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Sample records for complete ureteral duplication

  1. An H-shaped complete ureteric duplication: embryology or erosion.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Ashan; Tempest, Heidi; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a duplex urinary collecting system that forms a single chamber about 2 cm proximal to the bladder with distal bifurcation and drainage into the bladder via distinct ureteric orifices. This anatomical variant has not been described before. PMID:22691584

  2. Complete Ureteral Duplication: Outcome of Different Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Isabel; Estevão-Costa, José; Fragoso, Ana Catarina

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: O tratamento cirúrgico das duplicações ureterais completas não é consensual. Objetivos: Caraterizar a população pediátrica submetida a cirurgia para tratamento de duplicações ureterais completas e avaliar resultados de diferentes abordagens. Material e Métodos: Processos clínicos de doentes tratados entre janeiro de 2008 e junho de 2014 foram retrospetivamente revistos. Dados acerca de epidemiologia, diagnóstico, manifestações clínicas e procedimentos cirúrgicos foram recolhidos. As unidades ureterais foram divididas em dois grupos: A, com ureterocelo; e B, sem ureterocelo. Resultados: Quarenta e uma unidades ureterais de 32 doentes com duplicação completa foram intervencionados. No grupo A (n = 18), o procedimento primário selecionado foi: punção de ureterocelo (12); reimplantação de ureter (3); pielopielostomia (2) e heminefrectomia (1). Foi necessário reintervir em três dos 12 casos submetidos a punção: heminefrectomia (1), ureteroureterostomia (1) e reimplantação (1). No grupo B (n = 23), foi efetuado STING em 10 unidades, reimplantação ureteral em três, pielopielostomia em três, ureteroureterostomia em um, e heminefrectomia em seis; dois casos necessitaram de reintervenção. Discussão: Foi favorecida uma abordagem primária conservadora para tratamento de ureterocelo ou refluxo em hemissistemas a preservar (53,7%; n = 22/41), tendo sido eficaz per se em 75% (n = 9/12) unidades do grupo A e 80% (n = 8/10) do grupo B. Uma abordagem ablativa primária foi adotada em 17% (n = 7/14) casos, 5,6% do grupo A (n = 1/18) e 26,1% do grupo B (n = 6/23). Conclusão: Uma abordagem conservadora é eficaz como procedimento primário isolado na maioria dos casos com ureterocelo ou refluxo. Mais estudos são necessários para estabelecer as suas vantagens sobre abordagens primárias invasivas ou ablativas.

  3. Bilateral complete duplication of the ureters, with calculi simultaneously obstructing the four ureters.

    PubMed

    Alsayyad, Ahmed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral complete duplication of the ureters is a rare condition. We report a case of an adult male patient with bilateral complete duplication of the ureters, with a single stone simultaneously obstructing each of the four ureteral limbs. Multiple bilateral renal stones were awlso demonstrated in the imaging studies. The ureteral stones ranged from 7 to 23 mm in length and 5-11 mm in width. Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy for the ureteral stones were done sequentially in the four ureteral limbs, in a single session. Four double-J stents were inserted after removal of all ureteric stones, one in each ureter. The patient passed uneventful postoperative course. The patient has received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy sessions for the bilateral renal stones. The double-J stents were removed under local anesthesia after clearance of all stones. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data in the literature representing an identical case. PMID:27141198

  4. Bilateral complete duplication of the ureters, with calculi simultaneously obstructing the four ureters

    PubMed Central

    Alsayyad, Ahmed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral complete duplication of the ureters is a rare condition. We report a case of an adult male patient with bilateral complete duplication of the ureters, with a single stone simultaneously obstructing each of the four ureteral limbs. Multiple bilateral renal stones were awlso demonstrated in the imaging studies. The ureteral stones ranged from 7 to 23 mm in length and 5–11 mm in width. Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy for the ureteral stones were done sequentially in the four ureteral limbs, in a single session. Four double-J stents were inserted after removal of all ureteric stones, one in each ureter. The patient passed uneventful postoperative course. The patient has received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy sessions for the bilateral renal stones. The double-J stents were removed under local anesthesia after clearance of all stones. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data in the literature representing an identical case. PMID:27141198

  5. Potential pitfall of DMSA scintigraphy in patients with ureteral duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Snow, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    A 5-wk-old male presented with radiographic findings of a duplicated collecting system. A (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scan was requested to evaluate cortical function. Images obtained immediately. postinjection showed activity restricted to the upper poles; in contrast, delayed images at 4 hr showed activity in the bladder and throughout both kidneys. Catheterizing the patient drained the activity from the bladder but had little effect on the refluxed renal activity. The early (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA images were critical in making the proper interpretation. Technetium-99m DMSA is excreted into the urine and this fact needs to be considered when interpreting scans of patients with possible reflux or obstruction. When DMSA scans are obtained in pediatric patients with possible reflux, catheterization prior to the study and early images prior to the appearance of DMSA in the collecting system are recommended.

  6. Completely isolated alimentary tract duplication in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Tatsuya; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Yokoi, Akiko; Satoh, Shiiki; Nishijima, Eiji

    2008-10-01

    A rare case of a completely isolated, alimentary tract duplication cyst in a 27-day-old neonate is reported. The duplication cyst was detected on antenatal fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 27 weeks' gestational age. At surgery, the duplication cyst was in a retroperitoneal site with no apparent communication between the cyst and any portion of the alimentary tract. On histopathological examination, the diagnosis was a gastric duplication cyst. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. There have been eight cases of completely isolated duplication reported in the literature, of which seven were detected during the prenatal or neonatal period. No previous report in the English literature has described the fetal MR imaging findings of this type of duplication cyst.

  7. Complete duplication of bladder and urethra: a case report.

    PubMed

    Esham, W; Holt, H A

    1980-05-01

    A case of complete duplication of the bladder and urethra in a girl is reported, demonstrating outlet obstruction in the bladder on the left side. Associated anomalies and pertinent literature are reviewed.

  8. Acute abdomen secondary to complete tubular colonic duplication

    PubMed Central

    Castejón-Casado, Javier; Muñoz Miguelsanz, MA; Diaz, E. Moreno; Gomez, M. Garcia; Garcia, MA Padilla; Valade, R. Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 6-month-old infant who presented with a complete duplication of the large intestine, debuting clinically with acute abdomen and severe metabolic disorders. We discuss the pathogenesis and morphology of the lesions, diagnostic difficulties and peculiarities of surgical treatment. PMID:25197196

  9. Challenging Case of Postmenopausal Bleeding and Complete Urogenital Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Grechukhina, Olga; English, Diana P.; Miller, Devin; Ratner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Congenital duplication of genitourinary system Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic hysterectomy Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Müllerian duct anomalies represent a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities ranging from simple uterine anomalies to more complex multisystem derangements. Complete duplication of uterus, cervix, and vagina may be associated with urologic and caudal gastrointestinal malformations. Case Report: We present a case report detailing the management of a morbidly obese patient with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrial stripe who had a very rare condition of pelvic organ duplication, including 2 hemiuteri, 2 vaginas, 2 hemibladders, and 2 each of ovaries, fallopian tubes, kidneys, and ureters. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was complicated by difficulties understanding urinary system anatomy requiring intraoperative urology consultation and imaging. Conclusions: Management of patients with urogenital duplication and abnormal uterine bleeding requires a thorough understanding of possible associated malformations. Thorough preoperative evaluation, careful surgical exploration, and multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to avoid urologic injury in such patients. PMID:27180733

  10. Complete tubular duplication of colon in an adult: a rare cause of colovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hae Il; Lee, Hyoung Uk; Ahn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Eun; Lee, Hyun Yong; Mun, Seong Taek; Baek, Moo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Alimentary tract duplications are uncommon congenital anomalies that usually present during the first decade of life. Complete duplication of the colon in adults is very rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with complete tubular duplication which was initially misdiagnosed as a salpingeal abscess due to colovaginal fistula. PMID:27757399

  11. Screening and identification of the differential proteins in kidney with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Yang, Yi; Wang, Chang-Lin; Hou, Ying; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure, particularly in infants and children, and indications for therapeutic intervention remain highly controversial. There is a great need for the development of new methods to monitor patients, and the biomarker research field is a promising approach for this purpose to be used as prognostic tools for early disease detection and the choice of the optimal treatment and monitoring. Here, we presented our comparative proteomics study of rat kidney with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (CUUO). Proteins from the groups of CUUO and corresponding sham rat kidney tissues were subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis, and then protein identification by mass spectrometry. We identified 39 proteins with differential expression between kidney tissues from sham operated group and those with CUUO. These identified proteins were reported to be involved in cell apoptosis, energy metabolism and injuries of mitochondrion and oxidative stress, and so on. We confirmed 3 identified proteins by immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining and assessed their mRNA levels in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate protein alterations that reflect the pathological situation of the obstructed kidneys, which may help understand the relationship between oxidative stress and obstructive nephropathy. PMID:26045767

  12. [Laparoscopic robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with total ureterectomy in a symptomatic complete duplicated system: advantages of transperitoneal approach].

    PubMed

    Tostivint, V; Doumerc, N; Roumiguie, M; Beauval, J-B; Rischmann, P; Soulie, M; Galinier, P; Bouali, O

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a laparoscopic robot assisted left upper polar partial nephrectomy with total ureterectomy performed in a teenager. A 14 year-old girl was referred to our institution for stress urinary incontinence. The morphological assessment (ultrasound scan and uro-MRI) showed a double collecting system with a complete ureteral duplication complicated by a dysplasia of the upper moiety of the duplex left kidney and a mega ureter. The surgery started on a lateral decubitus position by the upper polar partial nephrectomy and the ureter section behind superior polar renal vessels. The patient was placed in a supine position and the mega ureter was released and sectioned at the level of the distal adynamic segment in the left uterine parameter. The transperitoneal route was chosen as it provides a large workspace and allows the dissection of the ureters into their pelvic portion by a simple repositioning of the robot ports without additional incision and without any modification of the operative field. No intraoperative and postoperative complication was noticed. Laparoscopic robotic assisted surgery in pediatric urology is increasing, and to our knowledge, we reported this technique and surgery for the first time in France and in children. In the reported case, we showed that the robotic minimally invasive surgery in children is an innovative and safe technique for the treatment of symptomatic upper urinary tract malformations. PMID:25176144

  13. "Ducks" and "Parrots": Elaboration, Duplication and Duplicity in a Cartoon Discourse Completion Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Yeo Bom; Kellogg, David

    2002-01-01

    Interviews, questionnaires and tests may fail as evaluations of pragmatic competence in a foreign language because they cannot reproduce contexts in sufficient detail and/or because they cannot constrain discourse options without contaminating the learner response. In this study a cartoon Discourse Completion Test (DCT) prompt was used, providing…

  14. Light-guided hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Mei-Jou; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chen, Chin-Der; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study, performed at a tertiary university hospital, was to propose a novel method of hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix. The retrospective study included 5 women with complete septate uterus and cervical duplication and who also experienced infertility with or without pregnancy loss. All patients underwent bougie-guided or light-guided hysteroscopic perforation of the uterine septum above the endocervix, followed by septum resection. The success rate of complete uterine septum perforation under bougie guidance was 60% (3 of 5 procedures), and of light guidance was 100% (2 procedures). After hysteroscopic septum resection, 2 of 5 women achieved pregnancy within 3 months and delivered uneventfully at term. It is concluded that light guidance is superior to bougie guidance for hysteroscopic perforation of complete septate uterus with preservation of the duplicated cervix.

  15. Complete duplication of the hindgut and lower urinary tract with diphallus.

    PubMed

    Azmy, A F

    1990-06-01

    An infant is reported with complete duplication of the colon, rectum, anus, terminal ileum up to the point of Meckel's diverticulum, doubling of the genitalia with completely formed penes, double bladder and urethra, multiple spinal anomalies, omphalocele, and large lower abdominal wall hernia with wide separation of the symphysis pubis. PMID:2359002

  16. Bilateral ureteral complete obstruction with huge spontaneous urinoma formation in a patient with advanced bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yeong-Chin; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Cheng, Ming-Chin; Lin, Chang-Te; Chen, Pi-Che

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the collecting system with extravasation of urine and urinoma formation is usually associated with urinary tract obstruction by a ureteral calculus. Tumor growth is an extremely rare cause of urinary extravasation. Here we report a case of bilateral obstructive uropathy with a huge spontaneous left retroperitoneal urinoma caused by advanced infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The point of leakage was located in the left renal pelvis. The urinary leakage ceased after percutaneous nephrostomy drainage, and the patient subsequently underwent radical cystoprostatectomy. Histopathology revealed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with pelvic lymph node metastasis. The patient refused any adjuvant treatment and expired 6 months after the operation from disseminated metastasis from bladder cancer.

  17. Trial of duplication procedure for complete dentures by CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, N; Ono, H; Nishi, Y; Hamano, T; Nagaoka, E

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to duplicate the shapes of complete dentures by using a computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The shapes of the complete dentures of an edentulous patient were measured using a non-contact type shape measurement system and morphological data at the interval of 0.25 mm were obtained in the X-axis and Y-axis directions. Measurement was performed from the occlusal surface and mucosal surface sides. Based on the three-dimensional morphological data, cutter paths for cutting were generated. For cutting, the three-step method consisting of rough cutting, finish cutting, and partial finish cutting was used and for duplicating the dentures the modelling wax was cut using a computerized numerical control (CNC) processor and ball-end mills with diameters of 6 mm and 1 mm. The method for the controlling of three axes (X, Y, and Z) of CNC machine was used, and cutting was performed only from two directions. Although further improvements are needed in the measurement and cutting in acute slope areas, the duplication of complete dentures appears to be possible using the CAD/CAM system. PMID:9250843

  18. Ureteral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Herr, Allen; Malhotra, Anuj; White, Mark; Siskin, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Interventional radiologists are commonly called upon to manage patients with benign and malignant ureteral pathologic conditions. Unfortunately, treatments for both cure and palliation can be fraught with problems causing patients to be undesirably maintained with lifelong catheters. This review describes outcomes for antegrade and retrograde therapeutic options and techniques for patients with most types of ureteral pathologic conditions that the interventional radiologist would encounter in practice. PMID:27641452

  19. Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Duplicated Ureter: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Senel, Ufuk; Ozmen, Zafer; Sozubir, Selami

    2015-01-01

    We report cases of ectopic ureter accompanied by three types of ureteral duplication that had been diagnosed previously and treated for enuresis. Data from three female patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years were evaluated. The ectopic ureter was observed on the left in one case, on the right in another and bilateral in the third case. Complete duplication was found in two cases, while the third had incomplete duplication. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in one case and subtotal nephrectomy was carried out in the other two cases. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed for the ectopic ureter found in the opposite urinary system in one of the cases. Ectopic duplicated ureter should be considered in treatment-resistant enuresis and urinary tract infections and after a careful physical examination, imaging as well as function tests should be performed. PMID:26500949

  20. Management of Urinary Incontinence in Complete Bladder Duplication by Injection of Bulking Agent at Bladder Neck Level into the Proximal Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Bladder duplication is a rare entity in children. The term encompasses a wide spectrum of anomalies from isolated bladder duplication in coronal or sagittal planes to duplicated bladder exstrophy and associated musculoskeletal and visceral anomalies. Given this wide variability, the treatment of these patients is not standardized. We hereby present a female patient with chief complaint of long-standing urinary incontinence who had complete bladder and urethral duplication and pubic diastasis. The patient was treated with bulking agent injection at the incompetent bladder neck and proximal urethra with resolution of incontinence, obviating the need for extensive surgeries. PMID:26904349

  1. Management of Urinary Incontinence in Complete Bladder Duplication by Injection of Bulking Agent at Bladder Neck Level into the Proximal Urethra.

    PubMed

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Bladder duplication is a rare entity in children. The term encompasses a wide spectrum of anomalies from isolated bladder duplication in coronal or sagittal planes to duplicated bladder exstrophy and associated musculoskeletal and visceral anomalies. Given this wide variability, the treatment of these patients is not standardized. We hereby present a female patient with chief complaint of long-standing urinary incontinence who had complete bladder and urethral duplication and pubic diastasis. The patient was treated with bulking agent injection at the incompetent bladder neck and proximal urethra with resolution of incontinence, obviating the need for extensive surgeries. PMID:26904349

  2. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T.; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Nematocera (Lower Diptera): Evidence of Rearrangement following a Complete Genome Duplication in a Winter Crane Fly

    PubMed Central

    Beckenbach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented. PMID:22155689

  4. De novo MECP2 duplications in two females with intellectual disability and unfavorable complete skewed X-inactivation.

    PubMed

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Bauters, Marijke; Belet, Stefanie; Verbeeck, Jelle; Jansen, Anna C; Seneca, Sara; Roelens, Filip; De Baere, Elfride; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Xq28 microduplications of MECP2 are a prominent cause of a severe syndromic form of intellectual disability (ID) in males. Females are usually unaffected through near to complete X-inactivation of the aberrant X chromosome (skewing). In rare cases, affected females have been described due to random X-inactivation. Here, we report on two female patients carrying de novo MECP2 microduplications on their fully active X chromosomes. Both patients present with ID and additional clinical features. Mono-allelic expression confirmed complete skewing of X-inactivation. Consequently, significantly enhanced MECP2 mRNA levels were observed. We hypothesize that the cause for the complete skewing is due to a more harmful mutation on the other X chromosome, thereby forcing the MECP2 duplication to become active. However, we could not unequivocally identify such a second mutation by array-CGH or exome sequencing. Our data underline that, like in males, increased MECP2 dosage in females can contribute to ID too, which should be taken into account in diagnostics.

  5. Acute kidney injury due to bilateral ureteral obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniele; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Bove, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes of obstruction, with the aim of giving a summary of such multiple, rare and heterogeneous conditions joint together by the common denominator of sudden bilateral ureteral obstruction, difficult to be suspected at times. Conversely, typical and well-known diseases have been just run over. We considered pediatric cases of ureteral obstruction presenting as bilateral, along with some cases which truly appeared as single-sided, because of their potential bilateral presentation. We performed a review of the literature by a search on PubMed, CrossRef Metadata Search, internet and reference lists of single articles updated to May 2014, with no time limits in the past. Given that we deal with rare conditions, we decided to include also papers in non-English languages, published with an English abstract. For the sake of clearness, we divided our research results into 8 categories: (1) urolithiasis; (2) congenital urinary tract malformations; (3) immuno-rheumatologic causes of ureteral obstruction; (4) ureteral localization of infections; (5) other systemic infective causes of ureteral obstructions; (6) neoplastic intrinsic ureteral obstructions; (7) extrinsic ureteral obstructions; and (8) iatrogenic trigonal obstruction or inflammation. Of course, different pathogenic mechanisms underlay those clinical pictures, partly well-known and partly not completely understood. PMID:25374811

  6. Laser lithotripsy for ureteric stones.

    PubMed

    Foo, K T; Wujanto, R; Wong, M Y

    1994-01-01

    The use of laser is a relatively new modality of treatment in urology. With the advent of the pulse-dye laser lithotripter and a finer 7.2 ureteroscope (miniscope), we found that it was more effective for treating ureteric stones than the conventional ultrasound lithotripsy. Between May 1989 and December 1991, 239 patients (162 males, 77 females) with 259 ureteric stones were treated endoscopically by this modality. Their ages ranged from 19 to 81 years (mean 46.3). The stones were mostly of 5 to 10 mm in their transverse diameters. They were situated in the upper ureter in 59, middle ureter in 39, and lower ureter in 161 cases. The miniscope was inserted into the ureter without prior dilatation and under direct vision. Stone fragmentation was performed using the 504-nm pulse-dye laser of 30 to 60 mJ energy. Complete fragmentation of the stone using the Candela laser lithotripter was achieved in 202 patients (85%). The average hospital stay was two days. Of the 37 unsuccessful cases, 11 were due to failed ureteroscopy, ten due to poor visibility from bleeding, 14 due to stone migrating up to the kidneys and two were monohydrate calculi which did not fragment with laser lithotripsy. Open ureterolithotomies were necessary in 14 patients (5.9%). Significant morbidity was perforation of the ureters which occurred in three patients (1.3%). This was due to ureteroscopy rather than the laser lithotripsy itself. With the availability of the new shockwave lithotripter (ESWL) which can treat ureteric stones in even less invasive ways, without anaesthesia and as outpatient, we are now reserving laser lithotripsy for those who failed ESWL. Generally they are the stones which cause severe obstruction to the ureter.

  7. [Laser lithotripsy of ureteral calculi].

    PubMed

    Schmeller, N; Ehsan, A; Kriegmair, M; Muschter, R; Liedl, B; Hofstetter, A

    1994-07-01

    A total of 149 patients with 152 ureteral stones were treated with intraureteral lithotripsy by Dye-laser (83.55%), Alexandrite-laser (41.27%), electrohydraulic lithotripsy adapted for use in the ureter (25.16%) or neodymium: YAG laser with optomechanic coupling (3.2%). The Dye-laser has an automatic pulse shut-off mechanism with spectral analysis of the reflected laser beam, so that effective laser pulses can only be released by contact with a stone. Most (127 of 83.5%) of the stones could be completely fragmented, so that no further treatment was necessary. In 16 cases (10.5%) the stone was too hard for fragmentation and had to be removed by alternative techniques. Intraureteral lithotripsy is a save and effective method of treating ureteral stones that cannot be reached or have not been treated successfully by shockwave lithotripsy. No significant differences in outcome were found between the different lasers or electrohydraulic lithotripsy. In selected cases endoscopic treatment may be recommended as treatment of first choice.

  8. Percutaneous ureteral stent placement for the treatment of a benign ureteral obstruction in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Palm, Carrie A; Zwingenberger, Allison; Glaiberman, Craig B; Ferguson, Kenneth H; Culp, William T N

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old, 113 kg intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for weight loss, polydipsia, and intermittent hematuria. The tiger was immobilized for diagnostic testing including blood work, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound. Laboratory testing demonstrated macro- and microhematuria, azotemia, and an increased urine protein:creatinine ratio. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureterolithiasis as well as hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Ultrasonography performed 5 months later revealed worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter and a decrease in the severity of dilation on the left side presumably from passage of the left-sided ureteral calculi. Nephroureteral decompression via the placement of a stent was elected. A pigtail ureteral catheter (8.2 French diameter) was placed in the right ureter via an antegrade percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guidance. Following stent placement, macrohematuria resolved although microhematuria was noted in opportunistic urine samples. Five months after stent placement, the azotemia had mildly progressed, the urine protein:creatinine ratio was improved, the right hydronephrosis and hydroureter had completely resolved, and the ureteral stent remained in the appropriate position. The tiger had clinically improved with a substantial increase in appetite, weight, and activity level. Ureteral stenting allowed for nephroureteral decompression in the captive large felid of this report, and no complications were encountered. Ureteral stenting provided a minimally invasive method of managing ureteral obstruction in this patient and could be considered in future cases due to the clinical improvement and low morbidity.

  9. Percutaneous ureteral stent placement for the treatment of a benign ureteral obstruction in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Palm, Carrie A; Zwingenberger, Allison; Glaiberman, Craig B; Ferguson, Kenneth H; Culp, William T N

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old, 113 kg intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for weight loss, polydipsia, and intermittent hematuria. The tiger was immobilized for diagnostic testing including blood work, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound. Laboratory testing demonstrated macro- and microhematuria, azotemia, and an increased urine protein:creatinine ratio. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureterolithiasis as well as hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Ultrasonography performed 5 months later revealed worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter and a decrease in the severity of dilation on the left side presumably from passage of the left-sided ureteral calculi. Nephroureteral decompression via the placement of a stent was elected. A pigtail ureteral catheter (8.2 French diameter) was placed in the right ureter via an antegrade percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guidance. Following stent placement, macrohematuria resolved although microhematuria was noted in opportunistic urine samples. Five months after stent placement, the azotemia had mildly progressed, the urine protein:creatinine ratio was improved, the right hydronephrosis and hydroureter had completely resolved, and the ureteral stent remained in the appropriate position. The tiger had clinically improved with a substantial increase in appetite, weight, and activity level. Ureteral stenting allowed for nephroureteral decompression in the captive large felid of this report, and no complications were encountered. Ureteral stenting provided a minimally invasive method of managing ureteral obstruction in this patient and could be considered in future cases due to the clinical improvement and low morbidity. PMID:25653150

  10. Systemic Weber-Christian disease with reversible bilateral ureteric obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Brawn, L. A.; Ramsay, L. E.; Shortland, J. R.; Williams, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    It has been proposed that idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis may be a consequence of 'healed' retroperitoneal lesions of systemic Weber-Christian disease. However ureteric obstruction which is the hallmark of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, has not been described in systemic Weber-Christian disease. We report a patient with systemic Weber-Christian disease who, during a relapse, developed bilateral ureteric obstruction which resolved when the Weber-Christian disease remitted. The radiological appearances were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, but the clinical course was slightly atypical in that the ureteric obstruction resolved completely and rapidly. Ureteric obstruction can complicate systemic Weber-Christian disease and this observation gives support to the hypothesis that idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is related to systemic Weber-Christian disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2608584

  11. [Duodenal duplication].

    PubMed

    Ilari, J; Martorell, R; Morales, M; Capdevila, M; Mairal, J A; Teixidó, M; Casadellá, A

    1998-01-01

    Cystic duplication of the duodenum is a rare anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. This is a report of a newborn with a cystic duplication of duodenum diagnosed prenatally. It's relevant the few clinical symptoms of a such big mass. The surgical procedure was excision of the cyst, with a good post operative curse. PMID:9662869

  12. Unilateral ureteric stone associated with gross hydronephrosis and kidney shrinkage: a cadaveric report

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Ern-Wei; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2014-01-01

    Ureteric stones are a common cause of obstruction of the urinary tract, usually presenting with characteristic signs and symptoms, such as acute ureteric colic and hematuria. Occasionally, stones may present with non-specific symptoms such as low back pain and remain unidentified, leading to stone growth, chronic ureteric obstruction and complications such as hydronephrosis and renal damage. Here, we report a large ureteric stone in a cadaver with complete obstruction at the left ureterovesical junction, resulting in severe dilatation of the left ureter and renal pelvis. PMID:25548725

  13. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.

    2001-11-08

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  14. Laparoscopic conservative management of ureteral endometriosis: a survey of eighty patients submitted to ureterolysis

    PubMed Central

    Camanni, Marco; Bonino, Luca; Delpiano, Elena Maria; Berchialla, Paola; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Revelli, Alberto; Deltetto, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Background this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic conservative management of ureteral endometriosis. Methods Eighty cases of histologically confirmed endometriosis affecting the ureter, 10 of which with bladder involvement were prospectively studied. In detail, patients were 13 women with ureteral stenosis (7 with hydronephrosis), 32 with circular lesions totally encasing the ureter, and 35 with endometriotic foci on the ureteral wall, but not completely encasing it. They were submitted to laparoscopic ureterolysis with or without partial cystectomy, ureteroneocistostomy. The rate of surgical complications, the recurrence rate, the patients' satisfaction rate was assessed during 22 months (median) follow-up. Results Laparoscopic ureterolysis was employed for all patients and set free the ureter from the disease in 95% of cases, whereas ureteroneocystostomy was necessary for 4 patients showing severe stenosis with hydronephrosis, among which 2 had intrinsic endometriosis of the ureteral muscularis. Three post-surgery ureteral fistulae occurred in cases with ureteral involvement longer than 4 cm: two cases were successfully treated placing double J catheter, the third needed ureteroneocistostomy. During follow-up, ureteral endometriosis recurred in 2 patients who consequently underwent ureteroneocystostomy. Most patients expressed high satisfaction rate throughout the whole follow-up period. Conclusion laparoscopic ureterolysis is effective and well tolerated in most cases of ureteral endometriosis. Ureteroneocystostomy is a better strategy for patients with extended (more than 4 cm) ureteral involvement or with severe stenosis with or without hydronephrosis. PMID:19818156

  15. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  16. Ureteral wall thickness at the impacted ureteral stone site: a critical predictor for success rates after SWL.

