposing an organic photodiode (OPD) onto a CMOS circuit with Si photodiodes, which consequently doubles the light-input surface area of each pixel. To realise this concept, we developed organic semiconductor materials with absorption properties selective to green light and successfully fabricated highly efficient green-light-sensitive OPDs without colour filters. We found that such a top light-receiving OPD, which is selective to specific green wavelengths, demonstrates great potential when combined with a newly designed Si-based CMOS circuit containing only blue and red colour filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this state-of-the-art hybrid colour image sensor, we acquired a real full-colour image using a camera that contained the organic-on-Si hybrid CMOS colour image sensor. PMID:25578322

  1. Complementary and alternative pain therapy in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James N; Knapp, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    One primary reason patients go to emergency departments is for pain relief. Understanding the physiologic dynamics of pain, pharmacologic methods for treatment of pain, as well CAM therapies used in treatment of pain is important to all providers in emergency care. Asking patients about self-care and treatments used outside of the emergency department is an important part of the patient history. Complementary and alternative therapies are very popular for painful conditions despite the lack of strong research supporting some of their use. Even though evidenced-based studies that are double blinded and show a high degree of interrater observer reliability do not exist, patients will likely continue to seek out CAM therapies as a means of self-treatment and a way to maintain additional life control. Regardless of absolute validity of a therapy for some patients, it is the bottom line: "it seems to help my pain." Pain management distills down to a very simple endpoint, patient relief, and comfort. Sham or science, if the patient feels better, feels comforted, feels less stressed, and more functional in life and their practices pose no health risk, then supporting their CAM therapy creates a true wholistic partnership in their health care.CAM should be relatively inexpensive and extremely safe. Such is not always the case, as some patients have discovered with the use of botanicals. It becomes an imperative that all providers be aware of CAM therapies and informed about potential interactions and side effects when helping patients manage pain and explore adding CAM strategies for pain relief. The use of regulated breathing, meditation, guided imagery, or a massage for a pain sufferer are simple but potentially beneficial inexpensive aids to care that can be easily employed in the emergency department. Some CAM therapies covered here, while not easily practiced in the emergency department, exist as possibilities for exploration of patients after they leave, and may

  2. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%-40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms

  3. Complementary and alternative pain therapy in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James N; Knapp, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    One primary reason patients go to emergency departments is for pain relief. Understanding the physiologic dynamics of pain, pharmacologic methods for treatment of pain, as well CAM therapies used in treatment of pain is important to all providers in emergency care. Asking patients about self-care and treatments used outside of the emergency department is an important part of the patient history. Complementary and alternative therapies are very popular for painful conditions despite the lack of strong research supporting some of their use. Even though evidenced-based studies that are double blinded and show a high degree of interrater observer reliability do not exist, patients will likely continue to seek out CAM therapies as a means of self-treatment and a way to maintain additional life control. Regardless of absolute validity of a therapy for some patients, it is the bottom line: "it seems to help my pain." Pain management distills down to a very simple endpoint, patient relief, and comfort. Sham or science, if the patient feels better, feels comforted, feels less stressed, and more functional in life and their practices pose no health risk, then supporting their CAM therapy creates a true wholistic partnership in their health care.CAM should be relatively inexpensive and extremely safe. Such is not always the case, as some patients have discovered with the use of botanicals. It becomes an imperative that all providers be aware of CAM therapies and informed about potential interactions and side effects when helping patients manage pain and explore adding CAM strategies for pain relief. The use of regulated breathing, meditation, guided imagery, or a massage for a pain sufferer are simple but potentially beneficial inexpensive aids to care that can be easily employed in the emergency department. Some CAM therapies covered here, while not easily practiced in the emergency department, exist as possibilities for exploration of patients after they leave, and may

  4. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John’s wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve

