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Sample records for complementary hfet technology

  1. Complementary HFET technology for wireless digital and microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1996-09-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. Digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors has been shown to operate with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ. Power consumption is dominated by leakage currents of the p-channel FET, while performance is determined by the characteristics of 0.7 {mu}m gate length devices. As a microwave technology, the nJFET forms the basis of low-power cirucitry without any modification to the digital process. Narrow band amplification with a 0.7x100 {mu}m nJFET has been demonstrated at 2.1-2.4 GHz with gains of 8-10 dB at 1 mW power. These amplifiers showed a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. Next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {mu}m gate lengths have also been developed. Cutoff frequencies of 49 and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {mu}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable enhancements in both digital and microwave circuits.

  2. Complementary HFET technology for low-power mixed-mode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sloan, L.R.; Hafich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. An earlier digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors which operated with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ is reviewed. Then work demonstrating the applicability of the digital nJFET device as a low-power microwave transistor in a hybrid microwave amplifier without any modification to the digital process is presented. A narrow band amplifier with a 0.7 {times} 100 {micro}m nJFET as the active element was designed, constructed, and tested. At 1 mW operating power, the amplifier showed 9.7 dB of gain at 2.15 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. In addition, next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {micro}m gate lengths were developed. Cutoff frequencies, f{sub t} of 49 GHz and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable both digital and microwave circuits with enhanced performance.

  3. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  4. Complementary LED technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-05-01

    Organic semiconducting molecules and colloidal quantum dots both make for excellent luminescent materials. Compared with the more established solid-state light-emitting technologies, organic LEDs and quantum-dot LEDs are in their infancy, yet they offer unique properties.

  5. Building on basic metagenomics with complementary technologies

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Falk; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Metagenomics, the application of random shotgun sequencing to environmental samples, is a powerful approach for characterizing microbial communities. However, this method only represents the cornerstone of what can be achieved using a range of complementary technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, cell sorting and microfluidics. Together, these approaches hold great promise for the study of microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:18177506

  6. Complementary heterojunction FET technology for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, George

    1993-01-01

    A 32-bit serial integer multiplier was designed to investigate the yield and performance of complementary heterojunction FET (CHFET) technology. This is the largest reported CHFET logic circuit. The maximum operating frequency was 500 MHz. Very low power dissipation of 3 mW was obtained at 5 MHz operation. Single-event upset (SEU) characteristics of CHFET devices and latches were also measured and indicates the potential for SEU hard circuits for space and military applications.

  7. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, , D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-12-31

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime.

  8. Ion implantation for high performance III-V JFETS and HFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ion implantation has been an enabling technology for realizing many high performance electronic devices in III-V semiconductor materials. We report on advances in ion implantation processing for GaAs JFETs (joint field effect transistors), AlGaAs/GaAs HFETs (heterostructure field effect transistors), and InGaP or InAlP-barrier HFETs. The GaAs JFET has required the development of shallow p-type implants using Zn or Cd with junction depths down to 35 nm after the activation anneal. Implant activation and ionization issues for AlGaAs are reported along with those for InGaP and InAlP. A comprehensive treatment of Si-implant doping of AlGaAs is given based on donor ionization energies and conduction band density-of-states dependence on Al-composition. Si and Si+P implants in InGaP are shown to achieve higher electron concentrations than for similar implants in AlGaAs due to absence of the deep donor level. An optimized P co- implantation scheme in InGaP is shown to increase the implanted donor saturation level by 65%.

  9. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  10. Binaural Beat Technology: A Complementary Path to Post Deployment Wellness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-16

    brainwave frequency (4-7 Hz) in music using Binaural Beat Technology (BBT) compared to using music alone on the cardiovascular stress response in military...service members with chronic stress following deployment. Design: Double-blinded, randomized, pre and post-intervention trial Methods...for at least three consecutive nights per week, for four weeks. A 20-minute pre and post-intervention heartrate variability (HRV) stress test and

  11. CLEANSPACE 'Small Debris Removal By Laser Illumination And Complementary Technologies'

    SciTech Connect

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe

    2011-11-10

    Studies show that the number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Especially, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground based laser solution which can remove at low expense and in a non-destructive way hazardous debris of decimetric size around selected space assets appears as one highly promising answer. This solution will be studied in the frame of CLEANSPACE project which is a part of the FP7 space theme. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is threefold: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the CLEANSPACE project.

  12. CLEANSPACE ``Small Debris Removal By Laser Illumination And Complementary Technologies''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that the number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Especially, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground based laser solution which can remove at low expense and in a non-destructive way hazardous debris of decimetric size around selected space assets appears as one highly promising answer. This solution will be studied in the frame of CLEANSPACE project which is a part of the FP7 space theme. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is threefold: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the CLEANSPACE project.

  13. New high-performance complementary bipolar technology featuring 45-GHz NPN and 20-GHz PNP devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Martin C.; Osborne, Peter H.; Thomas, Simon; Cook, Trevor

    1999-09-01

    A new high performance silicon complementary bipolar technology is introduced. In addition a novel process 'enhancement' technique based on a local oxidation is described and demonstrated and NPN devices with cut-off frequencies up to 45GHz and PNP devices of 20GHz have been fabricate. We propose that the technique we have used will allow specific transistors within a circuit to be optimized, as required.

  14. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials.

  15. Heterostructure designs for enhanced performance and reliability in GaN HFETs: camelback channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. H.; Wu, M.; Morkoç, H.; Ramonas, M.; Matulionis, A.

    2011-02-01

    The electric fields present in a heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) give rise to large densities of hot electrons and hot phonons not in equilibrium with the lattice (thus the term "hot"). Hot electrons give rise to an accumulation of hot phonons, which play a deleterious role in device performance and reliability, particularly as 2DEG densities increase. Thus, it is important that hot phonon effects be mitigated. The hot phonon effect arises due to the fact that LO phonon (longitudinal optical phonon) scattering is the primary scattering mechanism at high fields in GaN, and that LO phonons tend to accumulate in the channel due to long lifetimes and low group velocity; minimizing the existence in time of hot phonons in the channel is the overall goal. That said, the lifetime of the LO phonons decaying into propagating LA modes is not constant, and it is through the exploitation of this fact that one gains the ability to enhance the performance and reliability of HFETs. This has been evidenced by operating HFETs at particular bias conditions which tend to lend themselves to relatively short LO phonon lifetimes. Alternatively, minimization of hot phonon lifetimes may be achieved through novel device designs. In this work, we outline designs for minimizing hot phonon effects in HFET devices with sheet densities >2 x 1013 cm-2. We propose "camel-back" structures with wavefunction "spreading layers" to maximize 2DEG charge while mitigating hot phonon effects arising from high density 2DEGs.

  16. In-situ, Gate Bias Dependent Study of Neutron Irradiation Effects on AlGaN/GaN HFETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    equivalent neutron fluence in gallium arsenide. Gallium arsenide was chosen instead of Si due to more similar structure to GaN. The equivalent fluence...IN-SITU GATE BIAS DEPENDENT STUDY OF NEUTRON IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON ALGAN/GAN HFETS THESIS...AFIT/GNE/ENP/10M-06 IN-SITU GATE BIAS DEPENDENT STUDY OF NEUTRON IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON ALGAN/GAN HFETS THESIS Presented to the

  17. Integrated Active Magnetic Probe in Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    A novel magnetic probe has been designed and fabricated by 0.15 μm five-metal (4M + thick metal) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology to achieve both a high sensitivity and a high spatial resolution. A detecting coil having metal multilayers, a two-stage differential amplifier, a differential-to-single-ended converter, and an output buffer are integrated on a single chip. The probe is referred to as an active probe, and it has a feature to distinguish magnetic field from detected electromagnetic emissions by means of a two-turn differential coil structure and a circuit technique using a wideband differential-to-single-ended converter with a high common-mode rejection. Measurement results show the effectiveness of the active magnetic probe with the function of on-chip amplification and electric field suppression, as well as electrical switching with common-mode voltage (Vcom). Moreover, for the first time, a magnetic field distribution is visualized with an active probe.

  18. GaN HFET-Based DC/DC Converters for Low Power RF Satellite Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamare, Guillaume; Maynadier, Paul; Schneider, Henri

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation and prototyping of a low power, multiple outputs, isolated DC/DC converter for 100 V telecom satellite applications, using enhancement-mode GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) to enable 1 MHz switching frequencies.Radiation-hardened power MOSFETs are currently the main drivers for both cost and size (because of their limited switching frequency) of existing DC/DC converters. Commercially available normally-off GaN HFETs are very promising replacements, thanks to their high switching speed and intrinsic radiation hardness.In this study different designs, built around various isolated topologies, were compared for a typical low power RF application (10W) with a switching frequency of 1 MHz. Calculations and simulations helped select the most adequate architecture in terms of size and efficiency. A prototype was then built and its performance measured. Electromagnetic compatibility was evaluated by mating the power supply to its RF equipment.

  19. Development of an improved local-ingredient-based complementary food and technology transfer to rural housewives.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Traoré, Tahirou; Zèba, Augustin; Tiemtoré, Saïdou; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Donnen, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    Food technology transfer to rural households, based on local ingredients, is a relevant and sustainable strategy to ensure better nutrition of young children. Objective. To develop an improved mush based on local ingredients and evaluate the potential for transferring its technology to rural housewives. We developed a flour-based food using Alicom software and performed laboratory trials to evaluate its actual nutritional quality. Then we recruited housewives from each of the 27 project villages and trained them in flour production and mush preparation twice daily, 6 days a week, for 26 weeks. Mush was sampled during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 and evaluated for actual flow distance and dry matter content, which served to estimate energy density and iron and zinc contents. The laboratory trials reported average energy densities of 103 kcal/l00 g, iron contents of 2.6 mg/100 kcal, and zinc contents of 1.2 mg/100 kcal. The average (+/- SD) energy densities of the mush samples obtained during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 were 103.0 +/- 5.6, 103.3 +/- 5.2, 107.9 +/- 11.5, and 101.3 +/- 8.7 kcal/100 g, respectively. The average iron contents were 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.6 +/- 0.3, and 1.8 +/- 0.8 mg/ 100 kcal, respectively, and the average zinc contents were 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.7 +/- 0.1, and 1.6 +/- 0.2 mg/100 kcal. Developing a suitable complementary food from local ingredients and educating households in nutrition and use of local products are feasible. Such education should come with measures aimed at improving the accessibility of some ingredients to ensure feasibility and sustainability.

  20. DC characteristics improvement of recessed gate GaN-based HFETs grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. T.; Su, Y. K.; Lai, W. C.; Huang, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the recessed gate structure on DC characteristics of n-channel depletion mode heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was demonstrated. The recessed gate process was carried out by using photo-enhanced chemical (PEC) wet etching. There were improvements on the electrical characteristics after using the recessed gate AlGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN/InGaN/GaN HFET structures because of the better gate controllability to the drain current. It was also found that the gate voltage, VGS, of the transconductance peak value shifted toward positive bias for the recessed gate structure. The leakage current, the transconductance ( Gm) and the saturation current of the recessed gate AlGaN/GaN/InGaN/GaN HFET with a 30-nm-thick Si-doped GaN cap layer are 1.95 mA/mm, 94.82 mA/mm and 230 mA/mm, respectively. This performance is quite better than that of the device with no recessed gate structure.

  1. Technology and First Electrical Characteristics of Complementary NPN and PNP InAlAs/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Delong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Sawdai, Donald; Chin, Patrick; Block, Tom

    2002-02-01

    A selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth approach is presented and applied in the demonstration of complementary InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology for monolithic integration of NPN and PNP HBTs. State-of-art performance has been observed: The DC gain was 35 for both integrated NPN and PNP HBTs. fT of 79.6 GHz and fmax of 109 GHz were achieved for NPN devices while fT of 11.6 GHz and fmax of 22.6 GHz were achieved for PNP devices. Little performance degradation has been observed compared with same design NPN or PNP HBT layers grown on individual substrates. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) based on complementary InP HBT technology have been studied for the first time using this technology and their electrical characteristics are presented.

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transient phase, stabilized phase and hot transient phase of the cold temperature FTP test in § 86.244 of..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator...

  3. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transient phase, stabilized phase and hot transient phase of the cold temperature FTP test in § 86.244 of..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator...

  4. 0.5 {mu}m E/D AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field effect transistor technology with DFET threshold adjust implant

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Briggs, R.D.; Heise, J.A.; Robertson, P.J.; Hafich, M.F.

    1997-04-01

    A doped-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (H-FET) technology has been developed with self-aligned refractory gate processing and using both enhancement- and depletion-mode transistors. D-HFET devices are obtained with a threshold voltage adjust implant into material designed for E-HFET operation. Both E- and D-HFETs utilize W/WSi bilayer gates, sidewall spacers, and rapid thermal annealing for controlling short channel effects. The 0.5 {mu}m E- HFETs (D-HFETs) have been demonstrated with transconductance of 425 mS/mm (265-310 mS/mm) and f{sub t} of 45-50 GHz. Ring oscillator gate delays of 19 ps with a power of 0.6 mW have been demonstrated using direct coupled FET logic. These results are comparable to previous doped-channel HFET devices and circuits fabricated by selective reactive ion etching rather than ion implantation for threshold voltage adjustment.

  5. Physical Modeling and Reliability Mechanisms in High Voltage AIGaN/GaN HFETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of Active Layer Design on Quantum Efficiency of InGaN Light Emitting Diodes ”, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices... Nitride Materials and Devices VI, SPIE 2011 62     24. Peter H. Handel and Hadis Morkoç, “1/f Noise in Schottky Diodes ”, SPIE Photonic West...Vol. 7939 Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices VI, SPIE 2011 25. Peter H. Handel and Hadis Morkoç, “New Factors Affecting HFET Stability, 1/f Noise

  6. Window for Optimal Frequency Operation and Reliability of 3DEG and 2DEG Channels for Oxide Microwave MESFETs and HFETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    significantly longer than 1 ps—if the thermal walkout is ignored. In conclusion, heavy impurity scattering masks the hot-electron energy relaxation...Abbreviations, and Acronyms FET – field-effect transistor MESFET – metal -semiconductor field-effect transistor HFET – hetereostructure field effect

  7. Gate leakage current induced trapping in AlGaN/GaN Schottky-gate HFETs and MISHFETs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the correlation between the off-state leakage current and dynamic on-resistance (RON) transients in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with and without a gate insulator under various stress conditions. The RON transients in a Schottky-gate HFET (SGHFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor HFET (MISHFET) were observed after applying various amounts of drain-source bias stress. The gate insulator in the MISHFET effectively reduced the electron injection from the gate, thereby mitigating the degradation in dynamic switching performance. However, at relaxation times exceeding 10 ms, additional detrapping occurred in both the SGHFET and MISHFET when the applied stress exceeded a critical voltage level, 50 V for the SGHFET and 60 V for MISHFET, resulting in resistive leakage current build-up and the formation of hot carriers. These high-energy carriers acted as ionized traps in the channel or buffer layers, which subsequently caused additional trapping and detrapping to occur in both HFETs during the dynamic switching test conducted. PMID:25258601

  8. Maqasid al-Shariah as a Complementary Framework for Conventional Bioethics: Application in Malaysian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Fatwa.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdul Halim; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Saifuddeen, Shaikh Mohd

    2017-09-11

    Rapid development in the area of assisted reproductive technology (ART), has benefited mankind by addressing reproductive problems. However, the emergence of new technologies and techniques raises various issues and discussions among physicians and the masses, especially on issues related to bioethics. Apart from solutions provided using conventional bioethics framework, solutions can also be derived via a complementary framework of bioethics based on the Higher Objectives of the Divine Law (Maqasid al-Shariah) in tackling these problems. This approach in the Islamic World has been applied and localised in the Malaysian context. Thus, this paper highlights a conceptual theoretical framework for solving current bioethical issues, with a special focus on ART in the Malaysian context, and compares this theory with conventional theories of bioethics.

  9. A Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Wen; Chang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chia; Chen, Huey-Ing; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2016-10-01

    Based on an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach, a Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) is fabricated and investigated at higher temperatures. The Pt/AlGaN interface with nearly oxide-free is verified by an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) depth profile for the studied EPD-HFET. This result substantially enhances device performance at room temperature (300 K). Experimentally, the studied EPD-HFET exhibits a high turn-on voltage, a well suppression on gate leakage, a superior maximum drain saturation current, and an excellent extrinsic transconductance. Moreover, the microwave performance of an EPD-HFET is demonstrated at room temperature. Consequentially, this EPD-gate approach gives a promise for high-performance electronic applications.

  10. Exploiting sub-20-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology challenges to design affordable systems-on-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Zhu, Qiuling; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Wu, Stephen; Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Yandong; Strojwas, Andzrej; Pileggi, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For the past four decades, cost and features have driven complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Severe lithography and material limitations seen below the 20-nm node, however, are challenging the fundamental premise of affordable CMOS scaling. Just continuing to co-optimize leaf cell circuit and layout designs with process technology does not enable us to exploit the challenges of sub-20-nm CMOS. For affordable scaling, it is imperative to work past sub-20-nm technology impediments while exploiting its features. To this end, we propose to broaden the scope of design technology co-optimization (DTCO) to be more holistic by including microarchitecture design and computer-aided design, along with circuits, layout, and process technology. Furthermore, we undertook such a holistic DTCO for all critical design elements such as embedded memory, standard cell logic, analog components, and physical synthesis in a 14-nm process. Measurements results from experimental designs in a representative 14-nm process from IBM demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  11. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in mind, learn more about some complementary medicines: Antioxidants Vitamin C and E, the Mediterranean Diet Calcium ... Motor Symptoms Surgical Treatment Options Exercise Complementary Treatment Antioxidants: Vitamin C and E, Mediterranean Diet Calcium and ...

  12. Application of complementary DNA microarray technology to carcinogen identification, toxicology, and drug safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Afshari, C A; Nuwaysir, E F; Barrett, J C

    1999-10-01

    One major challenge facing today's cancer researchers and toxicologists is the development of new approaches for the identification of carcinogens and other environmental hazards. Here, we describe the potential impact of emerging technologies for measuring gene expression profiles on carcinogen identification and on the general field of toxicology. An example of one of these technologies is the use of cDNA microarray chips. We provide an overview to the key questions that are confronting investigators charged with determining the relative safety of natural or synthetic chemicals to which humans are exposed, followed by a discussion of how cDNA microarray technology may be applied to these questions. Gene chip technology is still a relatively new technology, and only a handful of studies have demonstrated its utility. However, as the technical hurdles to development are passed, the use of this methodology in addressing the questions raised here will be critical to increase the sensitivity of detection of the potential toxic effects of environmental chemicals and to understand their risks to humans.

  13. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-03-01

    Complementary medicine has become an important subject for rheumatologists, not least because many patients try complementary treatments. Recent clinical trials yield promising results. In particular, evidence suggests that several herbal medicines and dietary supplements can alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, rigorous testing of complementary treatments is possible, and considering their popularity, should be encouraged.

  14. Recent advances of high voltage AlGaN/GaN power HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemoto, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2009-02-01

    We review our recent advances of GaN-based high voltage power transistors. These are promising owing to low on-state resistance and high breakdown voltage taking advantages of superior material properties. However, there still remain a couple of technical issues to be solved for the GaN devices to replace the existing Si-based power devices. The most critical issue is to achieve normally-off operation which is strongly desired for the safety operation, however, it has been very difficult because of the built-in polarization electric field. Our new device called GIT (Gate Injection Transistor) utilizing conductivity modulation successfully achieves the normally-off operation keeping low on-state resistance. The fabricated GIT on a Si substrate exhibits threshold voltage of +1.0V. The obtained on-state resistance and off-state breakdown voltage were 2.6mΩ•cm2 and 800V, respectively. Remaining technical issue is to further increase the breakdown voltage. So far, the reported highest off-state breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN HFETs has been 1900V. Overcoming these issues by a novel device structure, we have demonstrated the world highest breakdown voltages of 10400V using thick poly-crystalline AlN as a passivation film and Via-holes through sapphire which enable very efficient layout of the lateral HFET array avoiding any undesired breakdown of passivation films. Since conventional wet or dry etching cannot be used for chemically stable sapphire, high power pulsed laser is used to form the via-holes. The presented GaN power devices demonstrate that GaN is advantageous for high voltage power switching applications replacing currently used Si-based power MOSFETs and IGBTs.

  15. Health Reform in Minnesota: An Analysis of Complementary Initiatives Implementing Electronic Health Record Technology and Care Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Soderberg, Karen; Rajamani, Sripriya; Wholey, Douglas; LaVenture, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Minnesota enacted legislation in 2007 that requires all health care providers in the state to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. 100% of hospitals and 98% of clinics had adopted EHR systems by end of 2015. Minnesota’s 2008 health reform included a health care home (HCH) program, Minnesota’s patient centered medical home. By end of 2014, 43% of HCH eligible clinics were certified with 335 certified HCHs and 430 eligible but not certified clinics. Objectives: To study the association between adoption and use of EHRs in primary care clinics and HCH certification, including use of clinical decision support tools, patient registries, electronic exchange of patient information, and availability of patient portals. Methods: Study utilized data from the 2015 Minnesota Health Information Technology Clinic Survey conducted annually by the Minnesota Department of Health. The response rate was 80% with 1,181 of 1,473 Minnesota clinics, including 662 HCH eligible primary care clinics. The comparative analysis focused on certified HCHs (311) and eligible but not certified clinics (351). Results: HCH clinics utilized the various tools of EHR technology at a higher rate than non-HCH clinics. This greater utilization was noted across a range of functionalities: clinical decision support, patient disease registries, EHR to support quality improvement, electronic exchange of summary care records and availability of patient portals. HCH certification was significant for clinical decision support tools, registries and quality improvement. Conclusions: HCH requirements of care management, care coordination and quality improvement can be better supported with EHR technology, which underscores the higher rate of utilization of EHR tools by HCH clinics. Optimizing electronic exchange of health information remains a challenge for all clinics, including HCH certified clinics. This research presents the synergy between complementary

  16. High-resistivity GaN buffer templates and their optimization for GaN-based HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Zhao, G.; Pavlidis, D.; Sutton, W.; Cho, E.

    2005-11-01

    High-resistance (HR) GaN templates for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor (HFET) applications were grown using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN sheet resistance was tuned using final nucleation layer (NL) annealing temperature and NL thickness. Using an annealing temperature of 1033 °C and NL thickness of 26 nm, GaN with sheet resistance of 10 10 Ω/sq was achieved, comparable to that of Fe-doped GaN. Material characterization results show that the high-resistance GaN is achieved due to compensating acceptor levels that may be introduced through edge-type threading dislocations. Optimization of annealing temperature and NL thickness provided a means to maximize GaN sheet resistance without significantly degrading material quality. In situ laser reflectance was used to correlate the NL properties to sheet resistance and material quality, providing a figure of merit for expected sheet resistance. AlGaN/GaN HFET layers grown using HR GaN templates with R of 10 10 Ω/sq gave surface and interface roughness of 14 and 7 Å, respectively. The 2DEG Hall mobility and sheet charge of HFETs grown using HR GaN templates was comparable to similar layers grown using unintentionally doped (UID) GaN templates.

  17. Complementary Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-10-01

    As the debate over complementary and alternative medicine's place in medicine continues, Texas Medical Association policy recommends physicians stay on top of evidence-based studies of complementary and alternative therapies and routinely ask patients about their use of such therapies.

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Shared Goals and Complementary Approaches. Technology in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H., Ed.; Chabay, Ruth W., Ed.

    The complementary, but distinct, approaches of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are first summarized, then followed by a collection of papers discussing shared issues toward which these complementary approaches are directed. The purpose of this book is to foster a mutual understanding of shared issues and…

  19. The ethics of complementary and alternative medicine research: a case study of traditional Chinese medicine at the University of Technology, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Zaslawski, Chris; Davis, Susanna

    2005-07-01

    This article considers various approaches used in complementary and alternative medicine research, and discusses the challenges that reviewing such research poses for Human Research Ethics Committees. Drawing on our experience with the University of Technology Sydney HREC, we offer some suggestions about how ethical principles governing conventional medical research can be applied in the context of research in complementary and alternative medicine. We argue that effective HREC review requires members to gain familiarity with such research, which helps ensure that such research is conducted rigorously and ethically.

  20. Analytical calculation of the quantum 1/f coherence parameter for HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Peter H.; Sherif, Taher S.

    2010-03-01

    The ratio s of the coherent magnetic energy term and the incoherent mechanical kinetic energy terms of the drift motion in the hamiltonian of a current carrying system is calculated for the special cases of a HFET or FET. This ratio defines the resulting quantum 1/f noise from the coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width w>>LDS>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity vd per unit length in the direction of the drain-source distance LDS in the channel of thickness t, is still given by Nmvd 2/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w2, and can be approximated by Em = π[ln(w/2LDS)]LDS[nevS/c]2/w. Here S=wt is the cross section though which current flows this indicates field-decoherence along the large device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s ≡ Em/Ek ~ πnrotLDSln(w/2LDS), which shows that only an effective width w=weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of s in this special case; larger widths are subject to de-coherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to appear. For non-uniform current distribution across t, and for piezoelectric coupling, improved forms are derived for s. Specifically, the coherence parameter, called s' for the piezo case, is given by s' = (gN'h/m*vs)( vs/u)3F(u/vs)t/12w, where F(u/vs) = (2/3)(u/vs) for small drift velocity u, much smaller than the sound velocity vs in the semiconductor. Here N'=nwt.

  1. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  2. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  3. Complementary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-19

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate ''complementary'' approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field and structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  4. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  5. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  6. High-Current and High-Transconductance Self-Aligned P+-GaAs Junction HFET of Complete Enhancement-Mode Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishii, Katsunori; Yokoyama, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shinji; Tamura, Akiyoshi; Inoue, Kaoru

    1999-04-01

    High-current and high-transconductance self-aligned p+-GaAs junction HFETs (PJ-HFETs) of a complete enhancement-mode operation have been developed for the first time. Due to the advantages of the p/n junction, the barrier height of 1.12 eV has been obtained. To obtain high activation for the Si implanted epitaxial layers, we optimized theannealing conditions. The 0.8 µm-gate complete enhancement mode PJ-HFET with a large forward gate voltage swing of more than 1.5 V exhibited a K-value of 400 mS/Vmm, a maximum transconductance (gmMAX) of 410 mS/mm and a maximum drain current (IMAX) of 380 mA/mm with a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.2 V. The standard deviation of Vth was 18.4 mV across a 3 inch wafer. Operated with a drain bias of 3.3 V, the PJ-HFET demonstrated a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 39.5% with an adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACPR) of -57.4 dBc at an output power (Pout) of 21.5 dBm and a frequency of 1.9 GHz.

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles §...

  10. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  14. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., stabilized phase and hot transient phase of the cold temperature FTP test in § 86.244 of this chapter. (3..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this...

  15. Self-aligned silicides for Ohmic contacts in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology: TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.

    2004-07-01

    Metal silicides continue to play an indispensable role during the remarkable development of microelectronics. Along with several other technological innovations, the implementation of the self-aligned silicide technology paved the way for a rapid and successful miniaturization of device dimensions for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in pace with the Moore's law. The use of silicides has also evolved from creating reliable contacts for diodes, to generating high-conductivity current paths for local wiring, and lately to forming low-resistivity electrical contacts for MOSFETs. With respect to the choice of silicides for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, a convergence has become clear with the self-alignment technology using only a limited number of silicides, namely TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi. The present work discusses the advantages and limitations of TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi using the development trend of CMOS technology as a measure. Specifically, the reactive diffusion and phase formation of these silicides in the three terminals of a MOSFET, i.e., gate, source, and drain, are analyzed. This work ends with a brief discussion about future trends of metal silicides in micro/nanoelectronics with reference to potential material aspects and device structures outlined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. .

  16. Limitation of Hot-Carrier Generated Heat Dissipation on the Frequency of Operation and Reliability of Novel Nitride-Based High-Speed HFETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-18

    New twists in carrier recombination and hot carrier scattering in light emitting devices and field effect transistors based on III -V nitride ...effects in nitride 2DEG channels and HFETs. The unsolved problem of heat dissipation is treated in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for...in high-power microwave HEMT and FET channels“, in „Advanced semiconductor materials and devices research - SiC and III - Nitrides ”, Ho-Young Cha, ed

  17. Limitation of Hot-Carrier Generated Heat Dissipation on the Frequency of Operation and Reliability of Novel Nitride-Based High-Speed HFETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    14. ABSTRACT A novel fluctuation-based approach is applied to consider the unsolved problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field effect...based on polar c-plane and non-polar m- plane GaN“, The 3rd International Symposium on Growth of III - Nitrides ISGN-3, Montpellier, France July 2010...HFETs based on III -V nitride semiconductors (invited )” 2009 Fall EMRS meeting (European Materials Research Conference), September 14-18, 2009

  18. The effect of gate length variation on InAlGaN/GaN HFET device characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketteniss, N.; Behmenburg, H.; Lecourt, F.; Defrance, N.; Hoel, V.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Heuken, M.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.

    2012-03-01

    InAlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) with a nearly lattice-matched barrier layer (thickness tbar = 8.3 nm) are investigated. The focus is set on resolving the systematic dependence of device characteristics on the gate length LG. Therefore, five different gate length devices with LG ranging from 75 nm to 2 µm have been realized. Peak values of 460 mS mm-1 and 100 GHz for transconductance gm and unity current gain cut-off frequency fT are obtained for the 75 nm device. DC characteristics as well as the cut-off frequency fT show systematic scaling with the gate length LG. Nevertheless, short-channel effects appear for the short gate length devices in both DC and RF operation, and a critical minimum aspect ratio LG/tbar of 27 is identified for the investigated barrier composition of xIn = 0.11; yAl = 0.63 and zGa = 0.26.