    PubMed

    Sarica, Kemal; Kafkasli, Alper; Yazici, Özgür; Çetinel, Ali Cihangir; Demirkol, Mehmet Kutlu; Tuncer, Murat; Şahin, Cahit; Eryildirim, Bilal

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the possible predictive value of certain patient- and stone-related factors on the stone-free rates and auxiliary procedures after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with impacted proximal ureteral calculi. A total of 111 patients (86 male, 25 females M/F: 3.44/1) with impacted proximal ureteral stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy were evaluated. Cases were retrieved from a departmental shock wave lithotripsy database. Variables analyzed included BMI of the case, diameter of proximal ureter and renal pelvis, stone size and Hounsfield unit, ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site. Stone-free status on follow-up imaging at 3 months was considered a successful outcome. All patients had a single impacted proximal ureteral stone. While the mean age of the cases was 46 ± 13 years (range 26-79 years), mean stone size was 8.95 mm (5.3-15.1 mm). Following shock wave lithotripsy although 87 patients (78.4%) were completely stone-free at 3-month follow-up visit, 24 (21.6%) cases had residual fragments requiring further repeat procedures. Prediction of the final outcome of SWL in patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones is a challenging issue and our data did clearly indicate a highly significant relationship between ureteral wall thickness and the success rates of shock wave lithotripsy particularly in cases requiring additional procedures. Of all the evaluated stone- and patient-related factors, only ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site independently predicted shock wave lithotripsy success.

  17. [An unusual cause of ureteral obstruction in kidney transplant].

    PubMed

    Vigo, Valentina; Rossi, Luigi; Lisi, Piero; Antonelli, Maurizio; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal herniation of the ureter in a kidney transplantation is a rare cause of late distal ureteral obstruction. Herniation is usually secondary to the implant of a long redundant ureter and to its course on the spermatic cord. This clinical condition can worsen graft function in the presence of ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis. In this review, we describe the case of an asymptomatic 51-year-old man with a history of right iliac renal allotransplantation 12 years before. Kidney ultrasound showed moderate hydroureteronephrosis and ureteral kneeling at the upper third of the inguinal canal. The patient presented a mild increase in serum creatinine; physical examination revealed an ipsilateral inguinal hernia. A CT scan of the abdomen with no contrast medium confirmed middle-distal ureteral kneeling engaging in the sac of the right inguinal hernia. The patient underwent surgical hernia repair with no complications and his renal function recovered completely.

  18. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  3. [Management of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Taxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Proximal ureteral stone less than 4-6mm may initially be treated by surveillance. Generally, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the first line treatment for proximal ureteral stones, specially for stones less than 1cm. For stones greater than 1cm, the results of ureteroscopy (URS) are better than the results of ESWL and in these cases URS may be an option. In case of failure of ESWL, URS can be proposed. URS can be the first line treatment in case of severe ureteral obstruction with no urinary infection. Proximal ureteroscopy must be careful because severe complications are not infrequent. Open surgery has very rare indication. Metabolic check-up and annually follow-up with at least a renal imaging at three months are recommended.

  4. Ureteral Stone Associated With a Middle Blind Ending of a Bifid Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    A blind-ending bifid ureter is an anatomic variant of ureteral duplications. There are three forms of blind-ending bifid ureter, classified depending on their location. A proximal blind-ending bifid ureter is the most common subtype of this congenital anomaly. Most patients are asymptomatic and only show symptoms after the complication has occurred. These complications include stone formation, vesicoureteric reflux, and ureteral tumor. Intravenous urography is usually used to diagnose bifid ureter; voiding cystourethrography, photofluoroscopy, cineroentgenography, cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography, computed tomography (CT), multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance urographies are other imaging methods used. This is a case of a ureteral stone associated with a middle blind ending of a bifid ureter. PMID:27162516

  5. Ureteral Stone Associated With a Middle Blind Ending of a Bifid Ureter.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    A blind-ending bifid ureter is an anatomic variant of ureteral duplications. There are three forms of blind-ending bifid ureter, classified depending on their location. A proximal blind-ending bifid ureter is the most common subtype of this congenital anomaly. Most patients are asymptomatic and only show symptoms after the complication has occurred. These complications include stone formation, vesicoureteric reflux, and ureteral tumor. Intravenous urography is usually used to diagnose bifid ureter; voiding cystourethrography, photofluoroscopy, cineroentgenography, cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography, computed tomography (CT), multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance urographies are other imaging methods used. This is a case of a ureteral stone associated with a middle blind ending of a bifid ureter.

  6. Comparison of a biodegradable ureteral stent versus the traditional double-J stent for the treatment of ureteral injury: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei-Jun; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Li, Gang; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xu

    2012-12-01

    Ureteral injury remains a major clinical problem; here we developed a biodegradable ureteral stent and compared its effectiveness with a double-J stent for treating ureteral injury. Eighteen dogs with injured ureters were subdivided into two groups. In group A, one injured ureter was treated with a biodegradable stent, whereas only end-to-end anastomosis was performed on the other side. In group B, one injured ureter was treated with a biodegradable stent, while a double-J stent was used on the other side. Intravenous urography, radioactive renography, histological examinations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental composition analysis were performed at 40, 80 and 120 days postoperatively. Results showed that the biodegradable stent could effectively prevent hydronephrosis and hydroureter secondary to ureteral injury. Moreover all biodegradable stents gradually degraded and discharged completely in 120 days. SEM and elemental composition analysis of the surface of the double-J stent confirmed calcification at 80 days and calcific plaque at 120 days, while no signs of calcification were found in the biodegradable stent group. Histological studies found no difference between the biodegradable stented ureters and double-J stented ureters. It is concluded that the biodegradable ureteral stent was more advantageous than the double-J stent for treating ureteral injury in a canine model.

  7. Ureteral stents: new ideas, new designs

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Kyriazis, Iason; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Rigopoulos, Christos; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Petsas, Theodore; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Ureteral stents represent a minimally invasive alternative to preserve urinary drainage whenever ureteral patency is deteriorated or is under a significant risk to be occluded due to extrinsic or intrinsic etiologies. The ideal stent that would combine perfect long-term efficacy with no stent-related morbidity is still lacking and stent usage is associated with several adverse effects that limit its value as a tool for long-term urinary drainage. Several new ideas on stent design, composition material and stent coating currently under evaluation, foreseen to eliminate the aforementioned drawbacks of ureteral stent usage. In this article we review the currently applied novel ideas and new designs of ureteral stents. Moreover, we evaluate potential future prospects of ureteral stent development adopted mostly by the pioneering cardiovascular stent industry, focusing, however, on the differences between ureteral and endothelial tissue. PMID:21789086

  8. Urethral duplication: Experience of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Our experience of 4 cases of urethral duplication is reported here. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review. Results: The age at presentation varied from newborn to 10 years. The clinical presentation ranged from prepubic sinus to diphallus urethra. There were 2 each incomplete duplication with only external openings (Type IA) and complete duplication of Effmann Type IIA2. All underwent complete excision of accessory urethra and corrections of associated anomalies. Conclusions: Urethral duplications have a varied presentation. At follow up, all are asymptomatic with good cosmetic result. PMID:22869976

  9. Detecting long tandem duplications in genomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Detecting duplication segments within completely sequenced genomes provides valuable information to address genome evolution and in particular the important question of the emergence of novel functions. The usual approach to gene duplication detection, based on all-pairs protein gene comparisons, provides only a restricted view of duplication. Results In this paper, we introduce ReD Tandem, a software using a flow based chaining algorithm targeted at detecting tandem duplication arrays of moderate to longer length regions, with possibly locally weak similarities, directly at the DNA level. On the A. thaliana genome, using a reference set of tandem duplicated genes built using TAIR,a we show that ReD Tandem is able to predict a large fraction of recently duplicated genes (dS < 1) and that it is also able to predict tandem duplications involving non coding elements such as pseudo-genes or RNA genes. Conclusions ReD Tandem allows to identify large tandem duplications without any annotation, leading to agnostic identification of tandem duplications. This approach nicely complements the usual protein gene based which ignores duplications involving non coding regions. It is however inherently restricted to relatively recent duplications. By recovering otherwise ignored events, ReD Tandem gives a more comprehensive view of existing evolutionary processes and may also allow to improve existing annotations. PMID:22568762

  10. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  11. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  12. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  14. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  15. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  16. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent insertion in malignant disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, J R

    1993-01-01

    Untreated, progressive bilateral ureteric obstruction, or unilateral ureteric obstruction in patients with a solitary functioning kidney, will ultimately lead to uraemia, renal failure and death. This paper describes 34 successful percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placements from 37 attempts, performed on 25 selected patients with a history of malignant disease, in whom retrograde ureteric stenting was impossible or difficult. PMID:8410885

  17. Massive Hematuria and Shock Caused by Ilio-Ureteral Fistula in a Patient with an Isolated Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuhei; Setozaki, Shuji; Harada, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    An emergent operation was performed on a 73-year-old woman with massive hematuria and serious shock. A computed tomography (CT) revealed that the cause of the shock was hemorrhage from an aneurysm into the ureter, with resultant massive hematuria. During surgery, we observed that the ureter was encased into the wall of the aneurysm, with exposure of the pre-positioned ureteric stent inside the aneurysmal space. Reconstruction of the ureter was performed by wrapping the tissues with the ureteric stent inside. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and CT angiography showed complete exclusion of the right internal iliac artery with the in situ ureteric stent. PMID:23641292

  18. Office Duplication Practices Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    As one of a series of curriculum guides for office education programs in Texas, this guide contains 24 units of instruction in office duplication practices. Each of the units contains a unit outline that lists unit objective, specific objectives, teacher and student activities, estimated completion time, re-teach activities, and resources; and a…

  19. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  20. Use of percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting in management of ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Linda; Li, Hanhan; Pucheril, Daniel; Hansen, Moritz; Littleton, Raymond; Peabody, James; Sammon, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    The management options for ureteral obstruction are diverse, including retrograde ureteral stent insertion or antegrade nephrostomy placement, with or without eventual antegrade stent insertion. There is currently no consensus on the ideal treatment or treatment pathway for ureteral obstruction owing, in part, to the varied etiologies of obstruction and diversity of institutional practices. Additionally, different clinicians such as internists, urologists, oncologists and radiologists are often involved in the care of patients with ureteral obstruction and may have differing opinions concerning the best management strategy. The purpose of this manuscript was to review available literature that compares percutaneous nephrostomy placement vs ureteral stenting in the management of ureteral obstruction from both benign and malignant etiologies. PMID:26981442

  1. Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Children after Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, M.; Lisi, G.; Bianchi, D.; Bove, P.; Miano, R.; Esser, A.; De Sanctis, F.; Neri, A.; Grande, S.; Villa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction is a rare complication after appendectomy in children. We report a case of bilateral ureteric obstruction in a 14-year-old boy nine days after surgery for an acute appendicitis. After saline-filling of the urinary bladder, transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis of moderate degree. No abscess was found with CT but presence of millimetric stones on both distal ureters was shown, with bilateral calyceal dilatation. Cystoscopy revealed inflammatory changes in the bladder base. Following introduction of bilateral ureteric stents, there was rapid normalisation of urinary output and serum creatinine. PMID:26295001

  2. Sepsis due to pyonephrosis: an adult with pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplex kidney.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Francesco; Vitturi, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with sepsis. She was evaluated with bedside ultrasound with a diagnosis of pyonephrosis, and subsequently underwent a TC scan that showed a pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplicated renal system. PUJO associated with duplex kidney, while relatively frequent in children, is a rare condition in adults, and may lead to severe complications as in this case.

  3. Ureteral Injury with Delayed Massive Hematuria after Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Oocyte Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda; Šalamun, Vesna; Galič, Dejan; Smrkolj, Tomaž; Jančar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ureteral injury with delayed hematuria after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. A 28-year-old infertile patient with a history of previous laparoscopic resection of endometriotic nodes of both sacrouterine ligaments presented with abdominal pain one day after oocyte retrieval. Four days after oocyte retrieval, she presented with massive hematuria that reappeared 6 days after oocyte retrieval. Monopolar coagulation with wire electrode and insertion of a double-J-stent was performed during operative cystoscopy. The patient recovered completely after transfusion and had no signs of renal impairment after ureteric stent removal. This is the first report of ureteral injury after oocyte retrieval presenting itself with delayed massive hematuria and no signs of renal dysfunction or urinary leakage into retroperitoneal space. PMID:26146577

  4. Ureteral Injury with Delayed Massive Hematuria after Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Oocyte Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda; Šalamun, Vesna; Galič, Dejan; Smrkolj, Tomaž; Jančar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ureteral injury with delayed hematuria after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. A 28-year-old infertile patient with a history of previous laparoscopic resection of endometriotic nodes of both sacrouterine ligaments presented with abdominal pain one day after oocyte retrieval. Four days after oocyte retrieval, she presented with massive hematuria that reappeared 6 days after oocyte retrieval. Monopolar coagulation with wire electrode and insertion of a double-J-stent was performed during operative cystoscopy. The patient recovered completely after transfusion and had no signs of renal impairment after ureteric stent removal. This is the first report of ureteral injury after oocyte retrieval presenting itself with delayed massive hematuria and no signs of renal dysfunction or urinary leakage into retroperitoneal space. PMID:26146577

  5. Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of ureteral stump syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Husain; Eltiraifi, Abdelmoniem E.; Alomar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to highlight the advantages and the feasibility of treating ureteral stump syndrome (USS) by different minimally invasive procedures. Materials and Methods: Four patients with USS who were treated by different minimally invasive surgery approaches depending on their presentation and findings on radiologic investigations. Results: Three patients had complete resolution of their symptoms, whereas the fourth patient had persistence of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgery is a valid treatment option for patients with USS with possible less morbidity than conventional open surgical excision. PMID:26692664

  6. [Ambulatory ureteral lithotripsy with "Modulith SL-20"].

    PubMed

    González Enguita, C; Calahorra Fernández, F J; García de la Peña, E; Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Vela Navarrete, R

    1993-03-01

    Analysis of our experience in 'in situ' ambulatory shockwave extracorporeal lithofragmentation of ureteral stones in 104 patients seen in the Lithotrity Unit, Urology Service, Fundación "Jiménez Díaz". Using Modulith SL 20, a third generation lithotripter, 'in situ' disintegration was achieved in 82.69% of cases, 51.92% of which were fragmented in a single lithotrity session. As a first choice, no ureteral handling was used in any of the patients prior to lithotrity. In 9.62% of patients it was necessary to place a 'double J' by-pass catheter, due to the disease presenting with a septic picture. The patient's position was either dorsal or ventral decubitus depending on the lithiatic site, while location and focusing of the stones was done radiologically. All patients were treated ambulatory without hospitalization. Only 18% was given oral or i.v. anaesthesia. Fursemide 40 mg was administered to all patients shortly before starting the session. Each patient received an average of 3,200 shockwaves per session (14-18 Kv, average 16 Kv). Haematuria was the single and modest side effect that happened during the 24 hours following lithofragmentation in 30% of patients, while 20% reported slight discomfort at the time of eliminating the gritted stones. We conclude stating that 'in situ' shockwave extracorporeal lithotrity of ureteral stones with Modulith SL 20 allows for elective disintegration of ureteral stones in whatever location they are found, due to the patient's easy positioning. The simple location and focusing of ureteral stones has allowed us to treat and solve some cases of ureteral lithiasis at the precise moment of the nephritic colic painful emergency, thus speeding up and facilitating the resolution of the condition. Our results and our strategy imply a new change of direction in the management of these lithiasis, as opposed to the well established and historical doctrines in existence regarding stones with ureteral location.

  7. Fluoroscopy Guided Transurethral Placement of Ureteral Metallic Stents

    PubMed Central

    Myung Gyu, Song; Seo, Tae Seok; Park, Cheol Min; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Yang Shin

    2015-01-01

    Ureteral stent exchange is usually performed under both fluoroscopic and cystoscopic guidance. We experienced two cases with retrograde placement of metallic ureteral stent via urethra under fluoroscopic guidance. When patients with double-J ureteral stent (DJUS)have symptom and want to change DJUS to metallic stent, fluoroscopic guided transurethral placement of ureteral metallic stent is a good option as alternative of cystoscopic procedure or percutaneous procedure through percutaneous nephrostomy tract. PMID:26557281

  8. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  12. A specific mutation in the distant sonic hedgehog (SHH) cis-regulator (ZRS) causes Werner mesomelic syndrome (WMS) while complete ZRS duplications underlie Haas type polysyndactyly and preaxial polydactyly (PPD) with or without triphalangeal thumb.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Pawlik, Barbara; Li, Yun; Akarsu, Nurten A; Caliebe, Almuth; May, Klaus J W; Schweiger, Bernd; Vargas, Fernando R; Balci, Sevim; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Wollnik, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Werner mesomelic syndrome (WMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with unknown molecular etiology characterized by hypo- or aplasia of the tibiae in addition to the preaxial polydactyly (PPD) of the hands and feet and/or five-fingered hand with absence of thumbs. We show that point mutations of a specific nucleotide within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) regulatory region (ZRS) cause WMS. In a previously unpublished WMS family, we identified the causative G>A transition at position 404 of the ZRS, and in six affected family members of a second WMS family we found a 404G>C mutation of the ZRS. The 404G>A ZRS mutation is known as the "Cuban mutation" of PPD type II (PPD2). Interestingly, the index patient of that family had tibial hypoplasia as well. These data provide the first evidence that WMS is caused by a specific ZRS mutation, which leads to strong ectopic SHH expression. In contrast, we show that complete duplications of the ZRS region lead to type Haas polysyndactyly or triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome, but do not affect lower limb development. We suggest the term "ZRS-associated syndromes" and a clinical subclassification for the continuum of limb malformations caused by different molecular alterations of the ZRS.

  13. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of distal ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Bubeck, J R; Hautmann, R

    1986-01-01

    To date, the use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been limited to renal calculi and ureteral calculi above the pelvic brim. Modifying the position of the patient on the support of the Dornier lithotripter HM3, we were able to localize and treat distal ureteral calculi. Until April 1986, 43 patients with stones in the lower ureter underwent contact-free lithotripsy. Treatment was successful in 39 patients (90%), 2 of these requiring 2 sessions. In 4 patients treatment failed and stone removal was accomplished using ureteroscopy or open surgery. No complications or adverse side effects were encountered in the whole series. ESWL is now the method of choice for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi in our department.

  15. Taking the STING Out of Ureteral Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Ivan; Tan, Philip Huang Min; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in ∼1% of children. The main goal of treatment is preservation of renal function by preventing recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) refractory to antibiotic therapy. Surgical treatment options include endoscopic injection or ureteral reimplantation. Subureteral Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) injection (STING) is an endoscopic treatment option no longer in common practice. Use of Teflon is no longer advised because of a number of documented complications secondary to local and distant migration of injected material. We present a case of delayed ureteral obstruction secondary to the STING procedure occurring 21 years after initial surgery and managed using a novel endoscopic method. PMID:27785466

  16. A guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Tarik Emre; Cloutier, Jonathan; Audouin, Marie; Villa, Luca; Traxer, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male, previously treated for a ureteral tumour by a right-sided segmental ureterectomy and end-to-end anastomosis of ureteral segments, was referred to our clinic for endoscopic follow-up. During his follow-up, he was diagnosed with partial right-sided ureteral stricture which eventually progressed to complete obstruction. During the ureteroscopy, as the stenotic segment did not allow passage of an hydrophilic guidewire, an antegrade-retrograde approach was decided. On the antegrade endoscopic view, a near-complete stenosis was diagnosed and a nephrostomy catheter (12 Fr) was placed. A second intervention was planned and from the nephrostomy tract, the ureteroscope was placed into the right pyelocaliceal system. The diagnostic ureteroscopy revealed a foreign object proximal to the stenotic area. Right-sided segmental ureterectomy of the stenotic segment with ureteroneocystostomy and removal of the foreign object was performed. This is the only case in literature to reveal a guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body. This case also highlights the importance of the fragility of the ureter, the importance of the equipment, of always being watchful during a surgery, and the importance of checking the integrity of the equipment at the end of each procedure. PMID:26225183

  17. A guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sener, Tarik Emre; Cloutier, Jonathan; Audouin, Marie; Villa, Luca; Traxer, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male, previously treated for a ureteral tumour by a right-sided segmental ureterectomy and end-to-end anastomosis of ureteral segments, was referred to our clinic for endoscopic follow-up. During his follow-up, he was diagnosed with partial right-sided ureteral stricture which eventually progressed to complete obstruction. During the ureteroscopy, as the stenotic segment did not allow passage of an hydrophilic guidewire, an antegrade-retrograde approach was decided. On the antegrade endoscopic view, a near-complete stenosis was diagnosed and a nephrostomy catheter (12 Fr) was placed. A second intervention was planned and from the nephrostomy tract, the ureteroscope was placed into the right pyelocaliceal system. The diagnostic ureteroscopy revealed a foreign object proximal to the stenotic area. Right-sided segmental ureterectomy of the stenotic segment with ureteroneocystostomy and removal of the foreign object was performed. This is the only case in literature to reveal a guidewire introducer as a ureteral foreign body. This case also highlights the importance of the fragility of the ureter, the importance of the equipment, of always being watchful during a surgery, and the importance of checking the integrity of the equipment at the end of each procedure.

  18. [Case of multiple encrusted stones on the ureteral stent left for 7 years: the efficacy of extracting the ureteral stent on transurethral lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamanaka, Masaki; Kimura, Toshio; Takeyama, Masami

    2009-09-01

    A 48 years-old man had undergone transurethral lithotripsy (TUL) and Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for bilateral ureteral stones and bilateral ureteral stents had been placed in 2001. He was lost to the follow-up for about 7 years after the removal of left ureteral stent. He had complained of right back pain and fever for two months. KUB showed right ureteral stones and encrustation along the ureteral stent. We performed TUL extracting the ureteral stent by silk, referring to silk loop technique. All stones and the encrusted ureteral stent were removed. This was very effective for patients with encrusted ureteral stent.

  19. Bioresorbable ureteral stents from natural origin polymers.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alexandre A; Rita, Ana; Duarte, C; Pires, Ricardo A; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Ludovico, Paula; Lima, Estevão; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2015-04-01

    In this work, stents were produced from natural origin polysaccharides. Alginate, gellan gum, and a blend of these with gelatin were used to produce hollow tube (stents) following a combination of templated gelation and critical point carbon dioxide drying. Morphological analysis of the surface of the stents was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Indwelling time, encrustation, and stability of the stents in artificial urine solution was carried out up to 60 days of immersion. In vitro studies carried out with simulated urine demonstrated that the tubes present a high fluid uptake ability, about 1000%. Despite this, the materials are able to maintain their shape and do not present an extensive swelling behavior. The bioresorption profile was observed to be highly dependent on the composition of the stent and it can be tuned. Complete dissolution of the materials may occur between 14 and 60 days. Additionally, no encrustation was observed within the tested timeframe. The ability to resist bacterial adherence was evaluated with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram-negatives Escherichia coli DH5 alpha and Klebsiella oxytoca. For K. oxytoca, no differences were observed in comparison with a commercial stent (Biosoft(®) duo, Porges), although, for S. aureus all tested compositions had a higher inhibition of bacterial adhesion compared to the commercial stents. In case of E. coli, the addition of gelatin to the formulations reduced the bacterial adhesion in a highly significant manner compared to the commercial stents. The stents produced by the developed technology fulfill the requirements for ureteral stents and will contribute in the development of biocompatible and bioresorbable urinary stents.

  20. Duplication of Inferior Vena Cava with Associated Anomalies: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Pramod; Garg, Ashish; Sahoo, Kulamani; Kothari, Nupoor; Garg, Pooja

    2016-03-01

    Duplication of inferior vena cava is an uncommon abnormality and is important in daily today practice for vascular surgeons, radiologist and urologist especially during retroperitoneal surgeries and treatment of thromboembolic disease. Radiologically, Duplicated IVC can be mistaken for lymphadenopathy or left pyeloureteric dilatation. Crossed fused kidney with a single ureter defy the embryological theory of ureteric bud crossing the opposite side and induce nephron formation associated anomaly of Duplication of inferior vena cava and malrotation of gut are not reported in a same patient. On meticulous search of literature no such combination of abnormalities has been reported. In this case report we bring forward this rare type of combination of three congenital malformations that is Duplication of IVC, crossed fused kidney and malrotation of gut.

  1. [Pseudocystic ureteritis. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Sarf, I; Aboutaieb, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    The authors report one case of ureteritis cystica in a young adult. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and confirmed by histologic examination. The patient was treated surgically (nephro-ureterectomy). The etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed with a review of literature.

  2. The impact of extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy on the management of ureteric calculi: an audit.

    PubMed

    Parr, N J; Ritchie, A W; Moussa, S A; Tolley, D A

    1991-01-01

    The presentation and management of 153 patients with ureteric calculi requiring active treatment over a 12-month period were reviewed; 74% of patients had primary ureteric calculi and 26% had ureteric calculi composed of fragments resulting from extracorporeal piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy (EPL) to renal calculi; 32 patients (21%) had more than 1 calculus or a steinstrasse. The primary procedures included were in situ EPL (n = 54), push-bang (44), retrograde ureteroscopy (40), Dormia basket extraction (6), push-pull (1), antegrade ureteroscopy (1) and combinations of these (7). The success of the primary procedure could not be predicted from stone size, site or duration in the ureter, but upper tract dilatation was significantly less (p less than 0.01) in the successful group. The overall success rate for complete stone extraction was 97%, but 54 patients (35%) required more than 1 procedure to achieve this. In situ EPL and push-bang, as either primary or secondary procedures, were successful in treating 79 patients (52%); 2 patients required ureterolithotomy (1.3%). The overall complication rate was 18%. Since EPL is only successful in treating approximately half of ureteric calculi, a range of other treatments should be available to maintain a low rate of open surgery.

  3. The centriole duplication cycle.

    PubMed

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole 'origin of duplication' that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells.

  4. [Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis: description of a striking instance].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Finotto, Elena; Zambolin, Tiziano; Fisogni, Simona; Simeone, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is a very rare condition. A 41 y. o. woman with right hydroureteronephrosis and other aspecific symptoms came to our attention. The CT scan showed an ureteral obstacle causing the hydroureteronephrosis. She underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsies of the lesion that did not result to be diriment. Suspecting a ureteral neoplasm, the patient then underwent ureteral resection and ureterocystoneostomy, and the extemporary histological examination resulted as endometriosis. The abdominal exploration showed a parametrial and a peritoneal growth - both compatible with the extemporary histological examination - that were also excised. The post-operative course was uneventful. The definitive hystological examination confirmed the perioperatory diagnosis. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is confirmed as a rare pathology with an indefinite clinical presentation; its typical presentation, namely cyclic hematuria, seems to be an anecdotal feature. Therefore the diagnostics of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is still difficult even despite such a striking presentation.

  5. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: treatment of choice in ureteral calculi].

    PubMed

    Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F; Guazzoni, G; Maffezzini, M

    1989-05-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy represents the therapy of choice for reno-ureteral stone disease being resolutive in more than 85% of cases. This procedure can be successfully applied to ureteral stones providing appropriate preoperative cystoscopic manipulations and a correct positioning of the patient on the stretcher of the lithotripter. We hereby report our experience in 119 patients with ureteral lithiasis submitted to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with a 98% success rate.

  6. The Effect of Tamsulosin in the Medical Treatment of Distal Ureteral Stones

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, M.; Magsudi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Renal stones are common disorders that affect approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of renal stones is rising. Treatment of ureteral stones is an important part of urologists and minimally invasive procedures such as ESWL and ureteroscopy effectiveness has been proven in various studies. However, these methods are not completely safe and are expensive and can be complicated. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of tamsulosin in the medical treatment of distal ureteral stones. Patients and methods: A total of 96 patients with distal ureteral stones or UVj are randomly divided into two study group (50 patients) and control group (46 patients). Patients in the control group allowed to freely consuming fluids (hydration) and indomethacin 100 mg PRN. Study group in addition to indomethacin and daily analgesic 0.4 mg tamsulosin was administered. All subjects in terms of analgesic dose, duration of expulsion and expulsion were studied. Results: Spontaneous expulsion of stone was occurred in 62.5% (30 patients out of 46) of control group patients and 82% (41 patients out of 50) that there was no significant difference (P>0.05). Average time to fix the stone in control group 4.7±8.03 days (range 2 to 28 days) and in the study group, 3.7±5.70 days (range 1 to 23 days) is significantly different (P>0.05). The average amount of analgesic consumption in the control group was 2.3±4.31and in the study group was 1.48±2.15 that showed significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, although the addition of tamsulosin to conservative treatment of distal ureteral stones in the distal ureteral stone expulsion showed no significant difference between the two groups, but the reduction in the duration of expulsion, reduce pain and reduce the need for analgesic has been beneficial. PMID:25363178

  7. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  8. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Morales, I.; Bassa, C.; Pavlovic, A.; Morales, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  9. Management of acute hydronephrosis in pregnancy by ureteral stenting.