  5. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Expenditure on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Sherman, Laura M.; Davis, Roger B.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Shenton, Martha E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults. These symptoms are often refractory to standard therapies, and patients may consequently opt for complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM). We sought to determine the demand for CAM by those with neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to those without neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by out-of-pocket expenditure. Method We compared CAM expenditure between US adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 23,393) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Symptoms included depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss. CAM was defined per guidelines from the National Institutes of Health as mind-body therapies, biological therapies, manipulation therapies, or alternative medical systems. Expenditure on CAM by those without neuropsychiatric symptoms was compared to those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Of the adults surveyed, 37% had ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom and spent $ 14.8 billion out-of-pocket on CAM. Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely than those without neuropsychiatric symptoms to spend on CAM (27.4% vs 20.3%, P < .001). Likelihood to spend on CAM increased with number of symptoms (27.2% with ≥ 3 symptoms, P < .001). After adjustment was made for confounders using logistic regression, those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom remained more likely to spend on CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.22–1.48), and the likelihood increased to 1.55 (95% Cl, 1.34–1.79) for ≥ 3 symptoms. Anxiety (OR = 1.40 [95% Cl, 1.22–1.60]) and excessive sleepiness (OR=1.36 [95% Cl, 1.21–1.54]) were the most closely associated with CAM expenditure. Conclusions Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom had disproportionately higher demand for CAM than those without symptoms. Research regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of CAM is limited; therefore, future research should evaluate

  6. Two Complementary Strategies for New Physics Searches at Lepton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hooberman, Benjamin Henry

    2009-07-06

    In this thesis I present two complementary strategies for probing beyond-the-Standard Model physics using data collected in e+e- collisions at lepton colliders. One strategy involves searching for effects at low energy mediated by new particles at the TeV mass scale, at which new physics is expected to manifest. Several new physics scenarios, including Supersymmetry and models with leptoquarks or compositeness, may lead to observable rates for charged lepton-flavor violating processes, which are forbidden in the Standard Model. I present a search for lepton-flavor violating decays of the Υ(3S) using data collected with the BABAR detector. This study establishes the 90% confidence level upper limits BF(Υ(3S) → eτ) < 5.0 x 10-6 and BF(Υ(3S) → μτ) < 4.1 x 10-6 which are used to place constraints on new physics contributing to lepton-flavor violation at the TeV mass scale. An alternative strategy is to increase the collision energy above the threshold for new particles and produce them directly. I discuss research and development efforts aimed at producing a vertex tracker which achieves the physics performance required of a high energy lepton collider. A small-scale vertex tracker prototype is constructed using Silicon sensors of 50 μm thickness and tested using charged particle beams. This tracker achieves the targeted impact parameter resolution of σLP = (5⊕10 GeV/pT) as well as a longitudinal vertex resolution of (260 ± 10) μm, which is consistent with the requirements of a TeV-scale lepton collider. This detector research and development effort must be motivated and directed by simulation studies of physics processes. Investigation of a dark matter-motivated Supersymmetry scenario is presented, in which the dark matter is composed of Supersymmetric neutralinos. In this scenario, studies of the e+e- → H0A0 production process allow for

  7. Patterns of Complementary Therapy Use for Symptom Management for Older Rural Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on complementary therapy use among adults with diabetes are limited by crude use measures and lack of specificity of use for treating diabetes. Data are from a study including baseline and repeated 3-day assessments of complementary therapy use among rural African American and White older (age ≥64) adults (n=71). Most commonly used complementary therapies for diabetes at baseline included prayer (88.7%), food/beverages (50.7%), herbs (11.3%) and home remedies (9.9%). In repeated measures (1131 interviews), prayer was used on 57.2% of days, followed by food/beverages (12.7%), herbs (3.4%) and home remedies (2.7%). 56.3% who reported praying did so on ≥5 reporting periods; other complementary therapy use was sporadic. These data show, with the exception of prayer and food/beverages, limited complementary therapy use for diabetes treatment among rural older adults, and less inconsistent use patterns of most complementary therapies. Further research is needed to understand the motivations and patterns of complementary therapy use for diabetes patients. PMID:24244893