  19. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  20. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN HFETs utilizing post-metallization etching by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Lee, Ching-Sung; Liu, Han-Yin; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Ho, Chiu-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    This work investigates AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) processed by using a simple post-metallization etching (PME) treatment. Decreased gate length (LG) can be achieved by using nitric acid (HNO3) PME treatment owing to the high etching selectivity of HNO3 of Ni against the Au and GaN layer. Influences on LG, etched gate profiles and device characteristics with respect to different PME processing parameters by HNO3 treatment are systematically investigated. Optimum device performance is obtained as LG was reduced to 0.5 µm by using a 1 µm long gate mask by immersing the device into a 45% diluted HNO3 solution for 35 s. Improved device performances, including maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max: 657.6 mA mm-1 → 898.5 mA mm-1), drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS0: 448.3 mA mm-1 → 653.4 mA mm-1), maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm, max: 158.3 mS mm-1 → 219.2 mS mm-1), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 12.35 GHz → 22.05 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 17.55 GHz → 29.4 GHz) and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.: 26.3% → 34.5%) compared to the untreated reference device, have been successfully achieved.

  1. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  2. A feasibility pilot study on the use of complementary therapies delivered via mobile technologies on Icelandic surgical patients' reports of anxiety, pain, and self-efficacy in healing.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2015-03-28

    Complementary therapies (CT), such as relaxation technique, massage, guided imagery, and accupuncture have shown to benefit patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using audio relaxation technique (ART), music intervention (MI), nature video application with music (NVAM), and nature video application without music (NVA) delivered via mobile technologies in a clinical setting. Secondary, the effects of ART, MI, NVAM and NVA on patients' state anxiety, pain perception, and perceived self-efficacy in healing were determined. A randomized clinical trial (RCT) involving 105 same day surgery (SDS) patients, who were assigned to an ART (n = 25), MI (n = 25), NVAM (n = 15), NVA (n = 16), or a control group (n = 24) were assessed for state anxiety, self-reported pain, and self-efficacy four days prior to surgery, immediately prior and following a surgical intervention, and day five post-operative. ANOVA found no statistically significant differences in anxiety scores; pain, or perceived self-efficacy between the five groups. Matched pairs t-Test revealed all participants had an increase in anxiety from pre-op to day 10 follow-up; a significant change in pain levels from pre-op to day 10 follow-up; and all participants had a significant increase in general self-efficacy from pre-op to day 10 follow-up. Mean pain level scores from day 1 to pre-op showed a significant decrease in pain for the ART group and NVAM group. Matched pairs t-Test for self-efficacy scores indicated the MI group and the NVA group had significant increases in self-efficacy. A significant decrease in anxiety from pre-op to day 10 for participants reporting a prior history of anxiety and for those reporting prior history of taking anti-anxiety medications. Despite the non-significant findings between the five groups, at any measurement point, there were valuable trends toward significance and confirmed feasibility in a clinical setting

  3. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve side effects of treatment or the breast cancer itself. Complementary therapies are used along with (not instead of) standard ... Some can be harmful for people going through cancer treatment. Is complementary therapy right for you? 1 Talk with your doctor. ...

  4. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  5. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  6. High f T and f max AlGaN/GaN HFETs achieved by using thin and high-Al-composition AlGaN barrier layers and Cat-CVD SiN passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiwaki, M.; Onojima, N.; Matsui, T.; Mimura, T.

    2006-05-01

    We fabricated sub-0.1 m-gate Al0.4Ga0.6N/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with AlGaN barrier thicknesses of 4-10 nm. The devices were passivated with 2 nm-thick SiN layers formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN passivation greatly increased electron density, and the effect became more significant with decreasing AlGaN barrier thickness. The HFETs had maximum drain current densities of 1.1-1.5 A/mm and peak extrinsic transconductances of 305-438 mS/mm. Peak current-gain cutoff frequency of 163 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency of 192 GHz were obtained for the devices with 8 nm-thick AlGaN barriers.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  8. Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... their care. Some approaches like meditation, yoga, and massage therapy are known as “complementary medicine” because they “ ... variety of procedures and techniques, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, spinal manipulation, yoga, tai chi and qi ...

  10. [History of complementary feeding].

    PubMed

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Matched-Impedance Wide-Band Amplifiers With Multiple Feedback Loops Using 0.18 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Lee, Tai-Hsing

    2004-10-01

    The realization of matched-impedance wide-band amplifier fabricated by 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is reported. The technique of multiple feedback loops was used in the amplifier for terminal impedance matching and wide bandwidth simultaneously. The experimental results show that 3-dB bandwidth of 3 GHz and a gain of 10.7 dB with in-band input/output return loss more than 10 dB are obtained. These values agree well with those predicted from the analytic expressions derived for voltage gain, trans-impedance gain, bandwidth, and input/output return loss and impedance. In addition, the use of source capacitive peaking technique can improve the intrinsic over-damped characteristic of this amplifier.

  12. Complementary and Integrative Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Korzenik, Joshua; Koch, Anna K; Langhorst, Jost

    2017-09-01

    Complementary and integrative medicine is developing within gastroenterology, expanding options particularly for inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and reflux esophagitis. This article encompasses new developments in complementary integrative medicine with an emphasis on herbal therapies. Studies of potential therapies have been advancing with increasing sophistication. The best studied with the most promising results in ulcerative colitis is the use of curcumin both for the induction and maintenance of remission. Other polyphenols, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also have supportive data for ulcerative colitis. Mind-body approaches have been applied in these diseases with positive data, particularly for irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  14. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  15. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  16. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  17. Analysis of pigmented villonodular synovitis with genome-wide complementary DNA microarray and tissue array technology reveals insight into potential novel therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Finis, Katharina; Sültmann, Holger; Ruschhaupt, Markus; Buness, Andreas; Helmchen, Birgit; Kuner, Ruprecht; Gross, Marie-Luise; Fink, Bernd; Schirmacher, Peter; Poustka, Annemarie; Berger, Irina

    2006-03-01

    To characterize the gene expression profile and determine potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). Gene expression patterns in 11 patients with PVNS, 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were investigated using genome-wide complementary DNA microarrays. Validation of differentially expressed genes was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis on tissue arrays (80 patients with PVNS, 51 patients with RA, and 20 patients with OA). The gene expression profile in PVNS was clearly distinct from those in RA and OA. One hundred forty-one up-regulated genes and 47 down-regulated genes were found in PVNS compared with RA, and 153 up-regulated genes and 89 down-regulated genes were found in PVNS compared with OA (fold change > or = 1.5; Q < or = 0.001). Genes differentially expressed in PVNS were involved in apoptosis regulation, matrix degradation, and inflammation (ALOX5AP, ATP6V1B2, CD53, CHI3L1, CTSL, CXCR4, HSPA8, HSPCA, LAPTM5, MMP9, MOAP1, and SPP1). The gene expression signature in PVNS is similar to that of activated macrophages and is consistent with the local destructive course of the disease. The gene and protein expression patterns suggest that the ongoing proliferation in PVNS is sustained by apoptosis resistance. This result suggests the possibility of a potential novel therapeutic intervention against PVNS.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Complementary and alternative are terms used ... with cancer here. What Are Complementary and Alternative Methods? How Are Complementary Methods Used to Manage Cancer? ...

  19. April 25, 2003, FY2003 Progress Summary and FY2002 Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers,and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Bibeau, C

    2005-10-25

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, synergistic effort to develop inertial fusion energy (IFE). This program is building a physics and technology base to complement the laser-fusion science being pursued by DOE Defense programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The current LLNL proposal is a companion document to the one submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. The NRL and LLNL proposals also jointly pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, target physics, materials and power plant economics. This proposal requests continued funding in FY03 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1 kW, 100 J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser, as well as research into high gain fusion target design, fusion chamber issues, and survivability of the final optic element. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments. The HAPL Program pursues technologies needed for laser-driven IFE. System level considerations indicate that a rep-rated laser technology will be needed, operating at 5-10 Hz. Since a total energy of {approx}2 MJ will ultimately be required to achieve suitable target gain with direct drive targets, the architecture must be scaleable. The Mercury Laser is intended to offer such an architecture. Mercury is a solid state laser that incorporates diodes, crystals and gas cooling technologies.

  20. Comparative studies on AlGaN/GaN/Si MOS-HFETs with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked dielectrics by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Chiang, Bo-Jung; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) grown on a Si substrate with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked gate dielectrics formed by using non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique are investigated. High permittivity (k) values of Al2O3 and TiO2 were characterized to be 9 and 46.1, respectively, with an equal layer thickness of 10 nm. The present MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) design has demonstrated enhanced device characteristics at 300 K, including maximum drain-source current density (I DS,max) of 725 (530) mA/mm, I DS at V GS = 0 V (I DSS0) of 471 (383) mA/mm, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 2.5 (1.6) V, two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BV GD) of -182 (-121) V, turn-on voltage (V on) of 4.9 (3.2) V, three-terminal off-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BV DS) of 174 (103) V, on/off current ratio (I on/I off) of 5.6 × 107 (3.7 × 103), unity-gain cut-off frequency (f T ) of 10.3 (6.8) GHz, maximum oscillation frequency (f max) of 14.8 (8.6) GHz, and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.) of 38.5% (31.7%) at 2.4 GHz. High temperature device characteristics up to 450 K are also discussed.

  1. FY2002 Progress Summary Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R; Behrendt, B; Ebbers, C; Latkowski, J; Meier, W; Payne, S; Perkins, J; Schaffers, K; Skulina, K; Ditmire, T; Kelly, J; Waxer, L; Rudi, P; Randles, M; Witter, D; Meissner, H; Merissner, O

    2001-12-13

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, coordinated effort to develop a high-energy, repetitively pulsed laser system for Inertial Fusion Energy and other DOE and DOD applications. This program is building a laser-fusion energy base to complement the laser-fusion science developed by DOE Defense programs over the past 25 years. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and LLNL. The current LLNL proposal is a companion proposal to that submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. Aside from the driver development aspect, the NRL and LLNL companion proposals pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, materials and power plant economics. This report requests continued funding in FY02 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1kW, 100J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser. In addition, research in high gain laser target design, fusion chamber issues and survivability of the final optic element will be pursued. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments.

  2. A novel way to improve the quantum efficiency of silicon light-emitting diode in a standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaikai; Li, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    Silicon diode at avalanche breakdown has visible light emission in the depletion region. It is believed that this optical radiation comes from the kinetic energy loss of carriers generated by impact ionization colliding with immobile charge centers in the avalanche region. A theoretical model is presented to show the correlation of the hot carrier effect with the related photonic emission in high field. Meanwhile, a PMOSFET-like silicon light source device fabricated completely in the standard silicon CMOS process technology is measured to demonstrate that avalanching current is linearly proportional to optical emission power whether this light source acts as a two-terminal device (i.e., diode, the "p+ Source/Drain to n-Substrate junction" with floating the gate) or acts as a three-terminal device (i.e., gate-diode, the "p+ Source/Drain to n-Substrate junction" in the course of varying the gate voltage). Such linearity implies that control of the increasing current is a significant way to enhance the quantum efficiency of this light source device no matter what the physical structure (i.e., two terminals or three terminals) of this device is. For the first time, it has been discovered that, at the same avalanching current, the optical output power in gate-diode structure is higher than the optical output power in diode structure. In other words, for this PMOSFET-like device, the three-terminal operating mode is more efficient than the two-terminal operating mode.

  3. A complementary MOS process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

  4. Assortativity of complementary graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Winterbach, W.; van Mieghem, P.

    2011-09-01

    Newman's measure for (dis)assortativity, the linear degree correlationρD, is widely studied although analytic insight into the assortativity of an arbitrary network remains far from well understood. In this paper, we derive the general relation (2), (3) and Theorem 1 between the assortativity ρD(G) of a graph G and the assortativityρD(Gc) of its complement Gc. Both ρD(G) and ρD(Gc) are linearly related by the degree distribution in G. When the graph G(N,p) possesses a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs Gp(N), its complementary graph Gpc(N) = G1-p(N) follows a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs G1-p(N). We prove that the maximum and minimum assortativity of a class of graphs with a binomial distribution are asymptotically antisymmetric: ρmax(N,p) = -ρmin(N,p) for N → ∞. The general relation (3) nicely leads to (a) the relation (10) and (16) between the assortativity range ρmax(G)-ρmin(G) of a graph with a given degree distribution and the range ρmax(Gc)-ρmin(Gc) of its complementary graph and (b) new bounds (6) and (15) of the assortativity. These results together with our numerical experiments in over 30 real-world complex networks illustrate that the assortativity range ρmax-ρmin is generally large in sparse networks, which underlines the importance of assortativity as a network characterizer.

  5. [Complementary care approaches, towards more humanity].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Modern medicine, with its cutting-edge technology, questions the notions of dehumanisation, over-medicalisation, the relationship to care. It seems to be aimed more at the disease than the patient. Complementary care approaches, which also encompass conventional medicine, guide and support the patient. Today, they have a role in giving back to the patient a feeling of being present in the world and testify to different approaches.

  6. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula.

  7. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHIS study on children’s use of complementary health approaches, including natural products and mind and body practices, visit the National ... conventional care or prescribed medications with any health product or practice ... suggests a complementary approach, do not increase the dose or duration of ...

  8. Complementary medicine for the allergist.

    PubMed

    Bielory, L

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a historical overview of the present state of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the treatment of atopic disorders. The evolution of medicine in the United States has been in flux with the advent of newer technologies, new designs in managed care, and integrating the cultural differences into a complex multidisciplinary health care delivery process. There have been several herbal modalities that contain various anti-allergy and asthma components with effects on bronchodilation, congestion, pulmonary function tests, and antagonism of asthma mediators such as histamine and PAF, corticosteroid levels, and clearance of mucus. In the field of allergy, asthma, and immunology, the popularity of CAM is more widespread than other common chronic medical problems. Overall, CAM use has created a $15-billion-a-year industry in dietary supplements alone. This has been especially fueled by the deregulation of the "herbal" industry by the congressional passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. It would appear that our specialty would clearly benefit from expanding its knowledge base about these entities because "allergies" are high on the list of patients seeking CAM. This will prepare us to better coordinate the future possibilities and to "doctor" (i.e., teach) our patients about the risks and benefits of these modalities.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gaboury, Isabelle; Johnson, Noémie; Robin, Christine; Luc, Mireille; O’Connor, Daniel; Patenaude, Johane; Pélissier-Simard, Luce; Xhignesse, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether medical training prepares FPs to meet the requirements of the Collège des médecins du Québec for their role in advising patients on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Secondary analysis of survey results. Setting Quebec. Participants Family physicians and GPs in active practice. Main outcome measures Perceptions of the role of the physician as an advisor on CAM; level of comfort responding to questions and advising patients on CAM; frequency with which patients ask their physicians about CAM; personal position on CAM; and desire for training on CAM. Results The response rate was 19.5% (195 respondents of 1000) and the sample appears to be representative of the target population. Most respondents (85.8%) reported being asked about CAM several times a month. A similar proportion (86.7%) believed it was their role to advise patients on CAM. However, of this group, only 33.1% reported being able to do so. There is an association between an urban practice and knowledge of the advisory role of physicians. More than three-quarters of respondents expressed interest in receiving additional training on CAM. Conclusion There is a gap between the training that Quebec physicians receive on CAM and their need to meet legal and ethical obligations designed to protect the public where CAM products and therapies are concerned. One solution might be more thorough training on CAM to help physicians meet the Collège des médecins du Québec requirements. PMID:27965354

  10. [Complementary medicine--the facts].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud

    2011-08-01

    The popularity of complementary medicine in the western world continues to grow. Complementary medicine has a wide scope of topics including acupuncture, hypnosis, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, tai chi, yoga, botanical and herbal supplements and many other undefined modalities such as copper bracelets, magnets, holy water etc. For most modalities the mechanism of action is unknown and the evidence of benefit is poor. Some modalities such as acupuncture, hypnosis and tai chi may improve pain and other subjective complains. It seems that most of the beneficial effects of complementary medicine are placebo effects. Complementary treatment may be associated with side effects and should not be an alternative to the conventional medicine. Complementary medicine can be used as an adjunct to the conventional medicine and should be used in full agreement with and under the supervision of the attending physician. Patients should be informed about the existing evidence and what to expect from complementary medicine. Further meticulous research should be conducted to expand our knowledge in complementary medicine.

  11. FY2005 Progress Summary and FY2006 Program Plan Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C

    2006-03-24

    The primary focus this year was to operate the system with two amplifiers populated with and pumped by eight high power diode arrays. The system was operated for extended run periods which enabled average power testing of components, diagnostics, and controls. These tests were highly successful, with a demonstrated energy level of over 55 joules for 4 cumulative hours at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (average power 0.55 kW). In addition, high average power second harmonic generation was demonstrated, achieving 227 W of 523.5 nm light (22.7 J, 10 Hz, 15 ns, 30 minutes) Plans to achieve higher energy levels and average powers are in progress. The dual amplifier system utilizes a 4-pass optical arrangement. The Yb:S-FAP slabs were mounted in aerodynamic aluminum vane structures to allow turbulent helium gas flow across the faces. Diagnostic packages that monitored beam performance were deployed during operation. The laser experiments involved injecting a seed beam from the front end into the system and making four passes through both amplifiers. Beam performance diagnostics monitored the beam on each pass to assess system parameters such as gain and nearfield intensity profiles. This year, an active mirror and wavefront sensor were procured and demonstrated in an off-line facility. The active mirror technology can correct for low order phase distortions at user specified operating conditions (such as repetition rates different than 10 Hz) and is a complementary technology to the static phase plates used in the system for higher order distortions. A picture of the laser system with amplifier No.2 (foreground) and amplifier No.1 (background) is shown in Fig. 1.0.1.1. The control system and diagnostics were recently enhanced for faster processing and allow remote operation of the system. The growth and fabrication of the Yb:S-FAP slabs constituted another major element of our program objectives. Our goal was to produce at least fourteen 4x6 cm2 crystalline slabs. These

  12. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Herbal supplements, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and ... useful to include acupuncture along with standard care. Chiropractic provides some benefit for low back pain, however ...

  13. Small sets of complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassl, M.; McNulty, D.; Mišta, L.; Paterek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Two observables are called complementary if preparing a physical object in an eigenstate of one of them yields a completely random result in a measurement of the other. We investigate small sets of complementary observables that cannot be extended by yet another complementary observable. We construct explicit examples of unextendible sets up to dimension 16 and conjecture certain small sets to be unextendible in higher dimensions. Our constructions provide three complementary measurements, only one observable away from the ultimate minimum of two. Almost all our examples in finite dimensions are useful for discriminating pure states from some mixed states, and they help to shed light on the complex topology of the Bloch space of higher-dimensional quantum systems.

  14. Paying for Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... to chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, yoga, meditation, and massage therapy. Out-of-Pocket Spending on Complementary Health ... integrative health practitioners such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists $12.8 billion out-of-pocket on ...

  15. Oncology pain and complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Turnbeaugh, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Half of all patients with cancer experience some level of pain, so pain management is an important topic for oncology nurses. Pharmacologic measures traditionally are the primary intervention for bone, visceral, neuropathic, and procedural pain; however, many patients are turning to an integrative approach of Western and complementary therapies for pain and symptom management. The authors explored the current evidence concerning the effectiveness of complementary therapies in relation to cancer pain and symptom control.

  16. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  17. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  18. A Drosophila complementary DNA resource

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Gerald M.; Hong, Ling; Brokstein, Peter; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Stapleton, Mark; Harvey, Damon A.

    2000-03-24

    Collections of nonredundant, full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for each of the model organisms and humans will be important resources for studies of gene structure and function. We describe a general strategy for producing such collections and its implementation, which so far has generated a set of cDNAs corresponding to over 40% of the genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Complementary MLS and GNSS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander E.; Burcham, Karen L.; McDonald, Keith D.

    A framework for developing complementary roles for the MLS and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is established. Emphasis is given to the development by the FAA and the aviation industry of techniques and the infrastructure to support fully integrated MLS and GNSS operations. The operational role of each system is evaluated during each flight phase, and the benefits attributable to reduced delays and optimum routings are discussed.

  20. Integrating complementary therapies into health care education: a cautious approach.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    2001-11-01

    The movement of complementary therapy training and education into higher education in the United Kingdom (UK) and the interest in alternative therapeutic approaches within the health professions presents an ideal opportunity for multidisciplinary teaching and shared learning. The diversity and similarities of complementary therapies and areas of convergence with conventional healthcare practice can be explored. The recent publication of the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology report on complementary and alternative medicine (HL Paper 123) provides a broader context for discussion and makes specific recommendations about regulation, education and research in the UK. This paper considers the appropriateness of integrating complementary therapies into education for conventional healthcare practitioners, what we should integrate, and when might be the most appropriate time in the education of healthcare practitioners to introduce different therapeutic modalities and their respective philosophical languages. Rather than present a range of solutions, the paper raises some fundamental issues that are central to the integration of complementary therapeutic approaches. If these issues are neglected as we hurry to incorporate different 'techniques' into our conventional practice, we may simply be left with additional tools that we are ill equipped to use.

  1. Plant secondary compounds as complementary resources: are they always complementary?

    PubMed

    Copani, G; Hall, J O; Miller, J; Priolo, A; Villalba, J J

    2013-08-01

    Generalist herbivores typically grow better on mixed- than on single-component diets. This response has been attributed to food complementarities that either enhance the utilization of nutrients or dilute the negative impacts of plant secondary compounds (PSC). For instance, when animals choose between foods that contain diverse PSC, they eat more than animals offered a food that contains just one PSC. In addition to their negative impacts on herbivore fitness, recent evidence suggests that at appropriate doses PSC may provide beneficial effects to herbivores (i.e., by reducing parasitic infections). Thus, complementarities among diverse PSC may not only influence an herbivore's ability to consume food but also reduce the incidence of disease. We assessed the complementary effects of two PSC by offering sheep (Ovis aries) a choice of foods containing condensed tannins and saponins while challenged with a parasitic (Haemonchus contortus) infection. Animals offered a choice ate more than animals just offered tannins or saponins in single rations. However, sheep offered choices displayed greater fecal egg counts (an indirect measurement of parasitic burdens) than sheep offered single rations. Thus, saponin- and tannin-containing foods were complementary resources regarding nutrient intake but antagonistic regarding effects on parasitic loads. The nature of the relationship among PSC may depend on the dimension (i.e., nutrient intake, disease) where the interaction occurs. A unifying currency such as growth or reproductive output may help understand the trade-offs between costs (disease) and benefits (nutrient and medicine intake) for herbivores grazing multiple PSC.

  2. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complementary therapies for cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, Barrie; Trevisan, Carrie; Gubili, Jyothirmai

    2007-08-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of pain does not always meet patients' needs and may produce difficult side effects. Complementary therapies, which are safe, noninvasive, and generally considered to be relatively free of toxicity, may be used adjunctively with standard pain management techniques to improve outcome and reduce the need for prescription medication. Approaches such as acupuncture, massage therapy, mind-body interventions, and music therapy effectively reduce pain, enhance quality of life, and provide patients with the opportunity to participate in their own care. Such therapies have an important role in modern pain management.

  4. Conjectured Strong Complementary Information Tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renes, Joseph M.; Boileau, Jean-Christian

    2009-07-01

    We conjecture a new entropic uncertainty principle governing the entropy of complementary observations made on a system given side information in the form of quantum states, generalizing the entropic uncertainty relation of Maassen and Uffink [Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.60.1103]. We prove a special case for certain conjugate observables by adapting a similar result found by Christandl and Winter pertaining to quantum channels [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 3159 (2005)IETTAW0018-944810.1109/TIT.2005.853338], and discuss possible applications of this result to the decoupling of quantum systems and for security analysis in quantum cryptography.

  5. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  6. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search Home About Cancer Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Targeted Therapy Hormone Therapy Stem Cell ...

  8. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  9. Adequacy of family foods for complementary feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The WHO recommends that complementary foods be introduced to all infants at age 6 mo and that breastfeeding be continued until age 18–24 mo. Beginning at age 6 mo, complementary foods should be pureed, mashed, or semisolid, but by age 12 mo the child should be able to eat solid foods that are consum...

  10. The Complementary Function and the General Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramankutty, P.

    1991-01-01

    Clarified is the assertion that the so-called complementary function is indeed the general solution of the homogeneous equation associated with a linear nth-order differential equation. Methods to obtain the particular integral, once the complementary function is determined, are illustrated for both cases of constant and of variable coefficients.…

  11. Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories.

    PubMed

    Linn, Eike; Rosezin, Roland; Kügeler, Carsten; Waser, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    On the road towards higher memory density and computer performance, a significant improvement in energy efficiency constitutes the dominant goal in future information technology. Passive crossbar arrays of memristive elements were suggested a decade ago as non-volatile random access memories (RAM) and can also be used for reconfigurable logic circuits. As such they represent an interesting alternative to the conventional von Neumann based computer chip architectures. Crossbar architectures hold the promise of a significant reduction in energy consumption because of their ultimate scaling potential and because they allow for a local fusion of logic and memory, thus avoiding energy consumption by data transfer on the chip. However, the expected paradigm change has not yet taken place because the general problem of selecting a designated cell within a passive crossbar array without interference from sneak-path currents through neighbouring cells has not yet been solved satisfactorily. Here we introduce a complementary resistive switch. It consists of two antiserial memristive elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption.

  12. Shielded silicon gate complementary MOS integrated circuit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.; Hayes, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    An electrostatic shield for complementary MOS integrated circuits was developed to minimize the adverse effects of stray electric fields created by the potentials in the metal interconnections. The process is compatible with silicon gate technology. N-doped polycrystalline silicon was used for all the gates and the shield. The effectiveness of the shield was demonstrated by constructing a special field plate over certain transistors. The threshold voltages obtained on an oriented silicon substrate ranged from 1.5 to 3 V for either channel. Integrated inverters performed satisfactorily from 3 to 15 V, limited at the low end by the threshold voltages and at the high end by the drain breakdown voltage of the n-channel transistors. The stability of the new structure with an n-doped silicon gate as measured by the shift in C-V curve under 200 C plus or minus 20 V temperature-bias conditions was better than conventional aluminum gate or p-doped silicon gate devices, presumably due to the doping of gate oxide with phosphorous.

  13. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2015-02-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

  14. Adhesion of microchannel-based complementary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun K; Bai, Ying; Nadermann, Nichole; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2012-03-06

    We show that highly enhanced and selective adhesion can be achieved between surfaces patterned with complementary microchannel structures. An elastic material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), was used to fabricate such surfaces by molding into a silicon master with microchannel profiles patterned by photolithography. We carried out adhesion tests on both complementary and mismatched microchannel/micropillar surfaces. Adhesion, as measured by the energy release rate required to propagate an interfacial crack, can be enhanced by up to 40 times by complementary interfaces, compared to a flat control, and slightly enhanced for some special noncomplementary samples, despite the nearly negligible adhesion for other mismatched surfaces. For each complementary surface, we observe defects in the form of visible striations, where pillars fail to insert fully into the channels. The adhesion between complementary microchannel surfaces is enhanced by a combination of a crack-trapping mechanism and friction between a pillar and channel and is attenuated by the presence of defects.

  15. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  16. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  17. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  18. Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2003-01-01

    This article begins by drawing on literature to examine the various definitions of "technology" and "technique." Following a discussion of the origin of technology in education, the remaining sections of the article focus on the relationships and interaction between: (1) machines and technique; (2) science and technique; (3)…

  19. Chronic Pain and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... More information on complementary health approaches for osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis The amount of research on mind and body practices for rheumatoid arthritis pain is too small for conclusions to be ...

  20. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective. Because of the emotional and physical toll cancer and its treatment takes, many people are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to provide relief and increase their sense of ...

  1. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Highlights CAM Highlights from NCI-Yoga and Cancer Spring 2013 Newsletter now available NCI’s newest CAM Annual Report now available Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®) High-Dose Vitamin C (PDQ®) summary now ...

  2. 6 Tips: IBS and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Personnel and Veterans 5 Myths About Popular Natural Products Marketed for Disease Prevention and Wellness 5 Things to Know About Complementary Health Approaches for Parkinson’s Disease 7 Things To Know About ...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  4. Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... e63773. Gooneratne NS. Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine . 2008; ... MV. A pilot study of gentle yoga for sleep disturbance in women with osteoarthritis. Sleep Medicine . 2011;12( ...

  5. Homogenization analysis of complementary waveguide metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Nathan; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the properties of complementary metamaterials as effective inclusions patterned into the conducting walls of metal waveguide structures. We show that guided wave metamaterials can be homogenized using the same retrieval techniques used for volumetric metamaterials, leading to a description in which a given complementary element is conceptually replaced by a block of material within the waveguide whose effective permittivity and permeability result in equivalent scattering characteristics. The use of effective constitutive parameters for waveguide materials provides an alternative point-of-view for the design of waveguide and microstrip based components, including planar lenses and filters, as well as devices with derived from a bulk material response. In addition to imparting effective constitutive properties to the waveguide, complementary metamaterials also couple energy from waveguide modes into radiation. Thus, complementary waveguide metamaterials can be used to modify and optimize a variety of antenna structures.

  6. Introducing complementary medicine into the medical curriculum.

    PubMed Central

    Rampes, H; Sharples, F; Maragh, S; Fisher, P

    1997-01-01

    We surveyed the deans of British medical schools to determine the provision of complementary medicine in the undergraduate curriculum. We also sampled medical students at one British medical school to determine their knowledge of, and views on instruction in, complementary medicine. There is little education in complementary medicine at British medical schools, but it is an area of active curriculum development. Students' levels of knowledge vary widely between different therapies. Most medical students would like to learn about acupuncture, hypnosis, homoeopathy and osteopathy. We conclude that complementary medicine should be included in the medical undergraduate curriculum. This could be done without a great increase in teaching of facts, and could serve as a vehicle to introduce broader issues, as recommended by the General Medical Council. PMID:9059376

  7. Complementary therapies for depression: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Rand, J I; Stevinson, C

    1998-11-01

    Depression is one of the most common reasons for using complementary and alternative therapies. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evidence available on the treatment of depression with complementary therapies. Systematic literature searches were performed using several databases, reference list searching, and inquiry to colleagues. Data extraction followed a predefined protocol. The amount of rigorous scientific data to support the efficacy of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression is extremely limited. The areas with the most evidence for beneficial effects are exercise, herbal therapy (Hypericum perforatum), and, to a lesser extent, acupuncture and relaxation therapies. There is a need for further research involving randomized controlled trials into the efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of depression.