    PubMed

    Zwergel, T; Lindenmeir, T; Wullich, B

    1996-01-01

    Acute hydronephrosis during pregnancy that fails to respond to conservative treatment can be managed by ureteral stenting or in special cases by application of a percutaneous nephrostomy tube. We report the outcome in 116 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In 30 cases ureteric stents were passed under local anesthesia. In 2 cases (pyeloureteral stenosis, impacted ureteric stone) percutaneous nephrostomy was necessary. Overall each course of pregnancy and disease was individually decided. In case of persisting symptoms due to acute hydronephrosis, ureteral stenting was preferred, since it is a simple, safe and effective method of internal upper urinary tract drainage.

  10. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  12. Safety and efficacy of ureteral access sheaths.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua M; Yiee, Jenny; Park, Sangtae

    2007-02-01

    The ureteral access sheath (UAS) was introduced as a means of passing a flexible ureteroscope. Although the device was initially lauded for its ability to facilitate ureteroscopic access, passage was difficult and risked ureteral injury, and the UAS fell out of favor until the development of a new generation of devices that was easier to insert. The UAS should be advanced under fluoroscopy over a stiff guidewire, and the surgeon should ensure copious hydration of all inner and outer surfaces. Use of the UAS is purported to improve irrigant flow and visibility. The UAS can induce transient ureteral ischemia and promote an acute inflammatory response, but it also prevents potentially harmful elevations in intrarenal pressure. Unequivocal data are not yet available to suggest that UAS use during ureteroscopy protects or harms the upper urinary tract. The UAS also has the potential to improve stone-free rates by allowing passive egress or active retrieval of fragments. A large prospective study is needed to unequivocally determine if UAS use is superior in terms of stone-free rates. Cost studies reported to favor UAS use, although a formal cost-effectiveness analysis has not been performed. Further study is needed before routine use of the UAS can be recommended.

  13. Current Duplicating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    While business instructors are still teaching spirit and stencil duplicating processes, most businesses now use copiers or offset printing processes. The article discusses offset and copier skills needed by office workers, pointing out that the processes being taught should be compatible with those used in business. (MF)

  14. Perspectives on Program Duplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about program duplication in higher education are often reminiscent of Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart's now famous remark about pornography: "I know it when I see it." The problem with that reaction is that, at least on its surface, this response seems intuitive and emotional, to say nothing of subjective and personal. The fact is…

  15. The centriole duplication cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole ‘origin of duplication’ that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells. PMID:25047614

  16. Duplication Is Ubiquitous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how Phil Davis, Life Sciences Bibliographer at Cornell University, found duplicate articles in Emerald/MCB University Press journals. According to Davis, he has found hundreds of examples of the same article published in more than one journal in at least 73 Emerald/MCB journals over 30 years. This article gives the details…

  17. Clinical characterization and identification of duplication breakpoints in a Japanese family with Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Daisuke; Yamada, Kenichiro; Nomura, Noriko; Naiki, Misako; Kimura, Reiko; Yamada, Yasukazu; Kumagai, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Miyake, Yoshishige; Wakamatsu, Nobuaki

    2014-04-01

    Xq28 duplication syndrome including MECP2 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia at infancy, severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, mild characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy, regression, and recurrent infections in males. We identified a Japanese family of Xq28 duplications, in which the patients presented with cerebellar ataxia, severe constipation, and small feet, in addition to the common clinical features. The 488-kb duplication spanned from L1CAM to EMD and contained 17 genes, two pseudo genes, and three microRNA-coding genes. FISH and nucleotide sequence analyses demonstrated that the duplication was tandem and in a forward orientation, and the duplication breakpoints were located in AluSc at the EMD side, with a 32-bp deletion, and LTR50 at the L1CAM side, with "tc" and "gc" microhomologies at the duplication breakpoints, respectively. The duplicated segment was completely segregated from the grandmother to the patients. These results suggest that the duplication was generated by fork-stalling and template-switching at the AluSc and LTR50 sites. This is the first report to determine the size and nucleotide sequences of the duplicated segments at Xq28 of three generations of a family and provides the genotype-phenotype correlation of the patients harboring the specific duplicated segment. PMID:24478188

  18. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

  19. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction. PMID:2096163

  20. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation: a simplified dome advancement technique.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Link, Richard E; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic Boari flap reimplantation has been used to treat long distal ureteral strictures. This technique requires extensive bladder mobilization and complex intracorporeal suturing. This demonstrates a novel laparoscopic bladder dome advancement approach for ureteral reimplantation. This technique obviates the need for bladder pedicle dissection and simplifies the required suturing.

  1. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  2. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  3. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  4. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  5. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  6. Inguinal bladder hernia associated with vesico-ureteric reflux.

    PubMed

    Noble, J G; Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Rickards, D

    1992-04-01

    The urinary bladder is frequently found as a component of inguinal herniae. This report describes a case of 'bladder hernia' associated with vesico-ureteric reflux. The current methods of investigation and subsequent treatment for this condition are reviewed along with the possible underlying cause of vesico-ureteric reflux in this case.

  7. A review of ureteral injuries after external trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature since 1961 with the primary objective to present the largest medical literature review, to date, regarding ureteral trauma. Several anatomic and physiologic considerations are paramount regarding ureteral injuries management. Literature review Eighty-one articles pertaining to traumatic ureteral injuries were reviewed. Data from these studies were compiled and analyzed. The majority of the study population was young males. The proximal ureter was the most frequently injured portion. Associated injuries were present in 90.4% of patients. Admission urinalysis demonstrated hematuria in only 44.4% patients. Intravenous ureterogram (IVU) failed to diagnose ureteral injuries either upon admission or in the operating room in 42.8% of cases. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, was the surgical procedure of choice for both trauma surgeons and urologists (59%). Complications occurred in 36.2% of cases. The mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion The mechanism for ureteral injuries in adults is more commonly penetrating than blunt. The upper third of the ureter is more often injured than the middle and lower thirds. Associated injuries are frequently present. CT scan and retrograde pyelography accurately identify ureteral injuries when performed together. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, is the surgical procedure of choice of both trauma surgeons and urologists alike. Delay in diagnosis is correlated with a poor prognosis. PMID:20128905

  8. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  9. Urethral duplication in males: our experience in ten cases.

    PubMed

    Arena, Salvatore; Arena, Carmela; Scuderi, Maria Grazia; Sanges, Giuseppe; Arena, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo

    2007-08-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly, affecting mainly boys. Clinical presentation varies because of the different anatomical patterns of this abnormality. We report our experience in ten males affected by urethral duplication. We retrospectively reviewed the records of ten males affected by urethral duplication. Mild cases of distal type I duplications as well as "Y-type" duplication associated to anorectal malformation were excluded. Evaluation included voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, intravenous urography and urethrocystoscopy. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 +/- 32.3 months A blind ending duplicated urethra (type I) was present in three patients, two urethras originating from a common bladder neck (type II A2) in three, an "Y-type" duplication in three and a complete bladder with incomplete urethral duplication in one. Surgical management included excision of the duplicated urethra in four patients while a displacement of the ventral urethra (in "Y-type" duplication) in perineal-scrotal or scrotal position was performed in two patients as first stage of urethral reconstruction. Good cosmetical and functional results were achieved in all six treated boys while surgical management was not required in four. Urethral duplication is often associated with genito-urinary and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Embryology is unclear and a lot of hypotheses have been proposed. We believe that the same embryological explanation cannot be applied to all subtypes of urethral duplication. Management must be evaluated for each case. The overall prognosis is good, in spite of the presence of other severe associate congenital anomalies. PMID:17576574

  10. Spontaneous knotting of a pigtail ureteric stent in the ureter requiring percutaneous removal.

    PubMed

    Braslis, K G; Joyce, G

    1992-10-01

    Insertion of a ureteric stent is a common procedure in urologic practice. Ureteric stenting may be performed for: ureteric obstruction, benign or malignant: to prevent ureteric obstruction from stone fragments after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL); or to prevent leakage from the upper urinary tract. A case of spontaneous knotting of a ureteric stent in situ is reported. Although this complication has been reported previously it is rare.

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of ureteric calculi using modern techniques.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Rassweiler, J; Gumpinger, R; Mayer, R; Eisenberger, F

    1990-03-01

    Between July 1985 and July 1986, 226 upper and 62 distal ureteric calculi were treated. In situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the treatment of choice for upper and distal ureteric calculi, with success rates of 81 and 76% respectively. Retrograde manipulation of the calculus was undertaken only when in situ ESWL was impossible because of difficulty in localisation. Although ESWL after successful mobilisation was successful in 95% of patients, retrograde mobilisation was possible in only 80%. Antegrade ureterorenoscopy via a percutaneous nephrostomy was performed to avoid open surgery if retrograde mobilisation was not feasible, and was successful in 90%. Two second generation lithotripters, the modified Dornier HM3+ and the Wolf Piezolith 2200, both suitable for treatment without anaesthesia, were compared in terms of efficacy. In situ ESWL of upper ureteric calculi was successful in 70.6% with the HM3+ and 37.2% with the Piezolith 2200. In situ ESWL of middle ureteric calculi was successful in 81.8% with the modified HM3+, while in situ treatment of middle ureteric calculi was impossible with the Piezolith 2200 because of inadequate ultrasound localisation. Distal ureteric calculi were treated successfully in 71.4% with the modified Dornier HM3+ and in 64% with the Piezolith 2200. We report our experience of ESWL using the prone position for iliac ureteric calculi; 8 of 10 patients were treated successfully in situ.

  12. Cutting laser systems for ureteral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durek, C.; Knipper, Ansgar; Brinkmann, Ralf; Miller, Ado; Gromoll, Bernd; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Acquired ureteral strictures are still treated either with a stent, balloon dilatation, by open surgery or by endoscopic therapy with a `cold knife' or high current density as intubated ureterotomy. The success rates described in the literature range between 50% and 90%. Using the experimental CTH:YAG laser (wavelength 2120 nm) and CT:YAG laser (wavelength 1950 nm), the reduction of invasiveness and of morbidity was evaluated. First, the CTH:YAG laser was investigated on 540 fresh porcine ureters varying the parameters. With a computerized morphometry system, defect depth, defect width, coagulation depth and coagulation width were measured. Then 21 female pigs underwent 7.5 F - 12 F ureteroscopy with CTH:YAG laser, CT:YAG laser, high current density and `cold knife' ureterotomy. An IVP and sacrification with explanation of the whole urinary tract was done on day 6 and around day 60. In practice, laser application via the endoscope was easy to handle and exact cutting was always seen. The CT:YAG laser seems to have the best success results with low ureteral stricture recurrence rates. However, its clinical use remains to be proven.

  13. Ureteral Cannulation as a Complication of Urethral Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common procedure, particularly among patients with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. Urethral catheterization is associated with the well-recognized complications of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and limited genitourinary trauma. Unintentional ureteral cannulation represents a rare complication of urethral catheterization and has been previously described in only eight cases within the literature. We describe two cases of aberrant ureteral cannulation involving two patients with quadriplegia. These cases along with prior reports identify the spastic, insensate bladder and altered pelvic sensorium found in upper motor neuron syndromes as major risk factors for ureteral cannulation with a urinary catheter. PMID:25405021

  14. Tissue Engineering of Ureteral Grafts: Preparation of Biocompatible Crosslinked Ureteral Scaffolds of Porcine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger; Hammer, Niels; Ossmann, Susann; Schierle, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich; Hofmann, Jörg; Wecks, Mike; Boldt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The surgical reconstruction of ureteric defects is often associated with post-operative complications and requires additional medical care. Decellularized ureters originating from porcine donors could represent an alternative therapy. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of manufacturing decellularized ureters, the characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the biocompatibility of these grafts in vitro/in vivo after treatment with different crosslinking agents. To achieve these goals, native ureters were obtained from pigs and were decellularized. The success of decellularization and the ECM composition were characterized by (immuno)histological staining methods and a DNA-assay. In vitro: scaffolds were crosslinked either with carbodiimide (CDI), genipin (GP), glutaraldehyde, left chemically untreated or were lyophilized. Scaffolds in each group were reseeded with Caco2, LS48, 3T3 cells, or native rat smooth muscle cells (SMC). After 2 weeks, the number of ingrown cells was quantified. In vivo: crosslinked scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into rats and the type of infiltrating cells were determined after 1, 9, and 30 days. After decellularization, scaffold morphology and composition of ECM were maintained, all cellular components were removed, DNA destroyed and strongly reduced. In vitro: GP and CDI scaffolds revealed a higher number of ingrown 3T3 and SMC cells as compared to untreated scaffolds. In vivo: at day 30, implants were predominantly infiltrated by fibroblasts and M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages. A maximum of MMP3 was observed in the CDI group at day 30. TIMP1 was below the detection limit. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of decellularization to create biocompatible porcine ureteric grafts, whereas a CDI-crosslink may facilitate the remodeling process. The use of decellularized ureteric grafts may represent a novel therapeutic method in reconstruction of ureteric defects. PMID:26157796

  15. [Problems with Ureteral Stents – a Never-Ending Story].

    PubMed

    Betschart, Patrick; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2016-03-16

    Temporary drainage of the upper urinary tract by internal ureteral stents is a common procedure to assure renal function and to treat pain caused by ureteral obstruction. Ureteral stents are frequently associated with side effects like urinary symptoms, pain or hematuria resulting in frequent medical consultations. In addition to good patient education, symptomatic drug therapy of stent-associated symptoms is often indicated and sufficient. However, complications like stent dysfunction or significant urinary tract infections have to be kept in mind, as they require further diagnostics and treatment. Therefore, especially general practitioners as a primary point of contact for the patients should be familiar with common ureteral stent-associated problems, their treatment and indications for patient referrals.

  16. An Indwelling Ureteral Stent Forgotten for Over 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Bidnur, Samir; Huynh, Melissa; Hoag, Nathan; Chew, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral stents are one of the most commonly used urologic devices with the purpose of establishing and maintaining ureteral patency. They are also associated with a number of complications including infection, migration, stent-related symptoms, and encrustation, leading to lithiasis. Prolonged stent dwell time is associated with a greater degree of these complications. We present the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with a severely encrusted ureteral stent that had been placed 12.5 years prior for an obstructive left-sided ureteral stone and was lost to follow-up. The patient underwent a combination of percutaneous nephrolithomy, cystolitholapaxy, and ureteroscopy to remove the stent and associated 1.7 cm renal pelvic stone and 4.1 cm bladder stone, necessitating two operative sittings to render him stone free. PMID:27579442

  17. An Indwelling Ureteral Stent Forgotten for Over 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bidnur, Samir; Huynh, Melissa; Hoag, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ureteral stents are one of the most commonly used urologic devices with the purpose of establishing and maintaining ureteral patency. They are also associated with a number of complications including infection, migration, stent-related symptoms, and encrustation, leading to lithiasis. Prolonged stent dwell time is associated with a greater degree of these complications. We present the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with a severely encrusted ureteral stent that had been placed 12.5 years prior for an obstructive left-sided ureteral stone and was lost to follow-up. The patient underwent a combination of percutaneous nephrolithomy, cystolitholapaxy, and ureteroscopy to remove the stent and associated 1.7 cm renal pelvic stone and 4.1 cm bladder stone, necessitating two operative sittings to render him stone free. PMID:27579442

  18. Spontaneous ureteral rupture in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.H.; Pennebaker, J.B.; Harisdangkul, V.; Songcharoen, S.

    1983-08-01

    A patient with known systemic lupus erythematosus had fever and symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection. Bone scintigraphy showed left ureteral perforation and necrosis with no demonstrable nephrolithiasis. It is speculated that this episode was due to lupus vasculitis.

  19. Retroperitoneal enteric duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Shing; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Chung-Ping; Chen, Chia-Jung; Lin, Shong-Ling; Lee, Mang-Gang; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Tseng, Hui-Hwa

    2004-09-01

    Enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) can occur in any portion of the alimentary tract, but are most commonly associated with the small bowel and esophagus. Retroperitoneal location is really unusual. This 19-year-old female was in excellent health, but a week's abdominal pain made her search for a doctor's help. After the detailed examination, surgical intervention was performed under the impression of cystic tumor of the retroperitoneum. A retroperitoneal cystic tumor, 13.0 x 8.0 x 3.5 cm in size, without any communication with the alimentary tract was noted during the operation. Finally, EDC was diagnosed after the pathologic examination of this resected cystic lesion. To our knowledge, there have been only 6 reported cases of EDC of the retroperitoneum in the English literature. This report concerns the seventh case of retroperitoneal EDC, in an adolescent, with different clinical presentation and histopathologic findings from the previous ones.

  20. [Monotherapy of ureteral calculi with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Robles, J E; de Castro, F; Isa, W A; Rosell, D; Agüera, L G; Sánchez, P L; Zudaire, J J; Berián, J M

    1992-05-01

    We reviewed our experience with ESWL in the treatment of 401 patients with ureteral stones in order to evaluate if a higher disintegration and clearance rates could be achieved without prior manipulation of ureteral calculi, i.e., ESWL used as "in situ" monotherapy. The global stone free rate were 83%, 85% and 91% at 15 days, 1 month and 3 months after ESWL. We also analyzed the results according to the efficiency quotient (EQ).

  1. Danazol in the management of ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Krueger, R.P.; Wiser, W.L.

    1985-08-01

    A case is reported in which a woman was diagnosed with ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis after cystourethrogram, retrograde pyelogram and a renal scan. After unsuccessful treatment with danazol, a retroperitoneal ureteroneocystotomy was performed. The ureter was found to be obstructed by dense fibrous tissue that contained endometrial glands. It was concluded that danazol is unlikely to relieve endometriotic ureteric obstruction once dense fibrosis has occurred. 8 references, 2 figures.

  2. Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Christopher; Jones, Loren; Rivera, Marcelino E; Verlee, Graham T; Deane, Leslie A

    2011-11-01

    Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantations were performed on 3 patients at a single institution, 2 with Boari flap and psoas hitch and 1 with psoas hitch alone. These were for urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter, ureteral obstruction caused by distal ureteral endometriosis, and ureteral transaction during gynecologic surgery. We used intraoperative ureteroscopy to confirm tumor margins as well as a simple technique for retrograde placement of transvesicle wire prior to ureteral anastomosis. Surgery and recovery were uneventful. This illustrates that robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch is a safe and viable approach for ureterovesicle reconstruction. PMID:21859340

  3. The prophylactic use of ureteral catheters during colorectal operations.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Gordon, P H

    1994-03-01

    The necessity for preoperative ureteral catheter insertion for colorectal operations continues to be controversial. To determine our experience and what complications might be associated with ureteral catheter use, the charts of all patients in our department undergoing ureteral catheterization in combination with colorectal procedures between the years 1978 and 1989 were reviewed. The indications for operation, the presence or absence of urinary tract symptoms, and intravenous pyelogram findings (if performed) were recorded. Time for the procedure, size and number of catheters, and complications were noted. From the operative report, a retrospective grading of necessity for ureteral catheterization was assessed according to a scale from A to D. There were 120 ureteral catheterizations performed, bilaterally in 60 per cent of cases. Complications included renal colic (1), oliguria (1), and anuria (2). Intraoperatively, one ureter was cut and one ureter tied but recognized by palpation and ligature removed. Retrospective grading deemed ureteral catheterization necessary in 27.5 per cent of cases. We conclude that catheters are helpful in selected cases. For patients with bilateral catheter insertion, complications can be reduced by ensuring urine output prior to removal of the second catheter. PMID:8116985

  4. Authorized Duplication: A Timely Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curatilo, Joe

    1997-01-01

    Asks how a music teacher can supply enough sheet music to ensure resources for every student while meeting restrictions of slender budgets and copyright laws. Explores the concept of authorized duplication, similar to software licensing, as a solution. Provides sources of music with authorized duplication agreements. (DSK)

  5. Ureteroiliac Artery Fistula Caused by a Metallic Memokath Ureteral Stent in a Radiation-Induced Ureteral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Das, Krishanu; Ordones, Flavio; Welikumbura, Sumudu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Memokath 051™ stents are increasingly used for management of benign and malignant ureteral strictures refractory to management with single or tandem polymeric Double-J ureteral stents. Migration, encrustation, and difficulty in extraction during stent exchange are the chief problems reported so far with these thermoexpandable metallic stents. We report an unusual complication of ureteroexternal iliac artery fistula (UEAF) caused by Memokath stent inserted for radiation-induced ureteral stricture. Case Presentation: A 71-year-old male with history of colorectal cancer (underwent extirpative surgery + chemoradiotherapy) and subsequently radiation-induced ureteral stricture had bilateral Memokath ureteral stents inserted. Three months later, he presented with sepsis and hemodynamic instability secondary to UEAF, confirmed on angiography. A covered vascular stent was inserted as an immediate management. Conclusion: Memokath stent insertion in radiation-induced ureteral strictures may be associated with an increased risk of erosion and the rare potential complication of UEAF. This potential risk needs to be considered in the overall setting of such strictures and the difficulty in treating them. Prompt imaging (angiography) and placement of an endovascular stent are the ideal immediate options in such cases. PMID:27785465

  6. The probability of duplicate gene preservation by subfunctionalization.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, M; Force, A

    2000-01-01

    It has often been argued that gene-duplication events are most commonly followed by a mutational event that silences one member of the pair, while on rare occasions both members of the pair are preserved as one acquires a mutation with a beneficial function and the other retains the original function. However, empirical evidence from genome duplication events suggests that gene duplicates are preserved in genomes far more commonly and for periods far in excess of the expectations under this model, and whereas some gene duplicates clearly evolve new functions, there is little evidence that this is the most common mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation. An alternative hypothesis is that gene duplicates are frequently preserved by subfunctionalization, whereby both members of a pair experience degenerative mutations that reduce their joint levels and patterns of activity to that of the single ancestral gene. We consider the ways in which the probability of duplicate-gene preservation by such complementary mutations is modified by aspects of gene structure, degree of linkage, mutation rates and effects, and population size. Even if most mutations cause complete loss-of-subfunction, the probability of duplicate-gene preservation can be appreciable if the long-term effective population size is on the order of 10(5) or smaller, especially if there are more than two independently mutable subfunctions per locus. Even a moderate incidence of partial loss-of-function mutations greatly elevates the probability of preservation. The model proposed herein leads to quantitative predictions that are consistent with observations on the frequency of long-term duplicate gene preservation and with observations that indicate that a common fate of the members of duplicate-gene pairs is the partitioning of tissue-specific patterns of expression of the ancestral gene. PMID:10629003

  7. The Gachon University Ureteral Narrowing score: A comprehensive standardized system for predicting necessity of ureteral dilatation to treat proximal ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Beom; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Kim, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Taek; Chung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Han; Yoon, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For treating proximal ureteral calculi, treatment decision has been known still difficult to choose ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) or shockwave lithotripsy. The aims of our study are to identify the possible predictors for necessity of URS and to propose the Gachon University Ureteral Narrowing scoring system (GUUN score) as a helpful predictor. Materials and Methods We evaluated 83 consecutive patients who underwent semirigid URS due to proximal ureteral calculi between April 2011 and February 2014 by a single surgeon. We reviewed patient characteristics and pre- and postoperative parameters and surgical records. We divided the patients into 2 groups (group 1, nondilation group; group 2, dilation group) according to whether or not balloon dilation was performed. A stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify the factors that predict dilatation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to GUUN score. Results Mean patients' age and their stone size were 48.53±12.90 years and 7.79±2.57 cm, respectively. Significantly smaller stone size (p=0.009), lower stone density (p=0.005), and lower ureteral density differences between ureteral narrowing level and far distal ureter (UD) (p<0.001) were observed in group 1 (n=34) than in group 2 (n=49). GUUN score consists of age, stone size and UD (AUC, 0.938). Overall stone-free clearance rate was 85.5%. Conclusions We suggest that the GUUN score is an excellent scoring system to predict the necessity of ureteral dilatation for decision making whether or not to perform surgical manipulation. PMID:27437538

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of ureteral stone in a patient with en bloc kidney transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Markic, D; Valencic, M; Grskovic, A; Spanjol, J; Sotosek, S; Fuckar, Z; Maricic, A; Pavlovic, I; Budiselic, B

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of ureterolithiasis in a patient with an en bloc kidney transplantation, using extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). The patient presented with asymptomatic macrohematuria. Computed tomography revealed a ureteral calculus just below the pyeloureteral junction with hydronephrosis of the medially positioned kidney. Took two sessions of ESWL were required for complete disintegration of the stone. At 3 years after successful treatment, the patient has an excellent functioning and stone-free graft.

  9. Novel application of an established technique for removing a knotted ureteric stent.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Heidi; Turney, Ben; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a case whereby a ureteric stent became knotted during removal and lodged within the upper ureter. The authors describe a novel minimally invasive technique to remove the knotted ureteric stent using the holmium laser. PMID:22701009

  10. Effectiveness of medical treatment in overcoming the ureteral double-J stent related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuyumcuoglu, Ugur; Eryildirim, Bilal; Tuncer, Murat; Faydaci, Gokhan; Tarhan, Fatih; Ozgül, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether the frequency of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) increased in patients in whom double-J stents were applied. We also evaluated several medical therapy protocols to treat symptoms related with ureteral stents. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 patients, in whom unilateral double-j stent was applied during ureteral stone treatment, were included. Before the double-J stent was applied, all patients completed storage components of the “International Prostate Symptom Score” (IPSSs), quality of life components of the IPSS (IPSS-QOL) and “Overactive Bladder Questionnaire” (OABq) forms and scores were calculated. After the procedure, cases were randomized into 5 groups, an antiinflammatory was given to Group 1, spasmolytic to Group 2, anticholinergic to Group 3 and α-blocker to Group 4. No additional drug was given to Group 5 as this control group. During the fourth week of the procedure, IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq forms were again completed and scores were compared with the previous ones. Results: When all the cases were evaluated, the IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq scores of patients in whom the double-J stent was applied were statistically significantly higher the procedure. Compared to the control group, the cases where the double-J stent was applied showed a higher IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq scores and none of the medical therapies could prevent this increase. Interpretation: The frequency of LUTS increased in cases where the ureteral stent was applied and discomfort continued as long as the stent stayed in the body. PMID:21914427

  11. Antegrade ureterolitholapaxy in the treatment of obstructing or incarcerated proximal ureteric stones.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, G; Bassi, E; Fandella, A; Merlo, F; Felici, E; Maccatrozzo, L

    1990-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and retrograde ureterorenoscopy (RU) have transformed the management of ureteric calculi. Nevertheless, patients with obstructing proximal ureteric calculi are not suitable for ESWL or RU. From January 1986 to September 1988, 17 patients with fixed upper ureteric stones underwent antegrade renoureteroscopy and percutaneous surgery. The technique was effective in removing incarcerated proximal ureteric calculi: all patients were stone-free at follow-up 3 months later.

  12. Site of impaction of ureteric calculi requiring surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    El-Barky, Ehab; Ali, Yusuf; Sahsah, Mohammed; Terra, Ali A; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2014-02-01

    Textbooks describe three narrowest anatomic sites in the ureter as the most likely places for ureteral calculi to lodge, these are: the pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ), the point where the ureters cross over the iliac vessels and the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). The purpose of this study is to determine whether calculi causing ureteric obstruction and requiring surgical treatment are found mostly at these three narrowest anatomic points of the ureter. Three hundred consecutive patients with impacted ureteric calculi who required surgical intervention were studied. The location of the impacted calculus on the day of surgical intervention was categorized according to nine predetermined levels outlined in a designed diagram based on findings on non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Two peaks in stone distribution in the ureters were encountered; the first was above the ischial spine in the proximal part of the lower third ureter (84 patients, 28%), while the second was at the level between L3 and L4 lumbar vertebrae (66 patients, 22%). Overall, the location of impacted calculi was as follows, 53, 34, 10 and 3% in the lower third ureter, upper third ureter, PUJ and mid ureter, respectively. This study demonstrates two peaks of calculi distribution in the ureter where ureteric calculi become impacted: the upper ureter below the PUJ and a second in the lower ureter, more proximal than the UVJ. There was an absence of the peak in stone location over the iliac vessels, that is, the mid ureter.

  13. Gene Duplication in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Hansche, P. E.; Beres, V.; Lange, P.

    1978-01-01

    Five indepdendent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  14. Is extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy suitable treatment for lower ureteric stones?

    PubMed

    Cole, R S; Shuttleworth, K E

    1988-12-01

    Forty patients with lower ureteric calculi for which intervention was considered desirable have been treated by in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the Dornier HM3 Lithotripter using a modified technique. Stone localisation was satisfactory in all patients. Adequate disintegration was achieved in 90% of patients following one treatment; 34 patients have been followed up for at least 3 months and 27 of these are stone-free (79%). Treatment failed in 4 patients and 2 of these had dense lower ureteric stone streets as a result of previous ESWL. The retreatment rate, post-treatment auxiliary procedure rate and complication rate were minimal. It was concluded that in situ ESWL is an effective and safe method for treating certain selected lower ureteric stones and should be considered as a feasible alternative to the more conventional methods of treatment.