  8. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081

  9. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  10. Complementary Therapy Use and Health Self-Management Among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Chapman, Christine; Quandt, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This article describes dimensions of complementary therapy use among rural older adults, employs these dimensions to delineate sets of complementary therapy use, and describes the personal characteristics related to each set of complementary therapy use. Methods Data are from in-depth interviews conducted with 62 African American and White rural older adults. Results Three dimensions of complementary therapy use are delineated: types of therapies used, mindfulness in therapy use, and sharing information with conventional health care providers. The intersection of these dimensions indicates 5 patterned sets of complementary therapy use among rural older adults: (a) mindful use of only home remedies; (b) mindful use of home remedies and contemporary supplements; (c) mindful use of home remedies, contemporary supplements, and complementary practices; (d) nonmindful use of home remedies and contemporary supplements; and (e) use of conventional care only. Involvement in the 5 sets of therapy use is related to sex, ethnicity, educational attainment, and migration. Discussion Understanding how older adults include sets of complementary therapies in their health self-management is important for improving their health care resources, expectations, awareness, and priorities. PMID:19289376

  11. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Mazimization-Complementary Superiority Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. X.; Wang, Y. J.; Teng, J. Y.; Xi, X. X.

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, P < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal.

  12. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Maximization-Complementary Superiority (LCMCS) Method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal. PMID:26213935

  13. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Maximization-Complementary Superiority (LCMCS) Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]′), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal. PMID:26213935

  14. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen in Subsided Land Using the Local Correlation Maximization-Complementary Superiority (LCMCS) Method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal.

  15. [Western medicine and alternative medicines: can they be complementary? Conceptual reflections].

    PubMed

    Duarte Gómez, María Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    The present article is part of a series of reflections from an intercultural approach to health systems and corresponding public policies, motivated by findings from a study on two intercultural hospitals in rural Mexico. The frequent utilization of complementary and alternative medicines by the local population and the hegemonic health model that excludes them make the existing health system an unsatisfactory response to people's needs. We present the concept of complementariness as a health system component and propose priorities on this issue, taking different approaches: complementariness as a public policy, as an institutional project, or as an individual decision by the therapist or patient. PMID:12764479

  16. An external cloak with arbitrary cross section based on complementary medium and coordinate transformation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengfu; Yang, Jingjing; Huang, Ming; Xiao, Zhe; Peng, Jinhui

    2011-01-17

    Electromagnetic cloak is a device which makes an object "invisible" for electromagnetic irradiation in a certain frequency range. Material parameters for the complementary medium-assisted external cylindrical cloak with arbitrary cross section are derived based on combining the concepts of complementary media and transformation optics. It can make the object with arbitrary shape outside the cloaking domain invisible, as long as an "antiobject" is embedded in the complementary media layer. Moreover, we find that the shape, size and the position of the "antiobject" is dependent on the contour of the cloak and the coordinate transformation. The external cloaking effect has been verified by full-wave simulation. PMID:21263655

  17. Development of the adult and child complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Stussman, Barbara J; Bethell, Christina D; Gray, Caroline; Nahin, Richard L

    2013-11-23

    The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. They filled the void for large-scale, nationally representative, publicly available datasets on the out-of-pocket costs, prevalence, and reasons for use of complementary medicine in the U.S. Despite their wide use, this is the first article describing the multi-faceted and largely qualitative processes undertaken to develop the surveys. We hope this in-depth description enables policy makers and researchers to better judge the content validity and utility of the questionnaires and their resultant publications.