  8. Partial focusing by indefinite complementary metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Mock, Jack J.; Cui, Tie Jun; Smith, David R.

    2008-09-01

    We have experimentally realized a two-dimensional partial focusing within a planar waveguide using complementary indefinite metamaterials. When the electric fields emitted from the dipole are TE polarized, the focusing condition requires negative magnetic response in the propagation direction of the waveguide, which can be achieved by the complementary electric resonator (CELC) structures. We have carefully designed the experimental configurations and the dimensions for the CELC structures. The experimental result is consistent with the theoretical prediction, which validates the partial focusing phenomenon.

  9. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms.

  10. Management of cancer pain with complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    2007-04-01

    Pain is one of the most feared consequences of cancer. Pain is a major symptom in 75% of hospitalized cancer patients. Poorly relieved pain contributes to the suffering of the patient and family, which may motivate them to seek additional complementary and alternative therapies. Evidence-based complementary therapies are being used for symptom control and to improve quality of life. There is recent research on several complementary therapies-acupuncture, mind-body therapies, massage, reflexology, and Reiki--that provides evidence for pain management. These therapies are not well utilized due to a lack of information on benefits, risks, and resources. There is a call for education to alert patients, families, nurses, and physicians to the benefits of evidence-based complementary therapies and to the dangers of "unproven" cancer therapies. Oncology nurses are ideally positioned to assess patients' pain, to educate patients, to determine with the patient and physician the most appropriate and safe complementary therapy for pain, to refer patients to appropriate resources, and in some cases to provide the therapy itself. This article will discuss specific complementary therapies for pain control and will arm nurses with the confidence to intervene with knowledge, referrals, and ideas for hands-on implementation.

  11. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    PubMed

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK.

  12. Complementary Health Approaches Used in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Zeynep; Atik, Derya

    Intensive care units are care centers where, in order to provide the maximum benefit to individuals whose life is in danger, many lifesaving technological tools and devices are present, and morbidity and mortality rates are high. In the intensive care unit, when classic treatments fail or become unbearable because of side effects, complementary methods have been suggested to be the best alternative. Complementary health approaches are methods that are used both for the continuation and the improvement of the well-being of an individual and as additions to medical treatments that are based on a holistic approach. These applications are especially helpful in the treatment of the stresses, anxieties, and other symptoms of unstable patients in the intensive care unit who do not tolerate traditional treatment methods well, increasing their psychological and physiological well-being, helping them sleep and rest. In intensive care patients, in order to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, antiemetic and medicine needs, mechanical ventilation duration, and the intensity of the disease as well as to cope with symptoms such as pain, anxiety, physiological parameters, dyspnea, and sleep problems, body-mind interventions such as massage, reflexology, acupressure, aromatherapy, music therapy, energy therapies (healing touch, therapeutic touch, the Yakson method), and prayer are used as complementary health approaches.

  13. HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach.

    PubMed

    Karltun, Anette; Karltun, Johan; Berglund, Martina; Eklund, Jörgen

    2017-03-01

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  14. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  15. [Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology].

    PubMed

    Hübner, J

    2013-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine are frequently used by cancer patients. The main benefit of complementary medicine is that it gives patients the chance to become active. Complementary therapy can reduce the side effects of conventional therapy. However, we have to give due consideration to side effects and interactions: the latter being able to reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy and so to jeopardise the success of therapy. Therefore, complementary therapy should be managed by the oncologist. It is based on a common concept of cancerogenesis with conventional therapy. Complement therapy can be assessed in studies. Alternative medicine in contrast rejects common rules of evidence-based medicine. It starts from its own concepts of cancerogenesis, which is often in line with the thinking of lay persons. Alternative medicine is offered as either "alternative" to recommended cancer treatment or is used at the same time but without due regard for the interactions. Alternative medicine is a high risk to patients. In the following two parts of the article, the most important complementary and alternative therapies cancer patients use nowadays are presented and assessed according to published evidence.

  16. Growth and complementary feeding in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Lutter, C K

    2012-10-01

    To describe growth patterns of young children in Latin America and the Caribbean, the types of nationally representative data available on complementary feeding practices and complementary feeding practices. Data on growth, timing of introduction of liquids and foods, and complementary feeding practices were abstracted from nationally representative surveys. The high prevalence of stunting relative to the low prevalence of underweight is striking, with the "average" child in the region, with the exception of the Haitian child, short and chubby. The focus of the demographic and health surveys continues to be on undernutrition with only one question, intake of sugary foods, related foods that may have consequences for adult health. The United States has more comprehensive information; Mexico has information on beverage consumption and Brazil on soft drink and biscuit or snack consumption. In 14 of 19 countries, fewer than half of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, indicating an early introduction of liquids and complementary foods. Among the 5 countries with data on the intake of sugary foods, intake in the previous 24 h among children 6-23 months of age ranged from 14% to 79%. The absence of data to characterize complementary feeding diets as they relate to risk of overweight and chronic diseases in the Region of the Americas calls attention to the need to improve data collection frameworks and methods to address this important gap in knowledge. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  18. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  19. Complementary and alternative therapies and SCI nursing.

    PubMed

    Oliver, N R

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are experimenting with different complementary and alternative techniques and practices in their quest to improve their health status or change symptom experiences. Consumer utilization patterns are described, activities to ensure the safety and efficacy of alternative practices are reviewed, and relationships to nursing interventions and nursing responsibilities are presented. The relationship between complementary/alternative therapies and spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing practice, education, and research are described, as well as strategies for integrating these therapies into SCI nursing. The potential roles for SCI nurses and benefits to individuals with SCI are unlimited.

  20. Proposal of spin complementary field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunihashi, Yoji; Kohda, Makoto; Sanada, Haruki; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Nitta, Junsaku

    2012-03-01

    Spin complementary field effect transistor is proposed on the basis of gate-controlled persistent spin helix (PSH) states. Uniaxial effective magnetic field in the PSH state creates coherent spin propagation with or without precession. By the gate control of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction, the PSH state can be reversed to the inverted PSH state. Switching between two PSH states enables complementary output depending on the channel direction. Our proposed device could be a reconfigurable minimum unit of the spin-based logic circuit.

  1. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  2. Surgery and complementary therapies: a review.

    PubMed

    Petry, J J

    2000-09-01

    The incorporation of complementary therapies into the surgical setting has been slow compared to that of other areas of conventional medicine. This paper summarizes the available information on complementary therapies in surgery from a broad range of sources in the medical literature. The effects of psychological distress on the surgical patient and potential relief from that distress by such methods as relaxation techniques, hypnosis, suggestion, and imagery, as well as the role of coping style and locus of control on choice of therapy are reviewed. The role of acupuncture, music, massage therapy, therapeutic touch, and Reiki, as well as the use of herbs and supplements in modifying surgical outcome, is explored.

  3. Complementary Therapies for Mental Health Disorders.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Gerkin, Jonathan; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 18% of the US adult population has a mental illness, yet only 13% with mental illness receive any treatment. Although pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are the mainstays of treatment, treatment discontinuation and failure are common. Skepticism toward such treatments has fueled interest in and use of complementary therapies, such as acupuncture, meditation, and natural products. Many medical providers are unaware of the use of these therapies by their patients, and knowledge of the evidence base for these therapies is often lacking. This article presents current evidence-based recommendations for complementary therapies in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-15

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  5. A Reassessment of Complementary Access Tools for Chemical Indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, Barry; Stern, Warren; Henzl, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The Complementary Access Working Group (CAWG) was set up as a multi-laboratory team with members from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under the direction and funding provided by National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through NA-241, Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). During FY 13 the CAWG evaluated proliferation indicators based largely on a review of the 1996 version of the IAEA’s Physical Model (Phase 1). During FYs 13 and 14, the CAWG then selected technologies and specific portable and hand-held devices that could be used by the IAEA to identify the chemical compositions of materials found during complementary access (Phase 2). [Note that in this report “chemical” is used in a broad sense to include elements, metals, and alloys as well as chemical compounds.] In November 2014, the CAWG issued its Phase 3 report describing laboratory and field testing of three devices, each device representing a specific technology that the CAWG had selected as a result of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. LANL and BNL continued measurements and analysis during FY15, leading to a reinterpretation of some of the Phase 3 results. This report serves a twofold purpose. The first section of the report compares and contrasts the Phase 3 testing with presently available preliminary results of the Karlsruhe workshop. The results of Phase 3 (and the reinterpretation of some of these results) as well as the preliminary results of the Karlsruhe workshop provide the rationale for the second section of this report. In Section 2 of this report, we revisit the combinations of signatures and technologies considered in Phases 2 and 3 of the CAWG effort. We do this to determine whether the three technologies and the matching instruments selected for the Phase 3 testing are more limited than initially thought. Based on this initial re-evaluation of the

  6. PHM-Ethics and ETICA: complementary approaches to ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mittelstadt, Brent; Stahl, Bernd; Fairweather, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The chapter undertakes a comparison of different approaches to the ethical assessment of novel technologies by looking at two recent research projects. ETICA was a FP7 sister project to PHM-Ethics, responsible for identification and ethical evaluation of information and communication technologies emerging in the next 10-15 years. The aims, methods, outcomes and recommendations of ETICA are compared to those of PHM-Ethics, with identification of linkages and similar findings. A relationship is identified between the two projects, in which the assessment methodologies developed in the projects are shown to operate at separate, but complementary levels. ETICA sought to reform EU ethics governance for emerging ICTs. The outcomes of PHM-Ethics are analyzed within the policy recommendations of ETICA, which demonstrate how the PHM-Ethics toolbox can contribute to ethics governance reform and context-sensitive ethical assessment of the sort called for by ETICA.

  7. Thinking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Copy This booklet covers: What complementary and alternative medicine is (CAM) is and why people use it The different types of CAM (mind-body methods, biologically based practices, body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole medical systems. How to talk ...

  8. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  9. Determining Complementary Properties with Quantum Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkadath, G. S.; Saaltink, R. Y.; Giner, L.; Lundeen, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In a classical world, simultaneous measurements of complementary properties (e.g., position and momentum) give a system's state. In quantum mechanics, measurement-induced disturbance is largest for complementary properties and, hence, limits the precision with which such properties can be determined simultaneously. It is tempting to try to sidestep this disturbance by copying the system and measuring each complementary property on a separate copy. However, perfect copying is physically impossible in quantum mechanics. Here, we investigate using the closest quantum analog to this copying strategy, optimal cloning. The coherent portion of the generated clones' state corresponds to "twins" of the input system. Like perfect copies, both twins faithfully reproduce the properties of the input system. Unlike perfect copies, the twins are entangled. As such, a measurement on both twins is equivalent to a simultaneous measurement on the input system. For complementary observables, this joint measurement gives the system's state, just as in the classical case. We demonstrate this experimentally using polarized single photons.

  10. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying different, complementary niches. Niche partitioning is difficult to directly demonstrate, however, because differences among species in the resources they use are often difficult to separate from other species-specific t...

  11. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  12. Recruiting Faculty: Complementary Tales from Two Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matier, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing individuals with firm job offers to join the faculty at two research universities, urban and rural, are examined, focusing on the relative importance of tangible, intangible, and non-work-related benefits in the decision-making process. Comparisons are drawn to previous faculty recruitment studies and a complementary retention…

  13. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  14. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  15. High-resolution complementary chemical imaging of bio-elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Jones, Michael W M; Wimmer, Verena C; Jenkins, Nicole L; de Jonge, Martin D; Bush, Ashley I; McColl, Gawain

    2016-02-01

    Here, we present a sub-μm multimodal approach to image essential elements in Caenorhabditis elegans. A combination of chemical imaging technologies reveals total metal concentration, chemical state and the protein to which an element is associated. This application of distinct yet complementary chemical imaging techniques provided unique insight into essential and trace elements at the subcellular level.

  16. Complementary health care: a welcome addition to an employee benefits program.

    PubMed

    DeVries, George

    2003-09-01

    One up-and-coming approach to controlling health care costs is complementary health care, which does not rely on advances in high-tech, invasive technology or expensive new pharmaceuticals, but rather focuses much more on the high-touch, direct practitioner care. It often offers lower cost alternatives to traditional medicine.

  17. [Complementary and alternative therapies for climacteric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Reinhard-Hennch, Bettina; Strowitzki, Thomas; von Hagens, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    Review on complementary and alternative therapies for climacteric symptoms. Search for publications about complementary or alternative treatments for climacteric symptoms based on Cochrane Library and Medline (1966-2006) including the references from the identified clinical trials and reviews. Cimicifuga may influence climacteric symptoms, especially hot flushes. Results for phytoestrogens, hop and Salvia seem promising but are less convincing. St. John's wort is an option for the treatment of moderate depressive symptoms. Phytoestrogens seem to have some potential for the prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Results for the influence of lifestyle on hot flushes are conflicting, but interventions have demonstrated their use for the prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle modifications, Cimicifuga and phytoestrogens may relieve climacteric symptoms. Phytoestrogens and Cimicifuga should not be given to breast cancer survivors.

  18. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering.

  19. Complementary Proteomic Analysis of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Miteva, Yana; Conlon, Frank L.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic characterization of protein complexes leverages the versatile platform of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular and cellular signaling processes underlying the dynamic regulation of macromolecular assemblies. Here, we describe a complementary proteomic approach optimized for immunoisolated protein complexes. As the relative complexity, abundance, and physiochemical properties of proteins can vary significantly between samples, we have provided (1) complementary sample preparation workflows, (2) detailed steps for HPLC and mass spectrometric method development, and (3) a bioinformatic workflow that provides confident peptide/protein identification paired with unbiased functional gene ontology analysis. This protocol can also be extended for characterization of larger complexity samples from whole cell or tissue Xenopus proteomes. PMID:22956100

  20. [Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hidehisa; Machino, Akihiko; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-06-01

    Frequency of insomnia is increasing with age. Benzodiazepine receptor agonist has been prescribed for insomnia in the elderly, but there are some patients who complain the effect is not sufficient. Adherence for sleeping pills is very low in elderly Japanese, because there has been strong stigma against sleeping pills. Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia is widely used in elderly Japanese. Sedative antidepressants, novel antipsychotics, anti-histamine drugs, and supplements are used for insomnia as complementary and alternative medicine. But evidence of these drugs for insomnia is insufficient. In this paper, we outline the previous reports such as the advantages and disadvantages of these drugs for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly.

  1. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  2. Using complementary and alternative medicines for depression.

    PubMed

    Fava, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has increased among patients with psychiatric disorders over recent decades. Therefore, clinicians must inquire and be knowledgeable about the use of CAM therapies, not only to give their patients accurate and up-to-date information but also to know when to appropriately prescribe CAM therapies to patients. Of the available CAMs, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, SAM-e, and St John's wort are reviewed.

  3. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  4. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  5. Complementary and Integrative Medicine for Neurologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Baute, Vanessa; Wahbeh, Helané

    2017-09-01

    Although many neurologic conditions are common, cures are rare and conventional treatments are often limited. Many patients, therefore, turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of selected, evidence-based CAM therapies for the prevention and treatment of migraine, carpal tunnel syndrome, and dementia are presented. Evidence is growing many of modalities, including nutrition, exercise, mind-body medicine, supplements, and acupuncture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complementary and Integrative Health Practices for Depression.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Judy

    2017-09-11

    The current article reviews selected complementary health approaches for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Complementary and integrative health (CIH) focuses on the whole person with the goal of optimal health-body, mind, and spirit. Patient use of integrative health practices and products is increasing; therefore, providers must understand these practices and products and be able to recommend or advise for or against their use based on research and guidelines. Difficulty with the current limitations of research on CIH practices is discussed, as these studies often may not have the same rigor or scientific weight as conventional treatment research. Although some individuals may use certain treatment options alone, such as massage therapy, meditation, and supplements to diet, the article discusses ways to combine CIH with allopathic care. Nurse practitioners should be open to considering complementary practices for health care and knowledgeable to guide patients in making safe health decisions. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  8. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  9. Weight Loss and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Complementary and Integrative Approaches: What the Science Says Share: January 2015 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  10. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: January 2014 Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness meditation ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  11. Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2016 © Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  12. Decades of rivalry and complementary of photon and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2009-12-01

    Not long after the photon beam was used to delineate circuit patterns in resist, e-beam was called for duty due to the concern of photons running out of resolution. The e-beam counterpart of proximity printing, projection printing, and direct writing quickly took shape as early as 1975. The race was on. Optical projection printing, taking advantage of a high degree of parallelism, excelled in throughput and economy for wafer patterning. However, electrons can be quickly deflected to directly write patterns. It took over mask writing. Rivalry turned into complementary for decades. Recently e-beam has a new opportunity to beat photon beam at its own game of parallelism and eliminate the problems associated with masks altogether. This presentation compares optical and e-beam imaging technically, economically, and historically, pointing to the rewards and challenges for each technology to succeed.

  13. Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christina K; Adhikari, Avishek; Deisseroth, Karl

    2017-03-17

    Modern optogenetics can be tuned to evoke activity that corresponds to naturally occurring local or global activity in timing, magnitude or individual-cell patterning. This outcome has been facilitated not only by the development of core features of optogenetics over the past 10 years (microbial-opsin variants, opsin-targeting strategies and light-targeting devices) but also by the recent integration of optogenetics with complementary technologies, spanning electrophysiology, activity imaging and anatomical methods for structural and molecular analysis. This integrated approach now supports optogenetic identification of the native, necessary and sufficient causal underpinnings of physiology and behaviour on acute or chronic timescales and across cellular, circuit-level or brain-wide spatial scales.

  14. Predictors of College Students' Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Neill, Kweethai; Fogle, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the use of complementary and alternative medicine among college students (N=913), the relationships between health locus of control with use of complementary and alternative medicine, and health local of control with attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and what predicts their use. A majority (66%, n-913) of…

  15. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on complementary access, BIS will forward a copy of the report to the location for its review, in accordance with...

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Allen C

    2011-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used by one-half to three-fourths of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although it is used widely, CAM may not be discussed during a conventional medical visit. In MS, CAM therapies exhibit a broad range of risk-benefit profiles; some of these therapies are low risk and possibly beneficial, whereas others are ineffective, dangerous, or unstudied. Health professionals who provide objective and practical information about the risks and benefits of CAM therapies may improve the quality of care for those with MS.

  17. Traditional and complementary therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Sánchez-Ramos, J R

    1999-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study.

  18. Integrative oncology: complementary therapies for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wesa, Kathleen; Gubili, Jyothirmai; Cassileth, Barrie

    2008-04-01

    Cancer survivors experience a wide range of symptoms during and following completion of treatment, and some of these symptoms may persist for years or even decades. While pharmacologic treatments relieve many symptoms, they too may produce difficult side effects. Complementary therapies are noninvasive, inexpensive, and useful in controlling symptoms and improving quality of life, and they may be accessed by patients themselves. Rigorous scientific research has produced evidence that acupuncture, massage therapy, music, and mind-body therapies effectively and safely reduce physical and emotional symptoms. These therapies provide a favorable risk-benefit ratio and permit cancer survivors to help manage their own care.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  20. Complementary and alternative treatments in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A; Gloyer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Many patients suffering from pain and dysfunction attributable to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of both the quantity and quality of CAM treatments for specific musculoskeletal conditions. Many CAM treatments are used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, but may be more commonly used for specific conditions. This article addresses the use of CAM for specific musculoskeletal conditions, followed by a review of other CAM treatments and their potential indications for a multitude of conditions, based on the current medical literature and traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen

    2013-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of 'sham acupuncture' and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of ‘sham acupuncture’ and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients. PMID:28835780

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine: impact on dentistry.

    PubMed

    Little, James W

    2004-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represent a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not considered to be part of conventional medicine. Biofeedback, acupuncture, herbal medication, massage, bioelectromagnetic therapy, meditation, and music therapy are examples of CAM treatments. Some dentists in the United States have used some of these treatments and products in their practices. Complementary medicines include herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines, and essential oils. There has been an increase in the use of herbal medicines in the US over the last 15-20 years. There is a public belief that these medicines are safe because they are made from natural sources. However, some of these products have associated adverse effects including toxicity and drug interactions. The health history taken by the dentist should include questions regarding the taking of herbal and over-the-counter medications. The dentist needs to be informed regarding the herbal and over-the-counter products that may impact the delivery of safe and effective dental treatment. In addition, the use of CAM treatments in dentistry should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.

  4. Complementary therapy and survival in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mulpur, Bhageeradh H.; Nabors, L. Burt; Thompson, Reid C.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; LaRocca, Renato V.; Thompson, Zachary; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complementary therapy (CAM) is common in cancer patients. We undertook this study to assess the association of complementary therapy usage with mortality in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods The analysis was based on 470 patients. Information on current use of CAM was collected in structured interviews conducted a median of 6 weeks following GBM diagnosis. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for GBM-related death according to the use of individual supplements with multivariate adjustment for known prognostic factors including age, KPS, and extent of tumor resection (ESR). Results Use of CAM agents was common, with 77% of the cohort reporting CAM usage. No mortality association was observed with the use of multivitamins (HR = 0.91; P = .40) or omega-3 fatty acids (HR = 1.07; P = .69). Patients taking vitamin D as an individual supplement (containing higher dosages than in a multivitamin) had reduced mortality when compared with nonusers (age-adjusted HR = 0.68; P = .02). However, the association was diminished after adjustment for KPS and ESR (HR = 0.74; P = .09). Use of herbal supplements was also associated with reduced mortality (HR = 0.58; P = .04). Vitamin E users had a nonsignificantly higher mortality when compared with nonusers (HR = 1.54; P = .09). Conclusions Use of CAM is common in GBM patients. These exploratory analyses suggest no mortality association with the use of multivitamins or omega-3 fatty acids. Associations observed with vitamins D and E merit further investigation. PMID:26649185

  5. Complementary medicines in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bogarapu, S; Bishop, J R; Krueger, C D; Pavuluri, M N

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number and availability of various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has resulted in an exponentially growing utilization of these products for everything from minor aches and pains to the treatment of mental illness. Difficulties in treating mental illnesses in children, averseness to having children take psychiatric medications, and stigma all drive patients and their families to research alternative treatments. As a result, there has been an increased utilization of CAM in psychiatry, particularly for hard to treat conditions like pediatric BD. It is important for the health care providers to be aware of the alternative treatments by some of their patients. A review of studies investigating the utility of complementary and alternative medicines in bipolar patients was conducted and selected studies were included. Omega-3 fatty acids and lecithin/ choline have preliminary data indicating potential utility in the CAM treatment for bipolar disorder while S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and inositol have some data supporting their efficacy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. Some data for CAM suggest they may be useful adjunctive treatments but only little data are available to support their use as stand-alone therapy. Thus, the conventional medicines remain the first choice in pediatric bipolar management. Healthcare providers need to routinely inquire about the utilization of these treatments by their patients and become familiar with the risks and benefits involved with their use in children.

  6. Trailblazing healthcare: institutionalizing and integrating complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharf, Barbara F; Geist Martin, Patricia; Cosgriff-Hernández, Kevin-Khristián; Moore, Julia

    2012-12-01

    This study examines three integrative health centers to understand their (1) historical development, organizational goals, and modalities, (2) the processes and challenges of integrating complementary and allopathic medicine, while encouraging staff collaboration, and (3) how each center becomes institutionalized within their community. We focus on three organizational case studies that reflect varying forms of integrative health care practices in three U.S. cities. Participant-observation and in-depth interviews with center directors were analyzed qualitatively. Important patterns found within the three cases are (1) the critical role of visionary biomedical practitioners who bridge complementary and allopathic practices, (2) communicating integration internally through team interaction, and (3) communicating integration externally through spatial location, naming, and community outreach. IM centers continue to blaze new trails toward mainstream access and acceptance by gathering evidence for IM, encouraging team collaboration within organizational contexts, constructing organizational identity, and negotiating insurance reimbursements. IM is not the enactment of specific modalities, but rather a philosophy of healing. Though scheduling conflicts, skepticism, and insurance coverage may be obstacles toward IM, collaboration among specialists and with patients should be the ultimate goal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2014-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors.

  8. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use.

    PubMed

    Gable, Jacob T; Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Steffan, Shawn A; Snyder, William E

    2012-09-01

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying complementary niches. Demonstrating niche complementarity among species is challenging, however, due to the difficulty in relating differences between species in particular traits to their use of complementary resources. Here, we overcame this obstacle by exploiting plastic foraging behavior in a community of predatory insects common on Brassica oleracea plants in Washington, USA. These predators complemented one another by partitioning foraging space, with some species foraging primarily along leaf edges and others at leaf centers. We hypothesized that emergent biodiversity effects would occur when predators partitioned foraging space on leaves, but not when spatial complementarity was dampened. Indeed, on intact leaves, edge- and center-foraging predators combined to kill more prey than any single predator species could by itself. These emergent diversity effects, however, disappeared on plants damaged by the caterpillar Plutella xylostella. Caterpillar chew-holes brought edge habitats to the center of leaves, so that all predator species could attack aphids anywhere on plants. With spatial niche differences diminished, there were no benefits of predator diversity; the most voracious single predator species killed the most aphids. Thus, caterpillar herbivory determined whether multi-predator-species effects reflected complementarity or species' individual impacts. Our study provides direct evidence for a causative relationship between niche differentiation and increased resource consumption by diverse communities, as revealed by ecological engineers that homogenize the foraging environment.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review†

    PubMed Central

    Canter, Peter H.; Coon, Joanna Thompson; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to October 2005. Review methods: Articles describing prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of any type of complementary therapy for any medical condition carried out in the UK were included. Data extracted included the main outcomes for health benefit and cost. These data were extracted independently by two authors, described narratively and also presented as a table. Results: Six cost-effectiveness studies of complementary medicine in the UK were identified: four different types of spinal manipulation for back pain, one type of acupuncture for chronic headache and one type of acupuncture for chronic back pain. Four of the six studies compared the complementary therapy with usual conventional treatment in pragmatic, randomized clinical trials without sham or placebo arms. Main outcome measures of effectiveness favored the complementary therapies but in the case of spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (one study) for back pain, effect sizes were small and of uncertain clinical relevance. The same four studies included a cost-utility analyses in which the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was less than £10 000. The complementary therapy represented an additional health care cost in five of the six studies. Conclusions: Prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies have been carried out in the UK only for spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (two studies). The limited data available indicate that the use of these therapies

  10. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of BIS. 784.1 Section 784... locations, and the role of BIS. (a) Overview. The Additional Protocol requires that the United States....S. declaration as agreed to by the U.S. Government. The IAEA, upon request, will be granted...

  11. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of BIS. 784.1 Section 784... locations, and the role of BIS. (a) Overview. The Additional Protocol requires that the United States... will: (1) Serve as the official U.S. Government host to the IAEA inspection team; (2) Provide...

  12. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of BIS. 784.1 Section 784... locations, and the role of BIS. (a) Overview. The Additional Protocol requires that the United States... will: (1) Serve as the official U.S. Government host to the IAEA inspection team; (2) Provide...

  13. Complementary mode analyses between sub- and superdiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takuya; Sakaue, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    Several subdiffusive stochastic processes in nature, e.g., the motion of a tagged monomer in polymers, the height fluctuation of interfaces, particle dynamics in single-file diffusion, etc., can be described rigorously or approximately by the superposition of various modes whose relaxation times are broadly distributed. In this paper, we propose a mode analysis generating superdiffusion, which is paired with or complementary to subdiffusion. The key point in our discussion lies in the identification of a pair of conjugated variables, which undergo sub- and superdiffusion, respectively. We provide a simple interpretation for the sub- and superdiffusion duality for these variables using the language of polymer physics. The analysis also suggests the usefulness of looking at the force fluctuation in experiments, where a polymer is driven by a constant velocity.

  14. COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE COMPLEMENTARY NATURE

    PubMed Central

    Engstrøm, David A.; Scott Kelso, JA

    2009-01-01

    Summary Niels Bohr’s maxim contraria sunt complementa indicated his strong suspicion that the complementarity interpretation of quantum mechanics might someday be expanded into a generalized principle. It now appears that such a principle has been found in metastability which appears at the scale of living things. Metastability has been proposed as a principle of brain~behavior, and is captured in the extended or ‘broken-symmetry’ version of the HKB model of coordination dynamics. The metastable regime of coordination dynamics reconciles the tendency of specialized brain regions to express autonomy (segregation) and their simultaneous tendency to work together as a synergetic whole (integration). There is growing evidence from recent studies in the brain and behavioral sciences that the complementary nature of integrating and segregating tendencies is essential to the way human brain~minds work. PMID:20634938

  15. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Allen C

    2010-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used by one-half to three-fourths of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this widespread use, CAM may not be discussed in the course of a conventional medical visit. When considered in the context of MS, CAM therapies have a wide range of risk-benefit profiles. Some CAM therapies, such as acupuncture, cranberry, vitamin D, tai chi, and yoga, are low risk and possibly beneficial. Other CAM therapies, such as immune-stimulating supplements, bee venom, and hyperbaric oxygen, are ineffective, dangerous, or unstudied. Providing access to information about the risks and benefits of CAM therapies may increase the quality of care that is provided to patients with MS.

  17. Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

  18. AMPAkines and morphine provide complementary analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Liu, Kevin; Martinez, Erik; Dale, Jahrane; Huang, Dong; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-15

    Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve rats and in rats that experience postoperative pain. Furthermore, we show that this AMPAkine can be administered directly into the prefrontal cortex to provide analgesia, and that prefrontal AMPAkine infusion, similar to systemic administration, can provide added pain relief to complement morphine analgesia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling tauopathy: a range of complementary approaches.