  15. Bolus injection v drip infusion contrast administration for ureteral stone targeting during shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Pearle, M S; McClennan, B L; Roehrborn, C G; Clayman, R V

    1997-06-01

    Intraoperative excretory urography may be used to facilitate stone targeting during in situ SWL for ureteral stones, precluding the need for ureteral catheter placement. We compared bolus injection with drip infusion urography for efficacy in stone localization. Twenty-seven patients with normal renal function and a solitary, difficult to visualize, radiopaque ureteral calculus were randomized to receive intravenous contrast by either bolus injection (N = 13) or drip infusion (N = 14). The bolus injection patients received an average of 74 mL of Conray 400 contrast over 1 minute; the drip infusion patients received an average of 92 mL of contrast over 15 minutes. After bolus injection, it took an average of 12 minutes to opacify the ureter compared with 14 minutes after drip infusion (P = 0.62). It took longer to initiate (5 minutes) and complete (6 minutes) treatment after drip infusion than after bolus injection (P = 0.28 and P = 0.16, respectively). Imaging time was significantly longer in the infusion group than in the bolus group (12 v 7 minutes; P = 0.04). Stone-free rates were similar in the two groups: 100% for the bolus group and 91% for the infusion group. No patient in either group experienced an adverse reaction to the contrast. Overall, the two methods of contrast administration were equally efficacious for stone targeting during SWL. However, bolus injection required lesser amounts of contrast, provided more rapid opacification of the ureter, and resulted in an overall shorter procedural time, although the only statistically significant differences were in imaging time and contrast volume.

  16. Effects of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Ureteral Stent Related Discomforts

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung Taek; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Tchun Yong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination therapy of two agents in improving the lower urinary tract symptoms of patients with indwelling double-J ureteral stents. Materials and Methods A total of 168 patients underwent placement of a double-J ureteral stent after retrograde ureteroscopy for urinary stone disease. All patients received polyurethane double-J ureteral stents (6 Fr, 24 or 26 cm), which were removed a mean of 14 days postoperatively. A total of 48 patients were given no medication (Group 1), 43 patients were given tamsulosin 0.2 mg once daily (Group 2), 45 patients were given solifenacin 5 mg once daily (Group 3), and 32 patients were given a combination of two agents postoperatively (Group 4). International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) questionnaires were completed by each patient at 1 day postoperatively and on the day of stent removal. Results In the total group of patients, the mean age was 50.24±12.90 years. There was a significant difference in the IPSS total score between group 1 and groups 3 and 4. Group 4 also differed significantly from group 1 in the irritative subscore. The obstructive subscore differed between groups 2 and 4 and group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 4 in the QoL score. There were no significant differences in the VAPS. Conclusions Combination therapy with tamsulosin and solifenacin improved both irritative and obstructive symptoms more than in the other groups. Combination therapy should be strongly considered for patients who complain of stent-related symptoms. PMID:21860770

  17. New concepts in the treatment of ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Painter, D J; Keeley, F X

    2001-07-01

    The management of patients with ureteral stones remains under debate in several areas. The ability to predict spontaneous passage has improved but remains imprecise, whilst the range of therapeutic options continues to widen. Excellent results can be obtained by both shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopic methods, with relatively minimal complications. Routine ureteral stenting is not warranted whichever treatment is chosen. In future, directly comparative studies should be designed to incorporate quality-of-life parameters rather than just stone-free status, to improve our understanding of the effect of treatment decisions on patients.

  18. Submucosal migration of ureteric calculi: related to ESWL?

    PubMed

    Vandeursen, H; Baert, L

    1993-01-01

    Three patients were reinspected by ureteroscopy after repeat ESWL. Ureteroscopy initially did not disclose an intraluminal stone and only visualized a severe inflammatory reaction of the ureteric wall and a boss of the ureter at the level of the fluoroscopically suspected stone location. An intact stone in all 3 cases was finally exposed by tactile contact at the top of the ureteroscope after perforating the mucosa with a guide wire. Retrospectively, the combination of long-standing stone impaction together with damage to the ureteric mucosa during shockwave interaction may cause an inflammatory reaction with submucosal migration of the stone.

  19. Partial 1q Duplications and Associated Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Marcos L.M.; Baroneza, José E.; Teixeira, Patricia; Medina, Cristina T.N.; Cordoba, Mara S.; Versiani, Beatriz R.; Roese, Liege L.; Freitas, Erika L.; Fonseca, Ana C.S.; dos Santos, Maria C.G.; Pic-Taylor, Aline; Rosenberg, Carla; Oliveira, Silviene F.; Ferrari, Iris; Mazzeu, Juliana F.

    2016-01-01

    Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 1 are rare. Distal duplications are the most common and have been reported as either pure trisomy or unbalanced translocations. The paucity of cases with pure distal 1q duplications has made it difficult to delineate a partial distal trisomy 1q syndrome. Here, we report 2 patients with overlapping 1q duplications detected by G-banding. Array CGH and FISH were performed to characterize the duplicated segments, exclude the involvement of other chromosomes and determine the orientation of the duplication. Patient 1 presents with a mild phenotype and carries a 22.5-Mb 1q41q43 duplication. Patient 2 presents with a pure 1q42.13qter inverted duplication of 21.5 Mb, one of the smallest distal 1q duplications ever described and one of the few cases characterized by array CGH, thus contributing to a better characterization of distal 1q duplication syndrome. PMID:27022331

  20. Partial 1q Duplications and Associated Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marcos L M; Baroneza, José E; Teixeira, Patricia; Medina, Cristina T N; Cordoba, Mara S; Versiani, Beatriz R; Roese, Liege L; Freitas, Erika L; Fonseca, Ana C S; Dos Santos, Maria C G; Pic-Taylor, Aline; Rosenberg, Carla; Oliveira, Silviene F; Ferrari, Iris; Mazzeu, Juliana F

    2016-02-01

    Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 1 are rare. Distal duplications are the most common and have been reported as either pure trisomy or unbalanced translocations. The paucity of cases with pure distal 1q duplications has made it difficult to delineate a partial distal trisomy 1q syndrome. Here, we report 2 patients with overlapping 1q duplications detected by G-banding. Array CGH and FISH were performed to characterize the duplicated segments, exclude the involvement of other chromosomes and determine the orientation of the duplication. Patient 1 presents with a mild phenotype and carries a 22.5-Mb 1q41q43 duplication. Patient 2 presents with a pure 1q42.13qter inverted duplication of 21.5 Mb, one of the smallest distal 1q duplications ever described and one of the few cases characterized by array CGH, thus contributing to a better characterization of distal 1q duplication syndrome. PMID:27022331

  1. Duplication models for biological networks.

    PubMed

    Chung, Fan; Lu, Linyuan; Dewey, T Gregory; Galas, David J

    2003-01-01

    Are biological networks different from other large complex networks? Both large biological and nonbiological networks exhibit power-law graphs (number of nodes with degree k, N(k) approximately k(-beta)), yet the exponents, beta, fall into different ranges. This may be because duplication of the information in the genome is a dominant evolutionary force in shaping biological networks (like gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction networks) and is fundamentally different from the mechanisms thought to dominate the growth of most nonbiological networks (such as the Internet). The preferential choice models used for nonbiological networks like web graphs can only produce power-law graphs with exponents greater than 2. We use combinatorial probabilistic methods to examine the evolution of graphs by node duplication processes and derive exact analytical relationships between the exponent of the power law and the parameters of the model. Both full duplication of nodes (with all their connections) as well as partial duplication (with only some connections) are analyzed. We demonstrate that partial duplication can produce power-law graphs with exponents less than 2, consistent with current data on biological networks. The power-law exponent for large graphs depends only on the growth process, not on the starting graph.

  2. Intra-retroperitoneal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juine-Yih; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Hsein; Chen, Yun

    2004-11-01

    Duplication cyst occupying the retro- and intra-peritoneal space is a rare condition. We describe a case of duplication cyst in a 13-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a lower abdominal mass. Plain abdominal X-ray films revealed local ileus over the lower abdomen. Ultrasonography revealed 2 double-layered cystic masses over the lower abdomen with a suspicious communicating tract. Mild hydropelvis of the right kidney was also noted. Abdominal computed tomography revealed 2 cystic lesions. One was located at the pelvic cavity just above the urinary bladder and the other was in the left retroperitoneal space. Laparotomy revealed a dumbbell-shaped intra-retroperitoneal duplication cyst with a small communicating tract. The cyst was excised without disturbing bowel continuity and the vascular supply. The patient was doing well at 1-year follow-up.

  3. Duplication. Units of Instruction. Office Duplication Practices. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Theressa

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in helping secondary and postsecondary students in office occupations education programs to become familiar with duplication procedures and machines. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: measurement, paper characteristics and classifications, copy preparation for pasteup…

  4. Evolving Guidance on Ureteric Calculi Management in the Acute Setting.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, Jonathan K; Rintoul-Hoad, Sophie; Bultitude, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Ureteric colic is a common presentation to acute emergency services. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of acute ureteric colic is a non-contrast computer tomography of the kidneys ureters and bladder (CT KUB). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used as first-line analgesia, with studies showing that there is no role for steroid or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. There is emerging evidence that a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor. The drugs used to facilitate stone passage are known as medical expulsive therapy (MET). The most evaluated being alpha-blockers. The Spontaneous Urinary Stone Passage Enabled by Drugs (SUSPEND) trial was designed to evaluate the use of MET (tamsulosin and nifedipine). This trial showed that there was no difference with MET and placebo for the spontaneous passage of ureteric stones. There is an emerging role for the use of primary ureteroscopy in the management of non-infective ureteric stones. PMID:26874536

  5. [Asymptomatic, right reno-ureteral calculi in a cake kidney].

    PubMed

    Cocimano, V; Marino, G; Genovese, M G; Cavallotti, G P; Cevoli, R

    1989-01-01

    The primary caudal site of the urogenital anlage in the embryo explains why certain positional anomalies occur during cranial migration and are the outcome of various associated factors. A case of ectopic fusion in the ileo-sacral site known as cake kidney whose peculiarity consists of totally asymptomatic right multiple reno-ureteral lithiasis identified by chance is reported.

  6. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  7. Tbx18 regulates the development of the ureteral mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Airik, Rannar; Bussen, Markus; Singh, Manvendra K.; Petry, Marianne; Kispert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the urinary tract are a major cause of renal failure in children and young adults. They are often caused by physical obstruction or by functional impairment of the peristaltic machinery of the ureter. The underlying molecular and cellular defects are, however, poorly understood. Here we present the phenotypic characterization of a new mouse model for congenital ureter malformation that revealed the molecular pathway important for the formation of the functional mesenchymal coating of the ureter. The gene encoding the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 was expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the distal ureter stalk. In Tbx18–/– mice, prospective ureteral mesenchymal cells largely dislocalized to the surface of the kidneys. The remaining ureteral mesenchymal cells showed reduced proliferation and failed to differentiate into smooth muscles, but instead became fibrous and ligamentous tissue. Absence of ureteral smooth muscles resulted in a short hydroureter and hydronephrosis at birth. Our analysis also showed that the ureteral mesenchyme derives from a distinct cell population that is separated early in kidney development from that of other mesenchymal cells of the renal system. PMID:16511601

  8. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020 Section 876.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic...

  9. Ureteral Stent Coatings: What's Here and What's Coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razvi, Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Ureteral stents have become an indispensable tool to the urologist in the management of various disorders afflicting the urinary tract. While the ideal stent remains elusive, novel technical advances in stent coating technology offer the potential of enhancing stent biocompatibility and clinical application. Currently available stent coatings as well as new and emerging devices will be reviewed.

  10. Use of in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in upper ureteric stone.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Rahman, S; Islam, M A; Ahmed, I; Maola, G; Uddin, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study was done to determine the effectiveness of in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper ureteric calculi in terms of stone clearance, peroperative & postoperative complications and also to determine some criteria for selection of patients for this procedure. From July, 2003 to July 2004, a total of 67 patients, with excreting kidneys and having stone size less than 2 cm were treated by in situ ESWL using Lithostar plus Lithotriptor. The patient group comprised of 52 men and 15 women, age ranged from 14 years to 65 years. Of the total 67 patients selected for study 44 patients were included in group I, having stone size ?1.5 and visible distal flow of contrast on IVU & 23 patients were included in Group II with stone size>1.5 cm to 2 cm and contrast seen only upto stone. Four (04) patients from Group I and three (03) patients from group II were dropped out during the follow up period so that data of 40 patients in group I and 20 patients in group II were analyzed finally. Number of shock wave was given in 1 to 3 sessions. Finally 95% of group I and 85% of group II achieved complete clearance of calculi at the end of 3 sessions. In situ ESWL is a good option for the treatment of upper ureteric calculi.

  11. Manipulating duckweed through genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Vunsh, R; Heinig, U; Malitsky, S; Aharoni, A; Avidov, A; Lerner, A; Edelman, M

    2015-01-01

    Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17-20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites. PMID:25040392

  12. Manipulating duckweed through genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Vunsh, R; Heinig, U; Malitsky, S; Aharoni, A; Avidov, A; Lerner, A; Edelman, M

    2015-01-01

    Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17-20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites.

  13. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  14. Recipient gene duplication during generalized transduction.

    PubMed

    Stodolsky, M

    1974-11-01

    An Hfr13 Delta(proA-lac) deletion recipient, -Delta(proA-lac)-F-purE(+)-, has been utilized in a study of the origins of duplications formed during chromosome fragment integration. Among the Pro(-)Lac(+) transductants, some have duplications spanning the F locus. These transductants are, or segregate, strains with F' episomes carrying genes of the duplication. Some of the duplications include purE(+), a gene which is not coinherited with lac(+) during bacteriophage P1-mediated transduction. Thus recipient genes have been duplicated during recombinant formation. Crossing-over models including replication steps provide a basis for explaining the duplication process.

  15. [A CASE OF ASCENDING COLON CANCER RECURRENCE WITH INTRALUMINAL URETERAL DISSEMINATION MIMICKING PRIMARY URETERAL CANCER, DETECTED DURING INVESTIGATION FOR FEVER].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Kubota, Masashi; Kanno, Toru; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    A 69-year-old woman visited our hospital with a chief complaint of fever. Five years ago, she was diagnosed as ascending colon cancer and received right hemi-colectomy. One year later, local recurrence with right hydronephrosis was detected, and she received chemotherapy -4 cycles of modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab, and 12 cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab- for two years. Local recurrence and right hydronephrosis disappeared on positron emission tomography performed 4 years postoperatively. This time, abdominal computed tomography for investigation of fever showed a relapse of right hydronephrosis and pyonephrosis. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary tumor from the right ureteral orifice. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple tumors in the right ureter, and the distal lesion projecting into the bladder. After the general condition became well by right nephrostomy for infection control, transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed a metastatic tubular adenocarcinoma (colon origin). Although right nephrectomy was performed for pyonephrosis control, she died of local progression of ascending colon cancer 10 months after first visit. Intraluminal ureteral progression of carcinoma originating from organs other than urinary tract is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the 9th report in the English or Japanese literature. In this case we could not rule out primary ureteral cancer preoperatively, and histological examination revealed intraluminal ureteral dissemination of ascending colon cancer.

  16. Noncommunicating multiple intra-abdominal enteric duplication cysts.

    PubMed

    Mandhan, Parkash; Ehsan, Toufique M; Al-Sibai, Sareyah; Khan, Ashfaq M; Sankhla, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    A very rare case of noncommunicating multiple intra and retroperitoneal enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) is reported and discussed. Two large noncommunicating EDCs, one within the mesentery of proximal jejunum causing complete luminal obstruction and other isolated cyst in retroperitoneal area displacing duodenum and extrahepatic biliary system, were resected successfully in a 2-day-old neonate along with correction of malrotation.

  17. Evaluation of the quality of duplicated radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Thunthy, K.H.; Weinberg, R.

    1981-04-01

    This experiment evaluated the image quality of duplicated radiographs made at different ultraviolet light exposures. Image quality was measured in terms of ''residual'' film fog, film density, mottle, image contrast, and resolution. The ''residual'' fog density of duplicates decreased with increases in ultraviolet exposures until it was less than the fog density of the original. The density of duplicates decreased with increases in ultraviolet exposures until it leveled off at a certain density, depending on the density of the original film. Mottle was less on lighter duplicates than on darker duplicates. Contrast of duplicates increased initially with increases in ultraviolet exposures and later decreased with further increases in ultraviolet exposures. Resolution of duplicates was nearly the same as the original as long as the duplicate had acceptable ''residual'' fog density.

  18. Value of sonography in true complete diphallia.

    PubMed

    Marti-Bonmati, L; Menor, F; Gomez, J; Cortina, H; Garcia Ibarra, F

    1989-08-01

    A case of true complete diphallia associated with multiple malformations is presented. Complete radiological evaluation should include sonography of both penes preoperatively to classify the penile duplication correctly. PMID:2664222

  19. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Xue, Z Y

    1991-04-01

    From June 1987 to December 1988, 212 cases of ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL and ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) respectively. The lithotriptic success rates of ESWL for upper, mid and distal ureteric stones were 100.0%, 100.0% and 93.4% respectively as compared with 62.5%, 85.7% and 93.7% of URSL. ESWL for upper and mid ureteral stones was obviously superior to URSL (P less than 0.001). The incidence rate of complications of ESWL was lower than that of URSL (P less than 0.05). In the 212 cases, urinary extravasation caused by ureteral injury occurred in 4 cases treated by URSL. We suggest that ESWL should be the first treatment of choice for ureteral calculi and URSL is not recommended for the treatment of upper ureteral calculi, but it may be used as an adjunctive method.

  20. [Treatment of distal ureteral calculi with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: experiences with 310 cases].

    PubMed

    Zehntner, C; Lux, O; Casanova, G A; Marth, D; Zingg, E J

    1989-07-01

    Distal ureteral calculi are approached by ureterorenoscopy by most authors. With increasing experience ESWL of distal ureteral calculi gained in importance. The success rate of 96.2% in a large series of 310 consecutive patients treated in this manner, confirmed the results of other authors. Excluding women of child-bearing age and very large calculi (greater than 2 cm) the ESWL is a suitable treatment modality of distal ureteral calculi.

  1. The use of extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy for obstructing ureteric stones.

    PubMed

    Porfyris, O T; Cutress, M L; Tolley, D A

    2011-06-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a non-invasive treatment for urinary tract stones. This review presents the role of SWL for treating specifically ureteric calculi. The impact of hydronephrosis on SWL success, the use of SWL as emergency treatment (eSWL) for acute ureteric colic, the influence of ureteric stent placement on SWL outcome and the use of medical expulsive therapy to augment SWL success are discussed.

  2. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in an Adolescent Male Presenting as Ureteral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Christopher D.; McAlvany, Kelly L.; Zingula, Shannon N.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Granberg, Candace F.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma may affect the ureter in cases of retroperitoneal involvement. We present a case of an adolescent male found to have non-Hodgkin lymphoma initially presenting as ureteral stricture evident on imaging. He was treated and responded to multiagent chemotherapy with resolution of both the lymphoma and the ureteral stricture. Although rare, non-Hodgkin lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with noncalculous, idiopathic ureteral strictures. PMID:25093138

  3. Congenital duplication of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Safioleas, Michael C; Papavassiliou, Vassilios G; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Angouras, Dimitrios C; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-03-01

    Duplication of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. In this article, two cases of gallbladder duplication are presented. The first case is a patient with double gallbladder and concomitant choledocholithiasis. The probable diagnosis of double gallbladder was made preoperatively by computed tomography. The patient underwent a successful open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration. In the second case, two cystic formations in the place of gallbladder are demonstrated with ultrasound scan in a woman with acute cholecystitis. At surgery, two gallbladders were found. A brief review of epidemiology and anatomy of double gallbladder is included, along with a discussion of the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  4. Shockwave treatment of ureteric stones in situ with second-generation lithotriptor.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Vanden Bossche, M; Schulman, C C

    1990-01-01

    During a 17-month period we treated in situ 334 patients with ureteric stones with a second-generation electromagnetic lithotriptor. Anxiety and discomfort were relieved with diazepam and pethidine chloride only. Ureteral stenting was used in 8.1% of upper, 36.4% of mid- and 5.7% of lower ureteric stones. The retreatment rate was 15%, but no patient had more than 3 sessions. The success rate of the treatment at 3 months was 88% for upper, 65% for mid- and 83% for lower ureteric stones. Open surgery had to be performed in 5 cases and ureteroscopies in 6 cases.

  5. Simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy and early endoscopic ureteric realignment for iatrogenic ureteropelvic junction avulsion during ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tayeb, Marawan El; Mellon, Matthew J.; Lingeman, James E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of successful management of ureteropelvice junction avulsion during ureteroscopy successfully managed with simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy and early endoscopic ureteral realignment. PMID:26834898

  6. Ureteric re-implant for the strictured renal allograft: How I do it.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Thomas; Kroczak, Tadeuz; Huang, Chun; Koulack, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Ureteric stricture is the most common urologic complication following renal transplantation. Initial treatment should consist of endoscopic management, however patients that fail endoscopic management or strictures that are not amendable to endoscopic management are appropriate candidates for open surgical repair. In this manuscript we describe the steps and surgical technique we use to manage complicated ureteric strictures refractory to endoscopic management at our center. Ureteric re-implant with the use of a Boari flap is a safe, effective and definitive option for repair of ureteric strictures following renal transplantation. This approach provides excellent long term outcomes in terms of renal function preservation and negligible recurrence rates.

  7. An Everting Ureteral Access Sheath: Concepts and In Vitro Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keith L.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-04-01

    Ureteral access sheaths have been a recent innovation in facilitating ureteral stone surgery. Once properly placed, access sheaths allow the movement of ureteroscopes and other instruments through the ureter with minimal injury to the urothelium. However, there are shortcomings of the current device designs. Initial sheath placement requires significant force, and shear stress can injure the ureter. In addition, inadvertent advancement of the outer sheath without the inner introducer stylet can tear and avulse the ureter. A novel eversion design incorporating a lubricous film provides marked improvement over current access sheaths. In bench top and animal models, the eversion shealths require less force during advancement, cause less injury to the urothelial tissue, and have a lower potential of introducing extraneous materials (e.g., microbes) into a simulated urinary tract. While, the everting design provides important advantages over traditional non-everting designs, further preclinical and clinical trials are required.

  8. Ureteritis cystica: an interesting case with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Zamri, Z; Harunarashid; Das, S; Ramzisham, A R M

    2010-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is a rare, benign, proliferative condition. We report the case of a 51-year-old female who complained of dysuria and frequency for the last 10 years. The symptoms, however, increased in severity and frequency over the past one year. Urine culture and sensitivity showed presence of Escherichia Coli which was sensitive to augmentin and ciproflaxocin. The urinary tract ultrasonography and intravenous urography revealed bladder diverticula with multiple small, smooth well defects with sharp borders that protruded into the lumen along the proximal and mid left ureter. This finding was later confirmed by retrograde pyelogram. She was treated and currently is on long term antibiotic therapy. The diagnostic features and management of ureteritis cystic is being discussed in detail. PMID:20964103

  9. Unilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to rupture of liver echinococcal cyst.

    PubMed

    Shapira, O M; Simon, D; Rothstein, H; Mor, E; Pfeffermann, R

    1992-12-01

    We report a case of ureteral obstruction by reactive retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to rupture of a liver echinococcal cyst after minimal blunt flank trauma. The patient presented initially with a cyst-cutaneous fistula and was treated with mebendazole, since surgery was refused. Unilateral ureteral obstruction due to reactive dense retroperitoneal fibrosis developed 2 years later, which presumably was initiated by intense inflammatory reaction to the cyst content. Diagnosis was established by excretory urography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography, and was histologically confirmed. Hydronephrosis and hydroureter resolved following ureterolysis. This complication is anticipated to be encountered more frequently with the use of the new potent anthelmintic agents, which may successfully prevent daughter cyst formation but fail to abolish reactive retroperitonitis.

  10. AMID: autonomous modeler of intragenic duplication.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Weiss, Anthony S; Fekete, Alan; Jermiin, Lars S

    2003-01-01

    Intragenic duplication is an evolutionary process where segments of a gene become duplicated. While there has been much research into whole-gene or domain duplication, there have been very few studies of non-tandem intragenic duplication. The identification of intragenically replicated sequences may provide insight into the evolution of proteins, helping to link sequence data with structure and function. This paper describes a tool for autonomously modelling intragenic duplication. AMID provides: identification of modularly repetitive genes; an algorithm for identifying repeated modules; and a scoring system for evaluating the modules' similarity. An evaluation of the algorithms and use cases are presented.

  11. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  12. Inspection of Ureteral Orifices: The Pearl of Flexible Cystoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charmaine; Bushra, Hamid; Das, Sanjay; Pettersson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cystoscopy is most common diagnostic investigation. The examination technique and the findings, both normal and pathological, were well described described a hundred years ago. With technological advances, there has been over-emphasis on imaging modalities for diagnostic purposes. A basic maneuver of examining the ureteral orifices is sometimes rushed through when in fact careful examination can clinch the diagnosis. The importance is exemplified by two cases, one of which is a rare case of Xanthoma of the ureter. PMID:27579373

  13. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of upper ureteral calculi with semirigid ureteroscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Hong, J S

    1996-02-01

    Forty-three patients with single ureteral calculi located above the pelvic brim were treated by electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) using a semirigid mini-ureteroscope. Of the 43 calculi, 36 (84%) were fragmented in one procedure. Six calculi (14%) were pushed back to the renal pelvis and treated successfully by complementary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). The total success rate of ureteroscopic manipulation thus was 98%. The operation time (mean 26.4 minutes) and postoperative hospital stay (mean 2.53 days) were relatively short. Complications were limited to four (9%) minor perforations of the ureter managed by internal stenting. Among these patients with complications, there were no significant ureteral strictures noted on excretory urography or ureteroscopic examination 1 to 3 months after ureterolithotripsy. The costs of ureteroscopy with EHL are lower than that of SWL or ureteroscopic lasertripsy. The total fees for ureteroscopy with EHL are about two thirds those for SWL in Taiwan. Despite the longer learning curve required for ureteroscopy, ureteroscopy associated with EHL is a cost-effective alternative for the treatment of upper ureteral calculi, especially when SWL is not readily available.

  14. Use of Ileum as Ureteral Replacement in Urological Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Armatys, Sandra A.; Mellon, Matthew J.; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Koch, Michael O.; Foster, Richard S.; Bihrle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed indications and outcomes in patients undergoing ileal ureter replacement for ureteral reconstruction. Materials and Methods Between December 1989 and September 2007, 105 patients underwent ileal ureter replacement, of whom 14 were excluded from study due to incomplete data. The remaining 91 patients (99 renal units) comprised the study cohort. Results Mean patient age was 46.8 years and mean followup was 36.0 months. Indications for an ileal ureter were stricture following genitourinary surgery in 29 cases (31.9%), radiation induced stricture in 17 (18.7%), nonurological surgery iatrogenic injury in 16 (17.6%) and retroperitoneal fibrosis in 11 (12.1%). Only 4 patients (4.4%) had primary ureteral cancer. Long-term complications included anastomotic stricture in 3 patients (3.3%) and fistula in 6 (6.6%). Serum creatinine decreased or remained stable in 68 patients (74.7%) and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis developed in 3. No patient complained of excessive urinary mucous production. Conclusions In 68.1% of patients indications for an ileal ureter included radiation induced stricture or iatrogenic injury. The ileal ureter is a reasonable option for long-term ureteral reconstruction with preserved renal function in carefully selected patients. PMID:19013597

  15. Holmium:YAG laser in the treatment of ureteral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Rajiv K.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Chun, Samuel S.; Denstedt, John D.; Sales, Jack L.

    1996-05-01

    Endourologic intervention has become widely considered the initial procedure of choice for short segment ureteral strictures. Techniques employed in conjunction with endourologic access to manage the strictured area have included balloon dilation, cold knife and electrosurgical incision. More recently laser incision with the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser has been employed. The holmium:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2100 nm has recently become available for urologic use. This wavelength is able to precisely vaporize and incise tissue. In this presentation we describe our results with holmium:YAG laser incision of ureteral strictures. Seventeen patients were treated including 12 patients with distal ureteral strictures, 4 patients with ureteroileal anastomotic strictures and 1 patient with a stricture in the ureter of a transplanted kidney. The holmium:YAG laser was employed using a 400 (mu) end-firing quartz fiber placed in contact with the tissue. Clinical and radiologic follow-up of at least 3 months post-surgery (range 3 - 21 months) is available in 14 patients. At last follow-up in these patients, 10/14 (71%) of strictures have remained open. While the ultimate success of endourological techniques of stricture management are determined by the inherent nature of the stricture rather than the technique employed, the holmium:YAG laser for endoureterotomy demonstrates short term efficacy and safety comparable to that reported for other minimally- invasive techniques of stricture management.