  18. Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Albishi, Ali; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented. PMID:25325340

  19. Complementary characterization data in support of uniaxially aligned electrospun nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Samaneh; Staiger, Mark P.; Buunk, Neil; Fessard, Alison; Tucker, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents complementary data corresponding to characterization tests done for our research article entitled “Uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers for advanced nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system” (Karimi et al., 2016) [1]. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and epoxy resin were selected as a model system and the effect of electrospun fiber loading on polymer properties was examined in conjunction with two manufacturing methods. A novel electrospinning technology for production of uniaxially aligned nanofiber arrays was used. A conventional wet lay-up fabrication method is compared against a novel, hybrid electrospinning–electrospraying approach. The structure and thermomechanical properties of resulting composite materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile testing. For discussion of obtained results please refer to the research paper (Karimi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977430

  20. Near-infrared fluorescence goggle system with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor imaging sensor and see-through display

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Njuguna, Raphael; Matthews, Thomas; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Mondal, Suman; Tang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have developed a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence goggle system based on the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor active pixel sensor imaging and see-through display technologies. The fluorescence goggle system is a compact wearable intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system that can guide surgery in real time. The goggle is capable of detecting fluorescence of indocyanine green solution in the picomolar range. Aided by NIR quantum dots, we successfully used the fluorescence goggle to guide sentinel lymph node mapping in a rat model. We further demonstrated the feasibility of using the fluorescence goggle in guiding surgical resection of breast cancer metastases in the liver in conjunction with NIR fluorescent probes. These results illustrate the diverse potential use of the goggle system in surgical procedures. PMID:23728180

  1. The Mind-Body Connection - Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health Past ... To Find Out More At medlineplus.gov , type "mind-body" or "emotions" into the Search box. There is ...

  2. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Provider: A Workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  3. Talking about complementary and alternative medicine with your health care provider: A workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  4. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with your Health Care Provider: A workbook and tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  5. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips

    Cancer.gov

    A workbook to help patients and doctors talk about the use of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) during and after cancer care. Worksheets, tips, and resources are provided for patients and doctors to help track CAM use.

  6. Complementary and alternative therapy use by older adults in three ethnically diverse populations: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    King, Margaret O'Brien; Pettigrew, Amy C

    2004-01-01

    Americans have overwhelmingly embraced complementary and alternative therapies. Although the primary purpose of this study was to refine a questionnaire on complementary and alternative therapy use by older adults, the findings of this pilot study identified knowledge and use of complementary and alternative therapies in a convenience sample of 60 older adults, 54 to 92 years of age from three ethnically diverse senior centers. Eighty percent of the participants used two or more therapies. There were no significant differences in therapy use by ethnicity. The most commonly used therapies were prayer, vitamins, diet, massage, and meditation. The participants rated the effectiveness of therapies higher than their knowledge of the therapies. Older adults need accurate information from health care providers to make safe decisions regarding the combination of complementary therapies and prescribed treatments to reduce the risk of interaction.

  7. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Dermatology in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Erin T.; Davis, Scott A.; Taylor, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has an increasing presence in dermatology. Complementary therapies have been studied in many skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Objectives: This study sought to assess oral CAM use in dermatology relative to medicine as a whole in the United States, using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Design: Variables studied include patient demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and CAM documented at the visits. A brief literature review of the top 5 CAM treatments unique to dermatology visits was performed. Results: Most CAM users in both dermatology and medicine as a whole were female and white and were insured with private insurance or Medicare. Fish oil, glucosamine, glucosamine chondroitin, and omega-3 were the most common complementary supplements used in both samples. Conclusions: CAM use in dermatology appears to be part of a larger trend in medicine. Knowledge of common complementary therapies can help dermatologists navigate this expanding field. PMID:24517329

  9. Improved methods of forming monolithic integrated circuits having complementary bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannon, R. O., Jr.; Cashion, W. F.; Stehlin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Two new processes form complementary transistors in monolithic semiconductor circuits, require fewer steps /infusions/ than previous methods, and eliminate such problems as nonuniform h sub FE distribution, low yield, and large device formation.