    PubMed

    Hall, Garth F; Yao, Jun

    2005-01-03

    The large group of neurodegenerative diseases which feature abnormal metabolism and accumulation of tau protein (tauopathies) characteristically produce a multiplicity of cellular and systemic abnormalities in human patients. Understanding the complex pathogenetic mechanisms by which abnormalities in tau lead to systemic neurofibrillary degenerative disease requires the construction and use of model experimental systems in which the behavior of human tau can be analyzed under controlled conditions. In this paper, we survey the ways in which in vitro, cellular and whole-animal models of human tauopathy are being used to add to our knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these conditions. In particular, we focus on the complementary advantages and limitations of various approaches to constructing tauopathy models presently in use with respect to those of murine transgenic tauopathy models.

  20. A molecular understanding of complementary chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2003-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus are strongly regulated by environmental conditions. Some visually dramatic changes in pigmentation of cyanobacterial cells that occur during changing nutrient and light conditions reflect marked alterations in components of the major light-harvesting complex in these organisms, the phycobilisome. As noted well over 100 years ago, the pigment composition of some cyanobacteria is very sensitive to ambient wavelengths of light; this sensitivity reflects molecular changes in polypeptide constituents of the phycobilisome. The levels of different pigmented polypeptides or phycobiliproteins that become associated with the phycobilisome are adjusted to optimize absorption of excitation energy present in the environment. This process, called complementary chromatic adaptation, is controlled by a bilin-binding photoreceptor related to phytochrome of vascular plants; however, many other regulatory elements also play a role in chromatic adaptation. My perspectives and biases on the history and significance of this process are presented in this essay.

  1. Complementary and alternative treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon; Balen, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high and increasing worldwide. Patients usually use CAM in addition to conventional medicine, mainly to treat pain. In a large number of cases, people use CAM for chronic musculoskeletal pain as in osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, or fibromyalgia. Herewith, a review is presented of CAM efficacy in treating musculoskeletal pain for which, however, no scientific research has so far provided evidence solid enough. In some rare cases where adequate pain control cannot be achieved, CAM might be considered in rational and individual approach based on the first general rule in medicine "not to harm" and on the utility theory of each intervention, i.e. according to the presumed mechanism of painful stimulus and with close monitoring of the patient's response. Further high quality studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of CAM methods. Therefore, conventional medicine remains the main mode of treatment for patients with musculoskeletal painful conditions.

  2. Alternative, complementary and traditional medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, N

    2006-09-01

    This paper sets out the practice of traditional, alternative and/or complementary medicine in Malaysia. It gives an overview of the types of alternative medicine available, and the legal regulation, or lack of it within the current setting. The relevant policies and governmental action in this area are highlighted. Relevant case law decisions in this area are also included. The practice of spiritual healing as one form of traditional medicine, and its role within the spectrum of alternative medicine is dealt with briefly. The significant question of integration of alternative medicine within the existing allopathic system is addressed. The paper concludes that as interest in, and usage of alternative medicine is not likely to decrease, certain measures must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure among others, the safety and efficacy of these medicines.

  3. Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sita

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins (vitamin D), minerals (magnesium), coenzyme Q, butterbur, and melatonin. Acupuncture, stimulation, physical therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations (TENS) or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) may also be useful in selected patients. The efficacy of all these therapeutic alternatives in pediatric headache is presented here. Primary care providers, neurologists, and headache specialists alike need to be informed of such interventions and integrate these approaches, when appropriate, in the management of children with headaches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Musculoskeletal conditions and complementary/alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2004-08-01

    Complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) is immensely popular for musculoskeletal conditions. It is, therefore, essential to define CAM's value for such indications. This chapter summarises the trial data for or against CAM as a symptomatic treatment for back pain, fibromyalgia, neck pain, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Collectively the evidence demonstrates that some CAM modalities show significant promise, e.g. acupuncture, diets, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, massage, supplements. None of the treatments in question is totally devoid of risks. By and large the data are not compelling, not least due to their paucity and methodological limitations. It is, therefore, concluded that our research efforts must be directed towards defining which form of CAM generates more good than harm for which condition.

  5. Complementary medicine treatments for fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berman, B M; Swyers, J P

    1999-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic-pain-related syndrome associated with high rates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use. Among the many CAM therapies frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, empirical research data exist to support the use of only three: (1) mind-body, (2) acupuncture, and (3) manipulative therapies for treating fibromyalgia. The strongest data exist for the use of mind-body techniques (e.g. biofeedback, hypnosis, cognitive behavioural therapy), particularly when utilized as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. The weakest data exist for manipulative techniques (e.g. chiropractic and massage). The data supporting the use of acupuncture for fibromyalgia are only moderately strong. Also, for some fibromyalgia patients, acupuncture can exacerbate symptoms, further complicating its application for this condition. Further research is needed not only in these three areas, but also for other treatments being frequently utilized by fibromyalgia patients.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2000-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become an important subject for rheumatologists. This article is an attempt to provide an introduction to this subject. It will provide definitions of, and define the prevalence of, CAM. The emphasis of the article is on evaluating the efficacy of CAM treatment modalities. This is achieved by referring to systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture for low back pain, osteo-arthritis, fibromyalgia, inflammatory rheumatoid disease and neck pain. Further areas addressed in this way are herbal remedies, fish oil and glucosamine. Moreover, massage therapy and spinal manipulation for back pain are discussed. The final sections of this review deal with the safety and cost of CAM. It is concluded that, in view of the popularity of CAM with rheumatological patients, rigorous research into CAM is the best way forward. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. [Complementary medicine--Jewish medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Katz, Yisrae; Schiff, Elad

    2011-08-01

    In Israel, as in the Western world, the use of different methods of complementary and alternative medicine ICAM) is spreading. CAM raises ethical questions of concern to healthcare providers and to the public: Can physicians recommend a treatment that has no scientific evidence? Should the government include such therapies in the health budget? Can complementary therapists receive protection against lawsuits if their treatment is recognized? The purpose of this article is to present a Jewish perspective on these issues. The fundamental sources that deal with the subject are based on the approach of rabbinic authorities toward unproven medicine, as expressed in the "Mishnah" and "Talmud" (200-500 C.E). The great Jewish scholar who discusses the subject in detail is Maimonides (1135-1204), who defines what "medicine" is and claims that medicine has to rely on reason or experience. Contemporary Jewish commentators present their position based on the interpretation of Maimonides' texts. In this article we claim that treatments can be divided into four groups, each group having a different halachic status: (1) Treatment that might be dangerous--should not be used. (2) Treatment that is safe--can be used, but has no other special status. (3) Treatment recognized by alternative therapists--has consequences for the observant Jew, such as laws of Kashrut and Shabbat. (4) Treatment that was tested and proven using modern medical methods has public significance--the therapist is entitled to legal defense if he made a reasonable mistake; the government can consider funding such treatment using public money. This article presents the Jewish halachic sources upon which we propose an ethical-practical approach to CAM.

  8. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  9. What can general practice learn from complementary medicine?

    PubMed Central

    White, P

    2000-01-01

    Complementary medicine is popular in Britain. This suggests that patients who use complementary medicine believe that there are deficiencies in the care they receive from their general practitioners (GPs). Studies of patients using complementary medicine have shown that these patients are sometimes dissatisfied with the communication skills of conventional doctors, the explanations they give for their illnesses, the dangers of modern drugs, and a perceived lack of holistic care. The patients using complementary medicine trusted their bodies' own healing potential and they generally believed that they had more control over their bodies than those patients who did not use complementary medicine. They particularly valued the longer appointment times usually given by the complementary therapists and also the in-depth discussions of their illnesses. Patients using complementary medicine tended to be those with chronic illnesses and these patients particularly valued the positive approach of, and the psychological support given by, the complementary therapists. General practitioners know that all of these aspects of care are important, but the fact that many of our patients go to complementary therapists to satisfy them should encourage us to look at our own practices to see how we as GPs can fulfill these needs. PMID:11127176

  10. Complementary, alternative, integrative, or unconventional medicine?

    PubMed

    Penson, R T; Castro, C M; Seiden, M V; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2001-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded the Kenneth B. Schwartz Center. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and sustenance to the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown exponentially in the past decade, fueled by Internet marketing, dissatisfaction with mainstream medicine, and a desire for patients to be actively involved in their health care. There is a large discordance between physician estimates and reported prevalence of CAM use. Many patients do not disclose their practices mainly because they believe CAM falls outside the rubric of conventional medicine or because physicians do not ask. Concern about drug interactions and adverse effects are compounded by a lack of Food and Drug Administration regulation. Physicians need to be informed about CAM and be attuned to the psychosocial needs of patients.

  11. Complementary systems for understanding action intentions.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Floris P; Spronk, Marjolein; Willems, Roel M; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2008-03-25

    How humans understand the intention of others' actions remains controversial. Some authors have suggested that intentions are recognized by means of a motor simulation of the observed action with the mirror-neuron system [1-3]. Others emphasize that intention recognition is an inferential process, often called "mentalizing" or employing a "theory of mind," which activates areas well outside the motor system [4-6]. Here, we assessed the contribution of brain regions involved in motor simulation and mentalizing for understanding action intentions via functional brain imaging. Results show that the inferior frontal gyrus (part of the mirror-neuron system) processes the intentionality of an observed action on the basis of the visual properties of the action, irrespective of whether the subject paid attention to the intention or not. Conversely, brain areas that are part of a "mentalizing" network become active when subjects reflect about the intentionality of an observed action, but they are largely insensitive to the visual properties of the observed action. This supports the hypothesis that motor simulation and mentalizing have distinct but complementary functions for the recognition of others' intentions.

  12. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  13. Complementary compressive imaging for the telescopic system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Yun; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Conventional single-pixel cameras recover images only from the data recorded in one arm of the digital micromirror device, with the light reflected to the other direction not to be collected. Actually, the sampling in these two reflection orientations is correlated with each other, in view of which we propose a sampling concept of complementary compressive imaging, for the first time to our knowledge. We use this method in a telescopic system and acquire images of a target at about 2.0 km range with 20 cm resolution, with the variance of the noise decreasing by half. The influence of the sampling rate and the integration time of photomultiplier tubes on the image quality is also investigated experimentally. It is evident that this technique has advantages of large field of view over a long distance, high-resolution, high imaging speed, high-quality imaging capabilities, and needs fewer measurements in total than any single-arm sampling, thus can be used to improve the performance of all compressive imaging schemes and opens up possibilities for new applications in the remote-sensing area. PMID:25060569

  14. Complementary optical diagnostics of noble gas plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Stewart, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    In this talk we will discuss our theoretical modeling and application of an array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques for low-temperature plasmas. These are cw laser collisionally induced fluorescence (LCIF), cw optogalvanic effect (OGE), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). We will briefly present an overview of our investigation of neon positive column plasmas for reduced axial electrical fields ranging from 3x10-17 Vcm^2 to 2x10-16 Vcm^2 (3-20 Td), detailing our determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients involving the fifteen lowest levels, the ^1S0 ground state and the 1s and 2p excited states (in Paschen notation), hence information on several energy regions of the electron distribution function (EDF). The discussion will be extended to show the new results obtained from analysis of the argon positive column over similar reduced fields. Future work includes application of our multi-diagnostic technique to move complex systems, including the addition of molecules for EDF determination.

  15. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  16. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  17. Complementary and alternative health care in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the patterns of coexistence of alternative/complementary health care (CAM) and conventional medicine in Israel in the cultural, political, and social contexts of the society. The data are drawn from over ten years of sociological research on CAM in Israel, which included observation, survey research, and over one hundred in-depth interviews with a variety of CAM practitioners - many with bio-medical credentials - and with policy makers in the major medical institutions. The analysis considers the reasons for CAM use, number of practitioners, the frequency of CAM use and some of its correlates, and how CAM is regulated. The structure of the relationship between the conventional health care system and CAM is discussed in the public sector, which provides two-thirds of CAM services, and in the private sector, which provides about one-third. The history of the development of these structures and some of the dilemmas of their operation are discussed. A number of policy issues are considered against this background: regulation and licensing, CAM in primary care, reimbursement for CAM treatment, and the inclusion of CAM in education and training for the health professions. PMID:22913721

  18. [Alternative and complementary therapies in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Leweling, H; Meinck, H-M

    2005-08-01

    Most MS patients use unconventional therapies, usually as complementary measures in addition to the conventional treatment. Only a few adequate clinical trials exist in this field. By definition, the efficacy of these therapies is unproven. Moreover, the possible risks are also largely unknown. Some therapies rely on rational pathophysiological considerations, other must be regarded as potentially harmful. The influence of diet on MS is unproven. Possibly, unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. However, a few randomized trials yielded inconclusive results. Long-term supplementation of Vitamin D is associated with a decreased MS incidence. There is, however, insufficient evidence for an influence of Vitamin D on the course of the disease. Because of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in MS patients, prophylaxis with Vitamin D and Calcium is widely accepted. The effects of various minerals, selenium, antioxidant compounds, fish oil or vitamins remain speculative. Many patients use cannabis to alleviate spasticity and pain. Small series indicated positive effects, but randomized trials were negative for spasticity. However, many patients report subjective improvement under cannabis even if their objective parameters remain unchanged. Hyperbaric oxygenation was the subject of several small studies with heterogeneous results which, overall, do not support its use. Generally, physical therapies are perceived as an established therapy for MS. Short-term effects are probable, whereas the possible favourable long-term effects are unclear.

  19. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  20. Complementary ensemble clustering of biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Fodeh, Samah Jamal; Brandt, Cynthia; Luong, Thai Binh; Haddad, Ali; Schultz, Martin; Murphy, Terrence; Krauthammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly growing availability of electronic biomedical data has increased the need for innovative data mining methods. Clustering in particular has been an active area of research in many different application areas, with existing clustering algorithms mostly focusing on one modality or representation of the data. Complementary ensemble clustering (CEC) is a recently introduced framework in which Kmeans is applied to a weighted, linear combination of the coassociation matrices obtained from separate ensemble clustering of different data modalities. The strength of CEC is its extraction of information from multiple aspects of the data when forming the final clusters. This study assesses the utility of CEC in biomedical data, which often have multiple data modalities, e.g., text and images, by applying CEC to two distinct biomedical datasets (PubMed images and radiology reports) that each have two modalities. Referent to five different clustering approaches based on the Kmeans algorithm, CEC exhibited equal or better performance in the metrics of micro-averaged precision and Normalized Mutual Information across both datasets. The reference methods included clustering of single modalities as well as ensemble clustering of separate and merged data modalities. Our experimental results suggest that CEC is equivalent or more efficient than comparable Kmeans based clustering methods using either single or merged data modalities.

  1. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  2. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-03-16

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering.

  3. Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Aysegul Jale; Gur, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the studies that have been performed evaluating complementary or alternative medical (CAM) therapies for efficacy and some adverse events fibromyalgia (FM). There is no permanent cure for FM; therefore, adequate symptom control should be goal of treatment. Clinicians can choose from a variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities. Unfortunately, controlled studies of most current treatments have failed to demonstrate sustained, clinically significant responses. CAM has gained increasing popularity, particularly among individuals with FM for which traditional medicine has generally been ineffective. Some herbal and nutritional supplements (magnesium, S- adenosylmethionine) and massage therapy have the best evidence for effectiveness with FM. Other CAM therapies such as chlorella, biofeedback, relaxation have either been evaluated in only one randomised controlled trials (RCT) with positive results, in multiple RCTs with mixed results (magnet therapies) or have positive results from studies with methodological flaws (homeopathy, botanical oils, balneotherapy, anthocyanidins and dietary modifications). Another CAM therapy such as chiropractic care has neither well-designed studies nor positive results and is not currently recommended for FM treatment. Once CAM therapies have been better evaluated for safety and long-term efficacy in randomised, placebo-controlled trials, they may prove to be beneficial in treatments for FM. It would then be important to assess studies assessing cost-benefit analyses comparing conventional therapies and CAM.

  4. Research of antijamming performance of MC-DS-CDMA system based on complementary sequence with dummy chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiaqi; Sun, Zhiguo; Guo, Lili

    2004-04-01

    The MC-DS-CDMA system, OFDM technology is applied in, has some good properties, such as high-speed transmission and restraining multi-path interference. However it has some shortcomings. Lots of resource of frequency is used in this system. Because traditional spreading spectral sequence doesn"t have good property of auto-correlation and cross-correlation in the meantime, it leads to multi-access interference. In this paper, a new communication system of MC-DS-CDMA system using modified complementary sequences as spreading spectral sequence will be proposed to solve those problems. Based on the theory of complementary sequences and OND, the concept of dummy chip is led in. According to the algorithm of dummy chips generation, the whole frame data will be processed and becomes the extended frame which is also called modified complementary sequence. The dummy chips in the extended frame become an undisturbed window. When received data is carried on the particular correlating computation of complementary sequence in the undisturbed window, the primitive transmitted data will be restored correctly. The performance of MC-DS-CDMA system based on modified complementary sequence has been analyzed and simulated. The result of simulation proved that this measure is proper and feasible. With the quotation of this technology, the system can efficiently eliminate multi-path interference and decrease multi-access interference to a low level under the condition of using less subcarriers relatively.

  5. ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing

    2011-12-01

    Using China firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT capital deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human capital, innovation and organization change).

  6. Complementary and alternative therapies for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, M R

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews complementary and alternative therapies for advanced prostate cancer. This is not a comprehensive survey of nontraditional therapies for prostate cancer. Rather, this review focuses on alternative and complementary therapies with published studies to evaluate efficacy and safety. Three areas are addressed: alternative forms of hormonal therapy, management of side effects of hormonal therapy, and management of skeletal complications.

  7. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  8. Managing Bilingual Interaction in a Gujarati Complementary School in Leicester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Bhatt, Arvind; Bhojani, Nirmala; Creese, Angela

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on teacher-student interaction in two Gujarati complementary school classrooms in one school in the East Midlands city of Leicester, UK. To date, little work has been published on interaction in complementary schools, and little is therefore known about the cultures of learning and teaching in such contexts. Our study of…

  9. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  10. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology. PMID:27991594

  11. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-19

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  12. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  13. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C P; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-10-20

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics.

  14. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics. PMID:27762321

  15. Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine in Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beuth, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Summary Complementary medicine is currently widely debated by the oncologic community, because the required scientific proof of safety and effectiveness for most of the therapeutic approaches ha s not yet been met with definite results. In the past years, basic research and clinical evaluation of defined complementary therapeutic concepts in oncology have been intensified in an attempt to integrate these procedures into evidence-based medicine. According to definition, scientifically-based therapies of complementary medicine cannot replace the well-studied conventional cancer-destructive therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy. Complementary approaches in oncology that are recommended as an addition to standard cancer-destructive therapies claim to optimize this therapy. A great body of data emerging from scientifically sound clinical trials prove that defined complementary procedures are beneficial for the patients. PMID:20877679

  16. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm.

  17. Complementary versus companion diagnostics: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Bryan, Crystal; Garafalo, Steven; McKiernan, Marie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several major problems that have plagued biopharmaceutical development since the end of the 1990s, but two in particular have reached the point where they are impacting the economic viability of the industry: the lack of efficacy of new drugs and increasing competition among therapeutics that broadly attack certain common diseases and disease areas. The US FDA has noted that the era of one-size-fits-all treatment may well be reaching its end days as companies increasingly adopt approaches that involve biomarkers (there are now commercial databases that purport to track over 11,000 of them). Pharmacogenomic biomarkers in particular are used to create diagnostics that help to differentiate or stratify the likely outcomes a patient will experience with a drug, which can now be said to be targeted or tailored to patients with particular traits (i.e., personalized), leading to an era of so-called precision medicine. As more is understood about diseases and the why and how of their effects on people through advances in biomarkers and genomics, personalized medicine is becoming a natural result of biomedical science and a natural trajectory for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry. The focus of this article is to examine an apparent divergence in that trajectory engendered by a growing differentiation in the approaches to personalized medicines in terms of their accompanying diagnostics: companion diagnostics are typically linked to a specific drug within its approved label, while complementary diagnostics are associated more broadly, usually not with a specific drug but with a class of drugs, and not confined to specific uses by labeling, with consequent ramifications for economic, regulatory and strategic considerations.

  18. Complementary and Integrative Medicine at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Wang, Shihan; Tian, Lin; Lee, Mark C; Do, Alexander; Cutshall, Susanne M; Li, Guangxi; Bauer, Brent A; Thomley, Barbara S; Chon, Tony Y

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained acceptance throughout the industrialized world. The present study was performed to provide information about the use of CAM at Mayo Clinic, an academic medical center in Northern Midwest of the US. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 2680 patients visiting the CAM program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, between 1 July 2006 and 31 March 2011. Services provided included acupuncture, massage, integrative medical consultations and executive stress management training. Data including age, gender, race, diagnosis and the number of treatment/consultation sessions were collected to describe the use of CAM in our institute over the last several years. It was found that the mean (standard deviation) age of patient was 52.6 (15.5) years. Of those, 73.1% were female and 26.9% were male. Most patients were white. The number of patients referred to CAM increased significantly from 2007 to 2010. The three most common diagnostic categories were back pain (12.9%), psychological disorders (11.8%), and joint pain (9.6%). Back pain was the most common diagnosis for patients receiving acupuncture, and fibromyalgia was the most common for patients receiving massage therapy. Psychological disorders (i.e., stress) were the major diagnosis referred to both integrative medical consults and executive stress management training. These results suggest that the diseases related to pain and psychological disorders are the main fields of CAM use. It also shows the increasing trend of the use of CAM at an academic medical center in the US.

  19. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries - Lessons from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6-23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6-23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  20. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  1. Cancer patients' experiences of using complementary therapies: polarization and integration.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Janet; Paterson, Charlotte; Britten, Nicky; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George

    2010-04-01

    The use of complementary therapies by people with cancer is commonplace. In a recent synthesis of 26 qualitative studies of patients' experiences of complementary therapy use after a diagnosis of cancer, the emergent theme of 'polarization' was the most notable barrier to a positive experience of complementary therapies. In this paper, we explore the two synthesis concepts of 'polarization' and 'integration', and their relationship to health service policies and guidelines on integrated services. A systematic literature search and a meta-ethnography to synthesize key concepts. The majority of patients who used complementary therapies after a diagnosis of cancer wanted to be certain that the therapies were not interfering with their conventional cancer treatment. They valued the therapies in wider terms including: taking 'a niche of control', relieving symptoms, improving wellbeing, and promoting reconnection and social interaction. The emergent theme of 'polarization' suggested that conventional physicians who are perceived to be poorly informed or negative about complementary approaches induce patient anxiety, safety concerns, and difficulties in access. They may compromise their therapeutic relationship and, rarely, they may trigger patients to abandon conventional medicine altogether. In contrast, integrated advice and/or services were highly valued by patients, although some patients preferred their complementary health care to be provided in a non-medicalized environment. Our findings suggest that the current polarized situation is unhelpful to patients, detrimental to therapeutic relationships and may occasionally be dangerous. They indicate that complementary therapies, in a supportive role, should be integrated into mainstream cancer care.

  2. Use of complementary medications among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Ronald J; Gross, Cary P; Togawa, Kayo; Tew, William P; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Klapper, Shira M; Hansen, Kurt; Hurria, Arti

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about complementary medication use among older adults with cancer, particularly those who are receiving chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complementary medication use and to identify the factors associated with its use among older adults with cancer. The prevalence of complementary medication use (defined as herbal agents, minerals, or other dietary supplements, excluding vitamins) was evaluated in a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years who were about to start chemotherapy for their cancer. The associations between complementary medication use and patient characteristics (sociodemographics; comorbidities; and functional, nutritional, psychological, and cognitive status), medication use (number of medications and concurrent vitamin use), and cancer characteristics (type and stage) were analyzed. The cohort included 545 patients (mean age, 73 years; range, 65-91 years; 52% women) with cancer (61% stage IV). Seventeen percent of these patients (N = 93) reported using ≥1 complementary medication; the mean number of complementary medications among users was 2 (range, 1-10 medications). Complementary medication use was associated with 1) earlier cancer stage (29% had stage I-II disease vs 17% with stage III-IV disease; odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.49) and 2) less impairment with instrumental activities of daily living (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.73). Complementary medication use was reported by 17% of older adults with cancer and was more common among those who had less advanced disease (i.e., those receiving adjuvant, potentially curative treatment) and higher functional status. Further studies are needed to determine the association between complementary medication use and cancer outcomes among older adults. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  3. Predictors of early introduction of complementary feeding: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    Early introduction of complementary foods prior to 6 months of age may shorten breast-feeding duration and expose the infant to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to document the ages of complementary food introduction and to identify the determinants associated with early introduction of complementary feeding in Sichuan Province. A prospective study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010-2011 in Jiangyou, China. A total of 695 mothers were recruited and interviewed at discharge. The follow-up interviews were carried out by telephone at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine factors related to early introduction of complementary feeding. The median age at start of complementary feeding was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-4.6 months). Mothers who perceived that most of their friends breast-fed (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95%CI: 0.58-0.84) and those who returned to work when the infants were at least 6 months old were less likely to initiate complementary feeding early (adjusted HR, 0.73; 95%CI: 0.58-0.91), while infants who had been introduced to infant formula regularly before 6 months of age were at a higher risk of receiving complementary foods prematurely (adjusted HR, 1.81; 95%CI: 1.42-2.31). Introducing complementary feeding before 6 months postpartum was widely practiced in Jiangyou. The appropriate age at which to introduce complementary foods and its benefits need to be emphasized in the future breast-feeding education strategies in Sichuan. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Complementary structure sensitive and insensitive catalytic relationships.

    PubMed

    Van Santen, Rutger A

    2009-01-20

    reactions such as hydrogenation typically show particle-size-independent behavior. The rate-limiting step for these class III reactions is the recombination of an adsorbed hydrogen atom with the surface alkyl intermediate and the formation of a sigma-type bond. Herein is our molecular theory explaining the three classes of structure sensitivity. We describe how reactions with rates that are independent of particle size and reactions with a positive correlation between size and rate are in fact complementary phenomena. The elucidation of a complete theory explaining the size dependence of transition metal catalysts will assist in the rational design of new catalytic systems and accelerate the evolution of the field of nanotechnology.

  5. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed.

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicines during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Pallivalapila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; McLay, James S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, indications, and associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use during the last trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire survey was conducted of women with a live birth (N=700) admitted to the postnatal unit at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, northeast Scotland. Outcome measures included: complementary and alternative medicine used; vitamins and minerals used; reasons for complementary and alternative medicine use; independent associated factors for use; views; and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. The response rate was 79.6% of eligible women. Two thirds of respondents (61.4%) reported using complementary and alternative medicine, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the third trimester. Respondents reported using a total of 30 different complementary and alternative medicine modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (38% of respondents, 40 different products). The independent associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use identified were: complementary and alternative medicine use before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39-7.95, P<.001); a university education (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.46-4.0, P=.001), and complementary and alternative medicine use by family or friends (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.47, P<.001). There was no association with health care professional recommendations. Users were significantly more likely than nonusers to agree that complementary and alternative medicines were safer than prescribed medicines (P=.006), less likely to be associated with side effects (P≤.001), and could interfere with conventional medicines (P≤.001). Despite the majority of respondents, and notably users, being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, complementary and alternative medicine modalities and complementary and alternative medicine products are widely used during the third trimester of

  7. Use of complementary veterinary medicine in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ed

    2002-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.

  8. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process.

  9. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process. PMID:28134291

  10. Unipolar Complementary Circuits Using Double Electron Layer Tunneling Tansistors

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.

    1998-10-19

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of 2D-2D interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor - in addition to exhibiting a welldefined negative-differential-resistance can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and band-bending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series.

  11. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe.

  12. Critical review of complementary therapies in haemato-oncology.

    PubMed

    Joske, D J L; Rao, A; Kristjanson, L

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence of the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine by Australians diagnosed with cancer. Given the increasing desire of cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine, it is important that clinicians have a good understanding of the evidence available in this field. This critical review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence pertaining to a range of complementary therapies that are used in a supportive role in the treatment of cancer patients. Treatment methods considered are acupuncture, music therapy, massage and touch therapies and psychological interventions. The efficacy of these complementary therapies in terms of improvement in symptoms and quality of life is examined. Evidence that relates to an effect on immune function and survival is also investigated.

  13. RNA-catalysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Szostak, Jack W.

    1989-06-01

    The Tetrahymena ribozyme can splice together multiple oligonucleotides aligned on a template strand to yield a fully complementary product strand. This reaction demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-catalysed RNA replications.

  14. The Challenge of Educating Physicians about Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that most physicians are not prepared to respond knowledgeably about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) modalities and suggests incorporating systematic presentation of CAM information into the curricula of medical schools. (EV)

  15. Complementary system vaporizes subcooled liquid, improves transformer efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketaily, E. C.

    1966-01-01

    Complementary system converts subcooled liquid hydrogen or nitrogen to gas. The inherent induction heat losses of an electrical transformer are used in the vaporizing process. Transformer efficiency is improved in the process.

  16. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  17. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  18. Finding and Evaluating Online Resources on Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine . Follow along with NCCIH via its official Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest accounts. These accounts are updated ... resources on a variety of complementary health approaches. Facebook— www.facebook.com/nih.nccih Twitter— twitter.com/ ...

  19. Introducing Complementary/Alternative Strategies in a Baccalaureate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepa, Carole Anne; Russell, Cynthia Ann

    2000-01-01

    An undergraduate nursing course explores healing strategies based on mind-body-spirit connections. It examines research on the efficacy of these alternative/complementary methods and their health care policy implications. (SK)

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Giangioppo, Sandra; Kalaci, Odion; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Fleischer, Erin; Itterman, Jennifer; Lyttle, Brian; Price, April; Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with cystic fibrosis, determine specific modalities used, predictors of use and subjective helpfulness or harm from individual modalities. Of 53 children attending the cystic fibrosis clinic in London, Ontario (100% recruitment), 79% had used complementary and alternative medicine. The most commonly used modalities were air purifiers, humidifiers, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. Family complementary and alternative medicine use was the only independent predictor of overall use. The majority of patients perceived benefit from specific modalities for cystic fibrosis symptoms. Given the high frequency and number of modalities used and lack of patient and disease characteristics predicting use, we recommend that health care providers should routinely ask about complementary and alternative medicine among all pediatric cystic fibrosis patients and assist patients in understanding the potential benefits and risks to make informed decisions about its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Challenge of Educating Physicians about Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that most physicians are not prepared to respond knowledgeably about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) modalities and suggests incorporating systematic presentation of CAM information into the curricula of medical schools. (EV)

  3. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine for children: does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, K

    2001-01-01

    Paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine is common and increasing, particularly for the sickest children. This review discusses the various options available including dietary supplements, hypnosis, massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture.