  16. Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, JAMIE

    2001-01-01

    The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFβ, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

  17. Chromosome I duplications in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, K.S.; Rose, A.M. )

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized 76 duplications of chromosome I in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. The region studied is the 20 map unit left half of the chromosome. Sixty-two duplications were induced with gamma radiation and 14 arose spontaneously. The latter class was apparently the result of spontaneous breaks within the parental duplication. The majority of duplications behave as if they are free. Three duplications are attached to identifiable sequences from other chromosomes. The duplication breakpoints have been mapped by complementation analysis relative to genes on chromosome I. Nineteen duplication breakpoints and seven deficiency breakpoints divide the left half of the chromosome into 24 regions. We have studied the relationship between duplication size and segregational stability. While size is an important determinant of mitotic stability, it is not the only one. We observed clear exceptions to a size-stability correlation. In addition to size, duplication stability may be influenced by specific sequences or chromosome structure. The majority of the duplications were stable enough to be powerful tools for gene mapping. Therefore the duplications described here will be useful in the genetic characterization of chromosome I and the techniques we have developed can be adapted to other regions of the genome.

  18. Genomic evidence for adaptation by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-08-01

    Gene duplication is widely believed to facilitate adaptation, but unambiguous evidence for this hypothesis has been found in only a small number of cases. Although gene duplication may increase the fitness of the involved organisms by doubling gene dosage or neofunctionalization, it may also result in a simple division of ancestral functions into daughter genes, which need not promote adaptation. Hence, the general validity of the adaptation by gene duplication hypothesis remains uncertain. Indeed, a genome-scale experiment found similar fitness effects of deleting pairs of duplicate genes and deleting individual singleton genes from the yeast genome, leading to the conclusion that duplication rarely results in adaptation. Here we contend that the above comparison is unfair because of a known duplication bias among genes with different fitness contributions. To rectify this problem, we compare homologous genes from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We discover that simultaneously deleting a duplicate gene pair in S. cerevisiae reduces fitness significantly more than deleting their singleton counterpart in S. pombe, revealing post-duplication adaptation. The duplicates-singleton difference in fitness effect is not attributable to a potential increase in gene dose after duplication, suggesting that the adaptation is owing to neofunctionalization, which we find to be explicable by acquisitions of binary protein-protein interactions rather than gene expression changes. These results provide genomic evidence for the role of gene duplication in organismal adaptation and are important for understanding the genetic mechanisms of evolutionary innovation. PMID:24904045

  19. Total Laparoscopic Treatment of an Adult Gastric Duplication Cyst with Intrapancreatic Extension

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Theodoros; Farin, Coppelia; Navez, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 28 Final Diagnosis: Gastric duplication Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Resection of the duplication Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastric duplication is a rare malformation mostly diagnosed during childhood. Symptoms in adults are atypical, rare, or may be completely absent. The diagnosis is suggested after a morphological and histological assessment. The treatment is a complete surgical resection. Case Report: We report on a case of a 28-year-old woman referred to our unit for a surgical assessment of a gastric duplication of the antropyloric area associated with paraduodenal and pancreatic extensions, diagnosed by several image tools and histological confirmation. She had undergone a total laparoscopic resection of the duplication without violation of the gastric lumen or any other splanchnic injury. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day seven without any complains. Conclusions: The present report illustrates that complete resection of a distal gastric duplication is feasible by a laparoscopic minimal invasive procedure and therefore is considered to be a safe therapeutic modality. Our case is the first distal gastric duplication cyst with pancreatic and paraduodenal extension reported in the literature completely resected by laparoscopic approach. PMID:27221785

  20. Direct Primary or Secondary Percutaneous Ureteral Stenting: What Is the Most Compliant Option in Patients with Malignant Ureteral Obstructions?

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Lumia, Domenico; Giorgianni, Andrea; Mangini, Monica; Santoro, Domenico; Cuffari, Salvatore; Marconi, Alberto; Novario, Raffaele; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze three ureteral stenting techniques in patients with malignant ureteral obstructions, considering the indications, techniques, procedural costs, and complications. In the period between June 2003 and June 2006, 45 patients with bilateral malignant ureteral obstructions were evaluated (24 males, 21 females; average age, 68.3; range, 42-87). All of the patients were treated with ureteral stenting: 30 (mild strictures) with direct stenting (insertion of the stent without predilation), 30 (moderate/severe strictures) with primary stenting (insertion of the stent after predilation in a one-stage procedure), and 30 (mild/moderate/severe strictures with infection) with secondary stenting (insertion of the stent after predilation and 2-3 days after nephrostomy). The incidence of complications and procedural costs were compared by a statistical analysis. The primary technical success rate was 98.89%. We did not observe any major complications. The minor complication rate was 11.1%. The incidence of complications for the various techniques was not statistically significantly. The statistical analysis of costs demonstrated that the average cost of secondary stenting ( Euro 637; SD, Euro 115) was significantly higher than that of procedures which involved direct or primary stenting ( Euro 560; SD, Euro 108). We conclude that one-step stenting (direct or primary) is a valid option to secondary stenting in correctly selected patients, owing to the fact that when the procedure is performed by expert interventional radiologists there are high technical success rates, low complication rates, and a reduction in costs.

  1. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available. Database URL: http://ocri-genomics.org/PTGBase/. PMID:25797062

  2. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available.

  3. [Transurethral uretero-lithotripsy of ureteral stones in Osaka City University].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Sugimura, K; Nakatani, T; Yamamoto, K; Yasumoto, R; Wada, S; Sakamoto, W; Asakawa, M; Nishikawa, K; Ohyama, A

    1989-12-01

    During the 39 months since the introduction of transurethral lithotripsy (TUL) for the treatment of ureteral stones at our hospital in August 1985, TUL was performed a total of 200 times in 178 patients with ureteral stones. Among them, 111 patients had left ureteral stones and 65 had right ureteral stones, while 2 patients had ureteral stones in both sides. The stones were divided into upper ureteral stone (84 patients) and lower ureteral stone (94 patients) at above and below the iliac brim. 89% of the stones were less than 2 cm in diameter. Most of the patients were given lumbar anesthesia, and a guide wire was inserted into the ureter. The ureter was dilated with a ureteral bougie, and a 13F or 14F Storz ureteroscope was inserted. The stones were disintegrated by an ultrasound lithotripto and removed using forceps and a basket catheter. After the TUL procedure, a double J catheter was indwelled and removed within 5 days. The results were evaluated by DIP which was done 2 to 3 months after TUL. The success rate included residual stones less than 4 mm in diameter, as they could be spontaneously discharged. As a result, the success rate for upper ureteral stones was 53%, and it was higher for smaller stones. On the other hand, the success rate for lower ureteral stones was 85% and significantly higher. The main reasons for failure were the upper migration of the stones (60%) and inability to insert the ureteroscope up to the stone due to ureterostenosis and ureteral perforation (39%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Stenting for malignant ureteral obstruction: Tandem, metal or metal-mesh stents.

    PubMed

    Elsamra, Sammy E; Leavitt, David A; Motato, Hector A; Friedlander, Justin I; Siev, Michael; Keheila, Mohamed; Hoenig, David M; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2015-07-01

    Extrinsic malignant compression of the ureter is not uncommon, often refractory to decompression with conventional polymeric ureteral stents, and frequently associated with limited survival. Alternative options for decompression include tandem ureteral stents, metallic stents and metal-mesh stents, though the preferred method remains controversial. We reviewed and updated our outcomes with tandem ureteral stents for malignant ureteral obstruction, and carried out a PubMed search using the terms "malignant ureteral obstruction," "tandem ureteral stents," "ipsilateral ureteral stents," "metal ureteral stent," "resonance stent," "silhouette stent" and "metal mesh stent." A comprehensive review of the literature and summary of outcomes is provided. The majority of studies encountered were retrospective with small sample sizes. The evidence is most robust for metal stents, whereas only limited data exists for tandem or metal-mesh stents. Metal and metal-mesh stents are considerably more expensive than tandem stenting, but the potential for less frequent stent exchanges makes them possibly cost-effective over time. Urinary tract infections have been associated with all stent types. A wide range of failure rates has been published for all types of stents, limiting direct comparison. Metal and metal-mesh stents show a high incidence of stent colic, migration and encrustation, whereas tandem stents appear to produce symptoms equivalent to single stents. Comparison is difficult given the limited evidence and heterogeneity of patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. It is clear that prospective, randomized studies are necessary to effectively scrutinize conventional, tandem, metallic ureteral and metal-mesh stents for their use in malignant ureteral obstruction.

  5. Neofunctionalization of young duplicate genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-10-22

    Gene duplication is a key source of genetic innovation that plays a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity. Although several evolutionary processes can result in the long-term retention of duplicate genes, their relative contributions in nature are unknown. Here we develop a phylogenetic approach for comparing genome-wide expression profiles of closely related species to quantify the roles of conservation, neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization, and specialization in the preservation of duplicate genes. Application of our method to pairs of young duplicates in Drosophila shows that neofunctionalization, the gain of a novel function in one copy, accounts for the retention of almost two-thirds of duplicate genes. Surprisingly, novel functions nearly always originate in younger (child) copies, whereas older (parent) copies possess functions similar to those of ancestral genes. Further examination of such pairs reveals a strong bias toward RNA-mediated duplication events, implicating asymmetric duplication and positive selection in the evolution of new functions. Moreover, we show that young duplicate genes are expressed primarily in testes and that their expression breadth increases over evolutionary time. This finding supports the "out-of-testes" hypothesis, which posits that testes are a catalyst for the emergence of new genes that ultimately evolve functions in other tissues. Thus, our study highlights the importance of neofunctionalization and positive selection in the retention of young duplicates in Drosophila and illustrates how duplicates become incorporated into novel functional networks over evolutionary time.

  6. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  7. Ureteral obstruction secondary to retained ovarian remnants: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zaitoon, M M

    1987-05-01

    A case is reported of ureteral obstruction from retained retroperitoneal corpus luteum. Previously, the patient had undergone a hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy with incomplete removal of ovarian tissue on the affected side. The ureteral obstruction was treated by excision of the mass and ureterolysis.

  8. Single-Surgeon Experience With Robot-Assisted Ureteroneocystostomy for Distal Ureteral Pathologies in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ziho; Sehgal, Shailen; Llukani, Elton; Reilly, Christopher; Doumanian, Leo; Mydlo, Jack; Lee, David Inkoo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate our technical approach for robot-assisted ureteroneocystostomy (R-UNC) for benign and malignant distal ureteral pathologies. Materials and Methods Between January 2009 and January 2013, a total of 10 patients underwent R-UNC in the distal ureter by a single surgeon. Indications for R-UNC were as follows: idiopathic (3), fistula (2), iatrogenic (2), malignancy (2), and chronic vesicoureteral reflux (1). Results Tension-free anastomosis was attained in all 10 R-UNC procedures. A psoas hitch was performed in 6/10 cases (60%). Intravesical and extravesical reimplantations were completed in 5/10 (50%) and 5/10 cases (50%), respectively. A nonrefluxing ureter was constructed in 2/10 cases (20%). The patients' mean age was 52.9±16.6 years, their mean body mass index was 30.8±6.3 kg/m2, the mean operative time was 211.7±69.3 minutes, mean estimated blood loss was 102.5±110.8 mL, and mean length of stay was 2.8±2.3 days. There were no intraoperative complications. There was one Clavien-Dindo grade I and one Clavien-Dindo grade II postoperative complication. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 28.5±15.5 months. Two patients had recurrence of ureteral strictures at 3 months postoperatively and were managed successfully with balloon dilation. Conclusions Our technique for R-UNC demonstrates good perioperative outcomes. However, underlying periureteral inflammation and pelvic adhesions may predispose patients for stricture recurrence after R-UNC. PMID:23956826

  9. Form of 15q proximal duplication appears to be a normal euchromatic variant

    SciTech Connect

    Jalal, S.M.; Persons, D.L.; DeWald, G.W.; Lindor, N.M.

    1994-10-01

    Deletions involving often leads to either Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome, depending on the hereditary path of the deletion (paternal or maternal). A number of cases have been reported in which duplications involving 15q11.2-q13 have not been associated with any detectable phenotypic abnormalities. Ludowese et al. (1991) have summarized 25 such cases that include 10 of their own cases from 5 unrelated families. They conclude that duplication of 15q12-13 does not have an adverse phenotypic effect, though they do not completely rule out the possibility that, instead of 15q12-13 duplication, the extra material could be an insertion from another chromosome. Thus, the dilemma is when duplication of 15q11.2-q13 is clinically significant. We suggest that certain kinds of amplification or duplication involving distal 15q12 and 15q13 may represent a normal variant. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Atypical Case of Congenital Maxillomandibular Fusion with Duplication of the Craniofacial Midline

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Lorena Pingarrón; Pérez, Mercedes Martín; García, Elena Gómez; Martín-Moro, Javier González; González, Jose Ignacio Rodríguez; García, Miguel Burgueño

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of syngnathia with hypophyseal duplication and describe the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies associated with hypophyseal duplication in the reported autopsy case. We studied clinical reports, scanner images, and autopsy results of a 2-months-old female baby. The propositus had frontonasal dysmorphism, retrognathia, and bifid tongue. She also presented maxillomandibular bony fusion (syngnathia) and an intraoral hairy polyp. In the cranium, the sella turcica was broadened, with two complete hypophyses and two infundibulums. The CNS had both olfactory bulbs and corpus callosum agenesis. There are 27 previous cases of maxillomandibular fusion and seven previous autopsy cases of hypophyseal duplication associated with other frontonasal malformations. As far as the authors know, this is the first case reported in the literature that associates syngnathia with duplication of the craniofacial midline including hypophyseal duplication. PMID:22655122

  11. The ureteric bud epithelium: Morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components –the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium– that differentiate from two different tissues –the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively– of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is also physiologically divided along the cortico-medullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortical-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney. PMID:25783232

  12. The combinatorics of tandem duplication trees.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Olivier; Hendy, Michael D; Jean-Marie, Alain; McLachlan, Robert

    2003-02-01

    We developed a recurrence relation that counts the number of tandem duplication trees (either rooted or unrooted) that are consistent with a set of n tandemly repeated sequences generated under the standard unequal recombination (or crossover) model of tandem duplications. The number of rooted duplication trees is exactly twice the number of unrooted trees, which means that on average only two positions for a root on a duplication tree are possible. Using the recurrence, we tabulated these numbers for small values of n. We also developed an asymptotic formula that for large n provides estimates for these numbers. These numbers give a priori probabilities for phylogenies of the repeated sequences to be duplication trees. This work extends earlier studies where exhaustive counts of the numbers for small n were obtained. One application showed the significance of finding that most maximum-parsimony trees constructed from repeat sequences from human immunoglobins and T-cell receptors were tandem duplication trees. Those findings provided strong support to the proposed mechanisms of tandem gene duplication. The recurrence relation also suggests efficient algorithms to recognize duplication trees and to generate random duplication trees for simulation. We present a linear-time recognition algorithm.

  13. Novel duplication pattern of the mitochondrial control region in Cantor's Giant softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Chen, Hai-Gang; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2016-11-15

    Cantor's Giant Softshell Turtle, Pelochelys cantorii has become one of the most critically endangered species in the world. When comparative analyses of the P. cantorii complete mitochondrial genome sequences were conducted, we discovered a duplication of a segment of the control region in the mitochondrial genome of P. cantorii. The duplication is characterized by two copies of conserved sequence box 2 (CSB2) and CSB3 in a single control region. In contrast to previous reports of duplications involving the control regions of other animals, this particular pattern of duplications appears to be unique to P. cantorii. Copies of the CSB2 and CSB3 show many of the conserved sequence features typically found in mitochondrial control regions, and rare differences were found between the paralogous copies. Using the primer design principle of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and the reference sequence of the duplicated CSBs, specific primers were designed to amplify the duplicated CSBs. These primers were validated among different individuals and populations of P. cantorii. This unique duplication structure suggests the two copies of the CSB2 and CSB3 may have arisen through occasional tandem duplication and subsequent concerted evolution. PMID:27565702

  14. Primary Ureteral Lymphoma Presenting with Acute Flank Pain.

    PubMed

    Foote, Christopher; Henderson, Sean; Reddy, Shilpa; Horrow, Mindy; Leighton, John; Cahn, David; Diorio, Greg; Bickell, Michael; Ginsberg, Phillip; Metro, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) represents 4% of newly diagnosed cancer in 2013 with a 59-82% 5-year survival depending on the tumor location. Primary presentation of lymphoma consists of lymphadenopathy or swelling of the lymph nodes and non-specific systemic symptoms such as fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. Less commonly, NHL arises from non-lymphoid tissue. We report a unique case of NHL arising from the ureteral wall which was visualized via non-contrast CT and direct vision through ureteroscopy. PMID:26195954

  15. Spontaneous ureteral rupture diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pampana, E; Altobelli, S; Morini, M; Ricci, A; D'Onofrio, S; Simonetti, G

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:24455381

  16. [Treatment of ureteral lithiasis using the laser].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Marcellán, F J; Ibarz Servio, L; Ramón Dalmau, M

    1991-06-01

    A review of the history of lasertripsy from continuous to intermittent Nd:YAG, Alexandrite, or liquid-dye laser is undertaken. Certain calculi require intraureteral fragmentation owing to stone hardness or location. Within a period spanning 20 months, we have treated 350 patients (199 males, 151 females) utilizing dye laser through a very fine caliber 7.5 F ureteroscope. Twenty-six had bilateral calculi. The calculi were located in the upper third in 10% (37), middle third in 25% (93), and lower third in 65% (241). Complete fragmentation was achieved in 341 (93%), push up + ESWL was performed in 24 (6.4%), and two calculi (0.6%) required ultrasonic fragmentation. No patient required surgery and there were no severe complications.

  17. Duplication of the Gallbladder. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Desolneux, G.; Mucci, S.; Lebigot, J.; Arnaud, J. P.; Hamy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare anatomic malformation, which can now be detected by preoperative imaging study. We report a case of a symptomatic duplicated gallbladder, successfully treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This anomaly is important to know for surgeons because of associated anatomical variations of main bile duct and hepatic artery and increased risk of common bile duct injury. PMID:19997514

  18. 40 CFR 711.22 - Duplicative reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duplicative reporting. 711.22 Section 711.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL DATA REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 711.22 Duplicative reporting. (a) With regard to...

  19. Sonographic and scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder duplication

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.L.; Lwin, T.

    1986-10-01

    The incidence of unilobar or bilobar pathology is disproportionately high in patients with duplication of the gallbladder. The results of ultrasound and Tc-99m DISIDA studies in one case of gallbladder duplication are presented. An awareness of gallbladder anomalies may improve the accuracy of hepatobiliary imaging by eliminating some false-negative results.

  20. Damage attributable to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, R; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1997-04-01

    Ureteral stents have been widely used during and after SWL depending on the size of the stones and the condition of the urinary tracts. The use of stents can help to reduce complications and contributes to stone passage. However, some reports note complications that were attributed to indwelling ureteral stents. We attended to the role of obstruction of ureteral stents in those complications. The aim of this study was to analyze factors that influence ureteral stent obstruction and damage caused by SWL. Crystal deposition and the damage by SWL were examined in all ureteral stents by the use of continuous flow system and were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystal deposition and damage differed depending on the individual stent. The material properties of the stent surface are the major factor influencing crystal deposition and the degree of damage by SWL. The indications for ureteral stenting must be considered in each case, because the routine use of ureteral stents has a possibility to increase complications.

  1. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism Driving Duplication of the HIV-1 PTAP Late Domain

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Angelica N.; Waheed, Abdul A.; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Huang, Wei; Newton, Alicia; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Brindeiro, Rodrigo D. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. This cellular machinery is comprised of several multiprotein complexes known as endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). A conserved late domain motif, Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP), located in the p6 region of Gag (p6Gag), plays a central role in ESCRT recruitment to the site of virus budding. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTAP duplications are selected in HIV-1-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy; however, the consequences of these duplications for HIV-1 biology and drug resistance are unclear. To address these questions, we constructed viruses carrying a patient-derived PTAP duplication with and without drug resistance mutations in the viral protease. We evaluated the effect of the PTAP duplication on viral release efficiency, viral infectivity, replication capacity, drug susceptibility, and Gag processing. In the presence of protease inhibitors, we observed that the PTAP duplication in p6Gag significantly increased the infectivity and replication capacity of the virus compared to those of viruses bearing only resistance mutations in protease. Our biochemical analysis showed that the PTAP duplication, in combination with mutations in protease, enhances processing between the nucleocapsid and p6 domains of Gag, resulting in more complete Gag cleavage in the presence of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that duplication of the PTAP motif in p6Gag confers a selective advantage in viral replication by increasing Gag processing efficiency in the context of protease inhibitor treatment, thereby enhancing the drug resistance of the virus. These findings highlight the interconnected role of PTAP duplications and protease mutations in the development of resistance to antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Resistance to current drug therapy limits treatment options in many HIV-1-infected patients. Duplications in a Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP) motif in the p6 domain of

  2. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  3. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  4. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  5. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication. PMID:27288366

  6. Duplicate document detection in DocBrowse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, Vikram; Bruce, Andrew G.; Nguyen, Thien

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate documents are frequently found in large databases of digital documents, such as those found in digital libraries or in the government declassification effort. Efficient duplicate document detection is important not only to allow querying for similar documents, but also to filter out redundant information in large document databases. We have designed three different algorithm to identify duplicate documents. The first algorithm is based on features extracted from the textual content of a document, the second algorithm is based on wavelet features extracted from the document image itself, and the third algorithm is a combination of the first two. These algorithms are integrated within the DocBrowse system for information retrieval from document images which is currently under development at MathSoft. DocBrowse supports duplicate document detection by allowing (1) automatic filtering to hide duplicate documents, and (2) ad hoc querying for similar or duplicate documents. We have tested the duplicate document detection algorithms on 171 documents and found that text-based method has an average 11-point precision of 97.7 percent while the image-based method has an average 11- point precision of 98.9 percent. However, in general, the text-based method performs better when the document contains enough high-quality machine printed text while the image- based method performs better when the document contains little or no quality machine readable text.

  7. Refinement of a chimpanzee pericentric inversion breakpoint to a segmental duplication cluster

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Devin P; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Misceo, Doriana; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Deschamps, Stephane; Roe, Bruce; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E

    2003-01-01

    Background Pericentric inversions are the most common euchromatic chromosomal differences among humans and the great apes. The human and chimpanzee karyotype differs by nine such events, in addition to several constitutive heterochromatic increases and one chromosomal fusion event. Reproductive isolation and subsequent speciation are thought to be the potential result of pericentric inversions, as reproductive boundaries form as a result of hybrid sterility. Results Here we employed a comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization approach, using probes selected from a combination of physical mapping, genomic sequence, and segmental duplication analyses to narrow the breakpoint interval of a pericentric inversion in chimpanzee involving the orthologous human 15q11-q13 region. We have refined the inversion breakpoint of this chimpanzee-specific rearrangement to a 600 kilobase (kb) interval of the human genome consisting of entirely duplicated material. Detailed analysis of the underlying sequence indicated that this region comprises multiple segmental duplications, including a previously characterized duplication of the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) in 15q13.3 and several Golgin-linked-to-PML, or LCR15, duplications. Conclusions We conclude that, on the basis of experimental data excluding the CHRNA7 duplicon as the site of inversion, and sequence analysis of regional duplications, the most likely rearrangement site is within a GLP/LCR15 duplicon. This study further exemplifies the genomic plasticity due to the presence of segmental duplications and highlights their importance for a complete understanding of genome evolution. PMID:12914658

  8. MRI in congenital duplication of urethra

    PubMed Central

    Bhadury, S; Parashari, Umesh C; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, Neera

    2009-01-01

    Congenital urethral duplication is a rare anomaly, with less than 200 cases described in the literature. The investigations that are usually performed are micturating cystourethrography (MCU) and retrograde urethrography (RGU), which can diagnose the presence of duplication but cannot diagnose the precise relationship of the duplicated urethra with other pelvic structures. MRI, because of the excellent tissue contrast that it provides and its multiplanar ability, can demonstrate with precision, the size, shape and position of the two urethras. We describe below a case where MRI was able to show this exquisitely. PMID:19881093

  9. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position

    PubMed Central

    Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Context: The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Settings and Design: Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Patients and Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications

  10. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter.

  11. 1500 cases of renal and ureteric calculi treated in an integrated stone centre.

    PubMed

    Das, G; Dick, J; Bailey, M J; Fletcher, M S; Birch, B; Coptcoat, M J; Webb, D R; Kellett, M J; Whitfield, H N; Wickham, J E

    1988-10-01

    Fifteen hundred consecutive cases of renal and ureteric calculi were treated in an integrated stone centre; 1464 of these were treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureterorenoscopy and ureteroscopic lasertripsy. Only 36 (2.4%) required open surgery.

  12. [Endoscopic removal of ureteral calculi in the age of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, F; Heidler, H

    1990-03-15

    High success rates of the shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral stones are only achieved by repeated sessions and auxiliary measures. Therefore no general therapy of choice can be established. If differentiation is made according to certain criteria the endoscopic removal of ureteral calculi still plays an effective role as a significant complement to the shock wave lithotripsy. With a primary success rate of 93% for the distal ureteral stone and a rate of 1.5% for severe complications the endoscopic removal of large and small ureteral calculi indicated by a high risk situation of a vain attempt of a spontaneous stone loss is presenting a highly effective and successful matter of therapy with low risk. These indications are considered unfavourable assumptions for a primary shock wave lithotripsy. The therapeutical concept, results and complications due to ureteroscopy are presented and compared with the shock wave treatment.

  13. Duplication/deletion of chromosome 8p

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, J.H.

    1995-09-11

    The article by Guo et al. provides evidence for deletion of D8S596 loci (assigned to 8p23) in at least some patients with inverted duplications of 8p. Cytogenetic break points forming the inverted duplication are remarkably similar among most of their patients and those reported previously, suggesting a common mechanism for this interesting rearrangement. Why should similar breaks occur in 8p and why is a FISH signal absent in the distal short arm when the ONCOR digoxigenin-labeled probe for loci D8S596 is used? Other studies also indicate that duplication for the region 8p12-p22 is associated with a deletion distal to the duplication itself. 4 refs.

  14. Should we still be doing duplicate immunoassays?

    PubMed Central

    Lester, E; Corns, C

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether, with improvements in radioimmunoassay techniques, duplication is still necessary, the differences between duplicate results for a range of assays done routinely over one month were examined retrospectively. Differences over 10% between duplicates were found in 104/779 (13%) of assays for thyroid stimulating hormone, 27/180 (15%) for total thyroxine, 44/378 (12%) for cortisol, 15/355 (4%) for follicular stimulating hormone, 20/356 (6%) for luteinising hormone, and none for alpha fetoprotein (0/256). In only two of 779 patients (0.26%) would the different result of a pair of thyroid stimulating hormone duplicates have led to different courses of action by the laboratory. None of the other differences in any assay would have resulted in a potential misclassification. Although replication of assays will give more correct results by pure scientific criteria, the improvement is rarely clinically important and the financial cost is considerable. PMID:2461391

  15. Dilated cardiomyopathy due to a phospholamban duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teresa M; Addonizio, Linda J; Chung, Wendy K

    2014-10-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by dilation and impaired systolic function. We present the case of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a 624 kb duplication of 6q22.31, which includes the phospholamban gene. The patient also has failure to thrive and developmental delay due to complex cytogenetic abnormalities including a 5p15 deletion associated with Cri du Chat and an 11p15 duplication associated with Russell-Silver syndrome. PMID:24451198

  16. NASA printing, duplicating, and copying management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook provides information and procedures for the implementation of NASA policy and applicable laws and regulations relating to printing, duplicating, and copying. The topics addressed include a description of relevant laws and regulations, authorizations required, and responsible entities for NASA printing, duplicating, and copying. The policy of NASA is to ensure understanding and application of authority and responsibility on printing matters. Where necessary, the handbook clarifies the intent of basic laws and regulations applicable to NASA.