  10. Predicted efficacy of the Palestinian wheat flour fortification program: complementary analysis of biochemical and dietary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to 1) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and 2) assess the suitabi...

  11. Receptor imaging: competitive or complementary to antibody imaging?

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S J

    1997-04-01

    Both radiolabeled ligands to specific receptors on cell surfaces and radiolabeled antibodies to specific cell surface epitopes provide new opportunities to scintigraphically identify tumors. Both radiolabeled ligands and antibodies are characterized by high orders of affinity for their respective binding sites and offer greater specificity over the agents previously used for tumor imaging including gallium 67, thallium 201, technetium 99m MIBI, and flourine-18-labeled deoxyglucose. The two classes of tumor-binding tracers differ primarily based on molecular weight although the nonspecific portion of the immunoglobulins are also antigenic. Increased molecular weight results in prolonged plasma survival, which increases the interval available for tumor permeation but also produces increased nonspecific background activity, which impairs image contrast. At the present time, encouraging clinical results have been obtained with both agent types, but further development is necessary. Receptor-ligand tracers provide better contrast than antibodies or antibody fragments. Receptor-ligand imaging technology awaits further developments in an understanding of the biology of receptor expression in normal tissue and tumors and improved radio-chemical techniques and pharmacology to define the radioligands of choice. Radiolabeled antibodies will probably evolve in the direction of increased use of antibody fragments and possibly the identification and polymerization of epitope-recognition units in order to provide high-affinity, nonantigenic, small molecular weight tracers that will be more permeable in tumors and clear more rapidly from background tissue. Rather than compete or complement each other, the techniques will likely produce a hybrid technology, radiolabeled molecular recognition units, with the better features of both technologies including high binding affinity (low dissociation constant) for surface membrane epitopes, including receptor sites. PMID:9144853

  12. Complementary coding optical stealth transmission based on amplified spontaneous emission light source.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Chen, Yinfang; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Su, Guorui

    2014-11-17

    Complementary encoder of stealth signal is proposed and demonstrated for coding, modulating and enhancing the privacy of optical stealth transmission. With complementary encoding, the stealth signal carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light keeps the same characteristic to ASE noise and can be concealed well under public channel. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme and show the stealth signal has the same impact on public channel in transmission performance, compared to the ASE noise.

  13. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at <3 months (two studies), 4 months (2 studies) or 20 weeks (one study) was associated with a higher BMI in childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight. PMID:23736360

  14. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  15. Use of Complementary Therapies for Cancer Symptom Management: Results of the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joel G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary therapies are often used as adjuncts to conventional treatment by individuals with cancer. Patterns of use of these practices and products represent important data for health care providers in delivering adequate patient care. Design This study compared use of complementary therapies between the cancer and noncancer populations in the United States through secondary analyses of the 2007 National Health Interview Survey data. The analysis compared use by cancer survivors (those individuals self-reporting a diagnosis of cancer; n=1785) and individuals without cancer (n=21,585), as well as self-report of symptoms affecting health-related quality of life (HQoL). Results Data suggest similar patterns of use between cancer survivors and the general population; however, a greater percentage of cancer survivors use complementary modalities. Individuals with cancer reported a greater percentage of use of complementary therapies overall, with cancer status significantly associated with ever having used complementary and alternative medicine (p<0.001). The five most common complementary practices and products used by individuals with cancer and controls were vitamin/mineral supplements, prayer for self, intercessory prayer, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, and herbal therapies. Additionally, as might be expected, individuals with cancer experience greater frequency of deleterious symptoms associated with decreased HQoL. Individuals with cancer were more likely to sleep fewer than 7 hours (p=0.0108) or greater than 9 hours (p=0.0108), and have increased insomnia (p<0.001), excessive sleepiness (p<0.001), depression (p<0.001), and anxiety (p<0.001) versus those without cancer. Conclusions The current findings may inform health care providers about the use of complementary and integrative practices and products by patients with cancer in an effort to manage symptoms of the disease. Additionally, these results may also be used to promote