 PMID:11124773

  6. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  7. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong'an; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Jang, Sei-Hum; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-09-23

    An understanding of structure-property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  8. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Efe, Emine; Işler, Ayşegül; Sarvan, Süreyya; Başer, Hayriye; Yeşilipek, Akif

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the types of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with thalassaemia as reported by parents and (2) describe sociodemographic and medical factors associated with the use of such treatments in families residing in southern Turkey. Thalassaemia is one of the most common human genetic diseases. Despite the therapeutic efforts, patients will encounter a variety of physical and psychological problems. Therefore, the use of complementary and alternative medicines among children thalassaemia is becoming increasingly popular. This is a descriptive study of complementary and alternative medicine. This study was conducted in the Hematology Outpatient Clinic at Akdeniz University Hospital and in the Thalassemia Centre at Ministry of Health Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, between January 2010-December 2010. Parents of 97 paediatric patients, among 125 parents who applied to the haematology outpatient clinic and thalassaemia centre between these dates, agreed to take part in the study with whom contact could be made were included. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. The proportion of parents who reported using one or more of the complementary and alternative medicine methods was 82·5%. Of these parents, 61·8% were using prayer/spiritual practice, 47·4% were using nutritional supplements and 35·1% were using animal materials. It was determined that a significant portion of the parents using complementary and alternative medicine use it to treat their children's health problems, they were informed about complementary and alternative medicine by their paediatricians and family elders, and they have discussed the use of complementary and alternative medicine with healthcare professionals. To sustain medical treatment and prognosis of thalassaemia, it is important for nurses to consult with their patients and parents regarding the use and potential risks of some complementary

  10. Evaluating the economics of complementary and integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.(1) (-) (4) The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion-11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.(1) However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an "add on" expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  11. Evaluating the Economics of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.1–4 The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion—11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.1 However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an “add on” expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  12. Dissecting the hybridization of oligonucleotides to structured complementary sequences.

    PubMed

    Peracchi, Alessio

    2016-06-01

    When oligonucleotides hybridize to long target molecules, the process is slowed by the secondary structure in the targets. The phenomenon has been analyzed in several previous studies, but many details remain poorly understood. I used a spectrofluorometric strategy, focusing on the formation/breaking of individual base pairs, to study the kinetics of association between a DNA hairpin and >20 complementary oligonucleotides ('antisenses'). Hybridization rates differed by over three orders of magnitude. Association was toehold-mediated, both for antisenses binding to the target's ends and for those designed to interact with the loop. Binding of these latter, besides being consistently slower, was affected to variable, non-uniform extents by the asymmetric loop structure. Divalent metal ions accelerated hybridization, more pronouncedly when nucleation occurred at the loop. Incorporation of locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues in the antisenses substantially improved the kinetics only when LNAs participated to the earliest hybridization steps. The effects of individual LNAs placed along the antisense indicated that the reaction transition state occurred after invading at least the first base pair of the stem. The experimental approach helps dissect hybridization reactions involving structured nucleic acids. Toehold-dependent, nucleation-invasion models appear fully appropriate for describing such reactions. Estimating the stability of nucleation complexes formed at internal toeholds is the major hurdle for the quantitative prediction of hybridization rates. While analyzing the mechanisms of a fundamental biochemical process (hybridization), this work also provides suggestions for the improvement of technologies that rely on such process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two Highly-Complementary Future Instruments for Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) provide the most accurate knowledge of the net energy powering the Earth's climate system and thus give the incoming side of the Earth's radiative energy balance. The spectral distribution of this radiant energy, the spectral solar irradiance (SSI), determines how that incoming energy interacts with different components of the Earth's coupled ocean-atmosphere-surface climate system. Spatially- and spectrally-resolved Earth-reflected measurements of this shortwave radiation indicate the relative amount of the incident sunlight that is absorbed by different spatial regions and ecosystems around the globe. Particularly if very accurate and acquired over sufficiently long periods of time, those outgoing radiance measurements can lead to improved quantification of and physical understandings of the local and global processes causing climate change. Two upcoming and very complementary missions provide these measurements. The soon-to-be-launched Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) acquires the solar-irradiance measurements, with the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) providing highly-accurate values of the TSI and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) measuring the SSI. The recently-selected CLARREO Pathfinder (CPF) is a technology-demonstration mission that measures the solar-reflected radiation via spatially- and spectrally-resolved observations of Earth scenes from its HyperSpectral Imager for Climate Science (HySICS), a spaceflight version of a high-altitude balloon-flight imaging spectrometer that achieves high radiometric accuracies via in-flight cross-calibrations directly tied to the SSI. We give an overview of the TSIS and the CPF, describing their instruments, the high complementarity of their measurements and intended uncertainties, and their planned timelines and current status.

  14. Printing Peptide arrays with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Felix F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Muenster, Bastian; Striffler, Jakob; Liu, Fanny C; Ralf Bischoff, F; Doersam, Edgar; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    : In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art peptide array technologies, comparing the spot technique, lithographical methods, and microelectronic chip-based approaches. Based on this analysis, we describe a novel peptide array synthesis method with a microelectronic chip printer. By means of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip, charged bioparticles can be patterned on its surface. The bioparticles serve as vehicles to transfer molecule monomers to specific synthesis spots. Our chip offers 16,384 pixel electrodes on its surface with a spot-to-spot pitch of 100 μm. By switching the voltage of each pixel between 0 and 100 V separately, it is possible to generate arbitrary particle patterns for combinatorial molecule synthesis. Afterwards, the patterned chip surface serves as a printing head to transfer the particle pattern from its surface to a synthesis substrate. We conducted a series of proof-of-principle experiments to synthesize high-density peptide arrays. Our solid phase synthesis approach is based on the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl protection group strategy. After melting the particles, embedded monomers diffuse to the surface and participate in the coupling reaction to the surface. The method demonstrated herein can be easily extended to the synthesis of more complicated artificial molecules by using bioparticles with artificial molecular building blocks. The possibility of synthesizing artificial peptides was also shown in an experiment in which we patterned biotin particles in a high-density array format. These results open the road to the development of peptide-based functional modules for diverse applications in biotechnology.

  15. 78 FR 10184 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Studies of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: March 14, 2013. Time:...

  16. 77 FR 10540 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 77 FR 52751 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 75 FR 6041 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  19. 76 FR 27651 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  20. 76 FR 30735 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 17140 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-28

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  2. 75 FR 26260 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 76 FR 6806 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  4. 78 FR 37836 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 76 FR 79201 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 78 FR 56238 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 77 FR 58402 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 76 FR 12744 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 78 FR 34664 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 75 FR 6039 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 76 FR 10913 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 77 FR 1940 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  13. 75 FR 1796 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary, and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  14. 78 FR 66755 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  15. 75 FR 57970 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH,...

  16. 76 FR 38404 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Shau, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  17. 78 FR 47328 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  18. 78 FR 21381 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative...

  19. 76 FR 16433 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 17, 2011. Jennifer...

  20. 77 FR 24971 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... . Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  1. 75 FR 65498 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 15, 2010. Jennifer...

  2. 77 FR 31862 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  3. 75 FR 35075 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review, National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  4. 76 FR 35227 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 76 FR 59707 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  6. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    PubMed

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  7. Closed-form mismatched filter synthesis for complementary range response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The combined response of a pair of complementary waveforms has zero range sidelobes and could significantly improve synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image quality by reducing multiplicative noise. However, complementary waveforms may not be practical for SAR imaging for reasons such as Doppler tolerance and unimodular waveform constraints. By using mismatched filters to achieve either a complementary or near-complementary response, two or more practical waveforms could be employed and SAR image quality improved. A closed-form approach was developed that calculates mismatched filters so that the coherent sum of the range responses from each waveform and its corresponding mismatched filter is complementary. A second approach reduced sidelobes while retaining a frequency response close to the waveforms' frequency responses. Images processed using X-band radar data collected under the Air Force Gotcha program exhibited improvements in image quality over those processed using matched filters. The closed-form approach is presented for both complementary and reduced-sidelobe mismatched filters and image quality is quantified. The approach developed in this work offers improved image quality, is suitable for near real-time operation, and is independent of the waveforms.

  8. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2016-07-15

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  9. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2016-07-01

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  10. Family Health Strategy doctors and nurses' perceptions of complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    Thiago, Sônia de Castro S; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2011-04-01

    To analyze Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) professionals' perception of complementary and integrative therapies. A study with 177 doctors and nurses was conducted in 2008, based on a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome variables were "interest in complementary and integrative therapies" and "agreement with the National Policy on Complementary and Integrative Therapies. Sex, age, graduate level of education, postgraduate level of education, length of time since graduation, length of time of work, having children, providing complementary and integrative therapies in the workplace, and using homeopathy or acupuncture comprised the independent variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. A total of 17 health centers provided complementary and integrative therapies; 12.4% of professionals had a specialization in homeopathy or acupuncture; 43.5% of doctors were specialists in family and community medicine/family health. Of all participants, 88.7% did not know the national directives for this area, although 81.4% agreed with their inclusion in the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System). The majority (59.9%) showed an interest in qualifications and all agreed that these therapies should be approached during the graduate course. Agreement with the inclusion of such therapies was significantly associated with the fact of being a nurse (p = 0.027) and using homeopathy for oneself (p = 0.019). Interest in complementary therapies was associated with the use of homeopathy for oneself (p = 0.02) and acupuncture by family members (p = 0.013). Complementary and integrative therapies are accepted by the professionals studied. This acceptance is associated with previous contact with such therapies and, probably, with residency/specialization in family and community medicine/family health.

  11. [Alternative and complementary medicine from the primary care physician's viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László

    2015-07-12

    The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.

  12. Complementary medicine and general practice: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Perry, R; Dowrick, C F

    2000-06-01

    Complementary medicine appears to be an increasingly popular option amongst both doctors and patients. General practitioners in more affluent parts of Britain have showed considerable interest in its use. To ascertain use of and attitudes towards complementary medicine, amongst general practitioners working in a socioeconomically deprived urban area. A postal questionnaire survey of all general practice principles in Liverpool, using freepost envelopes and one reminder after 3 weeks. With respect to eight common complementary therapies, respondents were asked whether they treat with, refer to or endorse each therapy; for their views on NHS funding, effectiveness, adverse reactions, training needs, and theoretical validity, for each therapy. The response rate was 131/252 (52%), higher amongst women and doctors aged under 40. During the previous week 74 (56%) of respondents had been involved in complementary medical activity with their patients: 13% had treated directly, 31% had referred to and 38% had endorsed one or more complementary therapies. Acupuncture was most popular as an NHS option, and along with osteopathy and chiropractic was the therapy most highly regarded by respondents in terms of effectiveness. Homeopathy and hypnotherapy received a mixed reaction, while medical herbalism, aromatherapy and reflexology were viewed more sceptically. Sixty-two per cent of respondents reported successful outcomes of complementary treatments, compared with 21% reporting adverse reactions. Knowledge and training desires were highest for homeopathy and acupuncture. Respondents were generally uncertain about the theoretical validity of these therapies: 50% though acupuncture had a valid basis, compared with only 23% for homeopathy and 8% for reflexology. The degree of support for complementary medicine therapies amongst general practitioners in this socioeconomically deprived urban area was similar to that found elsewhere in Britain. These general practitioners appeared to

  13. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  14. Integrative oncology: managing cancer pain with complementary and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Seright, Teresa

    2012-08-01

    For the projected 1,638,910 patients with a diagnosis of cancer this year, the great majority of them (75-90 %) will experience cancer-related pain. A growing number of these patients will turn to complementary and alternative therapies to assist with the management of their pain and other cancer-related symptoms. The World Health Organization's suggested approach to pain management begins with the use of time honored opioids, but recommends the use of adjuvant therapies early in the management process. Complementary and alternative therapies are being used by more patients each year to assist with the management of their pain. Practitioners and researchers must be aware of the evidence that exists to support or refute the use of these therapies. In this manuscript we review evidence from the recent past on complementary and alternative therapies for pain with emphasis on more common modalities including acupuncture, bio-energy, massage, and music.

  15. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client.

  16. [The regulatory framework for complementary and alternative medicines in Europe].

    PubMed

    Knöss, Werner; Stolte, F; Reh, K

    2008-07-01

    Medicinal products from complementary and alternative medicine are in Germany a regular part of the health care system. Herbal, homeopathic, anthroposophic and traditional medicinal products are highly accepted by the population. The German Medicines Act obliged the competent authorities to consider the particular characteristics of complementary and alternative medicines. The European regulatory framework defined the status of herbal medicinal products, traditional herbal medicinal products and homeopathic medicinal products within the directive 2001/83/EC. The committee for herbal medicinal products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency in London (EMEA); for homeopathic medicinal products there is a specific working group established by the Heads of Medicines Agencies. Harmonisation of medicinal products from complementary and alternative and traditional medicine in Europe was enforced by implementation of directive 2001/83/EC in national legislations of member states. The provisions of this directive will substantially influence the development of the European market during the forthcoming years.

  17. Complementary-structure catadioptric omnidirectional sensor design for resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lidong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Maojun; Bao, Weidong; Zhang, Xin

    2011-03-01

    Considering the problem of low and nonuniform resolution in omnidirectional imaging, a complementary catadioptric imaging method is proposed by using multiple mirrors. Due to the reflection of mirrors, each spatial object has two imaging positions, in the inner and outer of sampled omnidirectional images, respectively, which are generated from two different optical paths. For instance, a prototype of omnidirectional sensor based on complementary double imaging is designed, which contains two convex mirrors (cone and hyperboloid) in conjunction with a plane mirror. The design constraints and optical geometric model of imaging are analyzed in detail. By mathematical analysis, two improvements of resolution have been achieved: (1) more uniform distribution of resolution and (2) complementary resolution distribution in the radial and tangential directions between the inner and outer. To prove and demonstrate the remarkable complementarity, a simple fusion experiment based on wavelet decomposition and reconstruction is performed on a pair of cylindrical panoramic images unwrapped from an omnidirectional image.

  18. Complementary spin transistor using a quantum well channel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youn Ho; Choi, Jun Woo; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Choi, Heon-Jin; Koo, Hyun Cheol

    2017-01-01

    In order to utilize the spin field effect transistor in logic applications, the development of two types of complementary transistors, which play roles of the n- and p-type conventional charge transistors, is an essential prerequisite. In this research, we demonstrate complementary spin transistors consisting of two types of devices, namely parallel and antiparallel spin transistors using InAs based quantum well channels and exchange-biased ferromagnetic electrodes. In these spin transistors, the magnetization directions of the source and drain electrodes are parallel or antiparallel, respectively, depending on the exchange bias field direction. Using this scheme, we also realize a complementary logic operation purely with spin transistors controlled by the gate voltage, without any additional n- or p-channel transistor. PMID:28425459

  19. A Survey of Hospices Use of Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice; Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Andrews, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    As people live longer with chronic illnesses, the need for hospice services will increase. Complementary therapies have been shown to increase ease, relieve pain, and improve quality of life; all relevant for people with chronic illness at the end of their lives. The first aim of this study was to identify complementary therapy services available to, and provided for, clients receiving hospice care in Nevada and Montana. The second aim was to identify differences in those therapies for urban and rural hospice clients. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from surveys sent to all hospice administrators in Nevada and Montana (N=54). A 50% (n=27) response rate was obtained. Most (70.4%, n=19) of the participating hospices offered complementary therapy; slightly more than half (52.9%, n=9) provided the services for less than 25% of their clients. No significant differences were found between rural and urban hospices. PMID:19756253

  20. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term “Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641

  1. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one’s right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., ‘hand-shaking’) irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  2. Evaluating the complementary relationship for estimating evapotranspiration from arid shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, J. L.; Szilagyi, J.; Tyler, S. W.; Pohll, G. M.

    2011-05-01

    Given increasing demands on finite water supplies, accurate estimates of evapotranspiration (LE) from arid shrublands of the Southwestern United States are needed to develop or refine basin water budgets. In this work, a novel approach to estimating the equilibrium (or wet environment) surface temperature (Te) and LE from regionally extensive phreatophyte shrublands is tested using complementary theory and micrometeorological data collected from five eddy correlation stations located in eastern Nevada. A symmetric complementary relationship between the potential LE (LEp) and actual LE is extremely attractive because it is based on general feedback mechanisms where detailed knowledge of the complex processes and interactions between soil, vegetation, and the near-surface boundary layer can be avoided. Analysis of computed LEp and eddy correlation-derived LE indicates that there is unequivocal evidence of a complementary relationship between LEp and LE, where the measured and normalized complementary relationship is symmetric when Te is utilized to compute the wet environment LE (LEw). Application of a modified Brutsaert and Stricker advection-aridity (AA) model, where Te is utilized to compute LEw as opposed to the measured air temperature, indicates an improvement in prediction accuracy over the standard Brutsaert and Stricker AA model. Monthly and annual predictions of LE using the modified AA model are within the uncertainty of the measurement accuracy, making the application of this approach potentially useful for estimating regional LE in arid shrubland environments. Our observational evidence supports the idea of a symmetric complementary relationship yielding an approach with standard parameters, making it simple to apply with satisfactory accuracy. To our knowledge, this work presents the first application and evaluation of the complementary relationship in phreatophyte shrublands while utilizing the Te with comparisons to actual LE via flux measurements.

  3. A complementary logic partitioning algorithm for a library-free logic synthesis paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Masry, Hisham; Al-Khalili, Dhamin

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for technology partitioning in a library free paradigm based on the use of virtual cells. Previous methods for library free logic partitioning rely on creating the largest possible partitions from a user defined criteria, predominately the stack length of the transistor level implementation. However, these methods can cause conflicting structures, defying the AND-OR-INVERT (AOI) and OR-AND-INVERT (OAI) representations that are used as templates for the virtual cells. The Complementary Logic Partitioning (CLP) algorithm, defines a partition as consisting of only two hierarchical levels of complementary nodes (AND and OR), as well as using the logical effort model for the migration of inputs to optimize the partitions to meet both the user defined limiting criteria and minimize the delay of the inputs. The CLP algorithm is compared against Synopsys' Design Compiler using Artisan standard cell library for a set of MCNC '91 benchmarks. Preliminary simulation results based on TSMC's 0.18 micron CMOS technology, show a reduction of more than 50% in the critical path delay can be achieved with CLP.

  4. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  5. Complementary field-effect transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilleringmann, Ulrich; Vidor, Fábio F.; Meyers, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Key issues for flexible complementary electronics are low temperature processing, sufficient performance of the integrated p- and n-type FET devices, and cheap semiconducting and dielectric materials. Organic semiconductors commonly depict p-type behavior, whereas metal oxide semiconductors show n-type characteristics. This paper presents a new approach for common integration of organic and ZnO transistors on transparent substrates for complementary transistor electronics. The gate dielectric consists of a special high-k resin, the metallization utilizes Au and Al films. The thermal budget for processing of the devices is limited to 120°C to enable foil substrates.

  6. Optimal advertising and pricing decisions for complementary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Charmchi, Masoud

    2015-02-01

    Cooperative advertising is an agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer to share advertising cost at the local level. Previous studies have not investigated cooperative advertising for complementary products and their main focus was only on one good. In this paper, we study a two-echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer with two complementary goods. The demand of each good is influenced not only by its price but also by the price of the other product. We use two game theory approaches to model this problem; Stackelberg manufacturer and Stackelberg retailer.

  7. Complementary therapies in palliative care: a summary of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Laureen; Maher, David

    2005-10-01

    Complementary therapies are often cited as a possible alternative to the management of symptoms in palliative care, as another element in the armoury for coping with unmanageable problems. But how efficacious are these therapies, and what is the evidence to support their use in symptom management? Patients who are in the terminal stages of illness or require palliative care are in a very vulnerable position, so are they being exploited or are there real benefits from using complementary therapies? This article review some of the evidence currently available.

  8. High performance printed N and P-type OTFTs enabling digital and analog complementary circuits on flexible plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, S.; Abdinia, S.; Benwadih, M.; Bablet, J.; Chartier, I.; Gwoziecki, R.; Cantatore, E.; van Roermund, A. H. M.; Maddiona, L.; Tramontana, F.; Maiellaro, G.; Mariucci, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Palmisano, G.; Coppard, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a printed organic complementary technology on flexible plastic substrate with high performance N and P-type Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs), based on small-molecule organic semiconductors in solution. Challenges related to the integration of both OTFT types in a common complementary flow are addressed, showing the importance of surface treatments. Stability on single devices and on an elementary complementary digital circuit (ring oscillator) is studied, demonstrating that a robust and reliable flow with high electrical performances can be established for printed organic devices. These devices are used to manufacture several analog and digital building blocks. The design is carried out using a model specifically developed for this technology, and taking into account the parametric variability. High-frequency measurements of printed envelope detectors show improved speed performance, resulting from the high mobility of the OTFTs. In addition, a compact dynamic flip-flop and a low-offset comparator are demonstrated, thanks to availability of both n-type and p-type OTFTs in the technology. Measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. The circuits presented establish a complete library of building blocks for the realization of a printed RFID tag.

  9. Disciplinary Regimes of "Care" and Complementary Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In schools, the notion of "care" is often synonymous with welfare and disciplinary regimes. Drawing on Foucault, and a study of alternative education (AE) across the UK, and looking in depth at two cases of complementary AE, we identify three types of disciplinary regimes at work in schools: (1) dominant performative reward and…

  10. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section 3405.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS...

  11. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnik, Allison E.; Ireland, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest over half of children with autism are using complementary alternative medicine (CAM). In this study, physicians responded (n = 539, 19% response rate) to a survey regarding CAM use in children with autism. Physicians encouraged multi-vitamins (49%), essential fatty acids (25%), melatonin (25%) and probiotics (19%) and…

  12. The discrete complementary variational principle and optimal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    A discrete complementary variational principle is developed and applied to linear and nonlinear discrete-time optimal control systems. Using the variational approach, a primal-dual relationship is established. This relationship provides a precise measure of system suboptimality independent of any a priori knowledge of the optimal solution.

  13. Complementary Alternation Discourse Constructions in English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iza Erviti, Aneider

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the essential features of a group of constructions that belong to the family of complementary alternation discourse constructions in English. In this group of constructions, X and Y are two situations such that Y is less likely (or more likely) to happen than X. Each member of this group (X Let Alone Y, X Much Less Y, X Never…

  14. Temperature dependence of unbinding forces between complementary DNA strands.

    PubMed

    Schumakovitch, Irina; Grange, Wilfried; Strunz, Torsten; Bertoncini, Patricia; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Hegner, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Force probe techniques such as atomic force microscopy can directly measure the force required to rupture single biological ligand receptor bonds. Such forces are related to the energy landscape of these weak, noncovalent biological interactions. We report unbinding force measurements between complementary strands of DNA as a function of temperature. Our measurements emphasize the entropic contributions to the energy landscape of the bond.

  15. Negotiating Language, Culture and Pupil Agency in Complementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytra, Vally

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…

  16. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  17. Complementary Waveforms for Sidelobe Suppression and Radar Polarimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    at all delays other than zero. Almost a decade after their invention, Welti rediscovered complementary sequences (there are his D-codes) [6] and... Welti , “Quaternary codes for pulsed radar,” IRE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-6, no. 3, pp. 400–408, June 1960. [7] M. R. Ducoff and B. W. Tietjen

  18. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind- ...

  19. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnik, Allison E.; Ireland, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest over half of children with autism are using complementary alternative medicine (CAM). In this study, physicians responded (n = 539, 19% response rate) to a survey regarding CAM use in children with autism. Physicians encouraged multi-vitamins (49%), essential fatty acids (25%), melatonin (25%) and probiotics (19%) and…

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  2. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into the Health Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sheila M.; Graf, Helen M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches in health education, suggesting a proposed CAM course for health education professional preparation and offering a course outline which can be used as a self- standing course or integrated into existing courses. It includes a proposed course description and goals,…

  3. Timing of complementary feeding and the risk of atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Niinivirta, Katri; Isolauri, Erika; Nermes, Merja; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2014-02-01

    To find out whether there was an association between when complementary feeding was introduced and the appearance of atopic eczema in children with a family history of allergy. This prospective study followed 256 mother and child pairs until the child was four-years-old. Repeated skin prick testing was performed and a clinical diagnosis of eczema made by a physician. The mothers kept a continuous diary about the introduction of complementary feeding. To control the possible reverse causation of delaying complementary food introduction due to presumed child allergy, parental suspicions of allergic reactions were recorded. The introduction of cereals and fish after seven-months-of-age was associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema. However, when the parents' suspicions that their child might be exhibiting symptoms of allergic disease were taken into account, this effect was no longer significant. We found no evidence that the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding increased the risk of atopic eczema in a high-risk cohort, when parental suspicions were taken into account. Therefore, it seems that families with a history of allergy can safely comply with current feeding recommendations, although confirmation in further studies is warranted. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Disciplinary Regimes of "Care" and Complementary Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In schools, the notion of "care" is often synonymous with welfare and disciplinary regimes. Drawing on Foucault, and a study of alternative education (AE) across the UK, and looking in depth at two cases of complementary AE, we identify three types of disciplinary regimes at work in schools: (1) dominant performative reward and…

  5. Development of an Attitudes towards Complementary Therapies Scale for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lee-Ann; White, Katherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This study designed and tested a scale to measure psychologists' attitudes towards complementary and alternative therapies. The scale, derived from existing measures for medical professionals, was tested on a sample of psychology students (N = 163) using an online survey. The data were factor analysed and three correlated subscales were…

  6. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section 3405.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3405.8...

  8. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group. PMID:26047131

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  10. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  11. A Complementary Ecological Model of the Coordinated School Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A complementary ecological model of the coordinated school health program (CSHP) reflecting 20 years of evolved changes is proposed. Ecology refers to the complex interrelationship between intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes and primary groups, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy. Methods: Public…

  12. The Complementary Use of Cluster and Factor Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Bernard S.; Primavera, Louis H.

    1983-01-01

    Factor and cluster analyses are distinctly different multivariate procedures with different goals. However, when used in a complementary fashion, each set of methods can be used to enhance the interpretation of results found in the other set of methods. Simple examples illustrating the joint use of the methods are provided. (Author)

  13. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: An Evidence-Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has experienced a dramatic growth in use and acceptability over the last 20 years. CAM is a diverse collection of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered a component of conventional medicine. CAM traditionally has been practiced by informally educated…

  14. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into the Health Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sheila M.; Graf, Helen M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches in health education, suggesting a proposed CAM course for health education professional preparation and offering a course outline which can be used as a self- standing course or integrated into existing courses. It includes a proposed course description and goals,…

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  16. Complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease: a spect study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhuo, Ying; Wik, Gustav

    2010-02-01

    We studied cerebral effects of complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measures of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-TRODAT-4, before and after five weeks of treatment. Ten patients were randomly assigned to receive levodopa alone (controls) or levodopa and complementary scalp electro-acupuncture. Before treatment, no hemispheric regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) differences were found, whereas striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) activity was lower in the most affected hemisphere. Treatment with levodopa alone did not change rCBF, whereas it increased basal ganglion DAT activity in the most affected hemisphere. Patients who received levodopa and complementary acupuncture had increased rCBF in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe, the basal ganglion, and the cerebellum in the most affected hemisphere as compared to baseline, but there were no changes in basal ganglia DAT levels. Thus, complementary acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's disease may affect rCBF but not basal ganglion DAT.

  17. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: An Evidence-Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has experienced a dramatic growth in use and acceptability over the last 20 years. CAM is a diverse collection of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered a component of conventional medicine. CAM traditionally has been practiced by informally educated…

  19. Colostrum and complementary feeding practices among Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Abuidhail, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the practice of Jordanian women regarding colostrum and complementary feeding during the postpartum period. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate the practices of colostrum and complementary feeding. A convenience sample of 572 postpartum women was recruited from postpartum units at three governmental hospitals and three private hospitals. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, trained research assistants conducted face-to-face structured interviews with the participants at the hospital. In the second phase, follow-up phone interviews were conducted at the end of the first month after birth. Almost all of the postpartum women breastfeed colostrum to their infants. Further, 79% of postpartum women intended to give their infants fluids other than breast milk and 68% of them actually gave fluids to their infants by the end of the first month. Postpartum Jordanian women value colostrum and breastfeed it to their infants. However, they generally start introducing complementary feeding to their infants during the postpartum period, which would discontinue exclusive breastfeeding practices and alter the nutritional status of the infants later in their life. Therefore, nurses and midwives should emphasize, through their antenatal and postnatal care, the recommended practices of exclusive breastfeeding up to the sixth month and complementary feeding.

  20. Polarization dependent enhanced infrared transmission through complementary nanostructured gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Gangadhar; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-05-01

    A pair of complementary-structured gold films, with periodic rectangular nanoscale patches and rectangular holes in the complementary layer arranged in a stretched hexagonal lattice and spaced apart by 200 nm of a photoresist film, were fabricated by laser interference lithography and subsequent physical vapor deposition of gold. The pair of complementary films showed a polarization-dependent extraordinary transmission (EOT) at mid-infrared frequencies, evidenced by a resonant dip in reflectance and strong enhancement of the transmittance for light polarized perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular structures. Numerical simulations confirm the enhanced transmission and indicate the involvement of the TE01 wave-guide mode resonance of the rectangular structures in the resonant transmittance. The enhanced transmittance in the complementary pair of structured films separated by sub-wavelength distances, which is otherwise be expected to be opaque, is surprising. The Poynting vector maps show that the energy flow weaves across the openings in the two structured films. Dependence on the metal thickness and period of the structures have been investigated. Sensitivity of the EOT peak to the surrounding medium's refractive index is studied by simulations to reveal its potential for sensor applications.