  17. Multidetector row computed tomography and ultrasound characteristics of caudal vena cava duplication in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Diana, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Caldin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caudal vena cava duplication has been rarely reported in small animals. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics of duplicated caudal vena cava in a large group of dogs. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound databases from two hospitals were searched for canine reports having the diagnosis "double caudal vena cava." One observer reviewed CT images for 71 dogs and two observers reviewed ultrasound images for 21 dogs. In all CT cases, the duplication comprised two vessels that were bilaterally symmetrical and approximately the same calibre (similar to Type I complete duplication in humans). In all ultrasound cases, the duplicated caudal vena cava appeared as a distinct vessel running on the left side of the abdominal segment of the descending aorta and extending from the left common iliac vein to the left renal vein. The prevalence of caudal vena cava duplication was 0.46% for canine ultrasound studies and 2.08% for canine CT studies performed at these hospitals. Median body weight for affected dogs was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (P < 0.0001). Breeds with increased risk for duplicated caudal vena cava were Yorkshire Terrier (odds ratio [OR] = 6.41), Poodle (OR = 7.46), West Highland White Terrier (OR = 6.33), and Maltese (OR = 3.87). Presence of a duplicated caudal vena cava was significantly associated with presence of extrahepatic portosystemic shunt(s) (P < 0.004). While uncommon in dogs, caudal vena cava duplication should be differentiated from other vascular anomalies when planning surgeries and for avoiding misdiagnoses.

  18. Unenhanced CT for the evaluation of acute ureteric colic: the essential pictorial guide.

    PubMed

    Kennish, Steven J; Wah, Tze M; Irving, Henry C

    2010-07-01

    Acute ureteric colic is a common emergency, often dealt with by the emergency physician or general practitioner and referred on to the urologist. Unenhanced CT of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CTKUB) is the 'gold standard' imaging investigation for establishing a diagnosis and guiding management. An appreciation of the CTKUB signs, which support or refute a diagnosis of ureteric colic, is highly valuable to the clinician when making a urological referral, and to the urologist, who must make appropriate management plans. All salient diagnostic and supportive features of ureteric colic are carefully illustrated, as are important radiological mimics, with the objectives of educating and informing the non-radiologist. Ready access to the picture archive and communication system (PACS) allows all specialists involved to interpret the radiological report with the benefit of images. A stone within the ureter may not always be readily apparent. Soft tissue rim sign around a calcific focus is an important indicator of a ureteric stone, whereas a comet tail sign suggests a phlebolith (a calcified venous thrombosis), a radiological mimic of a ureteric stone. Numerous secondary signs of ureteric obstruction may be present including hydronephrosis and perinephric stranding, and can help to confirm the diagnosis. The relative diagnostic weighting of signs is discussed, and a checklist is provided to assist with interpretation. Unexpected alternative radiological diagnoses are also illustrated, which may have significant management consequences necessitating specialist referral. PMID:20634253

  19. Unenhanced CT for the evaluation of acute ureteric colic: the essential pictorial guide.

    PubMed

    Kennish, Steven J; Wah, Tze M; Irving, Henry C

    2010-07-01

    Acute ureteric colic is a common emergency, often dealt with by the emergency physician or general practitioner and referred on to the urologist. Unenhanced CT of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CTKUB) is the 'gold standard' imaging investigation for establishing a diagnosis and guiding management. An appreciation of the CTKUB signs, which support or refute a diagnosis of ureteric colic, is highly valuable to the clinician when making a urological referral, and to the urologist, who must make appropriate management plans. All salient diagnostic and supportive features of ureteric colic are carefully illustrated, as are important radiological mimics, with the objectives of educating and informing the non-radiologist. Ready access to the picture archive and communication system (PACS) allows all specialists involved to interpret the radiological report with the benefit of images. A stone within the ureter may not always be readily apparent. Soft tissue rim sign around a calcific focus is an important indicator of a ureteric stone, whereas a comet tail sign suggests a phlebolith (a calcified venous thrombosis), a radiological mimic of a ureteric stone. Numerous secondary signs of ureteric obstruction may be present including hydronephrosis and perinephric stranding, and can help to confirm the diagnosis. The relative diagnostic weighting of signs is discussed, and a checklist is provided to assist with interpretation. Unexpected alternative radiological diagnoses are also illustrated, which may have significant management consequences necessitating specialist referral.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes: Selection for duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy-metal detoxification. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, I compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Georgia. Contaminated of collection sites and of local flies was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrosphotometry. Six-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications. A subset (327) of these lines was screened for Mto duplications: none were found. Cadmium tolerance test performed on F{sub 2} progeny of wild females failed to detect a difference in tolerance levels between flies from contaminated orchards and flies from control orchards. Estimates of sequence diversity among a subsample (92) of the chromosomes used in the duplication survey, including all 27 Mtn duplication chromosomes, were obtained using four-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis.

  1. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits.

  2. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  3. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  4. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  5. Duplicated Hox genes in the spider Cupiennius salei

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Evelyn E; Schoppmeier, Michael; Pechmann, Matthias; Damen, Wim GM

    2007-01-01

    Background Hox genes are expressed in specific domains along the anterior posterior body axis and define the regional identity. In most animals these genes are organized in a single cluster in the genome and the order of the genes in the cluster is correlated with the anterior to posterior expression of the genes in the embryo. The conserved order of the various Hox gene orthologs in the cluster among most bilaterians implies that such a Hox cluster was present in their last common ancestor. Vertebrates are the only metazoans so far that have been shown to contain duplicated Hox clusters, while all other bilaterians seem to possess only a single cluster. Results We here show that at least three Hox genes of the spider Cupiennius salei are present as two copies in this spider. In addition to the previously described duplicated Ultrabithorax gene, we here present sequence and expression data of a second Deformed gene, and of two Sex comb reduced genes. In addition, we describe the sequence and expression of the Cupiennius proboscipedia gene. The spider Cupiennius salei is the first chelicerate for which orthologs of all ten classes of arthropod Hox genes have been described. The posterior expression boundary of all anterior Hox genes is at the tagma border of the prosoma and opisthosoma, while the posterior boundary of the posterior Hox genes is at the posterior end of the embryo. Conclusion The presence of at least three duplicated Hox genes points to a major duplication event in the lineage to this spider, perhaps even of the complete Hox cluster as has taken place in the lineage to the vertebrates. The combined data of all Cupiennius Hox genes reveal the existence of two distinct posterior expression boundaries that correspond to morphological tagmata boundaries. PMID:17355624

  6. Distal Xq duplication and functional Xq disomy

    PubMed Central

    Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Turleau, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Distal Xq duplications refer to chromosomal disorders resulting from involvement of the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq). Clinical manifestations widely vary depending on the gender of the patient and on the gene content of the duplicated segment. Prevalence of Xq duplications remains unknown. About 40 cases of Xq28 functional disomy due to cytogenetically visible rearrangements, and about 50 cases of cryptic duplications encompassing the MECP2 gene have been reported. The most frequently reported distal duplications involve the Xq28 segment and yield a recognisable phenotype including distinctive facial features (premature closure of the fontanels or ridged metopic suture, broad face with full cheeks, epicanthal folds, large ears, small and open mouth, ear anomalies, pointed nose, abnormal palate and facial hypotonia), major axial hypotonia, severe developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, abnormal genitalia and proneness to infections. Xq duplications may be caused either by an intrachromosomal duplication or an unbalanced X/Y or X/autosome translocation. In XY males, structural X disomy always results in functional disomy. In females, failure of X chromosome dosage compensation could result from a variety of mechanisms, including an unfavourable pattern of inactivation, a breakpoint separating an X segment from the X-inactivation centre in cis, or a small ring chromosome. The MECP2 gene in Xq28 is the most important dosage-sensitive gene responsible for the abnormal phenotype in duplications of distal Xq. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and is confirmed by CGH array techniques. Differential diagnoses include Prader-Willi syndrome and Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked (ATR-X). The recurrence risk is significant if a structural rearrangement is present in one of the parent, the most frequent situation being that of an intrachromosomal duplication inherited from the mother. Prenatal diagnosis is performed by cytogenetic testing

  7. Late ureteral obstruction in an adult who had STING/Teflon in childhood: Should we expect an epidemic?

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Shilo; Lorber, Amitay; Landau, Ezekiel H; Pode, Dov; Gofrit, Ofer N; Hidas, Guy; Duvdevani, Mordechai; Sfoungaristos, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of left renal colic in a 25-year-old female patient. She had subureteral injection of Teflon (STING) at the age of 10 due to vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) disease and recurrent urinary tract infections. Renal colic was the result of late ureteral obstruction due to Teflon-induced periureteral foreign body reaction. To our knowledge, this is the longest interval between STING and ureteral obstruction reported and the first case of delayed ureteral obstruction caused by Teflon. Monitoring the upper tracts of patients after STING should go beyond childhood. PMID:26664516

  8. Characterization of nanostructured ureteral stent with gradient degradation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Shan, Hongli; Wang, Jixue; Hou, Yuchuan; Ding, Jianxun; Chen, Qihui; Guan, Jingjing; Wang, Chunxi; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) ureteral stent composed of nanofibers with micropores was fabricated by double-needle electrospinning. The stent was ureteroscopically inserted into six Changbai pigs, and the commercial polyurethane Shagong® stent was inserted into four pigs as control. Intravenous pyelography revealed that the PCL/PLGA stent gradually degraded from the distal end to proximal terminal, and all stents were completely degraded at 10 weeks post-insertion. No significant difference was observed in hydronephrosis severity between the two groups. The levels of serum creatinine and urine pH remained similar throughout the study in the two groups, but the number of white blood cells in the urine was significantly higher in the Shagong® stent group. On Day 70, histological evaluation indicated equivalent histological severity scores in the middle and distal ureter sections and bladder in the two groups. However, the PCL/PLGA stent-implanted pigs had significantly lower mean severity scores in the kidney and proximal ureter sites. These data revealed that the PCL/PLGA stent degraded in a controlled manner, did not induce obstruction, and had a lower urothelial impact in comparison to the Shagong® stent, indicating that the stent exhibited great potential for clinical application. PMID:25945051

  9. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. Results We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual’s daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR), and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. Conclusion The observations of a mildly affected adult male with a MECP2 duplication and

  10. Gene duplication in tetraploid fish: model for gene silencing at unlinked duplicated loci.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, G S; Poulter, R T; Stockwell, P A

    1978-01-01

    Several groups of fishes, including salmonids and catastomids, appear to have originated through genome duplication events. However, these two groups retain approximately 50% of the loci examined as functioning duplicates, despite the passage of 50 million years or more of mutation and selection. Although other effects are not excluded, this apparently slow rate of duplicate silencing can be explained in terms of the effects of selection against defective double homozygotes to unlinked duplicates. We have derived a computer simulation of genetic drift that affords direct evaluation of the effects of population size (N), mutation rate (micron), initial allele frequencies, back mutation, fitness, and time on the probability of fixation for null alleles at unlinked duplicate loci. The results show that this probability is approximately linearly related to population size for N greater than or equal to 10(3). Specifically, for naive populations, the time for 50% probability of gene silencing is approximately equal to 15N + micron-3/4 generations. The retention of 50% of the loci as functional duplicates may therefore result from the large effective size of salmonid and catastomid populations. The results also show that, under most conditions for populations of 2000--3000 or larger, unlinked duplicate loci will be sustained in the functional state longer than tandem (linked) duplicates and hence are available for evolution of new functions for a longer time. PMID:281706

  11. Do Children Think that Duplicating the Body also Duplicates the Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce; Gjersoe, Nathalia L.; Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers use hypothetical duplication scenarios to explore intuitions about personal identity. Here we examined 5- to 6-year-olds' intuitions about the physical properties and memories of a live hamster that is apparently duplicated by a machine. In Study 1, children thought that more of the original's physical properties than episodic…

  12. A conserved segmental duplication within ELA.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer-Langford, C L; Murphy, W J; Childers, C P; Skow, L C

    2010-12-01

    The assembled genomic sequence of the horse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (equine lymphocyte antigen, ELA) is very similar to the homologous human HLA, with the notable exception of a large segmental duplication at the boundary of ELA class I and class III that is absent in HLA. The segmental duplication consists of a ∼ 710 kb region of at least 11 repeated blocks: 10 blocks each contain an MHC class I-like sequence and the helicase domain portion of a BAT1-like sequence, and the remaining unit contains the full-length BAT1 gene. Similar genomic features were found in other Perissodactyls, indicating an ancient origin, which is consistent with phylogenetic analyses. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA from peripheral white blood cells of healthy and chronically or acutely infected horses detected transcription from predicted open reading frames in several of the duplicated blocks. This duplication is not present in the sequenced MHCs of most other mammals, although a similar feature at the same relative position is present in the feline MHC (FLA). Striking sequence conservation throughout Perissodactyl evolution is consistent with a functional role for at least some of the genes included within this segmental duplication.

  13. Initial Experience with the Resonance Metallic Stent for Antegrade Ureteric Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Tze M. Irving, Henry C.; Cartledge, Jon

    2007-07-15

    Background and purpose. We describe our initial experience with a new metallic ureteric stent which has been designed to provide long-term urinary drainage in patients with malignant ureteric strictures. The aim is to achieve longer primary patency rates than conventional polyurethane ureteric stents, where encrustation and compression by malignant masses limit primary patency. The Resonance metallic double-pigtail ureteric stent (Cook, Ireland) is constructed from coiled wire spirals of a corrosion-resistant alloy designed to minimize tissue in-growth and resist encrustation, and the manufacturer recommends interval stent change at 12 months. Methods. Seventeen Resonance stents were inserted via an antegrade approach into 15 patients between December 2004 and March 2006. The causes of ureteric obstruction were malignancies of the bladder (n = 4), colon (n = 3), gynecologic (n = 5), and others (n = 3). Results. One patient had the stent changed after 12 months, and 3 patients had their stents changed at 6 months. These stents were draining adequately with minimal encrustation. Four patients are still alive with functioning stents in situ for 2-10 months. Seven patients died with functioning stents in place (follow-up periods of 1 week to 8 months). Three stents failed from the outset due to bulky pelvic malignancy resulting in high intravesical pressure, as occurs with conventional plastic stents. Conclusion. Our initial experience with the Resonance metallic ureteric stent indicates that it may provide adequate long-term urinary drainage (up to 12 months) in patients with malignant ureteric obstruction but without significantly bulky pelvic disease. This obviates the need for regular stent changes and would offer significant benefit for these patients with limited life expectancy.

  14. [Stone Cone® in ureteroscopic ballistic lithotripsy of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Arancio, M; Guglielmetti, S; Delsignore, A; Landi, A; Marchetti, C; Mina, A; Marcato, M; Martinengo, C

    2008-01-01

    Stone Cone® (Microvasive-Boston Scientific Corp, USA) is a device which prevents retrograde calculus migration during endoscopic ureterolithotripsy. We have studied the safety and efficacy of this device in endoscopic ureterolithotripsy with ballistic energy in proximal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 01/02/2006 to 01/02/2008 we carried out 36 ureterorenoscopies (URS) for proximal ureteral stones (average age: 46, range: 15-73). A ballistic energy was used for stones fragmentation. In 18 patients (Group A) we carried out URS with the aid of Stone Cone®, which was not used in the other 18 patients (Group B). Semirigid 8 Ch or 10 Ch Storz ureteroscope and ballistic lithotriptor Swiss Lithoclast Master EMS® were used. In cases of migration, edema, and ureteral damage, a ureteral stent was used. RESULTS. In Group B patients (URS performed without Stone Cone®) the migration of the whole stone, or of clinically significant fragments, occurred 8 times (45%). All of these patients underwent external shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) at a center equipped with a lithotriptor. A ureteral stent was placed in 14 cases (78%). In Group A, the migration of a stone requiring ESWL treatment occurred only once (5%). The ureteral stent was placed 8 times (45%). We had no significant complications during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS. The Stone Cone® is a safe and easy-to-use device. The cost of this device can be balanced by the reduction of postoperative ESWL treatments for lithiasic fragments pushing up into the kidneys (p<0.01), and of ureteral stent applications at the end of the procedure (p<0.05).

  15. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over

  16. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over

  17. Ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents by CO2 impregnation: In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Carlos; Reis, Rui L; Lima, Estevão; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2015-11-30

    Ureteral stents are indispensable tools in urologic practice. The main complications associated with ureteral stents are dislocation, infection, pain and encrustation. Biodegradable ureteral stents are one of the most attractive designs with the potential to eliminate several complications associated with the stenting procedure. In this work we hypothesize the impregnation of ketoprofen, by CO2-impregnation in a patented biodegradable ureteral stent previously developed in our group. The biodegradable ureteral stents with each formulation: alginate-based, gellan gum-based were impregnated with ketoprofen and the impregnation conditions tested were 100 bar, 2 h and three different temperatures (35 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C). The impregnation was confirmed by FTIR and DSC demonstrated the amorphization of the drug upon impregnation. The in vitro elution profile in artificial urine solution (AUS) during degradation of a biodegradable ureteral stent loaded with ketoprofen was evaluated. According to the kinetics results these systems have shown to be very promising for the release ketoprofen in the first 72 h, which is the necessary time for anti-inflammatory delivery after the surgical procedure. The in vitro release studied revealed an influence of the temperature on the impregnation yield, with a higher impregnation yield at 40 °C. Higher yields were also obtained for gellan gum-based stents. The non-cytotoxicity characteristic of the developed ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents was evaluated in L929 cell line by MTS assay which demonstrated the feasibility of this product as a medical device.

  18. Is the Routine Check Nephrostogram Following Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteric Stent Placement Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Tay, Kiang Hiong Tan, Bien Soo; MM Htoo, Austin; HG Lo, Richard; Lin, Shueh En

    2008-05-15

    Our aim was to review our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent (PAUS) placement and to determine if the routinely conducted check nephrostogram on the day following ureteric stent placement was necessary. Retrospective review of patients who had undergone PAUS placement between January 2004 and December 2005 was performed. There were 83 subjects (36 males, 47 females), with a mean age of 59.9 years (range, 22-94 years). Average follow-up duration was 7.1 months (range, 1-24 months). The most common indications for PAUS placement were ureteric obstruction due to metastatic disease (n = 56) and urinary calculi (n = 34). Technical success was 93.2% (96/103 attempts), with no major immediate procedure-related complications or mortalities. The Bard 7Fr Urosoft DJ Stent was used in more than 95% of the cases. Eighty-one of 89 (91.0%) check nephrostograms demonstrated a patent ureteric stent with resultant safety catheter removal. Three check nephrostograms revealed distal stent migration requiring repositioning by a goose-snare, while five others showed stent occlusion necessitating permanent external drainage by nephrostomy drainage catheter reinsertion. Following PAUS placement, the serum creatinine level improved or stabilized in 82% of patients. The serum creatinine outcome difference between the groups with benign and malignant indications for PAUS placement was not statistically significant (p = 0.145) but resolution of hydronephrosis was significantly better (p = 0.008) in patients with benign indications. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placement is a safe and effective means of relief for ureteric obstruction. The check nephrostogram following ureteric stent placement was unnecessary in the majority of patients.

  19. Socioeconomic evaluation of the treatment of ureteral lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rombi, T; Triantafyllidis, A; Fotas, A; Konstantinidis, T; Touloupidis, S

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: This study attempts to estimate the socioeconomic differences between three major alternatives for the management of upper and lower ureteral lithiasis. Material and methods: Two hundred and forty patients with upper and lower ureteral lithiasis, have been studied retrospectively, divided in six equal groups of forty. These patients have been treated either by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), or with ureteroscopy with semirigid ureteroscope and the use of pneumatic lithoclast, or with ureteroscopy with flexible ureteroscope and the use of Holmium YAG Laser. For cost calculation, the reimbursement fee paid by insurance to the hospital was taken into account. For the estimation of the social burden, the length of hospital stay and the number of outpatient visits have been included as countable parameters. Results: The percentage of effective stone removal for upper ureter was 81.0% for SWL, 62.5% for ureteroscopy with semirigid ureteroscope and the use of pneumatic lithoclast and, 82.5% for ureteroscopy with flexible ureteroscope and the use of Holmium YAG Laser. The same percentages for lower ureter were 82.5%, 92.5% and 97.5% respectively. The cost of stone removal for both the upper and lower ureter using extracorporeal lithotripsy was significantly higher compared to the other two procedures (median cost for upper ureter 828 € vs 474.50 € and 396 € respectively, and for lower ureter 826 € vs 396 € and 271 €, p<0.001). Regarding the social aspect, SWL is mainly an outpatient procedure, requiring a short hospital stay (for upper ureter 1.63 vs 2.48 and 2.45 respectively and for lower ureter 1.35 vs 2.43 and 2.13days), but needing more and prevailing clinic visits (for upper ureter 1.43 vs 1.45 and 1 respectively and for lower ureter 1.45 vs 1.15 and 0.55 visitsgive numbers, compare), both in outpatient and in accident and emergency (A&E) department. Conclusion: The increase in the expenses with regard to health management

  20. Collagen studies in newborn rat kidneys with incomplete ureteric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Haralambous-Gasser, A; Chan, D; Walker, R G; Powell, H R; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1993-09-01

    Collagen studies in newborn rats with incomplete ureteric obstruction were performed to describe and quantify changes in collagen deposition resulting from urinary tract obstruction at an early developmental age. Incomplete ureteric obstruction was created in three-day-old rats by placing the left ureter in a tunnel formed by the psoas muscle, and sham-operated controls underwent a laparotomy. The rats were sacrificed at 10, 17, 24 or 31 days. Collagen types I, III, IV, and V were localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the total collagen content of the kidney was quantitated using hydroxyproline analysis, and collagen types I and III were quantitated using cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptide analysis. Increased immunofluorescent staining for all of the collagens was found in the diffusely widened medullary interstitium of the obstructed kidney, and more focally in the cortical interstitium. Collagen types I, III and V, but not collagen type IV, were also found in bands in the interstitium at the junction of the cortex with the medulla. Increased staining for collagen type IV was found in thickened and tortuous tubular basement membranes (TBM) of the obstructed kidneys. The total collagen content of the obstructed kidney was significantly increased compared to the amounts in both the contralateral kidneys and in the kidneys from sham-operated controls at 24 and 31 days of age (P < 0.01 in each case, Wilcoxon matched pairs rank sum test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively). The amount of collagen in the kidneys correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis (Spearman correlation test, r = 0.78, P < 0.02). CNBr peptide analysis demonstrated that over 50% of the collagen in the normal neonatal rat kidney was collagen type I and approximately 25% was collagen type III. In the obstructed kidneys most of the collagen was also collagen type I and collagen type III, although the proportion of total collagen comprised by these collagen types was decreased compared

  1. Genome Duplication: The Heartbeat of Developing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism that duplicates the nuclear genome during the trillions of cell divisions required to develop from zygote to adult is the same throughout the eukarya, but the mechanisms that determine where, when and how much nuclear genome duplication occur regulate development and differ among the eukarya. They allow organisms to change the rate of cell proliferation during development, to activate zygotic gene expression independently of DNA replication, and to restrict nuclear DNA replication to once per cell division. They allow specialized cells to exit their mitotic cell cycle and differentiate into polyploid cells, and in some cases, to amplify the number of copies of specific genes. It is genome duplication that drives evolution, by virtue of the errors that inevitably occur when the same process is repeated trillions of times. It is, unfortunately, the same errors that produce age-related genetic disorders such as cancer. PMID:26970621

  2. Retroperitoneal alimentary tract duplications detected in utero.

    PubMed

    Duncan, B W; Adzick, N S; Eraklis, A

    1992-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of numerous congenital anomalies has become routine. The prenatal diagnosis of cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum can be due to a variety of renal, gastrointestinal, or adrenal lesions. This finding demands aggressive postnatal follow-up to rule out the possibility of cystic adrenal neuroblastoma. We report the first cases of retroperitoneal cystic masses diagnosed in utero that ultimately proved to be enteric duplications. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the retroperitoneum found prenatally should be expanded to include enteric duplication cysts.

  3. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD) occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4), a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish), Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes), the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD) and the DNA binding domain (DBD). Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be connected to the well

  4. Chronic kidney disease induced in mice by reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction is dependent on genetic background.

    PubMed

    Puri, Tipu S; Shakaib, Mohammed I; Chang, Anthony; Mathew, Liby; Olayinka, Oladunni; Minto, Andrew W M; Sarav, Menaka; Hack, Bradley K; Quigg, Richard J

    2010-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) begins with renal injury; the progression thereafter depends upon a number of factors, including genetic background. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-described model of renal fibrosis and as such is considered a model of CKD. We used an improved reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (rUUO) model in mice to study the strain dependence of development of CKD after obstruction-mediated injury. C57BL/6 mice developed CKD after reversal of three or more days of ureteral obstruction as assessed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurements (>40 mg/dl). In contrast, BALB/c mice were resistant to CKD with up to 10 days ureteral obstruction. During rUUO, C57BL/6 mice exhibited pronounced inflammatory and intrinsic proliferative cellular responses, disruption of renal architecture, and ultimately fibrosis. By comparison, BALB/c mice had more controlled and measured extrinsic and intrinsic responses to injury with a return to normal within several weeks after release of ureteral obstruction. Our findings provide a model that allows investigation of the genetic basis of events during recovery from injury that contribute to the development of CKD.

  5. Flexible Ureteroscopy Can Be More Efficacious in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones in Select Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Erdal; Sarıbacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Basar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of two endoscopic treatment procedures, semirigid ureteroscopy (SR-URS) and flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS), in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones (PUS). Methods. SR-URS (group 1) was done on 68 patients whereas 64 patients underwent F-URS (group 2) for the treatment of PUS. Success rate was defined as the absence of stone fragments or presence of asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments < 2 mm. Outcomes and complications were recorded. Results. The differences were statistically not significant in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and stone characteristics between groups. Mean ureteral stone size was 9.1 ± 0.4 mm and 8.9 ± 0.5 mm for groups 1 and 2. Mean operative time was 34.1 ± 1.5 min and 49.4 ± 2.3 min for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001). SFRs were 76.5% and 87.5% for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.078). Two major complications (ureteral avulsion and ureteral rupture) occurred in group 1. Conclusion. F-URS is safer and less invasive than SR-URS in patients with PUS. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of either technique. Nonetheless we recommend F-URS in the management of PUS as a first-line treatment option in select cases of proximal ureteral calculi. PMID:26617636

  6. Flexible Ureteroscopy Can Be More Efficacious in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones in Select Patients.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Erdal; Sarıbacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Basar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of two endoscopic treatment procedures, semirigid ureteroscopy (SR-URS) and flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS), in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones (PUS). Methods. SR-URS (group 1) was done on 68 patients whereas 64 patients underwent F-URS (group 2) for the treatment of PUS. Success rate was defined as the absence of stone fragments or presence of asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments < 2 mm. Outcomes and complications were recorded. Results. The differences were statistically not significant in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and stone characteristics between groups. Mean ureteral stone size was 9.1 ± 0.4 mm and 8.9 ± 0.5 mm for groups 1 and 2. Mean operative time was 34.1 ± 1.5 min and 49.4 ± 2.3 min for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001). SFRs were 76.5% and 87.5% for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.078). Two major complications (ureteral avulsion and ureteral rupture) occurred in group 1. Conclusion. F-URS is safer and less invasive than SR-URS in patients with PUS. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of either technique. Nonetheless we recommend F-URS in the management of PUS as a first-line treatment option in select cases of proximal ureteral calculi. PMID:26617636

  7. Percutaneous Therapy of Ureteral Obstructions and Leak After Renal Transplantation: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, Cueneyt Boyvat, Fatih; Harman, Ali; Ozyer, Umut; Colak, Turan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of percutaneous therapy of ureteral complications after renal transplantation. Between January 2000 and June 2006 we percutaneously treated 26 renal transplant patients with ureteral obstruction (n=19) and leak (n=7). Obstructions were classified as early (<2 months after transplantation) or late (>2 months). Patients with leak were treated with nephro-ureteral catheter placement and subsequent double-J stenting. Balloon dilatation, stent placement, and basket extraction were used to treat ureteral obstructions. Patients were followed with ultrasonography. No major procedure-related complication occurred. The mean follow-up time was 34.3 months (range: 6 to 74 months). Initial clinical success was achieved in all 19 patients with obstruction and 6 of 7 patients with leak. Four of 9 early obstructions and 4 of 10 late obstructions recurred during the follow-up. All recurrences were initially managed again with percutaneous methods, including cutting balloon technique and metallic stent placement. Although there was no recurrence in patients with successfully treated leak, stricture was seen at the previous leak site in two patients. These strictures were also successfully managed percutaneously. We conclude that in the treatment of ureteral obstruction and leak following renal transplantation, percutaneous therapy is an effective alternative to surgery. However, further interventions are usually needed to maintain long-term patency.