  16. Measuring What Medical Students Think about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): A Pilot Study of the "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Survey"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Ann W.; Sierpina, Victor S.; Boisaubin, Eugene V.; Bulik, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    With increasing national and international support for the development of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) curricula in American medical schools, it is essential to measure what learners know and believe about CAM in order to assess outcomes of new teaching efforts. This paper describes the development and initial results of a survey…

  17. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    PubMed

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. PMID:22555185

  18. Complementary feeding patterns in Europe with a special focus on Italy.

    PubMed

    Caroli, M; Mele, R M; Tomaselli, M A; Cammisa, M; Longo, F; Attolini, E

    2012-10-01

    Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The commonest risk factors for early introduction of solid foods have been shown to be smoking mothers of young age, low SES and no breastfeeding. The foods most frequently introduced as first solids are fruit and cereals followed by other foods that vary depending on the country of residence and the infants' type of feeding. Insufficient updated information has been made available in Europe in terms of infants' nutrient intake during complementary feeding, as well as on the potential acute metabolic effects of complementary feeding. Websites, e-forums and blogs on complementary feeding are widely spread in the web. The recipes and daily menus published in food industry websites are often nutritionally incorrect. Baby led-weaning (BLW) is based on the principle that babies, upon being started on complementary foods, should be allowed to eat whatever food they want (regular family foods included) in its normal shape. No nutrient intake and metabolic data are nevertheless available about BLW. The current scenario in terms of our understanding of complementary feeding in Europe opens several new research avenues. Not using and not improving our current knowledge of nutrition to improve children's health represents an infringement of children's rights.

  19. Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), responds to opportunities presented by NASA space missions and systems, and seeds commerical applications of the emerging robotics technology. The scope of the JPL Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program comprises three major segments of activity: NASA robotic systems for planetary exploration, robotic technology and terrestrial spin-offs, and technology for non-NASA sponsors. Significant technical achievements have been reached in each of these areas, including complete telerobotic system prototypes that have built and tested in realistic scenarios relevant to prospective users. In addition, the program has conducted complementary basic research and created innovative technology and terrestrial applications, as well as enabled a variety of commercial spin-offs.

  20. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene: a complementary alternative to PDMS for nanoimprint stamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Andrew I. M.; Vasiev, Iskandar; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-04-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used by many for nanoimprint applications due to its affordability, ease of preparation, mechanical flexibility, compatibility with imprint resists and transparency to UV light. However PDMS is notoriously flexible, tacky and permeable to air. Here fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) is considered as a viable and versatile alternative material for nanoimprint stamps. FEP possesses many of the desirable nanoimprint attributes associated with PDMS but crucially also features a range of complementary characteristics, including an order of magnitude more mechanical strength allowing it to handle higher loads than PDMS, an intrinsically non-stick surface and is compatible with oxygen sensitive resists. Unlike elastomeric polymers, FEP is glassy so patterning may be realised via hot embossing. Not only is this a facile and rapid means of physical structuring but it also facilitates combinatorial patterning, providing a versatility beyond that of traditional casting materials. Due to the intrinsically slow creep of FEP both micro- and nanopatterning are successfully performed sequentially. Feature sizes from 45 nm were successfully realised via the hot-embossing method. To further demonstrate the potential of the material, a modified computer numerical control machine is used. It is capable of photo-, nanoimprint- and laser lithography in conjunction with patterned FEP foils. The tool is used to perform pattern transfer into a developmental nanoimprint resist from Micro Resist Technology, mr-NIL210 XP, and Nano SU-8 3005 negative tone photo resist from MicroChem. Ultimately three-tier lithography is performed in unison and advantageous step-and-repeat performance is achieved with fabricated FEP imprint stamps as they demould more compliantly and resist pressure and contamination better than PDMS.