  1. Adverse reactions to complementary medicines: the Australian pharmacy experience.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Tiralongo, Evilin; Wilkinson, Jenny M; Poole, Susan; Spitzer, Ondine; Bailey, Michael; Dooley, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim was to determine the prevalence of adverse reactions to over-the-counter complementary medicines and their severity, as described by consumers. Secondary aims were to identify consumers' reporting behaviours and understanding of the AUST L designation on product labels. An anonymous, self-administered survey was completed by randomly selected pharmacy customers at 60 community pharmacy locations between August 2008 and February 2009. Of the 1121 survey participants (response rate 62%), 72% had used a complementary medicine product in the previous 12 months, and 7% of this group (n = 55) reported having experienced an adverse reaction at some time. Of these, 71% described the reaction as mild and not requiring treatment, 22% as moderate and/or requiring advice from a healthcare professional and 7% (n = 4) described it as severe and requiring hospitalisation. If they were to report the reaction, it was most commonly to a medical practitioner. Most (88%) of complementary medicine consumers had never noticed the term 'AUST L'. Complementary medicines are widely used by pharmacy customers. Adverse reactions to these products are under-reported to healthcare authorities. Most adverse reactions are mild and serious reactions are rare. Customers have little awareness of the designation AUST L.

  2. A Complementary Ecological Model of the Coordinated School Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A complementary ecological model of the coordinated school health program (CSHP) reflecting 20 years of evolved changes is proposed. Ecology refers to the complex interrelationship between intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes and primary groups, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy. Methods: Public…

  3. [Complementary and alternative medicine: use in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Neto, Joao Felício Rodrigues; Faria, Anderson Antônio de; Figueiredo, Maria Fernanda Santos

    2009-01-01

    To determine prevalence of utilization and social and economic profile of those using complementary and alternative medicine in the medium sized Brazilian city of Montes Claros, MG. A transversal descriptive study was conducted. The sample of 3090 people was probabilistic, by clusters using the household as the sample unit for interview of both genders, older than 18 years. Data were collected by semi-structured questionnaires. Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine was of 8.9% when only those involving costs such as homeopathy, acupuncture, chiropractics, techniques of relaxation/ meditation and massage are considered and of 70.0%, when all therapies found were included. Prevalent were prayers to God (52.0%), popular medicines (30.9%), physical exercises (25.5%), faith healers (15.0%), popular diets (7.1%), massage (4.9%), relaxation/meditation (2.8%), homeopathy (2.4%), and groups of self-help (1.9%), chiropractics (1.7%), acupuncture (1.5%) and orthomolecular medicine (0.2%). Women, Catholic, married of higher income and education were positively associated with utilization of therapies involving expenses. Complementary and alternative medicine is used by a significant number of those interviewed. Gender, religion, marital status, income and education were positively associated with utilization of complementary and alternative medicine. Access of those with less income and education could increase the utilization of the options that involve expenses.

  4. Development of an Attitudes towards Complementary Therapies Scale for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lee-Ann; White, Katherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This study designed and tested a scale to measure psychologists' attitudes towards complementary and alternative therapies. The scale, derived from existing measures for medical professionals, was tested on a sample of psychology students (N = 163) using an online survey. The data were factor analysed and three correlated subscales were…

  5. An extremely stable, self-complementary hydrogen-bonded duplex

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Huang; Yang, Xiaowu; Brown, A L.; Martinovic, Suzana; Smith, Richard D.; Gong, Bing

    2003-07-30

    This paper describes the design, synthesis and characterization of a self-complementary six-H-bonded duplex with an association constant greater than 10{sup 9}/M in CHCl3. Numerous unnatural self-assembly systems have been developed in recent years. Most of these previously described systems are case-dependent, i.e., the individual components carry the information that defines only the formation of the specific assembly. An alternative approach involves the design of highly specific and highly stable recognition units (modules)that are compatible with a variety of structural components. Such recognition modules or ''molecular glues'' then direct the assembly of these structural components. In this regard,hydrogen-bonded complexes based on rigid heterocycles with multiple H-bonding donor (D) and acceptor (A) sites have received the most attention in recent years. Other complexes, most based on H-bonding interactions, have also been reported. Highly stable, self-complementary H-bonded complexes are particularly attractive for developing supramolecular homopolymers of very high molecular weights. In spite of the intriguing perspective, only a very small number of self-complementary H-bonded complexes with high stabilities are known. The best known examples involve two pairs of quadruply H-bonded, self-complementary complexes, both based on the AADD-DDAA array, and with association constants greater than 10{sup 7}/M. We report here the design and characterization of our first six-H-bonded, self-complementary duplex that contains the AADADD-DDADAA array.

  6. Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants Data on 79 953 children aged 6–23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003–2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15–49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6–23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6–8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Conclusions Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. PMID:26443657

  7. Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2015-10-06

    The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Data on 79 953 children aged 6-23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003-2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15-49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6-23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6-8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  8. Geographically distributed complementary content-based image retrieval systems for biomedical image informatics.

    PubMed

    Antani, Sameer K; Deserno, Thomas M; Long, L Rodney; Thoma, George R

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant increase in the use of medical images in clinical medicine, disease research, and education. While the literature lists several successful systems for content-based image retrieval and image management methods, they have been unable to make significant inroads in routine medical informatics. This can be attributed to the following: (i) the challenging nature of medical images, (ii) need for specialized methods specific to each image type and detail, (iii) lack of advances in image indexing methods, and (iv) lack of a uniform data and resource exchange framework between complementary systems. Most systems tend to focus on varying degrees of the first two items, making them very versatile in a small sampling of the variety of medical images but unable to share their strengths. This paper proposes to overcome these shortcomings by defining a data and resource exchange framework using open standards and software to develop geographically distributed toolkits. As proof-of-concept, we describe the coupling of two complementary geographically separated systems: the IRMA system at Aachen University of Technology in Germany, and the SPIRS system at the U. S. National Library of Medicine in the United States of America.

  9. Subnanowatt carbon nanotube complementary logic enabled by threshold voltage control.

    PubMed

    Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; McMorrow, Julian J; Xu, Weichao; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Everaerts, Ken; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-10-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate thin-film single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices with subnanowatt static power consumption and full rail-to-rail voltage transfer characteristics as is required for logic gate cascading. These results are enabled by a local metal gate structure that achieves enhancement-mode p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) with widely separated and symmetric threshold voltages. These complementary SWCNT TFTs are integrated to demonstrate CMOS inverter, NAND, and NOR logic gates at supply voltages as low as 0.8 V with ideal rail-to-rail operation, subnanowatt static power consumption, high gain, and excellent noise immunity. This work provides a direct pathway for solution processable, large area, power efficient SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems.

  10. Multi-band terahertz active device with complementary metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Linlin; Sun, Han; Xu, Gaiqi; Zhao, Yuncheng; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-09-28

    We describe a multi-band terahertz-active device using a composite structure made of complementary metamaterial and doped silicon that can be dynamically controlled. This special complementary metamaterial exhibits three resonances that produce three pass-bands. The pass-bands can be uniformly manipulated by exploiting the photoinduced characteristics of the doped silicon. Simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic field and surface current distributions. The simulation results agree well with experimental results obtained from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Using an 808-nm-wavelength laser beam, a modulation depth of up to 80% was obtained. In numerical simulations, we used a conductivity mode to characterize photoinduction. The development of multi-band terahertz-active devices has many potential applications, for example, in filters, modulators, switches, and sensors.

  11. Considerations for complementary and alternative interventions for pain.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Nurses play an important role in pain management. When considering strategies for effective pain management, nurses must consider and be able to provide information about complementary and alternative therapies. Awareness of alternative interventions for pain extends across herbal therapies, energy medicine, and mind-body exercises. Treatment regimens that integrate conventional therapies with alternative therapies based on the medical systems of non-Western cultures may affect outcomes positively through medical interactions. Nurses should question patients and families about complementary health practices to determine whether they may affect postsurgical recovery and also to determine the level of openness to alternative practices that have evidence of success or equivalency in managing pain. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complementary therapy for carers on a transplant unit.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Lydia; Stringer, Jacqui

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a Carers Complementary Therapy Project on a Haematology and Transplant Unit. To evaluate the project using quantitative and qualitative data. Data was collected on consultation forms and entered into a spreadsheet for a study period of 24 months. Data was also collected from questionnaires. 15 min chair massages given to carers of the inpatients. The total number of complementary therapy treatments in the 24 months period was 227. Of these interventions 138 carers presented with stress, 115 with sleep disturbance, 92 with worry and 88 with anxiety. The average pre-therapy 'feel good' score was 5/10 and the average post therapy score was 8/10. The carers' feedback included positive comments about changes in their physical, mental and emotional states. The data suggests that the Carers Project facilitates positive change in the physical, mental and emotional states of carers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Communicating facts and knowledge in cancer complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Colleen O

    2005-08-01

    To review written resources disclosing reliable facts and knowledge in cancer complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Conventional and biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine journals, electronic media, full text databases, electronic resources, and newsletters. Sources of CAM information are numerous. The inherent quality of this information fluctuates. High-quality sources of cancer CAM information are available and accessible for health care providers. As the use of CAM therapies becomes more commonplace in consumer health care, it is critical that health care providers are cognizant of available sources of high-quality CAM facts and knowledge and possess the ability to discuss this information with colleagues and consumers in the scientific and lay communities.

  14. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  15. Polarization-independent transparency window induced by complementary graphene metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Bing; Liu, Ji Long; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-01-01

    A fourfold symmetric graphene-based complementary metasurface featuring a polarization-independent transparency window is proposed and numerically analysed in this paper. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of a monolayer graphene perforated with a cross and four identical split-ring resonators deposited on a substrate. Our analysis shows that the transparency window can be interpreted as a plasmonic analogy of Autler-Townes splitting. The polarization independence is achieved due to the fourfold symmetry of graphene’s complementary structure. In addition, the frequency range of the transparency window can be dynamically tuned over a broad band by changing the chemical potential of graphene, and the width of the transparency window can also be controlled by changing the split-gap orientation. This work may lead to potential applications in many area, such as slow-light devices and optical sensing.

  16. Complementary roles of interventional radiology and therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Ray, David M; Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Vilmann, Peter; McCowan, Timothy C; Patel, Akash M

    2017-01-01

    Acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tubes and luminal strictures are some of the common reasons for gastroenterology service. While surgery was initially considered the main treatment modality, the advent of both therapeutic endoscopy and interventional radiology have resulted in the paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In this paper, we discuss the patient’s work up, indications, and complementary roles of endoscopic and angiographic management in the settings of gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tube placement and luminal strictures. These conditions often require multidisciplinary approaches involving a team of interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. Further, the authors also aim to describe how the fields of interventional radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are overlapping and complementary in the management of these complex conditions. PMID:28396724

  17. Asteroid models from photometry and complementary data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    I discuss inversion methods for asteroid shape and spin reconstruction with photometry (lightcurves) and complementary data sources such as adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data. These are essentially different sampling modes (generalized projections) of plane-of-sky images. An important concept in this approach is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. The maximum compatibility estimate, a multi-modal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, can be used for this purpose. I discuss the fundamental properties of lightcurve inversion by examining the two-dimensional case that, though not usable in our three-dimensional world, is simple to analyze, and it shares essentially the same uniqueness and stability properties as the 3-D case. After this, I review the main aspects of 3-D shape representations, lightcurve inversion, and the inclusion of complementary data.

  18. Complementary and alternative approaches to pain relief during labor.

    PubMed

    Tournaire, Michel; Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-12-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief During Labor

    PubMed Central

    Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness. PMID:18227907

  20. Toward a Complementary Neuroscience: Metastable Coordination Dynamics of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, J. A. Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    Metastability has been proposed as a new principle of behavioral and brain function and may point the way to a truly complementary neuroscience. From elementary coordination dynamics we show explicitly that metastability is a result of a symmetry-breaking caused by the subtle interplay of two forces: the tendency of the components to couple together and the tendency of the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. The metastable regime reconciles the well-known tendencies of specialized brain regions to express their autonomy (segregation) and the tendencies for those regions to work together as a synergy (integration). Integration ~ segregation is just one of the complementary pairs (denoted by the tilde [~] symbol) to emerge from the science of coordination dynamics. We discuss metastability in the brain by describing the favorable conditions existing for its emergence and by deriving some predictions for its empirical characterization in neurophysiological recordings.

  1. Asteroid models from photometry and complementary data sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2016-05-10

    I discuss inversion methods for asteroid shape and spin reconstruction with photometry (lightcurves) and complementary data sources such as adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data. These are essentially different sampling modes (generalized projections) of plane-of-sky images. An important concept in this approach is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. The maximum compatibility estimate, a multi-modal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, can be used for this purpose. I discuss the fundamental properties of lightcurve inversion by examining the two-dimensional case that, though not usable in our three-dimensional world, is simple to analyze, and it shares essentially the same uniqueness and stability properties as the 3-D case. After this, I review the main aspects of 3-D shape representations, lightcurve inversion, and the inclusion of complementary data.

  2. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits.

    PubMed

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-19

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  3. Conformational Heterogeneity in a Fully Complementary DNA Three-Way Junction with a GC-Rich Branchpoint.

    PubMed

    Toulmin, Anita; Baltierra-Jasso, Laura E; Morten, Michael J; Sabir, Tara; McGlynn, Peter; Schröder, Gunnar F; Smith, Brian O; Magennis, Steven W

    2017-09-19

    DNA three-way junctions (3WJs) are branched structures that serve as important biological intermediates and as components in DNA nanostructures. We recently derived the global structure of a fully complementary 3WJ and found that it contained unpaired bases at the branchpoint, which is consistent with previous observations of branch flexibility and branchpoint reactivity. By combining high-resolution single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, molecular modeling, time-resolved ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy, and the first (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance observations of fully complementary 3WJs, we now show that the 3WJ structure can adopt multiple distinct conformations depending upon the sequence at the branchpoint. A 3WJ with a GC-rich branchpoint adopts an open conformation with unpaired bases at the branch and at least one additional conformation with an increased number of base interactions at the branchpoint. This structural diversity has implications for branch interactions and processing in vivo and for technological applications.

  4. Complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.; Farison, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between the complementary variational principle and duality in mathematical programming is demonstrated through a geometric approach in a Hilbert space setting. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such a principle is given in the case of a convex functional constrained by linear dynamics. Its relationship to the Kuhn-Tucker saddle point theory is indicated. Applications to various programming and control problems are discussed.

  5. Temperature dependence of unbinding forces between complementary DNA strands.

    PubMed Central

    Schumakovitch, Irina; Grange, Wilfried; Strunz, Torsten; Bertoncini, Patricia; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Hegner, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Force probe techniques such as atomic force microscopy can directly measure the force required to rupture single biological ligand receptor bonds. Such forces are related to the energy landscape of these weak, noncovalent biological interactions. We report unbinding force measurements between complementary strands of DNA as a function of temperature. Our measurements emphasize the entropic contributions to the energy landscape of the bond. PMID:11751338

  6. Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Ferguson, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Affordable, locally contextual complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) that take into account cultural diversity and differences in food availability will be more likely to result in long-term improvements in complementary feeding practices than general recommendations. More objective approaches, such as linear programming (LP), have been recommended to identify optimal but CFRs to meet nutrient requirements given local food availability, food patterns, food portions, and cost. To present results of our previous studies in which we developed CFRs using LP and to provide an example of how these CFRs can be put into practice in a community intervention trial in Indonesia. Dietary data were obtained using single 24-hour dietary recall or 1-day weighed diet record combined with 1-day 24-hour recall and 5-day food intake tally. With the use of the LP approach, nutrient intakes were optimized while ensuring that a realistic diet was selected by using constraints such as the diet's energy content, food patterns, food portions, and cost. The price per 100 g of edible portion was obtained from market surveys in two or three local markets in each study area. LP analysis was performed using Super Solver in MS Excel or Optifood software. Iron, zinc, calcium, and niacin were problem nutrients in all age groups of children (6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12 to 23 months) in both rural and periurban areas, except among children of higher socioeconomic status in urban areas. Thiamin and folate were also problem nutrients found in some settings. Animal-source foods (meat, fish, poultry, and eggs [MFPE] and fortified foods were the nutrient-dense foods identified by LP to fill the nutrient gaps of these problem nutrients. Iron, calcium, zinc, niacin, and potentially folate and thiamine are typical "problem nutrients" in complementary foods of Indonesian children. However, the extent of dietary inadequacy varies across age groups, area, and socioeconomic level. MFPE and fortified foods

  7. Sensitive, Specific Complementary - Strand Optical Detection of Viral RNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    sensing. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES RNA, enterovirii, biosensor, evanscent waves, refractometry , 31 phase detection, complementary strand...the investigator(s) adhered to the CDC-NIH Guide for Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. (,- u r,’ Dt Table of Contents Overview...Nonetheless, the physical basis of the Georgia Tech signal is T ( u 20 30 40 50 identical to ours. They have also developed a single-stranded,Time (minutes

  8. [Relaxation, a complementary approach for mental health nurses].

    PubMed

    Besnier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Relaxation is arousing growing interest in mental health. Its positive effects are in line with an active approach which brings together body and mind and place the individual back on the path of self-awareness. The relationship with the patient constitutes the "therapeutic we" ensuring its therapeutic importance. It represents a complementary and original approach to caring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Complementary optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Cai, Xian-Ming; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M; Wabnitz, Stefan; Baronio, Fabio

    2016-03-21

    We investigate the resonant interaction of two optical pulses of the same group velocity with a pump pulse of different velocity in a weakly dispersive quadratic medium and report on the complementary rogue wave dynamics which are unique to such a parametric three-wave mixing. Analytic rogue wave solutions up to the second order are explicitly presented and their robustness is confirmed by numerical simulations, in spite of the onset of modulation instability activated by quantum noise.

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and food choices in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Julie; Abraham, Elizheeba Christie; Squair, Mhairi; Brogan, Yvonne; Merewood, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist that explore the association between exclusive breastfeeding and dietary behaviors related to key food choices in later infancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months with age of starting complementary feeding and key complementary feeding data collected at 8 to 10 months. Secondary data analysis was performed on the UK Infant Feeding Survey 2005. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months, compared to mixed or formula feeding, was positively associated with giving homemade infant foods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.66), vegetables (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.72), fruits (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.42-2.11), and fresh foods frequently (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI, 1.41-3.56) at 8 to 10 months of age. Conversely, exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months, compared to mixed or formula feeding, was negatively associated with very early complementary feeding (AOR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30-0.42) and giving the following foods at 8 to 10 months of age: baby food from jar (AOR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92), powdered baby food (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94), canned baby food (AOR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32-0.71), and ready-made bought meals (AOR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78). Exclusively breastfeeding for 3 months compared to mixed or formula feeding was positively associated with the introduction of complementary feeding after 4 months and giving infants fruits, vegetables, and homemade infant foods frequently at 8 to 10 months.

  11. Rational molecular design of complementary self-assembling peptide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Stuart; Felton, Susan H; McPherson, Michael J; Aggeli, Amalia; Ingham, Eileen

    2012-09-01

    Rational molecular design of self- assembling peptide-based materials that spontaneously form self-supporting hydrogels shows potential in many healthcare applications. Binary peptides based on complementary charged sequences are developed, and the use of biophysical analysis and cell-based studies highlights that the charged interactions can influence the properties of peptide materials and ultimately affect biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Smarter Actuator Design with Complementary and Synergetic Functions.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, Alexandre; Plesse, Cedric; Vidal, Frederic; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2015-06-23

    A general synthetic strategy for multifunctional actuators is presented, by confining desired functions in separate domains of interpenetrating polymer networks materials. Specifically, complementary ionic actuator and shape-memory functions are demonstrated by simultaneous, orthogonal reaction pathways. Synergistic effects also allow dynamic programming and two-way linear shape-memory actuation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Use of complementary medicine amongst asthmatic patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, N; Chan, S C

    2006-03-01

    Complementary Medicine (CM) usage amongst asthmatic patients was studied. Eighty-eight patients, selected by systematic random sampling in two public polyclinics in April/May 2004, were interviewed. They completed a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Forty-one percent were using CM, majority (64%) together with conventional therapy. Eighty-one percent did not inform their physicians of their CM usage. More Malays were using CM which included nutritional supplements, herbs, yoga, homoeopathy, reflexology and massage.

  14. The growing acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Bodane, Carrie; Brownson, Kenneth

    2002-03-01

    Alternative and complementary medicine is becoming more popular among consumers and prescribed more by health care professionals. Alternative medicine can be traced back thousands of years, however, it wasn't introduced to the United States until the early 1900s. Alternative medicine encompasses a wide range of therapies including homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, massage and bodywork therapy, meditation, nutritional supplements, and herbal remedies. Understanding the background and benefits of these alternatives is important to all health care professionals.

  15. Quality improvement and quality management: Complementary or contradictory

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, M.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Quality improvement processes (QIP's) and quality management systems (QMS's) are becoming part of manufacturing and service company language. In some cases, there are perceived differences between the concepts of continuous improvement and documented systems to ensure quality. The author has seen examples of QIP's and QMS's working in a complementary fashion to improve existing manufacturing and administrative processes. These examples show that quality improvement activities are compatible with and can enhance the effectiveness of QMS's if the two are integrated properly.

  16. The bioinformatics of psychosocial genomics in alternative and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E

    2003-06-01

    The bioinformatics of alternative and complementary medicine is outlined in 3 hypotheses that extend the molecular-genomic revolution initiated by Watson and Crick 50 years ago to include psychology in the new discipline of psychosocial and cultural genomics. Stress-induced changes in the alternative splicing of genes demonstrate how psychosomatic stress in humans modulates activity-dependent gene expression, protein formation, physiological function, and psychological experience. The molecular messengers generated by stress, injury, and disease can activate immediate early genes within stem cells so that they then signal the target genes required to synthesize the proteins that will transform (differentiate) stem cells into mature well-functioning tissues. Such activity-dependent gene expression and its consequent activity-dependent neurogenesis and stem cell healing is proposed as the molecular-genomic-cellular basis of rehabilitative medicine, physical, and occupational therapy as well as the many alternative and complementary approaches to mind-body healing. The therapeutic replaying of enriching life experiences that evoke the novelty-numinosum-neurogenesis effect during creative moments of art, music, dance, drama, humor, literature, poetry, and spirituality, as well as cultural rituals of life transitions (birth, puberty, marriage, illness, healing, and death) can optimize consciousness, personal relationships, and healing in a manner that has much in common with the psychogenomic foundations of naturalistic and complementary medicine. The entire history of alternative and complementary approaches to healing is consistent with this new neuroscience world view about the role of psychological arousal and fascination in modulating gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing via the psychosocial and cultural rites of human societies.

  17. The leadership team: complementary strengths or conflicting agendas?

    PubMed

    Miles, Stephen A; Watkins, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Senior leadership teams whose members play complementary roles have been chronicled as far back as Homer's account of the Trojan War: Although King Agamemnon commanded the Greek army, Achilles, Odysseus, and Nestor each played a distinct role in defeating Troy. Today, complementary-leadership structures are common and, in some cases, even institutionalized. Think of a CEO concerned mainly with external issues and a COO who focuses internally. The authors describe four kinds of complementarity: task, expertise, cognitive, and role. The two top executives at the software company Adobe Systems, for example, represent the second kind. As CEO, Bruce Chizen draws on his sales and marketing knowledge, while COO Shantanu Narayen adds his engineering and product development expertise. Roberto Goizueta, formerly the CEO of Coca-Cola, and Douglas Ivester, his COO (who later became CEO), were famous examples of the fourth type: Goizueta, the diplomat, maintained good relations with external stakeholders; Ivester, the warrior, drove the company to defeat the competition. Bringing together two or more people with complementary strengths can compensate for the natural limitations of each. But with the benefits comes the risk of confusion, disagreement about priorities, and turf battles. Leadership succession also presents substantial challenges, especially when a COO or president who has worked in a complementary fashion with the CEO moves into the top role. An organization's board of directors and CEO can manage the risks by fostering a shared vision, common incentives, communication, and trust. They can also ensure smooth succession processes in various ways, such as brokering a gradual transfer of responsibilities or allowing the CEO and the COO to share duties as long as they maintain the logic of complementarity.

  18. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  19. Integrating multiple molecular sources into a clinical risk prediction signature by extracting complementary information.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Stefanie; Benner, Axel; Schlenl, Richard F; Schumacher, Martin; Bullinger, Lars; Binder, Harald

    2016-08-30

    High-throughput technology allows for genome-wide measurements at different molecular levels for the same patient, e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression. Correspondingly, it might be beneficial to also integrate complementary information from different molecular levels when building multivariable risk prediction models for a clinical endpoint, such as treatment response or survival. Unfortunately, such a high-dimensional modeling task will often be complicated by a limited overlap of molecular measurements at different levels between patients, i.e. measurements from all molecular levels are available only for a smaller proportion of patients. We propose a sequential strategy for building clinical risk prediction models that integrate genome-wide measurements from two molecular levels in a complementary way. To deal with partial overlap, we develop an imputation approach that allows us to use all available data. This approach is investigated in two acute myeloid leukemia applications combining gene expression with either SNP or DNA methylation data. After obtaining a sparse risk prediction signature e.g. from SNP data, an automatically selected set of prognostic SNPs, by componentwise likelihood-based boosting, imputation is performed for the corresponding linear predictor by a linking model that incorporates e.g. gene expression measurements. The imputed linear predictor is then used for adjustment when building a prognostic signature from the gene expression data. For evaluation, we consider stability, as quantified by inclusion frequencies across resampling data sets. Despite an extremely small overlap in the application example with gene expression and SNPs, several genes are seen to be more stably identified when taking the (imputed) linear predictor from the SNP data into account. In the application with gene expression and DNA methylation, prediction performance with respect to survival also indicates that the proposed approach might

  20. Family strategies for managing childhood cancer: using complementary and alternative medicine in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudimat, Mohammad R; Rozmus, Cathy L; Farhan, Nemah

    2011-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examined the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies among children with cancer in Jordan. Complementary and alternative medicine use by oncology patients has been gaining acceptance in the developed countries and developing countries. Healthcare professionals are becoming increasingly aware that patients use complementary and alternative medicine either covertly or overtly. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used with parents of children with cancer under treatment and follow-up in a paediatric oncology department in Jordan between August 2007 and April 2008. Parents of 69 children with cancer in Jordan were surveyed for their use of complementary and alternative medicine with their children. A total of 65.2% of the sample had used at least one type of complementary and alternative medicine during the course of their child's treatment. The use of biological and nutritional complementary and alternative medicine was 70.5% among the users. Use of body and soul complementary and alternative medicine strategies was reported for 22.2% of the children using complementary and alternative medicine. Twenty per cent of the sample used body movement complementary and alternative medicine for their children. A total of 45.5% of complementary and alternative medicine users perceived benefits in using complementary and alternative medicine for their children with cancer. However, 40% of complementary and alternative medicine users had stopped using complementary and alternative medicine for multiple reasons. Parents used complementary and alternative medicine to support their children's medical treatment and to use all possible methods to cure their children. The reason for parents not using complementary and alternative medicine included not being aware of complementary and alternative medicine. Most of the patients have not discussed the issue of using complementary and alternative medicine with the medical staff.

  1. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  2. Complementary hemispheric specialization for language production and visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-22

    Language production and spatial attention are the most salient lateralized cerebral functions, and their complementary specialization has been observed in the majority of the population. To investigate whether the complementary specialization has a causal origin (the lateralization of one function causes the opposite lateralization of the other) or rather is a statistical phenomenon (different functions lateralize independently), we determined the lateralization for spatial attention in a group of individuals with known atypical right hemispheric (RH) lateralization for speech production, based on a previous large-scale screening of left-handers. We show that all 13 participants with RH language dominance have left-hemispheric dominance for spatial attention, and all but one of 16 participants with left-hemispheric language dominance are RH dominant for spatial attention. Activity was observed in the dorsal fronto-parietal pathway of attention, including the inferior parietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, the frontal eye-movement field, and the inferior frontal sulcus/gyrus, and these regions functionally colateralized in the hemisphere dominant for attention, independently of the side of lateralization. Our results clearly support the Causal hypothesis about the complementary specialization, and we speculate that it derives from a longstanding evolutionary origin. We also suggest that the conclusions about lateralization based on an unselected sample of the population and laterality assessment using coarse functional transcranial Doppler sonography should be interpreted with more caution.

  3. Complementary therapies for bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Tina S; Riordain, Richael Ni; Champaneria, Rita; Latthe, Pallavi M

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a difficult condition to treat. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of various complementary therapies available for treatment. This review was conducted in adherence with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. Citations were retrieved using a comprehensive database search (from inception to July 2014: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline and SIGEL and grey literature). Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected. Eligibility consisted of women with bladder pain syndrome, an intervention of alternative/complementary therapies and an outcome of improvement of symptoms. Information regarding study characteristics and primary outcomes was collated. The Cochrane risk of bias scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies included. A total of 1,454 citations were identified, 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (4 randomised control trials [RCTs] and 7 prospective studies). The key interventions studied were acupuncture, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, hydrogen-rich therapy, diet and nitric oxide synthetase. Therapies with the potential for benefit in patients with bladder pain syndrome are dietary management, acupuncture and physical therapy. These findings were obtained from small studies and hence caution is advised. Robustly designed multicentre RCTs on these complementary therapies are needed to guide patients and clinicians.

  4. Complementary and alternative medicines, embodied subjectivity and experiences of healing.

    PubMed

    Sointu, Eeva

    2013-09-01

    Despite a paucity of scientific evidence, complementary and alternative medicines have been found to give rise to feelings of control, empowerment, and agency. These healing experiences call for the development of analytical frameworks beyond biomedical ideas of scientific effect. This article is premised on a phenomenological understanding of embodied subjectivity as paving way for more nuanced understanding into experiences of healing. As such, this article contends that ill health transcends the biomedical body. Healing experiences are also entwined with the values and ideals that are normalized in the complementary health sphere. Discourses of health and wellness thus also play a role in the generation of healing experiences. I draw on qualitative research with clients and practitioners involved in complementary and alternative medicines in England. I will first introduce phenomenological ideals of the body, and the methods underlying the data that are drawn on. I will then turn to interviewee perspectives on the interconnectedness of the mind and the body, before outlining client experiences of alternative health practices. I argue that ideals, such as awareness, that are emphasized in the holistic health domain are important for the generation of healing experiences. Healing experiences also, however, emerge through the caring touch of trusted practitioners. This article will finally turn to the intersections between embodied experience and social inscription.