  8. [A CASE OF RIGHT PYONEPHROSIS DUE TO URETERAL STONES IN A HEMODIALYSIS PATIENT].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akiou; Yosimoto, Keiichi; Fuse, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old male with right pyonephrosis due to ureteral stones in association with chronic renal failure. The patient had been treated with hemodialysis for fourteen years. He was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of Kurobe City Hospital with chief complaints of fever and lumbago in January 2013. CT demonstrated a right pyonephrosis accompanied by right ureteral stones positioned in the middle and lower ureter. The stones could not be detected by KUB. He was consequently referred to the Department of Urology. Firstly, percutaneous nephrostomy for the right kidney was performed, and 200 ml of pyuria was discharged at that time. Urine culture demonstrated Escherichia coli. Secondly, rigid transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) for the right ureteral stones was performed using Lithoclast, and a ureteral stent was indwelled on day 15 after nephrostomy construction. The nephrostomy catheter and ureteral stent were removed 10 and 21 days after the operation, respectively. The constituents of the stone were CaOx (26%) and CaP (74%). Right hydronephrosis improved and the patient showed no pyelonephritis for 1 year postoperatively.

  9. Degradation and antibacterial properties of magnesium alloys in artificial urine for potential resorbable ureteral stent applications.

    PubMed

    Lock, Jaclyn Y; Wyatt, Eric; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Whall, Andrew; Nuñez, Vicente; Vullev, Valentine I; Liu, Huinan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an investigation on the effectiveness of magnesium and its alloys as a novel class of antibacterial and biodegradable materials for ureteral stent applications. Magnesium is a lightweight and biodegradable metallic material with beneficial properties for use in medical devices. Ureteral stent is one such example of a medical device that is widely used to treat ureteral canal blockages clinically. The bacterial colony formation coupled with the encrustation on the stent surface from extended use often leads to clinical complications and contributes to the failure of indwelling medical devices. We demonstrated that magnesium alloys decreased Escherichia coli viability and reduced the colony forming units over a 3-day incubation period in an artificial urine (AU) solution when compared with currently used commercial polyurethane stent. Moreover, the magnesium degradation resulted in alkaline pH and increased magnesium ion concentration in the AU solution. The antibacterial and degradation properties support the potential use of magnesium-based materials for next-generation ureteral stents. Further studies are needed for clinical translation of biodegradable metallic ureteral stents.

  10. Optimal management of distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Justin; Schiefer, Danielle; Aboalsamh, Ghaleb; Archambault, Jason; Luke, Patrick P; Sener, Alp

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to define optimal management of distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation. A systematic review on PubMed identified 34 articles (385 patients). Primary endpoints were success rates and complications of specific primary and secondary treatments (following failure of primary treatment). Among primary treatments (n = 303), the open approach had 85.4% success (95% CI 72.5-93.1) and the endourological approach had 64.3% success (95% CI 58.3-69.9). Among secondary treatments (n = 82), the open approach had 93.1% success (95% CI 77.0-99.2) and the endourological approach had 75.5% success (95% CI 62.3-85.2). The most common primary open treatment was ureteric reimplantation (n = 33, 81.8% success, 95% CI 65.2-91.8). The most common primary endourological treatment was dilation (n = 133, 58.6% success, 95% CI 50.1-66.7). Fourteen complications, including death (4 weeks post-op) and graft loss (12 days post-op), followed endourological treatment. One complication followed open treatment. This is the first systematic review to examine the success rates and complications of specific treatments for distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation. Our review indicates that open management has higher success rates and fewer complications than endourological management as a primary and secondary treatment for post-transplant distal ureteric strictures. We also outline a post-transplant ureteric stricture evaluation and treatment algorithm.

  11. Gene duplication and the origins of morphological complexity in pancrustacean eyes, a genomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Duplication and divergence of genes and genetic networks is hypothesized to be a major driver of the evolution of complexity and novel features. Here, we examine the history of genes and genetic networks in the context of eye evolution by using new approaches to understand patterns of gene duplication during the evolution of metazoan genomes. We hypothesize that 1) genes involved in eye development and phototransduction have duplicated and are retained at higher rates in animal clades that possess more distinct types of optical design; and 2) genes with functional relationships were duplicated and lost together, thereby preserving genetic networks. To test these hypotheses, we examine the rates and patterns of gene duplication and loss evident in 19 metazoan genomes, including that of Daphnia pulex - the first completely sequenced crustacean genome. This is of particular interest because the pancrustaceans (hexapods+crustaceans) have more optical designs than any other major clade of animals, allowing us to test specifically whether the high amount of disparity in pancrustacean eyes is correlated with a higher rate of duplication and retention of vision genes. Results Using protein predictions from 19 metazoan whole-genome projects, we found all members of 23 gene families known to be involved in eye development or phototransduction and deduced their phylogenetic relationships. This allowed us to estimate the number and timing of gene duplication and loss events in these gene families during animal evolution. When comparing duplication/retention rates of these genes, we found that the rate was significantly higher in pancrustaceans than in either vertebrates or non-pancrustacean protostomes. Comparing patterns of co-duplication across Metazoa showed that while these eye-genes co-duplicate at a significantly higher rate than those within a randomly shuffled matrix, many genes with known functional relationships in model organisms did not co-duplicate more

  12. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion to relieve ureteral obstruction in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Chalmers, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe hydroureter and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction by calculus were present in a guinea pig. A palliative ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion was performed under general anesthesia to relieve the ureteral obstruction and the associated clinical signs. We describe the technique and the considerations for its potential application in similar cases. PMID:24293674

  13. Procalcitonin is a strong predictor of urine culture results in patients with obstructing ureteral stones: A prospective, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulos, Dimitri; Whelan, Patrick; Ahmad, Waseem; Rybak, James; Hota, Bala; Deane, Leslie; Nehra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The appropriate management of infected obstructing ureteral calculi is prompt genitourinary decompression. Urine cultures are the gold standard for confirming infection but often take 24–48 h to result. Although white blood cell (WBC) count is an important diagnostic laboratory test, it is a nonspecific inflammatory marker. Similarly, urinalysis (UA) can be misleading in the setting of a contaminated sample, bladder colonization, or in cases of a completely obstructed the upper urinary tract. Procalcitonin (PCT) has shown promise in predicting the presence and degree of bacterial infections. In this proof-of-concept study, we explore whether PCT is effective at predicting concomitant infections in the setting of obstructing ureteral stones. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, single-institution observational pilot study examining adult patients who presented to the emergency room with acute obstructing ureterolithiasis. In total, 22 patients were enrolled. At the time of presentation, data obtained were vital signs, WBC count, PCT, UA, urine, and blood cultures. Fisher-exact two-tailed t-tests and receiver operating characteristic statistics with area under the curve (AUC) calculations were used to determine the correlation between urine culture results and PCT, WBC count, nitrite-positive UA, heart rate, and fever. Results: In total, 5/22 patients had bacteria-positive urine cultures. PCT (P = 0.020) and nitrite-positive UA (0.024) were the only statistically significant predictors of urine culture results. In comparing the AUC, PCT (0.812) was strongly correlated with eventual urine culture results. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept pilot study gives encouraging results, in that PCT was a good predictor of positive cultures (P = 0.02, AUC 0.812). Given, the small sample size, one cannot directly compare PCT to other markers of infection. However, PCT shows promise in this arena and warrants future investigation. PMID:27453647

  14. Concomitant inhibition of renin angiotensin system and Toll-like receptor 2 attenuates renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstructed mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sarah; Jeong, Jin Young; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki Ryang; Lim, Beom Jin; Lee, Kang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: There has been controversy about the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in renal injury following ureteric obstruction. Although inhibition of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) reduces TLR2 expression in mice, the exact relationship between TLR2 and RAS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether the RAS modulates TLR2. Methods: We used 8-week-old male wild type (WT) and TLR2-knockout (KO) mice on a C57Bl/6 background. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was induced by complete ligation of the left ureter. Angiotensin (Ang) II (1,000 ng/kg/min) and the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (25 mg/kg/day) were administrated to mice using an osmotic minipump. Molecular and histologic evaluations were performed. Results: Ang II infusion increased mRNA expression of TLR2 in WT mouse kidneys (p < 0.05). The expression of renin mRNA in TLR2-KO UUO kidneys was significantly higher than that in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). There were no differences in tissue injury score or mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), or transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between TLR2-KO UUO and WT UUO kidneys. However, aliskiren decreased the tissue injury score and mRNA expression of TLR2, MCP-1, OPN, and TGF-β in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). Aliskiren-treated TLR2-KO UUO kidneys showed less kidney injury than aliskiren-treated WT UUO kidneys. Conclusions: TLR2 deletion induced activation of the RAS in UUO kidneys. Moreover, inhibition of both RAS and TLR2 had an additive ameliorative effect on UUO injury of the kidney. PMID:26932402

  15. External iliac vein – transplant ureteral fistula combined with renal cell carcinoma: an unusual case of hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jin-dan; Liu, Ben; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Xiang-lai; Li, Shi-qi; Cai, Song-liang; Wang, Yi-min

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein-ureteral fistula is a rare cause of hematuria. The diagnosis of an iliac vein-ureteral fistula can be elusive even with the use of multiple methods. With regards to the treatment, there appears to be a shift in management from primarily open surgical to primarily angiographic management. We present a unique case of an external iliac vein – transplant ureteral fistula. A 48 year-old female complained of recurrent gross hematuria. She underwent transplant nephrectomy and radical left nephrectomy because of rejection of transplanted kidney and cystic renal cell carcinoma when the hematuria arose for the first time. Ten months later, the hematuria recurred again, and cystoscopy showed bleeding from the right transplant ureteral orifice. Open exploration confirmed the diagnosis of external iliac vein – transplant ureteral fistula. Diagnostic difficulties and treatment dilemma of such a rare cause of hematuria are also discussed. PMID:25092990

  16. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  17. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  18. Children Prefer Certain Individuals over Perfect Duplicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce M.; Bloom, Paul.

    2008-01-01

    Adults value certain unique individuals--such as artwork, sentimental possessions, and memorabilia--more than perfect duplicates. Here we explore the origins of this bias in young children, by using a conjurer's illusion where we appear to produce identical copies of real-world objects. In Study 1, young children were less likely to accept an…

  19. Wanda: a database of duplicated fish genes

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Yves; Taylor, John S.; Joseph, Jayabalan; Meyer, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomics has shown that ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) contain more copies of many genes than other vertebrates. A large number of these additional genes appear to have been produced during a genome duplication event that occurred early during the evolution of Actinopterygii (i.e. before the teleost radiation). In addition to this ancient genome duplication event, many lineages within Actinopterygii have experienced more recent genome duplications. Here we introduce a curated database named Wanda that lists groups of orthologous genes with one copy from man, mouse and chicken, one or two from tetraploid Xenopus and two or more ancient copies (i.e. paralogs) from ray-finned fish. The database also contains the sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees that were necessary for determining the correct orthologous and paralogous relationships among genes. Where available, map positions and functional data are also reported. The Wanda database should be of particular use to evolutionary and developmental biologists who are interested in the evolutionary and functional divergence of genes after duplication. Wanda is available at http://www.evolutionsbiologie.uni-konstanz.de/Wanda/. PMID:11752268

  20. 15 CFR 750.9 - Duplicate licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with the recordkeeping provisions of part 762 of the EAR. (b) Hong Kong Trade Department. BIS will automatically issue a duplicate license whenever the license lists a party in Hong Kong as the intermediate consignee, or when Hong Kong is identified as the country from which the reexport will take place....

  1. 15 CFR 750.9 - Duplicate licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with the recordkeeping provisions of part 762 of the EAR. (b) Hong Kong Trade Department. BIS will automatically issue a duplicate license whenever the license lists a party in Hong Kong as the intermediate consignee, or when Hong Kong is identified as the country from which the reexport will take place....

  2. 15 CFR 750.9 - Duplicate licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the recordkeeping provisions of part 762 of the EAR. (b) Hong Kong Trade Department. BIS will automatically issue a duplicate license whenever the license lists a party in Hong Kong as the intermediate consignee, or when Hong Kong is identified as the country from which the reexport will take place....

  3. 15 CFR 750.9 - Duplicate licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duplicate licenses. 750.9 Section 750.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS APPLICATION PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.9...

  4. 15 CFR 750.9 - Duplicate licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with the recordkeeping provisions of part 762 of the EAR. (b) Hong Kong Trade Department. BIS will automatically issue a duplicate license whenever the license lists a party in Hong Kong as the intermediate consignee, or when Hong Kong is identified as the country from which the reexport will take place....

  5. Ureteral rupture after blunt abdominal trauma in a child with unknown horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Mariotto, Arianna; Zampieri, Nicola; Cecchetto, Mariangela; Camoglio, Francesco Saverio

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of renal injuries in children result from blunt abdominal trauma. A 10-year-old female had a blunt abdominal trauma with macro-hematuria. The computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a horseshoe kidney and a 3rd grade renal lesion and contrast leakage from the right ureter. The ureteral rupture was confirmed by cystoscopy and ascendant pyelography and than a double J-stent was implanted. The stent was removed one month later. Non-surgical management has become the standard of care for both ureteral and renal lesions in children. Non-surgical treatment is a safe procedure for renal trauma with ureteral rupture in children. PMID:26429120

  6. The treatment of ureteric calculi before and after the introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Gade, J; Holtveg, H; Nielsen, O S; Rasmussen, O V

    1995-09-01

    Indications and treatment results of ureteric calculi one year before and one year after the introduction of ESWL were analysed in 169 consecutive patients. Sex, age, former stone operation, stone localisation and stone size were not significantly different in the two groups. Before ESW1 47% of the patients received treatment against 54% after the introduction (p > 0.3). There was no tendency towards treatment of smaller calculi. Expectedly, the number of endoscopies and ureterolithotomies was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The treatment period (from first contact till final control) was longer with ESWL, but not significantly. Judged from the length of the hospital stay there was no major economic benefit from ESWL. In conclusion, ESWL with a second generation lithotriptor is suitable for in situ treatment of ureteric calculi. It should be first choice for ureteric calculi.

  7. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of the ureteral calculus--clinical results with local shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Wilbert, D M; Voges, G E; Müller, S C; Alken, P

    1987-11-01

    Second generation local shockwave lithotripsy appliances (Lithostar) were used for the treatment of upper and lower ureteral stones in 199 patients, 145 of whom had upper ureteral stones. In 78 patients the calculi were pushed back and all but one disintegrated. In 33 patients a catheter was inserted past the stone, which resulted of primary disintegration in 66%. In 19 of 34 patients (56%) in whom the stones could not be moved, primary disintegration was achieved. Distal ureteral stones were present in 54 patients and these were treated successfully by ESWL alone in 83.3%. Auxiliary measures (total 10%) included ureteroscopy, percutaneous extraction and ureterolithotomy. The results are discussed under the aspects of 'in situ' versus 'push-and-smash' procedures.

  8. [Role of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy without anesthesia in the treatment of ureteral calculi].

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Sauter, T; Bachor, R; Hautmann, R

    1989-01-01

    With anesthesia-free lithotripsy recently being available, the discussion upon the treatment of choice of ureteral calculi has been renewed: is a preliminary retrograde manipulation still preferable for proximal calculi? Is ureteroscopy the better treatment for stones in the lower ureter? The retrospective evaluation of our patients with ureteral calculi (January-August 1988) failed to reveal a significantly compromised efficiency with the modified HM-3 lithotripter (40 nF. generator, 17 cm. ellipsoid): 70% (including 11% with repeated sessions) of the patients with proximal stones and 90% (including 28% with repeated sessions) of the patients with distal calculi were successfully treated in situ without the need for anesthesia, auxiliary measures, or ureteroscopy. These results do not substantially differ from those obtained with the old HM-3 in 1987, and confirm, that the majority of patients with ureteral calculi can bypass the discomfort of retrograde manipulation or the risks of ureteroscopy.

  9. Ureteral calculi: natural history and treatment in an era of advanced technology.

    PubMed

    Morse, R M; Resnick, M I

    1991-02-01

    Patients with ureteral stones may be managed expectantly, or treated with a variety of invasive and noninvasive techniques depending on stone composition, size and location, expectations of the patient and experience of the surgeon. Of 378 patients with documented ureteral calculi 60% passed the stones spontaneously. Passage rates from the proximal, middle and distal ureter were 22, 46 and 71%, respectively. Basketing under fluoroscopic control of distal stones was successful in 79% of the attempts and for those in whom this approach failed ureteroscopy was performed, with a success rate of 90%. When ureteroscopy was used as the initial treatment of distal stones removal was achieved in 81% of the patients. These statistics serve as a reminder that traditional therapy of ureteral stones has not lost its role in contemporary practice.

  10. [Extravasation into a renal sinus cyst due to ureteral calculus: a case report].

    PubMed

    Taue, R; Naroda, T; Tamura, M; Kanayama, H; Kagawa, S

    1999-07-01

    A 71-year-old man who had been treated conservatively for advanced prostate cancer with hormonal therapy presented with complaint of left flank pain. Intravenous urography demonstrated obstruction caused by a left upper ureteral calculus and leakage of contrast medium outside the renal pelvis and calyces. Left percutaneous nephrostomy was performed, and subsequent nephrostography showed extravasation into a parapelvic renal sinus cyst previously recognized on follow-up computed tomography (CT). The left ureteral calculus was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), after which obstruction and extravasation disappeared. One month later, abdominal CT demonstrated no left renal nor ureteral calculi, as well as a reduction in the left renal sinus cyst. Urinary extravasation sometimes occurs as a complication of acute urinary obstruction. However, extravasation into a cyst is very rare. We have found only one case reported in the literature, so far.

  11. Matched pair analysis of ureteroscopy vs. shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of upper ureteric calculi.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G D; Bariol, S V; Moussa, S A; Smith, G; Tolley, D A

    2007-05-01

    There is controversy over whether shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or ureteroscopy (URS) is the best management of ureteric calculi, especially for stones located in the upper ureter. This study compares URS and SWL management of upper ureteric stones directly for the first time using a different analysis tool, the matched pair analysis study design. This method enables meaningful comparisons to be made on a small number of matched patients, using precise like-for-like matching. Adult patients undergoing primary treatment of solitary radiopaque proximal ureteric stones were identified. Patients with stents, nephrostomies or stones at the pelvi-ureteric junction were excluded. Patients had a minimum of 3 months follow-up. Patients treated by primary URS were matched using four parameters (sex, laterality, stone size and location) to patients treated on a Dornier Compact Delta Lithotriptor. A total of 1479 patients had URS or SWL from which 27 upper ureteric stone matched pairs were identified. Three-month stone free rates were 82% for URS and 89% for SWL (McNemar's test, p=0.625). Re-treatment was required in 11% and 26% following URS and SWL respectively (p=0.219). Forty-one per cent of URS patients required an ancillary treatment, such as stent removal, compared with only 22% of SWL patients (p=0.227). Introduction of a holmium:YAG laser for use with URS improved the stone free rate for URS to 100%. Using a robust like-for-like comparison of similar patients with very similar upper ureteric stones the outcomes following SWL and URS were comparable. Choice of treatment should therefore be based on parameters such as availability of equipment, waiting times and patient preference.

  12. Urothelial-based reconstructive surgery for upper- and mid-ureteral defects: Long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Barak; Mor, Yoram; Erlich, Tomer; Laufer, Menachem; Winkler, Harry; Kaver, Issac; Ramon, Jacob; Dotan, Zohar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ureteral strictures can result in obstructive nephropathy and renal function deterioration. Surgical management of ureteral defects, especially in the proximal- and mid-ureter, is particularly challenging. Our purpose was to analyze the long-term outcomes of urothelial-based reconstructive surgery for upper- and mid-ureteral defects. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a single tertiary centre’s database, including 149 patients treated for ureteral defects between 2001 and 2011. Thirty-one patients (21%) underwent complex urothelial-based surgical repairs for upper- and mid-ureter defects. Patients’ median age was 61 years. The mean length of the ureteral strictures was 2.5 cm, located in upper-, mid-ureter, or in between in 19 (61%), 10 (32%), and two (6%) patients, respectively. All patients were treated with a primary urothelial-based repair. Median followup time was 26 months. The primary outcome of the study was the long-term preservation of renal function and lack of clinical obstruction. The secondary endpoint of the study was the assessment of the intra- and postoperative complication rates. Results: Most of the lesions were benign (22, 71%), while nine strictures (29%) were malignant. Seven patients (23%) suffered from postoperative complications, five of which were infectious. The median pre- and postoperative calculated glomerular filtration rates were 66 ml/min/1.72m2 and 64ml/min/1.72m2, respectively. Success rate was 84%, defined as lack of need for re-operation or kidney drainage at the last followup. Conclusions: Upper- and mid-ureteral defects present a complex pathology necessitating experienced reconstructive surgical skills. Our data suggest good long-term results for primary urothelial-based reconstructions for these pathologies. PMID:27695582

  13. Predictive parameters for medical expulsive therapy in ureteral stones: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cahit; Eryildirim, Bilal; Kafkasli, Alper; Coskun, Alper; Tarhan, Fatih; Faydaci, Gokhan; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of some certain radiological as well as stone-related parameters for medical expulsive therapy (MET) success with an alpha blocker in ureteral stones. A total 129 patients receiving MET for 5 to 10 mm ureteral stones were evaluated. Patients were divided into two subgroups where MET was successful in 64 cases (49.61%) and unsuccessful in 65 cases (50.39%). Prior to management, stone size, location, position in the ureter, degree of hydronephrosis, diameter of ureteral lumen proximal to the stone, ureteral wall thickness along with patient's demographics including body mass index (BMI) values were evaluated and recorded. The possible predictive values of these parameters for stone expulsion (and stone expulsion time) were evaluated in a comparative manner between two groups. The overall mean patient age and stone size values were 38.02 ± 0.94 years and 40.31 ± 1.13 mm(2), respectively. Regarding the predictive values of these parameters for MET-success, while stone size and localization, degree of hydronephrosis, proximal ureteral diameter and ureteral wall thickness were found to be highly predictive for MET-success, patients age, BMI values and stone density had no predictive value on this aspect. Our findings indicated that some stone and anatomical factors may be used to predict the success of MET in an effective manner. With this approach unnecessary use of these drugs that may cause a delay for stone removal will be avoided and the possible adverse effects of obstruction as well as stone-related clinical symptoms could be minimized.

  14. Management of alternative pathology detected using CT KUB in suspected ureteric colic.

    PubMed

    Sarofim, Mina; Teo, Adrian; Wilson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acute flank pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), and imaging studies play an important role in establishing an accurate diagnosis. Computed Tomography of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder (CT KUB) has surpassed all other imaging modalities to become the gold standard in detection of ureteric calculi. The purpose of this study is to identify the range and management of alternative diagnoses established by CT KUB in patients with suspected ureteric colic. Two hundred and fifteen consecutive CT KUB examinations ordered in the ED of a tertiary-care centre for suspected ureteric colic were retrospectively reviewed. This comprised of 134 male (62.3%) and 81 female (37.7%) patients with a mean age of 53 years old. The positive detection rate for ureteric calculi in males was 43.3% compared to a lower rate for females of 29.6% (p < 0.05). Almost two-thirds of patients were discharged following CT KUB imaging, and admission rates were significantly higher in those with alternative radiological findings (p < 0.04) Alternative radiological findings occurred in 72 patients (33.5%), including 15 patients (7.0%) who had clinically important alternative pathology. The rate of clinically important alternative findings was significantly higher in males than females, 9.7% versus 2.5% respectively (p = 0.04). Surgical intervention was more common in patients with alternative radiological findings classified as gastrointestinal (18.2%) compared to non-gastrointestinal (3.6%), however this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). In conclusion, significant alternative pathology was identified using CT KUB in 7% of patients with suspected ureteric colic. The low rates of detection of ureteric calculi and significant alternative pathology in female patients suggests a more thorough clinical assessment is warranted to improve their management, prior to ordering investigations with exposure to radiation. PMID:27373521

  15. Functional aspects of silent ureteral stones investigated with MAG-3 renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate functional aspects of silent ureteral stones with special focus on obstruction and its relationship to renal anatomy. The present study is the first investigation of renal excretory function in patients with silent ureteral stones. Methods Patients with primarily asymptomatic ureteral stones underwent a mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG-3) renal scintigraphy prior to treatment, in addition to anatomic evaluation of renal units and serum creatinine levels. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of obstruction. Secondary outcome measures were kidney anatomy, grade of hydronephrosis, location of stones, stone size, and serum creatinine levels. Results During a ten-year period, 14 patients (median age 52.6 years; range 37.3 to 80.7 years) were included in the study. The relative frequency of primarily asymptomatic ureteral stones among all patients treated for ureteral stones in the study period was 0.7%. Eleven renal units showed some degree of hydronephrosis while 3 kidneys were not dilated. On the MAG-3 scan, 7 patients had an obstruction of the ureter, 5 had no obstruction, and 2 had dysfunction of the kidney. A statistically significant correlation was established between the grade of obstruction and stone size (p = 0.02). Conclusions At the time of presentation, only 64.3% of the patients revealed an obstruction in the stone-bearing renal unit. The degree of hydronephrosis and renal function were very diverse in this subgroup of patients with ureteral stones. The onset of ureterolithiasis and the chronological sequence of obstruction remain unclear in patients who have never experienced symptoms due to their stones. PMID:24397735

  16. Ureterocalycostomy - final resort in the management of secondary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Gite, Venkat A.; Siddiqui, Ayub Karam Nabi; Bote, Sachin M.; Patil, Saurabh Ramesh; Kandi, Anita J.; Nikose, Jayant V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ureterocalycostomy can be performed in patients in whom desired methods of treating secondary PUJ (Pelvi-Ureteric Junction) obstructions either failed or could not be used. In our study, one child and two adults in whom one redo-ureterocalycostomy and two ureterocalycostomies were performed for severely scarred PUJ. The causes for secondary PUJ obstruction were post-pyelolithotomy in one case, post-pyeloplasty and ureterocalycostomy for PUJ obstruction in the second patient and the third patient had long upper ureteric stricture post-ureteropyeloplasty due to tuberculosis. In all these cases ureterocalycostomy proved to be salvage/final resort for preserving functional renal unit. PMID:27286113

  17. An Extremely Rare Complication of Ureteral Pigtail Stent Placement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Arab, Davood; Ardestani Zadeh, Arash; Eskandarian, Rahimeh; Asaadi, Mehrshad; Ghods, Kamran

    2016-05-01

    Double-J (DJ) stents are the main tools used in urological practice for prevention and treatment of obstruction. Stenting is also mandatory after complicated ureteroscopy or TUL (Transureteral Lithotripsy). Known complications are upper migration of DJ stents into the kidney and lower migration to the bladder. In a man with an impacted right lower ureteral stone, a DJ stent was placed because the ureteroscope was not passed from an intramural ureter. We reported a very rare complication of DJ ureteral stent placement with intravascular migration to the pulmonary arteries, which was removed percutaneously through the right femoral vein under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27570754

  18. Anuria Secondary to Bilateral Obstructing Ureteral Stones in the Absence of Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christopher; Altamar, Hernan O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obstructing ureteral stones are a rare cause of anuria, which is typically from prerenal or renal etiologies. Classically, obstructive stones cause moderate to severe renal colic. Urolithiasis is rarely considered during evaluation of painless anuria. Case Presentation: We present an unusual case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female who presented with anuria and was found to have large bilateral obstructing ureteral stones in the absence of renal colic. Conclusion: Given that patients with obstructive anuria can be asymptomatic, urolithiasis should be considered in all patients presenting with anuria. PMID:27579429

  19. Nephroureteral Obstructions: The Use of Stents and Ureteral Bypass Systems for Renal Decompression.

    PubMed

    Palm, Carrie A; Culp, William T N

    2016-11-01

    Canine and feline nephroureteral obstruction is a complex disease process that can be challenging to treat. Although the availability of various imaging modalities allows for a straightforward diagnosis to be made in most cases, the decision-making process for when a case should be taken to surgery and the optimal treatment modality that should be used for renal decompression remains controversial. In the following discussion, an overview of the perioperative management of cases with nephroureterolithiasis and nephroureteral obstruction is reviewed, with particular focus on the use of renal decompressive procedures, such as ureteral stenting and subcutaneous ureteral bypass system placement. PMID:27497503

  20. Misplacement or migration? Extremely rare case of cardiac migration of a ureteral j stent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nam; Lee, Chan Ho; Kong, Do Hoon; Shin, Dong Kil; Lee, Jeong Zoo

    2014-05-01

    A 29-year-old woman with mild back pain when coughing and suprapubic discomfort after voiding was admitted to Pusan National University Hospital. Two weeks earlier, she had undergone a hysterectomy and right-sided ureteroneocystostomy for uterine atony and right ureteral injury with bladder rupture. Computed tomography showed that a ureteral J stent extended from the right ovarian vein to the right cardiac chamber. The stent was retrieved via both femoral veins with a snare loop and pigtail catheter. Computed tomography showed that the urinary and vascular tracts were normal 5 months after the procedure. PMID:24868342

  1. Chromosomal duplications in bacteria, fruit flies, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupski, J.R.; Weinstock, G.M.; Roth, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tandem duplication of chromosomal segments has been recognized as a frequent mutational mechanism in several genetic model systems. In bacteria, fruit flies, and humans, duplications form by similar molecular mechanisms and appear to be important in genome evolution. 80 refs.