  5. Complementary feeding in the MENA region: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, L; Zeidan, M N; Naja, F; Hwalla, N

    2012-10-01

    Suboptimal feeding patterns during the first two years of life are key determinants of malnutrition in children and constitute an important predictor of health in later years. Early-childhood nutritional factors, stunting, and obesity have been highlighted as prominent core underlying factors of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) development whereas the improvement of complementary feeding practices has been cited as one of the most effective preventive strategies for reducing malnutrition and adult NCDs. In the MENA region NCD prevalence shows very high rates and the limited available studies show that current practices fall behind global recommendations. Common to all countries of this region are practices of mixed breast and bottle-feeding as early as the first month, as well as the premature introduction of complementary foods. Early introduction of non-milk fluids, such as sweetened water and herbal teas, has been described as a common practice in the region and the premature introduction of complementary foods has been reported in as high as 80% of infants in several of the countries. Thus, enhancing infant/young child health can significantly reduce morbidities and mortalities, as well as adult-onset diseases, ultimately decreasing the region's overall burden of disease.

  6. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Complementary and alternative medicine deserves scientific scrutiny as patients with glaucoma often lose vision despite adequate medical or surgical treatment. Most glaucomatologists abstain from recommending alternative medicine as there is little evidence to support most of the recommendations for complementary and alternate management (CAM) use in glaucoma. Megavitamin supplementation has not been shown to have a long-term beneficial effect on glaucoma. In a glaucomatous eye, a very modest benefit of IOP-lowering may be offset by the temporary elevation in IOP that accompanies exercise. There is little evidence to support the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch for the treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can have a profound lowering of IOP, but the low response rate, short half-life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Future research must be carried out to document the effect of CAM not only on IOP, but also on perimetric tests or other objective parameters, such as ocular blood fow and nerve fiber layer thickness. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P. Complementary and Alternate Management of Glaucoma: The Verdict so Far. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):54-57. PMID:26997809

  7. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  8. [Recommendations for the complementary feeding of the breastfed child].

    PubMed

    Monte, Cristina M G; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2004-11-01

    To present a review on the evidence that support the current recommendations for breastfed children feeding. An extensive bibliographic review of the topic was carried out. Articles selected in the MEDLINE and Lilacs databases, publications from national and international organizations, theses and dissertations were reviewed. Some key articles were also selected from the citations referred in other papers. New knowledge acquired about child feeding over the last 20 years have led to a significant change in the current feeding recommendations for breastfed children in relation to the prior recommendations. The current recommended nutritional needs are lower than the old recommendations, complementary food is introduced in a more precise age, around 6 months, and new methods are recommended for promoting the child's healthy eating. The new recommendations emphasize the health feeding practices which comprise both the adequate food quantity and quality, including care with food handling and preparation, feeding and storage practices, and the respect and adequacy to the cultural characteristics of each people. The adequate complementary feeding of the breastfed child is critical for the optimal child growth and development. Therefore, it is an essential factor for both the populations food security and the development of nations. The health professionals ought to effectively pass on to mothers/care takers the new recommendations for promoting the healthy complementary feeding of the breastfed child. It is up to the governments to provide the adequate conditions for supporting such a promotion.

  9. [Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Sandoval Jurado, Luis; Jiménez Báez, María Valeria; Olivares Juárez, Sibli; de la Cruz Olvera, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the pattern of breastfeeding and weaning as a risk of obesity in pre-school children from a Primary Care Unit. Cross-sectional analytical study LOCATION: Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico). Children from 2-4 years of age from a Primary Care Unit. Duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding, age and food utilized for complementary feeding reported by the mother or career of the child and nutritional status assessment evaluated by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95 percentile. Determination of prevalence ratio (PR), odds ratio (OR), chi squared (x2), and binary logistic regression. The study included 116 children (55.2% girls) with a mean age of 3.2 years, with obesity present in 62.1%, Exclusive breastfeeding in 72.4% with mean duration of 2.3 months, and age at introducing solids foods was 5.0 months. There was a difference for breastfeeding and complementary feeding by gender sex (P<.05). A PR=3.9 (95% CI: 1.49-6.34) was calculated for exclusive breastfeeding and risk of obesity. The model showed no association between these variables and obesity in children CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding of less than three months is associated with almost 4 more times in obese children. There was a difference in age of complementary feeding, duration of breastfeeding, and formula milk consumption time for obese and non-obese children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Hao A.; Nahas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. MAIN MESSAGE Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. CONCLUSION Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance. PMID:19221071

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Hao A; Nahas, Richard

    2009-02-01

    To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance.

  12. Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, C A; Collins, C T; Cyna, A M; Crowther, C A

    2006-10-18

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of alternative and complementary therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (February 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2006), EMBASE (1980 to February 2006) and CINAHL (1980 to February 2006). The inclusion criteria included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing complementary and alternative therapies (but not biofeedback) with placebo, no treatment or pharmacological forms of pain management in labour. All women whether primiparous or multiparous, and in spontaneous or induced labour, in the first and second stage of labour were included. Meta-analysis was performed using relative risks for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes. The outcome measures were maternal satisfaction, use of pharmacological pain relief and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Fourteen trials were included in the review with data reporting on 1537 women using different modalities of pain management; 1448 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials involved acupuncture (n = 496), one audio-analgesia (n = 24), two trials acupressure (n = 172), one aromatherapy (n = 22), five trials hypnosis (n = 729), one trial of massage (n = 60), and relaxation (n = 34). The trials of acupuncture showed a decreased need for pain relief (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.00, two trials 288 women). Women taught self-hypnosis had decreased requirements for pharmacological

  13. 77 FR 28396 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  14. 76 FR 29773 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 17, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth,...

  15. 78 FR 42528 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-3456,...

  16. Pain Gains for Complementary and Integrative Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Pain Gains for Complementary and Integrative Medicine Past ... magazine about research and complementary approaches to pain management. What can you tell us about NCCIH's work ...

  17. The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Fu, Yiman; Han, Fengjuan; Kuang, Hongying; Hu, Min; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    About 10–15% of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point in their reproductive lives and thus have to seek specialist fertility care. One of the most commonly used treatment options is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its related expansions. Despite many recent technological advances, the average IVF live birth rate per single initiated cycle is still only 30%. Consequently, there is a need to find new therapies to promote the efficiency of the procedure. Many patients have turned to complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments as an adjuvant therapy to improve their chances of success when they undergo IVF treatment. At present, several CAM methods have been used in infertile couples with IVF, which has achieved obvious effects. However, biologically plausible mechanisms of the action of CAM for IVF have not been systematically reviewed. This review briefly summarizes the current progress of the impact of CAM on the outcomes of IVF and introduces the mechanisms. PMID:24527047

  18. 75 FR 19979 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the public to observe at a Workshop on the Deconstruction.... Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1999...

  19. 75 FR 52357 - Request for Comment: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... for Comment: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is developing its... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission...

  20. 75 FR 30039 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AT-01-001 ``Translational Tools For...

  1. 77 FR 69869 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, PAR 12-151: Centers of Excellence for Research on Complementary Alternative Medicine...

  2. 75 FR 54161 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; NCCAM Education Panel. Date... in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 30,...

  3. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score < -2) and wasting (weight for height Z score < -2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children < 5 years of age. This comprises 21 % of all deaths in this age group worldwide. The incidence of stunting is the highest in the first two years of life especially after six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding alone cannot fulfill the energy needs of a rapidly growing child. Complementary feeding for an infant refers to timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breast-feeding (BF) i.e. clean and nutritionally rich additional foods introduced at about six months of infant age. Complementary feeding strategies encompass a wide variety of interventions designed to improve not only the quality and quantity of these foods but also improve the feeding behaviors. In this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of two most commonly applied strategies of complementary feeding i.e. timely provision of appropriate complementary foods (± nutritional counseling) and education to mothers about practices of complementary feeding on growth. Recommendations have been made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother

  4. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service

  5. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition.

  6. Single access laparoscopic surgery: Complementary or alternative to NOTES?

    PubMed Central

    Dapri, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, single access laparoscopic surgery (SALS) and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have gained interest from both clinical and industrial point of view, with the increased development of different laparoscopic instruments, production of various access ports, and improvement of operative endoscopes. The main advantages stimulating these two approaches are the cosmetic result, the rapid recovery of the patient, and the reduced need for pain killers. SALS and NOTES are in part complementary and in part alternative techniques. Currently, SALS is much simpler and technically easier than NOTES. PMID:21160876

  7. Perspectives about complementary and alternative medicine in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandary, Rosy; Bhangle, Samir; Patel, Sheetal; Sen, Deepali; Perlman, Adam; Panush, Richard S

    2011-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments are considered nonmainstream therapies. The popularity and widespread usage of CAM reflects the inadequacies of the current understanding and management of rheumatic and musculoskeletal (and other) diseases despite significant progress. Better science in the future will relegate certain CAM therapies to the margins of medicine or to history and perhaps see the adoption of others into mainstream medicine. Despite the recent increased interest in CAM, particularly for rheumatic diseases, few clinically important contributions have emerged thus far. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  9. [Complementary and alternative therapeutics teaching in nursing schools].

    PubMed

    Barros, Nelson Filice; Tovey, Philip

    2007-06-01

    There is an increasing interest on Alternative and Complementary Therapies (ACT) both by patients and health professionals and managers. This article explores ACT teaching in five nursing schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Detailed interviews were carried out with the people responsible for these courses as to their sociological characteristics, format, justification, and strategies to start and to maintain the courses. This debate is essential for health in general, and for nursing in particular, as there is a growing international trend to include these ACT in health training and practice.

  10. Thermal stresses in composite tubes using complementary virtual work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.

  11. Toward complementary ionic circuits: the npn ion bipolar junction transistor.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Berggren, Magnus

    2011-07-06

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

  12. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management. PMID:23569397

  13. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Allison L.; Lio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, perhaps more than other dermatologic diseases, has garnered much attention in the realm of alternative medicine. This may be because its etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood, it is increasingly common, and it waxes and wanes often without clear precipitants, opening up many opportunities for misinterpretation. Herein we explore the evidence for a number of different alternative and complementary therapies, from textiles to vitamin supplements. By definition, none have enough data to be deemed “effective” in a conventional sense, but it is hopeful that some show promising evidence that may one day lead to mainstream acceptance with further research. PMID:26257817

  14. Complementary electric-LC resonator antenna for WLAN applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Bashir D.; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Murad, Noor Asniza

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a metamaterial antenna based on complementary electric-LC (CELC) resonator is proposed. The antenna consists of slot-loaded ELC on the ground plane as the main antennas radiating element and excited by a microstrip line. The CELC resonator is characterized by single-negative magnetic moment excited by coupling between the microstrip transmission line and slot-loaded CELC. The peak realized gain and efficiency of 2.63 dB and 86 % are obtained, respectively, at resonance frequency. Simulation and measurement results are presented to validate the design. The antenna is suitable for WLAN applications (2.39-2.48 GHz).

  15. Electrically small, complementary electric-field-coupled resonator antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, H.; Teixeira, F. L.; Guney, D. O.

    2013-02-01

    We study the radiation properties of electrically small resonant antennas (ka <1) composed of electric-field-coupled (ELC) and complementary electric-field-coupled (CELC) resonators and a monopole antenna. We use such parasitic ELC and CELC "metaresonators" to design various electrically small antennas. In particular, monopole-excited and bent-monopole-excited CELC resonator antennas are proposed that provide very low profiles on the order of λ0/20. We compare the performance of the proposed ELC and CELC antennas against more conventional designs based upon split-ring resonators.

  16. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2008-11-01

    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine: assessing the evidence for immunological benefits.

    PubMed

    Goldrosen, Martin H; Straus, Stephen E

    2004-11-01

    With words such as AIDS, allergy and autoimmunity embedded in the popular lexicon, we often equate health with the precision and the tenor of responses to allergens and microorganisms. This leads many people to seek their own solutions to sustain, restore or even boost their immune competence, hoping to live more comfortably and longer. Here, we consider the social and clinical contexts in which these promises of enhanced immunity are pursued through popular practices known as complementary and alternative medicine and the evidence that supports these.

  18. Subwavelength electromagnetic dynamics in stacked complementary plasmonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu

    2010-07-19

    Resonant electromagnetic fields in stacked complementary plasmonic crystal slabs (sc-PlCSs) are numerically explored in subwavelength dimensions. It is found that the local plasmon resonances in the sc-PlCSs are composite states of locally enhanced electric and magnetic fields. Two sc-PlCSs are analyzed in this paper and it is shown that each sc-PlCS realizes a resonant electromagnetic state suggested by one of Maxwell equations. It is moreover clarified that the local plasmons open efficient paths of Poynting flux, those result in high-contrast polarized transmission.

  19. Complementary and alternative exercise for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mist, Scott David; Firestone, Kari A; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine includes a number of exercise modalities, such as tai chi, qigong, yoga, and a variety of lesser-known movement therapies. A meta-analysis of the current literature was conducted estimating the effect size of the different modalities, study quality and bias, and adverse events. The level of research has been moderately weak to date, but most studies report a medium-to-high effect size in pain reduction. Given the lack of adverse events, there is little risk in recommending these modalities as a critical component in a multimodal treatment plan, which is often required for fibromyalgia management.

  20. Thermal stresses in composite tubes using complementary virtual work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.

  1. CMAT non-volatile spintronic computing: complementary MTJ logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joseph S.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have thoroughly demonstrated their utility as a non-volatile memory storage element, inspiring their application to a memory-in-logic computer that would overcome the von Neumann bottleneck. However, MTJ logic gates must be able to cause other MTJs to switch, thus ensuring the cascading capability fundamental to efficient computing. Complementary MTJ logic (CMAT) provides a simple circuit structure through which MTJs can be cascaded directly to perform logic operations. In this novel logic family, charge pulses resulting from MTJ switching create magnetic fields that switch other MTJs, providing impetus for further development of MTJs for computing applications.

  2. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  3. Distinct but complementary contributions of PPAR isotypes to energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Philippe; Staels, Bart

    2017-04-03

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate energy metabolism and hence are therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While they share anti-inflammatory activities, the PPAR isotypes distinguish themselves by differential actions on lipid and glucose homeostasis. In this Review we discuss the complementary and distinct metabolic effects of the PPAR isotypes together with the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, as well as the synthetic PPAR ligands that are used in the clinic or under development. We highlight the potential of new PPAR ligands with improved efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of complex metabolic disorders.

  4. Transcriptome analysis by strand-specific sequencing of complementary DNA.

    PubMed

    Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Borodina, Tatiana; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Banaru, Maria; Hallen, Linda; Krobitsch, Sylvia; Lehrach, Hans; Soldatov, Alexey

    2009-10-01

    High-throughput complementary DNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful tool for whole-transcriptome analysis, supplying information about a transcript's expression level and structure. However, it is difficult to determine the polarity of transcripts, and therefore identify which strand is transcribed. Here, we present a simple cDNA sequencing protocol that preserves information about a transcript's direction. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse brain transcriptomes as models, we demonstrate that knowing the transcript's orientation allows more accurate determination of the structure and expression of genes. It also helps to identify new genes and enables studying promoter-associated and antisense transcription. The transcriptional landscapes we obtained are available online.

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine in women's health. Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.

  6. GaAs-based JFET and PHEMT technologies for ultra-low-power microwave circuits operating at frequencies up to 2.4 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Shul, R.J.; Hafich, M.J.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    In this work the authors report results of narrowband amplifiers designed for milliwatt and submilliwatt power consumption using JFET and pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (PHEMT) GaAs-based technologies. Enhancement-mode JFETs were used to design both a hybrid amplifier with off-chip matching as well as a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with on-chip matching. The hybrid amplifier achieved 8--10 dB of gain at 2.4 GHz and 1 mW. The MMIC achieved 10 dB of gain at 2.4 GHz and 2 mW. Submilliwatt circuits were also explored by using 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs. 25 {micro}W power levels were achieved with 5 dB of gain for a 215 MHz hybrid amplifier. These results significantly reduce power consumption levels achievable with the JFETs or prior MESFET, heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET), or Si bipolar results from other laboratories.

  7. Simulation supported POD: Methodology and HFET validation case

    SciTech Connect

    Jenson, F.; Iakovleva, E.; Dominguez, N.

    2011-06-23

    Structure reliability guaranty requires prior evaluation of non destructive testing methods. The concept of Probability of Detection (POD) is generally used to quantitatively assess performances and reliability of testing operations. Such probabilistic approaches take into account the uncertainties that appear during inspections and that are responsible for the output variability. POD curve determination is based on costly and time consuming experimental campaigns. Increasing demand of NDT configurations requiring POD evaluation makes cost reduction of POD campaigns a major issue. A new trend is to apply simulation in the context of probabilistic approaches in order to replace some of the experimental data required to determine the POD with simulation results. This paper presents results of simulation based POD curves of a high frequency eddy current inspection procedure obtained with the new POD module of CIVA. The methodology used for describing uncertainties on the input simulation parameters is described and comparisons with experimental results are presented and discussed.

  8. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Oddo, Calogero M.; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M. D.; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models. PMID:28374841

  9. Integrative Skin Care: Dermatology and Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bodeker, Gerard; Ryan, Terence J; Volk, Adva; Harris, Jahnavi; Burford, Gemma

    2017-06-01

    Skin problems and diseases are extremely common globally and, due to their visibility, often result in severe distress and stigma for sufferers. Traditional (i.e., indigenous or local) and complementary health systems are widely used and incorporate many treatment modalities suitable for skin care, and a body of evidence for their efficacy and safety has built up over many decades. These approaches are often used as part of a broader "integrative medicine" (IM) approach that may also include, for example, nutrition and mind-body approaches. This article presents an overview of current knowledge about traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) and IM principles and practices for skin health; reviews published epidemiologic studies, clinical trials, and wider literature; and discusses the challenges of conducting research into T&CM and IM. It also highlights the need for an innovative research agenda-one which is congruent with the principles of IM, as well as taking policy and public health dimensions into consideration.

  10. Complementary N Uptake Strategies between Tree Species in Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Roggy, J C; Schimann, H; Sabatier, D; Molino, J F; Freycon, V; Domenach, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within tree communities, the differential use of soil N mineral resources, a key factor in ecosystem functioning, may reflect functional complementarity, a major mechanism that could explain species coexistence in tropical rainforests. Eperua falcata and Dicorynia guianensis, two abundant species cooccurring in rainforests of French Guiana, were chosen as representative of two functional groups with complementary N uptake strategies (contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures related to the δ (15)N of their soil N source, NO3 (-) or NH4 (+)). The objectives were to investigate if these strategies occurred under contrasted soil N resources in sites with distinct geological substrates representative of the coastal rainforests. Results showed that species displayed contrasting leaf δ (15)N signatures on both substrates, confirming their complementary N uptake strategy. Consequently, their leaf (15)N can be used to trace the presence of inorganic N-forms in soils (NH4 (+) and NO3 (-)) and thus to indicate the capacity of soils to provide each of these two N sources to the plant community.

  11. The use of complementary medicine in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Muzaffer; Demir, Büşra; Yüksel, Sena; Çataklı, Serra Aydın; Yıldız, Rabia Sevda; Karaman, Ozcan; Taşan, Ertuğrul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health problem with serious complications. The chronic and progressive nature of the disease often leads patients to use complementary and integrative medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of use of alternative medicine by patients with DM and the products used. METHODS: Between September 2014 and May 2015, 301 patients with DM were selected from Bezmialem Foundation University Hospital Diabetes Clinic to participate in the study. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that 81 (26.9%) patients had tried alternative medicine, and 50 (16.6%) patients continued to use some form of alternative medicine product. A total of 43 (14.3%) patients used such products every day and 24 (8%) patients had used alternative medicine products for up to 6 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were significantly decreased in patients using alternative medicine products compared to the remainder of patients in the study (p=0.017). No other significant difference was found between the two groups. It was observed that among patients using alternative medicine products, only 10 (12%) had informed their physicians. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that patients with diabetes are very likely to use alternative medicine products. Additional studies are needed to further determine the efficacy of these products. Patients as well as health providers must be educated about complementary medicine and alternative products. PMID:28058383

  12. [Touching cancer: shiatsu as complementary treatment to support cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.

  13. Unveiling the rat urinary proteome with three complementary proteomics approaches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Muñiz, María Carmen; Raposo, César; Rodríguez-Prieto, Silvia; Paradela, Alberto; Quiros, Yaremi; López-Hernández, Francisco; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Ferreira, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Urine is a suitable biological fluid to look for markers of physiological and pathological processes, including renal and nonrenal diseases. In addition, it is an optimal body sample for diagnosis, because it is easily obtained without invasive procedures and can be sampled in large quantities at almost any time. Rats are frequently used as a model to study human diseases, and rat urine has been analyzed to search for disease biomarkers. The normal human urinary proteome has been studied extensively, but the normal rat urinary proteome has not been studied in such depth. In light of this, we were prompted to analyze the normal rat urinary proteome using three complementary proteomics platforms: SDS-PAGE separation, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS; 2DE, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF and 2D-liquid chromatography-chromatofocusing, followed by LC-ESI-Q-TOF. A total of 366 unique proteins were identified, of which only 5.2% of unique proteins were identified jointly by the three proteomics platforms used. This suggests that simultaneous proteomics techniques provide complementary and nonredundant information. Our analysis affords the most extensive rat urinary protein database currently available and this may be useful in the study of renal physiology and in the search for biomarkers related to renal and nonrenal diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nanocrystal-based complementary inverters constructed on flexible plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaewon; Cho, Kyoungah; Yun, Junggwon; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a nanocrystal (NC)-based complementary inverter constructed on a flexible plastic substrate. The NC-based complementary inverter consists of n-type HgSe NC- and p-type HgTe NC-based thin-film transistors (TFTs). Solid films on a plastic substrate obtained from HgSe and HgTe nanocrystals by thermal transformation are utilized as the n- and p-channel layers in these TFTs, respectively. The electrical properties of these component TFTs on unstrained and strained substrates are characterized and the performance of the inverter on the flexible substrate is investigated. The inverter on the unstrained substrate exhibits a logic gain of about 8, a logic swing of 90%, and a noise margin of 2.0 V. The characteristics of the inverter are changed under tensile and compressive strains, but not very significantly. Moreover, a comparison of the electrical characteristics of the n- and p-channel TFTs and the inverter is made in this paper.

  15. Development of fortified dried broken rice as a complementary food.

    PubMed

    Chitpan, Monthana; Chavasit, Visith; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2005-12-01

    Commercially produced dried broken rice is widely used to prepare complementary foods for Thai infants, and it is both convenient and acceptable to persons from all socioeconomic classes. However, inadequate levels of calcium, iron, thiamine, and folate are common in complementary foods for breastfed infants. We developed dried broken rice fortified with these nutrients at levels recommended by the 2001 guidelines of the World Health Organization. The fortification process involved predrying broken rice at 90 degrees C for 1 hour, soaking in a nutrient solution (2:1 ratio of rice to solution), and drying at 70 degrees C for 1 hour and 50 minutes. Calcium lactate or calcium lactate gluconate was the calcium source, and ferrous sulfate, ferrous lactate, or ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) was the iron source. The vitamin sources were thiamine hydrochloride and folic acid. The product contained 40 mg of calcium, 5.3 mg of iron, 0.08 mg of thiamine, and 11 microg of folate per 20-g serving. Approximately 5% and 10% of calcium and iron, respectively, were lost during processing, with a thiamine loss of approximately 13%, and a folate loss ranging from 17% to 23%. The thiamine loss during accelerated storage (42 degrees C for three months) was not significant (p > .05). NaFeEDTA was the most appropriate iron fortificant because it provided prolonged product stability and high in vitro dialyzability.

  16. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  17. Dietary Patterns during Complementary Feeding and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations. High scores on the index were due to longer breastfeeding, and feeding more fruit and vegetables and less ready-prepared baby foods. The index scores were positively related to IQ and 'healthy' dietary patterns in childhood. In infancy four dietary patterns were derived from PCA at each age. Three occurred at both ages: 'HM traditional' (home-made meat, vegetables and desserts), 'discretionary' (processed adult foods) and 'RM baby foods' (commercial ready-made baby foods). A 'breastfeeding' pattern was derived at 6 months, with fruit and vegetables included. At 15 months, a 'HM contemporary' pattern included cheese, fish, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables. The 'discretionary' and 'RM baby foods' patterns at both ages were negatively associated, while the 'breastfeeding' and 'HM contemporary' patterns were positively associated with IQ. These results suggest that infant diet influences cognitive development in children and may set a trend for later eating patterns.

  18. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rahmat, Asmah; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Yaw, Yong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among individuals with cancer, especially breast cancer survivors. This study was conducted among 394 breast cancer survivors in selected regions of Peninsular Malaysia to identify the pattern and factors associated with CAM use. About 51% of the respondents reported CAM use as complementary treatment. Vitamins (47.2%), spiritual activities (33.2%) and other dietary supplements (30.7%) were the most commonly used CAM therapies. Common reasons for CAM use were to increase the body's ability to perform daily activities (70.9%), enhance immune function (58.3%) and improve emotional well-being (31.7%). Users obtained CAM information mainly from friends and family members (62.5%), physicians (25.0%) and mass media (13.9%). Ethnicity and years of education were significantly associated with CAM use. Although no adverse effects of CAM were reported, breast cancer survivors should discuss their CAM use with health professionals to prevent potential adverse effects of these therapies.

  19. The context and meaning of placebos for complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lewith, George; Barlow, Fiona; Eyles, Caroline; Flower, Andrew; Hall, Sue; Hopwood, Val; Walker, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Calls for placebo-controlled randomised trials in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are entirely reasonable. However, they present major methodological problems, particularly when we understand so little about the underlying biological mechanisms involved for many of these therapies. Designing a placebo in CAM is frequently dependent on unsubstantiated assumptions about the specificity of a particular CAM intervention. In this paper we address the development and application of placebos to clinical trials of homeopathy, acupuncture, kinesiology, Chinese herbal medicine and healing. Each therapy-based vignette is authored by a researcher from the Complementary and Integrated Medicine Research Unit at the University of Southampton who has specific expertise in the field. The essential research question within this review is; can we legitimately claim to have placebos for these particular CAM interventions? In some areas of CAM the debate has become very involved and sophisticated, for instance in acupuncture but for other areas, such as healing, our understanding of placebos is currently limited and very naïve. For instance, if acupuncture is not point specific, then many so-called 'placebo-controlled' acupuncture trials are both misconceived and misleading. We have addressed this debate in what we hope is a thoughtful and rigorous manner with a view to developing realistic, reliable and credible placebos for randomised controlled studies when and where possible. However, our conclusions suggest that we are some way from developing valid, credible and reliable placebos for most CAM therapies.

  20. [Importance of complementary medicine approaches for patients with prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, K M; Klein, G; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Horneber, M; Weis, J

    2014-11-01

    In Germany, many prostate cancer patients use complementary medicine (CM) or have an interest in these treatment approaches; however, the information and consultation situation of cancer patients is insufficient and therefore the Competence Network Complementary Medicine in Oncology (COCON) was launched by the German Cancer Aid Society. One of the projects of the COCON examines the use of CM and the information and counseling needs regarding these topics in various groups of cancer patients. The focus of this article is on the qualitative study reporting selected results for the subgroup of prostate cancer patients. A total of 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews with prostate cancer patients were conducted regarding the use of CM as well as their information and consultation needs. It was found that the patients interviewed discussed various issues surrounding nutrition, particularly a healthy diet, the selective use of certain foods and the use of dietary supplements. Additional themes mentioned by interviewees were physical exercise, psychological well-being, mistletoe therapy, homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine. Patients indicated that they wanted more information and counseling opportunities with regards to CM. They also expressed a desire for more holistic care. The results show that prostate cancer patients use a range of CM and have a need for information about CM. Prostate cancer patients are in a special situation because of a regular feedback on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. This should be taken into consideration in consultation with prostate cancer patients regarding CM.

  1. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jonas; Källman, Mikael; Östlund, Ulrika; Holgersson, Georg; Bergqvist, Michael; Bergström, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used among patients with cancer. This usage may have potentially harmful effects, especially when combined with anticancer drugs. However, some complementary methods may benefit patients. This review investigated the prevalence of CAM use among patients with cancer in Scandinavia and secondly studied the educational levels of CAM users compared to non-users. A systematic search of the PubMed library was carried out to locate articles published between January 2000 and October 2015 that investigated prevalence of CAM use among Scandinavian patients with cancer. Twenty-two articles were found, of which nine were included in the review. The prevalence of CAM use was 7.9% to 53%, with an average of 36.0% across all studies. Use of CAM is widespread among patients with cancer. Knowledge about CAM should be disseminated to both patients and staff in order to optimise discussions about CAM in clinical practice. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary and integrative medicine in the management of headache.

    PubMed

    Millstine, Denise; Chen, Christina Y; Bauer, Brent

    2017-05-16

    Headaches, including primary headaches such as migraine and tension-type headache, are a common clinical problem. Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), formerly known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), uses evidence informed modalities to assist in the health and healing of patients. CIM commonly includes the use of nutrition, movement practices, manual therapy, traditional Chinese medicine, and mind-body strategies. This review summarizes the literature on the use of CIM for primary headache and is based on five meta-analyses, seven systematic reviews, and 34 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The overall quality of the evidence for CIM in headache management is generally low and occasionally moderate. Available evidence suggests that traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture, massage, yoga, biofeedback, and meditation have a positive effect on migraine and tension headaches. Spinal manipulation, chiropractic care, some supplements and botanicals, diet alteration, and hydrotherapy may also be beneficial in migraine headache. CIM has not been studied or it is not effective for cluster headache. Further research is needed to determine the most effective role for CIM in patients with headache. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Emergence of Hierarchy on a Network of Complementary Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli, M.; Dos Santos, R. M. Zorzenon; Martins, J. S. Sá

    Complementarity is one of the main features underlying the interactions in biological and biochemical systems. Inspired by those systems we propose a model for the dynamical evolution of a system composed of agents that interact due to their complementary attributes rather than their similarities. Each agent is represented by a bit-string and has an activity associated to it; the coupling among complementary peers depends on their activity. The connectivity of the system changes in time respecting the constraint of complementarity. We observe the formation of a network of active agents whose stability depends on the rate at which activity of agents diffuses in the system. The model exhibits a nonequilibrium phase transition between the ordered phase, where a stable network is generated, and a disordered phase characterized by the absence of correlation among the agents. The ordered phase exhibits multi-modal distributions of connectivity and activity, indicating a hierarchy of interaction among different populations characterized by different degrees of activity. This model may be used to study the hierarchy observed in social organizations.

  4. Complementary treatment in fibromyalgia: combination of somatic and abdominal acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Iannuccelli, Cristina; Mannocci, Franca; Guzzo, Maria Paola; Olivieri, Marta; Gerardi, Maria Chiara; Atzeni, Fabiola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Valesini, Guido; Di Franco, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome characterised by widespread pain associated with a variety of other signs and symptoms. The emerging consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Since acupuncture is a tool of traditional Chinese medicine increasingly used as an alternative or complementary therapy for the treatment of pain, the present study aimed to combine two different acupunctural methods (the somatic and abdominal one) in the treatment of 30 consecutive female FM patients and to evaluate the reduction of pain and the well-being state. The results showed a statistically significant reduction of the number of tender points and of pain. Moreover we observed a statistically significant reduction of FIQ, FAS, HAQ, disease activity VAS, ZSAS, ZSDS at the end of the treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that the combination of two types of acupuncture could be a useful complementary treatment in FM patients, not only to control pain but also to improve associated symptoms and quality of life. As a result, acupuncture could be very useful to relieve pain in a multidisciplinary setting.

  5. Yoga as a Complementary Therapy for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, John; Fischer, Colleen; Peterson, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Yoga is being used by a growing number of youth and adults as a means of improving overall health and fitness. There is also a progressive trend toward use of yoga as a mind-body complementary and alternative medicine intervention to improve specific physical and mental health conditions. To provide clinicians with therapeutically useful information about yoga, the evidence evaluating yoga as an effective intervention for children and adolescents with health problems is reviewed and summarized. A brief overview of yoga and yoga therapy is presented along with yoga resources and practical strategies for clinical practitioners to use with their patients. The majority of available studies with children and adolescents suggest benefits to using yoga as a therapeutic intervention and show very few adverse effects. These results must be interpreted as preliminary findings because many of the studies have methodological limitations that prevent strong conclusions from being drawn. Yoga appears promising as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents. Further information about how to apply it most effectively and more coordinated research efforts are needed. PMID:20877530

  6. Complementary therapies to reduce physiological stress in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tiran, Denise; Chummun, Harry

    2004-08-01

    Pregnancy is a period of enormous physio-pathological and psychosocial adaptation in a woman's life. Although it is usually a time of joy and anticipation, many women experience some degree of anxiety, concern and fear regarding their own health and that of their babies, as well as the approaching labour. Worry about social, financial, occupational and relationship issues can often add to their stress levels which increases the possibility of pregnancy complications. However while mild to moderate stress facilitates successful adjustment to these demands, a significant increase in the levels of stress hormones may compromise the health of both mother and fetus. Complementary therapies are increasingly popular with expectant mothers and are gradually being integrated into conventional maternity care, primarily by midwives. However, there is debate about whether these therapies simply provide a form of relaxation for pregnant women with psychological stress or whether they could-or should-be used more constructively to deal with physio-pathological stress. This paper considers the physiological effects of certain complementary therapies in reducing the impact of stress in pregnancy.

  7. Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vogwill, T; Comfort, A C; Furió, V; MacLean, R C

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial persistence represents a simple of phenotypic heterogeneity, whereby a proportion of cells in an isogenic bacterial population can survive exposure to lethal stresses such as antibiotics. In contrast, genetically based antibiotic resistance allows for continued growth in the presence of antibiotics. It is unclear, however, whether resistance and persistence are complementary or alternative evolutionary adaptations to antibiotics. Here, we investigate the co-evolution of resistance and persistence across the genus Pseudomonas using comparative methods that correct for phylogenetic nonindependence. We find that strains of Pseudomonas vary extensively in both their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) and persistence following exposure to these antibiotics. Crucially, we find that persistence correlates positively to antibiotic resistance across strains. However, we find that different genes control resistance and persistence implying that they are independent traits. Specifically, we find that the number of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) in the genome of a strain is correlated to persistence, but not resistance. Our study shows that persistence and antibiotic resistance are complementary, but independent, evolutionary adaptations to stress and it highlights the key role played by TAs in the evolution of persistence.

  8. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, B J; Grasso, T

    2001-10-01

    Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown dramatically over the past several years. Cancer patients are always looking for new hope, and many have turned to nontraditional means. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer patients and what if any agents are being used. Approximately, 100 adult cancer patients in a private nonprofit South Florida hospital completed a descriptive cross-sectional survey questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 59 years; 42 patients were male and 58, female. According to survey results, 80% of patients reported using some type of CAM; 81% took vitamins, 54% took herbal products, 30% used relaxation techniques, 20% received massages, and 10% used home remedies. Among patients who took vitamins, 65% said they took a multivitamin, 39% took vitamin C, and 31%, vitamin E. The most common herbal remedies used were green tea, echinacea, shark cartilage, grape seed extract, and milk thistle. Meditation and deep breathing were the two most common relaxation techniques practiced. A large majority of cancer patients are using CAM. In light of the growing interest in CAM, health-care professionals need to be educated about the most common therapies used.

  9. Molecular Cloning of Complementary DNA Encoding Maize Nitrite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lahners, Kristine; Kramer, Vance; Back, Eduard; Privalle, Laura; Rothstein, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA has been isolated that codes for maize nitrite reductase (NiR) by using the corresponding spinach gene (E Back et al. 1988 Mol Gen Genet 212:20-26) as a heterologous probe. The sequences of the complementary DNAs from the two species are 66% homologous while the deduced amino acid sequences are 86% similar when analogous amino acids are included. A high percentage of the differences in the DNA sequences is due to the extremely strong bias in the corn gene to have a G/C base in the third codon position with 559/569 codons ending in a G or C. Using a hydroponic system, maize seedlings grown in the absence of an exogenous nitrogen source were induced with nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate stimulated a rapid induction of the NiR mRNA in both roots and leaves. There is also a considerable induction of this gene in roots upon the addition of nitrite, although under the conditions used the final mRNA level was not as high as when nitrate was the inducer. There is a small but detectable level of NiR mRNA in leaves prior to induction, but no constitutive NiR mRNA can be seen in the roots. Analysis of genomic DNA supports the notion that there are at least two NiR genes in maize. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666376

  10. Complementary approaches to decreasing discomfort during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL).

    PubMed

    Ngee-Ming, Goh; Tamsin, Drake; Rai, B P; Somani, B K

    2014-06-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an established treatment for renal stones. Although non-invasive, it can cause significant pain and anxiety during the procedure. Our purpose was to review the literature to look at the effect of complimentary therapy in patients undergoing SWL and whether it led to a reduction in the requirement of analgesics and anxiolytics. A systematic review was performed on the use of acupuncture, auricular acupressure, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and music during SWL. Only prospective randomized controlled trials were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. Outcomes relating to analgesia requirement, anxiety and stone-free rates (SFR) were compared. Seven papers were identified reporting on 591 patients (acupuncture-3, TENS-1 and music-3). Pain control/analgesia requirement was significantly better in four studies (music-2, acupuncture-1, TENS-1). Significantly lower anxiety was noted in one study with music and two using acupuncture. No difference in SFR was noted with the use of complementary therapy. No major or minor side effects were noted. Complementary therapy for SWL can help lower analgesia requirement and the anxiety associated with it. However, it does not have any effect on the SFR.

  11. Technology development strategy and the relationship between technology import and domestic research and development (R D)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In industrializing as well as industrialized countries, a controversial and complex policy issue concerns the nature and proper balance of the interaction between foreign and indigenous technologies. It is not possible to formulate an effective and timely technological policy without knowing the nature of interaction between foreign and indigenous technologies. The major purpose of this study is to develop a means of understanding the relationship between technology import and domestic research and development. The relationship was expected to be influenced by stage of development and by technology development strategy. A strong complementary relationship was expected for lower stages of development and imitative strategy. A weaker complementary or substitutive relationship was expected for the more advanced countries and aggressive strategy. Although much of the discussion is focused on Japanese and Korean experience in technology development after the Second World War, the statistical analysis of the relationship between technology import and domestic R D encompasses other countries for which relevant data were available. Complementary relationships were found between technology import and domestic R D for Japan, Korea, and France. On the other hand, the relationship between industrial R D and technology import was substitutive for the United States. (The findings were controlled for GNP per capita and number of scientists and engineers). The relationship between technology import and both domestic and industrial R D was independent for West Germany. The statistical findings suggest that the relationship between a country's technology import and its domestic and industrial R D is strongly correlated with its technology development strategy.

  12. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – Lessons from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6–23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6–23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods. PMID:27800479

  13. Perception of risk and communication among conventional and complementary health care providers involving cancer patients' use of complementary therapies: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Stub, Trine; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Musial, Frauke; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-09-08

    Communication between different health care providers (conventional and complementary) and cancer patients about their use of complementary therapies affects the health and safety of the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the qualitative research literature on the perception of and communication about the risk of complementary therapies between different health care providers and cancer patients. Systematic searches in six medical databases covering literature from 2000 to 2015 were performed. The studies were accessed according to the level of evidence and summarized into different risk situations. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the text data, and the codes were defined before and during the data analysis. Twenty-nine papers were included in the primary analysis and five main themes were identified and discussed. The main risk situations identified were 1. Differences in treatment concepts and philosophical values among complementary and conventional health care providers. 2. Adverse effects from complementary products and herbs due to their contamination/toxicity and interactions with conventional cancer treatment. 3. Health care physicians and oncologists find it difficult to recommend many complementary modalities due to the lack of scientific evidence for their effect. 4. Lack of knowledge and information about complementary and conventional cancer treatments among different health care providers. The risk of consuming herbs and products containing high level of toxins is a considerable threat to patient safety (direct risk). At the same time, the lack of scientific evidence of effect for many complementary therapies and differences in treatment philosophy among complementary and conventional health care providers potentially hinder effective communication about these threats with mutual patients (indirect risk). As such, indirect risk may pose an additional risk to patients who want to combine complementary therapies with

  14. Integrating complementary information for photorealistic representation of large-scale environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinhui

    2007-12-01

    A wealth of datasets from different sensors exists for environment representation. The key observations of this thesis are that the different datasets are complementary and that fusing information from complementary datasets reduces errors in processing each dataset. In addition, a fusion method benefits from the merit of each dataset, hence helps us to represent large-scale environments in an efficient and accurate way. This thesis presents a hybrid approach fusing information from four complementary datasets, LiDAR data, aerial images, ground images and videos, to photorealistically represent large-scale environments. LiDAR data samples are dense in surface points and they directly measure model heights with accuracy up to centimeters. However, edges from LiDAR data are jaggy due to the relatively low sampling rate (usually one meter) of the sensor and reconstruction results from LiDAR lack color information. On the other hand, aerial images provide detailed texture and color information in high-resolution, making them necessary for texture data and appealing for extracting detailed model features. However, reconstruction from stereo aerial images often generates sparse points, making them unsuitable for reconstruction of complex surfaces, such as curved surfaces and roofs with slopes. Ground images offer high-resolution texture information and details of model facades, but they are local, static and lack the capability to provide information of the most recent changes in the environment. Live videos are real-time, making them ideal for updating the information of the environment, however, they are often low-resolution. A natural conclusion is to combine the geometry, photometry, and other sensing sources to compensate for the shortcomings of each sensing technology and obtain a more detailed and accurate representation of the environment. In this thesis, we first fuse information from both LiDAR and an aerial image to create urban models with accurate surfaces

  15. Shamanism as a healing paradigm for complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    2001-08-01

    Any healing process--whether recovery from infection, physical trauma, or psychological distress--must entail the stimulation and direction of the body's own restorative functions. In former times these functions were called the vis mediatrix naturae. Arguably best articulated within traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Reid 1993), many complementary therapies have identified this principle. The immune system is implicated in the operation of these healing processes, and immune system functions are modulated by both internal and external variables. External variables include the nature of the infection or trauma. Internal variables include the meaning of the illness to the patient or the patient's imagery surrounding the illness. It follows that any modulation of internal variables that increases immune function will therefore be highly beneficial in the healing process. Sometimes such modulation happens spontaneously, when it may be referred to as the placebo effect, or a good bedside manner, or spontaneous remission. Sometimes such modulation may be brought about intentionally either by the patient or by a therapist or healer. One body of technique for such modulation is shamanism, which pays particular attention to bridging the internal world of the patient to the external world where the problem originates. Shamanic practice is specifically focused on this healing task, and has its own toolkit of techniques for the modification of consciousness, the manipulation of imagery and meaning, and the generation of a healing milieu and therapeutic images from its mythic content. Early concerns about the mental health of shamanic practitioners are now thoroughly resolved (e.g. Stephen & Suryani 2000). Indeed, the relevance of shamanism to positive mental health is currently being explored (e.g. Money 1994, Singh 1999). Its relevance to social work (Voss et al. 1999) and to the near death experience (Green 1998) are also subjects of academic inquiry. The shamanic corpus

  16. Telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means on behalf of the disabled.

    PubMed

    Puig de la Bellacasa, R

    1980-01-01

    It took the author eleven months (1-3-1979 to 31-1-1980) to carry out the first part of a study and coordinate a number of working sessions in which he examined the state of the arts and put forward a program for the application of telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means to the welfare of the disabled. The five areas of study are described in the present article: blindness, deaf-blindness and visual impairment; disability in the family; home-boundness due to disability, chronic illness or advanced age; speech impairments due to non-auditory causes; mental illness and related disorders. The study was carried out as a part of the activities of the "Foundation for the Development of the Social Function of Communications" (Fundacion para el Desarrollo de la Funcion Social de las Comunicaciones) and tries to open up a new perspective in Spain on technological applications for the handicapped. The main feature of the study is the proposal of Rehabilitation Engineering and Technical Aids Centre for the Disabled which starting from the telecommunications area, intends to make available to the handicapped the possibilities offered by technology.

  17. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to these goals, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and, as a result, the need to provide information and support for pediatricians. From 2000 to 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened and charged the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine to address issues related to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and to develop resources to educate physicians, patients, and families. One of these resources is this report describing complementary and alternative medicine services, current levels of utilization and financial expenditures, and associated legal and ethical considerations. The subject of complementary and alternative medicine is large and diverse, and consequently, an in-depth discussion of each method of complementary and alternative medicine is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, this report will define terms; describe epidemiology; outline common types of complementary and alternative medicine therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for complementary and alternative medicine providers; provide resources for learning more about complementary and alternative medicine; and suggest communication strategies to use when discussing complementary and alternative medicine with patients and families.

  18. Identification of membrane-associated proteins from Campylobacter jejuni strains using complementary proteomics technologies.

    PubMed

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Len, Alice C L; Touma, Rachel G; Scott, Nichollas E; Falconer, Linda; Jones, David; Connolly, Angela; Crossett, Ben; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food- and water-borne illness world-wide. The membrane-associated proteome of a recent C. jejuni gastrointestinal isolate (JHH1) was generated by sodium carbonate precipitation and ultracentrifugation followed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS as well as 2-DLC (strong cation exchange followed by RP chromatography) of trypsin digests coupled to MS/MS (2-DLC/MS/MS). 2-DE/MS identified 77 proteins, 44 of which were predicted membrane proteins, while 2-DLC/MS/MS identified 432 proteins, of which 206 were predicted to be membrane associated. A total of 453 unique proteins (27.4% of the C. jejuni theoretical proteome), including 187 bona fide membrane proteins were identified in this study. Membrane proteins were also compared between C. jejuni JHH1 and ATCC 700297 to identify factors potentially associated with increased gastrointestinal virulence. We identified 28 proteins that were significantly (>two-fold) more abundant in, or unique to, JHH1, including eight proteins involved in chemotaxis signal transduction and flagellar motility, the amino acid-binding surface antigens CjaA and CjaC, and four outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of unknown function (Cj0129c, Cj1031, Cj1279c, and Cj1721c). Immunoblotting using convalescent patient sera generated post-gastrointestinal infection revealed 13 (JHH1) and 12 (ATCC 700297) immunoreactive proteins. These included flagellin (FlaA) and CadF as well as Omp18, Omp50, Cj1721c, PEB1A, PEB2, and PEB4A. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane-associated proteins from C. jejuni.

  19. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  20. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Botvinnik, O. B.; Abudayyeh, O.; Birger, C.; Rosenbluh, J.; Shrestha, Y.; Abazeed, M. E.; Hammerman, P. S.; DiCara, D.; Konieczkowski, D. J.; Johannessen, C. M.; Liberzon, A.; Alizad-Rahvar, A. R.; Alexe, G.; Aguirre, A.; Ghandi, M.; Greulich, H.; Vazquez, F.; Weir, B. A.; Van Allen, E. M.; Tsherniak, A.; Shao, D. D.; Zack, T. I.; Noble, M.; Getz, G.; Beroukhim, R.; Garraway, L. A.; Ardakani, M.; Romualdi, C.; Sales, G.; Barbie, D. A.; Boehm, J. S.; Hahn, W. C.; Mesirov, J. P.; Tamayo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of relevant mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers; however, elucidating their functional consequences, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, is still a significant challenge. Here we introduce REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene-dependency of oncogenic pathways or the sensitivity to a drug treatment. We use REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:27088724

  1. Complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David

    2003-01-01

    The 13th International Prostate Cancer Update was held in Vail, Colorado, in February 2003. This article provides an overview of the high points in the areas of complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging that were discussed at this meeting. M. Scott Lucia, MD, addressed the use of various hormonal agents, antiproliferative or differentiating agents, antiinflammatory agents, and antioxidants in patients with prostate cancer. Wael A. Sakr, MD, provided an overview of prognostic markers for this disease. Arturo Mendoza-Valdes, MD, explored the potential role of exercise for patients with prostate cancer, and Bruce Sodee, MD, described some exciting new developments in prostate imaging. E. David Crawford, MD, discussed the ongoing Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

  2. The complementary niches of anthropocentric and biocentric conservationists.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Malcolm L; Redford, Kent H; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-06-01

    A divergence of values has become apparent in recent debates between conservationists who focus on ecosystem services that can improve human well-being and those who focus on avoiding the extinction of species. These divergent points of view fall along a continuum from anthropocentric to biocentric values, but most conservationists are relatively closer to each other than to the ends of the spectrum. We have some concerns with both positions but emphasize that conservation for both people and all other species will be most effective if conservationists focus on articulating the values they all share, being respectful of divergent values, and collaborating on common interests. The conservation arena is large enough to accommodate many people and organizations whose diverse values lead them to different niches that can, with good will and foresight, be far more complementary than competitive.

  3. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C.I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain. Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity. There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems. Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain. Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies. PMID:26525515

  4. Uses of complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Namjooyan, Foroogh; Ghanavati, Rahil; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Jokari, Shiva; Janbozorgi, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, recurrent demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). It could affect different regions in the brain and spinal cord, and according to the domain which is affected, it could cause different symptoms such as motor, sensory, or visual impairment; fatigue; bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction; cognitive impairment; and depression. MS patients also face reduced quality of life. Drugs that are used in MS are not fully efficient and patients suffer from many symptoms and adverse effects. Today there is an increasing trend of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). People are more likely to use this type of treatment. Using appropriate lifestyle and CAM therapy can subside some of the symptoms and could improve the quality of life in these patients. Many people with MS explore CAM therapies for their symptoms. This review is aimed to introduce CAM therapies that could be used in MS patients.

  5. Electroinductive waves in chains of complementary metamaterial elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beruete, M.; Falcone, F.; Freire, M. J.; Marqués, R.; Baena, J. D.

    2006-02-01

    Electronductive waves supported by chains of resonators drilled on a metallic plate are presented. Propagation of energy comes as a consequence of the electric coupling between these resonators. Therefore, these waves are termed as electroinductive waves. They can be interpreted as the dual counterpart of the so-called magnetoinductive waves, which are due to the mutual inductances along chains of resonators. In order to show their existence, some electromagnetic simulations and experiments have been carried out, using as resonators the complementary particle of the split ring resonator. The reported result opens the way to a high variety of applications in one- and two-dimensional devices, such as transducers, delay lines, bends, power dividers, couplers, antennas, lenses, etc.

  6. Complicated cholecystitis: the complementary roles of sonography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Charalel, Resmi A; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Shin, Lewis K

    2011-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the Western world. Unless treated promptly, patients with acute cholecystitis may develop complications such as gangrenous, perforated, or emphysematous cholecystitis. Because of the increased morbidity and mortality of complicated cholecystitis, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, complicated cholecystitis may pose significant challenges with cross-sectional imaging, including sonography and computed tomography (CT). Interpreting radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of sonographic findings seen with complicated cholecystitis and as well as understand the complementary role of CT. Worrisome imaging findings for complicated cholecystitis include intraluminal findings (sloughed mucosa, hemorrhage, abnormal gas), gallbladder wall abnormalities (striations, asymmetric wall thickening, abnormal gas, loss of sonoreflectivity and contrast enhancement), and pericholecystic changes (echogenic fat, pericholecystic fluid, abscess formation). Finally, diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis by sonography and CT can guide alternative treatments including minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic options.

  7. Complementary examinations other than neuroimaging and neurosonology in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; Obach, Víctor; Sánchez, Maria José; Massons, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The etiologic diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases requires non-routine complementary examinations to be performed. Thus, in specific cases, after neuroimaging (computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging cerebral scan sequences) and neurosonology (Doppler test of the supra-aortic trunks, transcranial echography and echocardiography), which academically allow us to classify the patients according to their etiologic stroke subtype, further examinations must be used to make a correct etiologic diagnostic. The present review aims to update knowledge about the usefulness of the different tests of blood and urine, plain chest radiography, X-ray of the spine, skull and abdomen, lumbar puncture, electroencephalography, evoked potentials, polysomnography, and pathologic examination after biopsy of the artery, skin, muscles, nerves, meninges, and brain, in the management of patients who have suffered an acute stroke. PMID:28685132

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to pain management.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gabriel; Alvarez, Julie A; Jensen, Mark P

    2006-11-01

    This article argues for and illustrates incorporating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions into pain treatment plans. Two CAM treatments, cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and self-hypnosis training, are offered in a multidisciplinary pain treatment program. Because these interventions focus on pain relief, they may be of particular interest to patients who have chronic pain who begin treatment with a primary interest in pain reduction. Two cases that illustrate the clinical application of CES and self-hypnosis are presented. When effective, these interventions can help patients have greater confidence in treatments offered by psychologists for pain management and may help make them more open to participating in other psychological interventions that have established efficacy for pain management (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). Because of their brevity, these treatments also can be offered alone to patients who may not have the resources or time to participate in more time-intensive treatment.

  9. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  10. Yeast Pif1 Accelerates Annealing of Complementary DNA Strands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pif1 is a helicase involved in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in eukaryotes. Here we report a new activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, annealing of complementary DNA strands. We identified preferred substrates for annealing as those that generate a duplex product with a single-stranded overhang relative to a blunt end duplex. Importantly, we show that Pif1 can anneal DNA in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Pif1-mediated annealing also occurs in the presence of single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Additionally, we show that partial duplex substrates with 3′-single-stranded overhangs such as those generated during double-strand break repair can be annealed by Pif1. PMID:25393406

  11. Tai Chi and yoga as complementary therapies in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Till

    2012-06-01

    Tai Chi and yoga are complementary therapies which have, during the last few decades, emerged as popular treatments for rheumatologic and musculoskeletal diseases. This review covers the evidence of Tai Chi and yoga in the management of rheumatologic diseases, especially osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hand, and rheumatoid arthritis. There is evidence that Tai Chi and yoga are safe, and some evidence that they have benefit, leading to reduction of pain and improvement of physical function and quality of life in patients. Recommendations for Tai Chi in knee osteoarthritis have recently been issued by the American College of Rheumatology. To allow broader recommendations for the use of Tai Chi and yoga in rheumatic diseases, there is a need to collect more evidence researched with larger randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Indications to complementary radiological exams for pathologies of the shoulder].

    PubMed

    Farron, Alain; Theumann, Nicolas

    2006-12-20

    Plain Xrays should stay in pole position for the evaluation of shoulder's pathologies. They allow frequently to make a diagnosis of the lesion. Indications to complementary exams are well established. CT-scan and MRI have to give responses to precise questions, which then will permit to manage the treatment. CT-scan allows to evaluate accurately bone structures. It is very useful for analysing complex fractures of the proximal humerus. It allows also to evaluate the amount of glenoid wear to correct before implanting a prosthesis. Arthro-MRI is used to study soft tissues, cartilage and bone. Therefore, it is the first choice exam to evaluate the rotator cuff tendons, as well as the labrum and ligaments in case of shoulder instability.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine - representations in popular magazines.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Alexandra; Phillips, Christine

    2010-09-01

    More than half the patients who use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Australia do not discuss it with their doctors. Many consumers use popular media, especially women's magazines, to learn about CAM. To explore representations of CAM in popular Australian women's magazines. Content analysis of three Australian magazines: Australian Women's Weekly, Dolly and New Idea published from January to June 2008. Of 220 references to CAM (4-17 references per issue), most were to biologically based practices, particularly 'functional foods', which enhance health. Most representations of CAM were positive (81.3% positive, 16.4% neutral, 2.3% negative). Explanations of modes of action of CAM tended to be biological but relatively superficial. Australian magazines cast CAM as safe therapy which enhances patient engagement in healthcare, and works in ways analogous to orthodox medical treatments. General practitioners can use discussions with their patients about CAM to encourage health promoting practices.

  14. Uses of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Namjooyan, Foroogh; Ghanavati, Rahil; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Jokari, Shiva; Janbozorgi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, recurrent demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). It could affect different regions in the brain and spinal cord, and according to the domain which is affected, it could cause different symptoms such as motor, sensory, or visual impairment; fatigue; bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction; cognitive impairment; and depression. MS patients also face reduced quality of life. Drugs that are used in MS are not fully efficient and patients suffer from many symptoms and adverse effects. Today there is an increasing trend of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). People are more likely to use this type of treatment. Using appropriate lifestyle and CAM therapy can subside some of the symptoms and could improve the quality of life in these patients. Many people with MS explore CAM therapies for their symptoms. This review is aimed to introduce CAM therapies that could be used in MS patients. PMID:25161918

  15. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education Into the Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated approach to the teaching of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a pharmacy curriculum. Design Evidence-based CAM education was integrated throughout the third, fourth, and fifth years of the pharmacy curriculum. Specifically, an introductory module focusing on CAM familiarization was added in the third year and integrated, evidence-based teaching related to CAM was incorporated into clinical topics through lectures and clinical case studies in the fourth and fifth years. Assessment Students' self-assessed and actual CAM knowledge increased, as did their use of evidence-based CAM resources. However, only 30% of the fourth-year students felt they had learned enough about CAM. Students preferred having CAM teaching integrated into the curriculum beginning in the first year rather than waiting until later in their education. Conclusion CAM education integrated over several years of study increases students' knowledge and application. PMID:19002274

  16. Solar γ rays as a complementary probe of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Chiara; Backović, Mihailo; Heisig, Jan; Lucente, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We show that observations of solar γ rays offer a novel probe of dark matter in scenarios where interactions with the visible sector proceed via a long-lived mediator. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that there exists a class of models which yield solar γ -ray fluxes observable with the next generation of γ -ray telescopes, while being allowed by a variety of current experimental constraints. The parameter space allowed by big bang nucleosynthesis and beam dump experiments naturally leads to mediator lifetimes sufficient to produce observable solar γ -ray signals. The model allows for solar γ -ray fluxes up to orders of magnitude larger compared to dwarf spheroidal galaxies, without reaching equilibrium between dark matter annihilation and capture rate. Our results suggest that solar γ -ray observations are complementary, and in some cases superior, to existing and future dark matter detection efforts.

  17. Hair: a complementary source of bioanalytical information in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Queiroz, João António

    2011-01-01

    Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Provenzani, Umberto; Barale, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage. PMID:26064157

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are frequently used for the treatment of sleep disorders, but in many cases patients do not discuss these therapies directly with their health care provider. There is a growing body of well-designed clinical trials using CAM that have shown the following: (1) Melatonin is an effective agent for the treatment of circadian phase disorders that affect sleep; however, the role of melatonin in the treatment of primary or secondary insomnia is less well established. (2) Valerian has shown a benefit in some, but not all clinical trials. (3) Several other modalities, such as Tai Chi, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, and meditation have improved sleep parameters in a limited number of early trials. Future work examining CAM has the potential to significantly add to our treatment options for sleep disorders in older adults.

  20. Complementary treatment of psychotic and epileptic patients in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salleh Mohd; Yassin, Azhar Mohd

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this article is to describe and compare the use of traditional/complementary medicine (T/CM) among psychotic (schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder) and epileptic Malay patients in peninsular Malaysia. There were 60 patients in each group. T/CM consultation was uniformly spread across all levels of education and social status. We could not find a single over-riding factor that influenced the decision to seek T/CM treatment because the decision to seek such treatment was complex and the majority of decisions were made by others. Fifty-three patients (44.2%), consisting of 37 (61.7%) psychotic and 16 (26.7%) epileptic patients had consulted Malay traditional healers (bomoh) and/or homeopathic practitioners in addition to modern treatment; of these, only three had consulted bomoh and homeopathic practitioners at the same time. The use of T/CM was significantly higher in psychotic than in epileptic Malay patients.