  2. Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Tuite, David; Nicholson, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms, loin pain, postobstructive atrophy, and mild renal impairment. All had posterior intramural dominant fibroids >11 cm in maximum sagittal diameter and uterine volumes between 3776 and 15,625 ml. Outcome measures at between 12 and 36 months included procedural success, repeat intervention, relief of symptoms, resolution of hydronephrosis, stable renal function and size, and avoidance of hysterectomy. In all cases the cause of renal obstruction was confirmed to be a giant fibroid compressing the ureter at the pelvic brim. In all cases UAE was technically successful, though two patients required a repeat procedure. In eight patients hydronephrosis resolved and the obstruction was relieved, though two still had some bulk symptoms not requiring further treatment. Renal function improved or was stable in all cases. Renal size was stable in all cases. Where menorrhagia was part of the symptom complex it was relieved in all cases. Two patients diagnosed as having postobstructive atrophy of one kidney underwent retrograde ureteric stenting on the nonatrophied side prior to UAE. This was unsuccessful in one of the cases due to the distortion caused by the fibroid. Despite improvement in hydronephrosis this patient underwent hysterectomy at 7 months after a renogram demonstrated persistent obstruction at the pelvic brim. In the second patient a double pigtail stent was inserted with difficulty and eventually removed at 8 months. This patient has had stable renal function and size for 3 years post-UAE. We conclude that UAE is safe and effective in

  3. [Application of alpha1-adrenoblockers in treatment of ureteral calculi].

    PubMed

    Dutov, V V; Popov, D V; Rumiantsev, A A; Pashchenko, V B

    2012-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the efficacy of alpha1-adrenoblockers in treatment of ureteral calculi are presented. Comparative, prospective, placebo-uncontrolled nonrandomized single-center study was performed, which included 118 patients with solitary diagnosed calculi in various parts of ureter. After the pain relief, all the patients underwent conservative therapy aimed at spontaneous discharge of concretions. The maximum duration of conservative treatment was 28 days. Ultrasound monitoring was performed every week in all patients. The control group of patients received only Drotaverinum 40 mg three times a day, and analgesics. The main group received alpha1-adrenoblocker tamsulosin at a standard dose of 0.4 mg once a day along with Drotaverinum and analgesics. The overall probability of a discharge of concrements localized in the distal ureter was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in the patients treated with alpha1-adrenoblockers. Treatment regimen in main group of patients allowed better control of pain during all periods of observation, even if the discharge of concretions was not registered. The overall probability of migration of concrements from the proximal to the distal ureter in main group of patients was 52% versus 32% in controls (P = 0.17). The frequency of adverse effects was comparable in both groups. Vertigo, postural hypotension, and weakness were significantly more frequent in the main group of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the proportional hazards model have demonstrated that the administration of alpha1-adrenoblocker increased the likelihood of a discharge of concrement from the distal ureter. It is shown that the nature of the applied therapy has directly influence on the risk of an earlier discharge of concretions. Inclusion of alpha1-adrenoblockers in the treatment scheme increased the probability of discharge of concrements at 4.11 times.

  4. Cyclin E in centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J; Marzluff, William F; Sluder, Greenfield

    2008-12-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally approximately 1 h in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication.

  5. Cyclin E in Centrosome Duplication and Reduplication in Sea Urchin Zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J.; Marzluff, William F.; Sluder, Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally ~1 hour in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication. PMID:18651565

  6. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Skokic, Fahrija; Hotic, Nesad; Husaric, Edin; Radoja, Gordana; Muratovic, Selma; Dedic, Nermina

    2013-01-01

    Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst. PMID:23844300

  7. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 duplication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions 22q11.2 duplication 22q11.2 duplication Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 duplication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions 16p11.2 duplication 16p11.2 duplication Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 16p11.2 duplication is a chromosomal change in which a ...

  9. Case report: prenatally detected dumdbell-shaped retroperitoneal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    May, D A; Spottswood, S E; Ridick-Young, M; Nwomeh, B C

    2000-10-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are infrequently located in the retroperitoneum. Such cysts are typically spherical or ovoid. We report a retroperitoneal duplication cyst with extension across the abdominal midline in a previously unreported dumbbell configuration. This is the third reported case of prenatally detected retroperitoneal enteric duplication cyst.

  10. The Balance between Recombination Enzymes and Accessory Replicative Helicases in Facilitating Genome Duplication.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Aisha H; Atkinson, John; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2016-07-29

    Accessory replicative helicases aid the primary replicative helicase in duplicating protein-bound DNA, especially transcribed DNA. Recombination enzymes also aid genome duplication by facilitating the repair of DNA lesions via strand exchange and also processing of blocked fork DNA to generate structures onto which the replisome can be reloaded. There is significant interplay between accessory helicases and recombination enzymes in both bacteria and lower eukaryotes but how these replication repair systems interact to ensure efficient genome duplication remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA content defects of Escherichia coli cells lacking the strand exchange protein RecA are driven primarily by conflicts between replication and transcription, as is the case in cells lacking the accessory helicase Rep. However, in contrast to Rep, neither RecA nor RecBCD, the helicase/exonuclease that loads RecA onto dsDNA ends, is important for maintaining rapid chromosome duplication. Furthermore, RecA and RecBCD together can sustain viability in the absence of accessory replicative helicases but only when transcriptional barriers to replication are suppressed by an RNA polymerase mutation. Our data indicate that the minimisation of replisome pausing by accessory helicases has a more significant impact on successful completion of chromosome duplication than recombination-directed fork repair.

  11. Gene organization and transcription of duplicated MBP genes of myelin deficient (shi(mld)) mutant mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Okano, H; Tamura, T; Miura, M; Aoyama, A; Ikenaka, K; Oshimura, M; Mikoshiba, K

    1988-01-01

    A hereditary dysmyelinating mutation, named myelin deficient (shi(mld)), is characterized by reduced expression of myelin basic protein (MBP). In shi(mld), the MBP gene is duplicated and its reduced expression is mainly determined by the level of mRNA. We have characterized the structure and function of the promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld). Among the lambda clones containing promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld), one (gene 1) had the same restriction enzyme pattern as that in control mice, but another (gene 2) had a rearrangement on a distal part of the promoter. A 712-bp nucleotide sequence upstream of the first exons of both of the duplicated MBP genes of shi(mld) was completely consistent with that of the control. Promoter activities of 1.3-kb 5'-flanking regions from respective genes of shi(mld) measured by in vitro run-off assay using HeLa whole-cell extracts were indistinguishable from that of the control MPB gene. Chromosomal mapping by in situ hybridization suggested that the duplicated MBP genes were located closely to each other at the distal part of chromosome 18. A recombinational event including the inversion seemed to have occurred within gene 1 and its possible relationship to the reduced expression of MBP is discussed. Images PMID:2452084

  12. Two Rounds of Whole Genome Duplication in the AncestralVertebrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-12

    The hypothesis that the relatively large and complex vertebrate genome was created by two ancient, whole genome duplications has been hotly debated, but remains unresolved. We reconstructed the evolutionary relationships of all gene families from the complete gene sets of a tunicate, fish, mouse, and human, then determined when each gene duplicated relative to the evolutionary tree of the organisms. We confirmed the results of earlier studies that there remains little signal of these events in numbers of duplicated genes, gene tree topology, or the number of genes per multigene family. However, when we plotted the genomic map positions of only the subset of paralogous genes that were duplicated prior to the fish-tetrapod split, their global physical organization provides unmistakable evidence of two distinct genome duplication events early in vertebrate evolution indicated by clear patterns of 4-way paralogous regions covering a large part of the human genome. Our results highlight the potential for these large-scale genomic events to have driven the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage.

  13. The Balance between Recombination Enzymes and Accessory Replicative Helicases in Facilitating Genome Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Aisha H.; Atkinson, John; Lloyd, Robert G.; McGlynn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Accessory replicative helicases aid the primary replicative helicase in duplicating protein-bound DNA, especially transcribed DNA. Recombination enzymes also aid genome duplication by facilitating the repair of DNA lesions via strand exchange and also processing of blocked fork DNA to generate structures onto which the replisome can be reloaded. There is significant interplay between accessory helicases and recombination enzymes in both bacteria and lower eukaryotes but how these replication repair systems interact to ensure efficient genome duplication remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA content defects of Escherichia coli cells lacking the strand exchange protein RecA are driven primarily by conflicts between replication and transcription, as is the case in cells lacking the accessory helicase Rep. However, in contrast to Rep, neither RecA nor RecBCD, the helicase/exonuclease that loads RecA onto dsDNA ends, is important for maintaining rapid chromosome duplication. Furthermore, RecA and RecBCD together can sustain viability in the absence of accessory replicative helicases but only when transcriptional barriers to replication are suppressed by an RNA polymerase mutation. Our data indicate that the minimisation of replisome pausing by accessory helicases has a more significant impact on successful completion of chromosome duplication than recombination-directed fork repair. PMID:27483323

  14. Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, D C; Nowak, M A

    1999-10-01

    Gene duplication events produce both perfect and imperfect copies of genes. Perfect copies are said to be functionally redundant when knockout of one gene produces no 'scoreable', phenotypic effects. Preserving identical, duplicate copies of genes is problematic as all copies are prone to accumulate neutral mutations as pseudogenes, or more rarely, evolve into new genes with novel functions. We summarise theoretical treatments for the invasion and subsequent evolutionary modification of functionally redundant genes. We then consider the preservation of functionally identical copies of a gene over evolutionary time. We present several models for conserving redundancy: asymmetric mutation, asymmetric efficacy, pleiotropy, developmental buffering, allelic competition and regulatory asymmetries. In all cases, some form of symmetry breaking is required to maintain functional redundancy indefinitely.

  15. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  16. Duplication of coding segments in genetic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, T.

    1996-12-31

    Research into the utility of non-coding segments, or introns, in genetic-based encodings has shown that they expedite the evolution of solutions in domains by protecting building blocks against destructive crossover. We consider a genetic programming system where non-coding segments can be removed, and the resultant chromosomes returned into the population. This parsimonious repair leads to premature convergence, since as we remove the naturally occurring non-coding segments, we strip away their protective backup feature. We then duplicate the coding segments in the repaired chromosomes, and place the modified chromosomes into the population. The duplication method significantly improves the learning rate in the domain we have considered. We also show that this method can be applied to other domains.

  17. Renal pelvis urothelial carcinoma of the upper moiety in complete right renal duplex: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiran; Yu, Quanfeng; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ranlu; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) originated from renal pelvis is the common tumor of the urinary system, however, neoplasia of the renal pelvis in duplex kidneys is extremely rare, especially in the complete renal and ureteral duplex cases. We present the first case of renal pelvis UC of the upper moiety in a complete right renal duplex. This male patient has bilateral complete renal and ureteral duplex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal pelvis UC in a complete renal duplex system. After this experience we feel that the diagnosis of renal pelvis UC in duplex kidneys is not so easy, and once the diagnosis is determined, the whole renal duplex units and bladder cuff or ectopic orifice should be excised radically. PMID:26823906

  18. Recombination and Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondrial Genome of the Asian Big-Headed Turtle, Platysternon megacephalum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chenfei; Nie, Liuwang; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Huaxing; Hou, Huazhen; Wang, Hao; Liu, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs) have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) at the 3′ end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs) suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P. megacephalum. PMID

  19. Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sequence related families of genes and proteins are common in bacterial genomes. In Escherichia coli they constitute over half of the genome. The presence of families and superfamilies of proteins suggest a history of gene duplication and divergence during evolution. Genome encoded protein families, their size and functional composition, reflect metabolic potentials of the organisms they are found in. Comparing protein families of different organisms give insight into functional differences and similarities. Results Equivalent enzyme families with metabolic functions were selected from the genomes of four experimentally characterized bacteria belonging to separate genera. Both similarities and differences were detected in the protein family memberships, with more similarities being detected among the more closely related organisms. Protein family memberships reflected known metabolic characteristics of the organisms. Differences in divergence of functionally characterized enzyme family members accounted for characteristics of taxa known to differ in those biochemical properties and capabilities. While some members of the gene families will have been acquired by lateral exchange and other former family members will have been lost over time, duplication and divergence of genes and functions appear to have been a significant contributor to the functional diversity of today’s microbes. Conclusions Protein families seem likely to have arisen during evolution by gene duplication and divergence where the gene copies that have been retained are the variants that have led to distinct bacterial physiologies and taxa. Thus divergence of the duplicate enzymes has been a major process in the generation of different kinds of bacteria. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Drs. Iyer Aravind, Ardcady Mushegian, and Pierre Pontarotti. PMID:19930658

  20. Ovarian remnant with bilateral duplicate ureters.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Thomas L; Adolph, Allyson J; Winer, Wendy K

    2003-08-01

    A 27-year-old woman had a history of acute chronic pelvic pain. She had had a previous salpingo-oophorectomy for an endometrioma. A computerized tomographic scan showed a left adnexal mass. She was known to have bilateral duplicate ureters shown on intravenous pyelogram. She underwent laparoscopy and retroperitoneal dissection of endometriosis with excision of the mass from the pelvic sidewall. The final pathology was consistent with a hemorrhagic corpus luteal cyst.

  1. Identifying duplicate content using statistically improbable phrases

    PubMed Central

    Errami, Mounir; Sun, Zhaohui; George, Angela C.; Long, Tara C.; Skinner, Michael A.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Garner, Harold R.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Document similarity metrics such as PubMed's ‘Find related articles’ feature, which have been primarily used to identify studies with similar topics, can now also be used to detect duplicated or potentially plagiarized papers within literature reference databases. However, the CPU-intensive nature of document comparison has limited MEDLINE text similarity studies to the comparison of abstracts, which constitute only a small fraction of a publication's total text. Extending searches to include text archived by online search engines would drastically increase comparison ability. For large-scale studies, submitting short phrases encased in direct quotes to search engines for exact matches would be optimal for both individual queries and programmatic interfaces. We have derived a method of analyzing statistically improbable phrases (SIPs) for assistance in identifying duplicate content. Results: When applied to MEDLINE citations, this method substantially improves upon previous algorithms in the detection of duplication citations, yielding a precision and recall of 78.9% (versus 50.3% for eTBLAST) and 99.6% (versus 99.8% for eTBLAST), respectively. Availability: Similar citations identified by this work are freely accessible in the Déjà vu database, under the SIP discovery method category at http://dejavu.vbi.vt.edu/dejavu/ Contact: merrami@collin.edu PMID:20472545

  2. Gastrointestinal problems in 15q duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaaya, Elias A; Pollack, Sarah F; Boronat, Susana; Davis-Cooper, Shelby; Zella, Garrett C; Thibert, Ronald L

    2015-03-01

    Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome (Dup15q syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder involving copy number gains of the maternal chromosome 15q11.2-q13 region, characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and epilepsy. Gastrointestinal (GI) problems in Dup15q syndrome have been reported only rarely, mostly focused on neonatal feeding difficulties. A retrospective review of the medical records of 46 patients with Dup15q syndrome was conducted to assess GI issues and their treatments in this population. GI symptoms were present in 76.7% of subjects with an isodicentric duplication and 87.5% with an interstitial duplication. There was no clear association between GI issues and ASD, with symptoms occurring in 78.9% of all subjects and 78.2% of ASD subjects. The most commonly reported symptoms were gastroesophageal reflux (56.7%) and constipation (60%), with 30% of subjects reporting both. The most common treatments were polyethylene glycol for constipation and proton pump inhibitors for reflux. Behaviors such as irritability and aggressiveness improved with treatment of GI symptoms in several subjects. The results indicate that GI symptoms are common in Dup15q syndrome and may have an atypical presentation. Diagnosis may be difficult, especially in individuals who are nonverbal or minimally verbal, so increased awareness is critical for early diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Bilateral ureteric obstruction: an unusual complication of male-to-female gender reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    Rezwan, Nivin; Abdel Basit, Anas; Andrews, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Gender reassignment surgery is a form of treatment for gender dysphoria. It can be male-to-female or female-to-male. We present a patient who underwent male to female reassignment and had a vaginal reconstruction. She presented almost a year later with acute kidney injury and bilateral ureteric obstruction, subsequently ending up with nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney.

  4. Medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Somani, Bhaskar K; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Traxer, Olivier; Baard, Joyce; Kamphuis, Guido; de la Rosette, Jean

    2016-10-01

    Despite two decades of clinical use, the effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the noninvasive management of patients with ureteral stones has, in the past year, been called into in question. The primary aim of MET is to expedite stone passage, although it has also shown effectiveness in reducing time to stone passage, thus reducing the incidence of colic episodes, improving stone clearance and improving patients' quality of life. At least 11 systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published showing clinical benefits of MET; however, the results of these analyses have been challenged by data from two randomized controlled, multicentre trials with large patient cohorts, thus providing higher quality evidence that MET is ineffective in patients with ureteral stones. Results of the various systematic reviews and meta-analyses have suggested that MET is effective, however, such analyses incorporate the biases and limitations of smaller cohort studies, resulting in their conclusions being based upon lower-quality evidence. Evidence for the use of MET for small (<5 mm) distal ureteral stones has weakened based on clinical trial data published in 2015. However, MET might remain effective in the management of larger ureteral stones (>5 mm).

  5. Tubular Compressed Collagen Scaffolds for Ureteral Tissue Engineering in a Flow Bioreactor System.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Elif; Engelhardt, Eva-Maria; Larsson, Hans M; Mouloungui, Elodie; Pinnagoda, Kalitha; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Frey, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Ureteral replacement by tissue engineering might become necessary following tissue loss after excessive ureteral trauma, after retroperitoneal cancer, or even after failed reconstructive surgery. This need has driven innovation in the design of novel scaffolds and specific cell culture techniques for urinary tract reconstruction. In this study, compressed tubular collagen scaffolds were evaluated, addressing the physical and biological characterization of acellular and cellular collagen tubes in a new flow bioreactor system, imitating the physiological pressure, peristalsis, and flow conditions of the human ureter. Collagen tubes, containing primary human smooth muscle and urothelial cells, were evaluated regarding their change in gene and protein expression under dynamic culture conditions. A maximum intraluminal pressure of 22.43 ± 0.2 cm H2O was observed in acellular tubes, resulting in a mean wall shear stress of 4 dynes/cm(2) in the tubular constructs. Dynamic conditions directed the differentiation of both cell types into their mature forms. This was confirmed by their gene expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin, smoothelin, collagen type I and III, elastin, laminin type 1 and 5, cytokeratin 8, and uroplakin 2. In addition, smooth muscle cell alignment predominantly perpendicular to the flow direction was observed, comparable to the cell orientation in native ureteral tissue. These results revealed that coculturing human smooth muscle and urothelial cells in compressed collagen tubes under human ureteral flow-mimicking conditions could lead to cell-engineered biomaterials that might ultimately be translated into clinical applications.

  6. Voiding urosonography: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound cystography to diagnose vesico-ureteric reflux: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ramesh; Gopinath, Vinu; Sai, Venkata

    2015-01-01

    We report two children with hydronephrosis, in whom we have utilized voiding urosonography (VUS) in the evaluation of vesico-ureteric reflux. With wider availability of ultrasound contrast agents and high-end ultrasound machines, VUS is likely to become a popular tool to diagnose or exclude VUR. PMID:25552831

  7. Validation of screening examinations of the ureteral orifices in dogs: Comparison of ultrasonography with dissection.

    PubMed

    Balogh, O; Degrandi, F; Hässig, M; Reichler, I M

    2015-08-01

    In dogs, ultrasonography is performed to locate the ureteral orifices in the urinary bladder, but reference values for their normal location using this technique are missing. In this study, the ureterovesical-vesicourethral and inter-ureterovesical distances were determined in 20 freshly euthanized medium size dogs by detecting artificially produced ureteral jets in color-flow Doppler ultrasonography at two different bladder volumes, and comparing them to manual measurements in the dissected bladder. All distances determined by ultrasonography were in agreement with values found by dissection (P ≥ 0.100). With increasing bladder volume only the left ureterovesical-vesicourethral distance changed (P = 0.041). The right ureteral opening was more cranial than the left in 16 dogs. The inter-ureterovesical distances differed by gender (P = 0.016), but spay/neuter status had no influence (P ≥ 0.847). In conclusion, ultrasonography is a reliable modality for screening ureteral orifices in medium size dogs and agrees with anatomical findings.

  8. Medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Somani, Bhaskar K; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Traxer, Olivier; Baard, Joyce; Kamphuis, Guido; de la Rosette, Jean

    2016-10-01

    Despite two decades of clinical use, the effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the noninvasive management of patients with ureteral stones has, in the past year, been called into in question. The primary aim of MET is to expedite stone passage, although it has also shown effectiveness in reducing time to stone passage, thus reducing the incidence of colic episodes, improving stone clearance and improving patients' quality of life. At least 11 systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published showing clinical benefits of MET; however, the results of these analyses have been challenged by data from two randomized controlled, multicentre trials with large patient cohorts, thus providing higher quality evidence that MET is ineffective in patients with ureteral stones. Results of the various systematic reviews and meta-analyses have suggested that MET is effective, however, such analyses incorporate the biases and limitations of smaller cohort studies, resulting in their conclusions being based upon lower-quality evidence. Evidence for the use of MET for small (<5 mm) distal ureteral stones has weakened based on clinical trial data published in 2015. However, MET might remain effective in the management of larger ureteral stones (>5 mm). PMID:27480950

  9. Tubular duplication of the oesophagus presenting with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Saha, A K; Kundu, A K

    2014-06-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations, with the ileum being the most commonly affected site, followed by the oesophagus. Among oesophageal duplications, cystic duplication is the most common and the tubular variety, the rarest. Herein, we report a rare case of tubular oesophageal duplication, complicated by adenosquamous carcinoma at the lower end of the oesophagus, in a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia. Although proton pump inhibitors may relieve dysphagia, oesophagectomy and gastric interpositioning should be the first-line treatment for patients with tubular oesophageal duplication, in order to reduce the risk of malignant transformation at the lower end of the oesophagus.

  10. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  11. A rare cause of ureteral injuries; simultaneous common iliac artery and ureter injury during posterior lumbar disc surgery

    PubMed Central

    Başer, Aykut; Alkış, Okan; Toktaş, Cihan; Zümrütbaş, Ali Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Major vascular injuries during lumbar disc surgery are rare but well-recognized complications. However, vascular injuries of the branches of the aorta and ureteral injuries are very rare. Although its incidence is not known definitely, it is estimated to be 1/1000. Ureteral injuries comprise less than 1% of all genitourinary traumas. In this article, we report clinical progress of a patient who had simultaneous internal iliac artery and ureteral injury during lumbar discectomy. The patient was managed with primary ureteroureterostomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with simultaneous ureter and iliac artery trauma during lumbar disc surgery. PMID:27274898

  12. Whole genome duplications in plants: an overview from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Ramirez-Parra, Elena

    2015-12-01

    Polyploidy is a common event in plants that involves the acquisition of more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Allopolyploidy originates from interspecies hybrids while autopolyploidy originates from intraspecies whole genome duplication (WGD) events. In spite of inconveniences derived from chromosomic rearrangement during polyploidization, natural plant polyploids species often exhibit improved growth vigour and adaptation to adverse environments, conferring evolutionary advantages. These advantages have also been incorporated into crop breeding programmes. Many tetraploid crops show increased stress tolerance, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these different adaptation abilities are poorly known. Understanding the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms coupled to WGD, in both allo- and autopolyploidy, is a major challenge. Over the last few years, several studies, many of them in Arabidopsis, are shedding light on the basis of genetic, genomic, and epigenomic changes linked to WGD. In this review we summarize and discuss the latest advances made in Arabidopsis polyploidy, but also in other agronomic plant species.

  13. An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Assogba, Benoît S.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Milesi, Pascal; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Perez, Julie; Ayala, Diego; Chandre, Fabrice; Makoutodé, Michel; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1R allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1D) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1D confers less resistance than ace-1R, the high fitness cost associated with ace-1R is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management. PMID:26434951

  14. Inherited Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication in a boy with recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia: Clinical, chromosomal and aCGH characterization.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Valadares, Eugênia R; da Costa, Silvia S; Arantes, Rodrigo R; de Oliveira, Luiz Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Svartman, Marta

    2016-09-01

    We report on a 16-year-old boy with a maternally inherited ~ 18.3 Mb Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication delimited by aCGH. As previously described in patients with similar duplications, his clinical features included intellectual disability, developmental delay, speech delay, generalized hypotonia, infantile feeding difficulties, self-injurious behavior, short stature and endocrine problems. As additional findings, he presented recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia. His mother was phenotypically normal and had completely skewed inactivation of the duplicated X chromosome, as most female carriers of such duplications. Five previously reported patients with partial Xq duplications presented duplication breakpoints similar to those of our patient. One of them, a fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities, had the same cytogenetic duplication breakpoint. Three of the reported patients shared many features with our proband but the other had some clinical features of the Prader-Willi syndrome. It was suggested that ATRX overexpression could be involved in the major clinical features of patients with partial Xq duplications. We propose that this gene could also be involved with the obesity of the patient with the Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Additionally, we suggest that the PCDH11X gene could be a candidate for our patient's recurrent seizures. In males, the Xq13-q21 duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, as previously suggested, and neuromuscular diseases, particularly mitochondriopathies. PMID:27617217

  15. Inherited Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication in a boy with recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia: Clinical, chromosomal and aCGH characterization.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Valadares, Eugênia R; da Costa, Silvia S; Arantes, Rodrigo R; de Oliveira, Luiz Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Svartman, Marta

    2016-09-01

    We report on a 16-year-old boy with a maternally inherited ~ 18.3 Mb Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication delimited by aCGH. As previously described in patients with similar duplications, his clinical features included intellectual disability, developmental delay, speech delay, generalized hypotonia, infantile feeding difficulties, self-injurious behavior, short stature and endocrine problems. As additional findings, he presented recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia. His mother was phenotypically normal and had completely skewed inactivation of the duplicated X chromosome, as most female carriers of such duplications. Five previously reported patients with partial Xq duplications presented duplication breakpoints similar to those of our patient. One of them, a fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities, had the same cytogenetic duplication breakpoint. Three of the reported patients shared many features with our proband but the other had some clinical features of the Prader-Willi syndrome. It was suggested that ATRX overexpression could be involved in the major clinical features of patients with partial Xq duplications. We propose that this gene could also be involved with the obesity of the patient with the Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Additionally, we suggest that the PCDH11X gene could be a candidate for our patient's recurrent seizures. In males, the Xq13-q21 duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, as previously suggested, and neuromuscular diseases, particularly mitochondriopathies.

  16. Ureteral Stent Insertion in the Management of Renal Colic during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Il; Yu, Young Dong

    2016-01-01

    To determine an optimal invasive intervention for renal colic patients during pregnancy after conservative treatments have been found to be unhelpful. Among the available invasive interventions, we investigated the reliability of a ureteral stent insertion, which is considered the least invasive intervention during pregnancy. Between June 2006 and February 2015, a total of 826 pregnant patients came to the emergency room or urology outpatient department, and 39 of these patients had renal colic. The mean patient age was 30.49 years. In this retrospective cohort study, the charts of the patients were reviewed to collect data that included age, symptoms, the lateralities and locations of urolithiasis, trimester, pain following treatment and pregnancy complications. Based on ultrasonography diagnoses, 13 patients had urolithiasis, and 13 patients had hydronephrosis without definite echogenicity of the ureteral calculi. Conservative treatments were successful in 25 patients. Among these treatments, antibiotics were used in 15 patients, and the remaining patients received only hydration and analgesics without antibiotics. Several urological interventions were required in 14 patients. The most common intervention was ureteral stent insertion, which was performed in 13 patients to treat hydronephrosis or urolithiasis. The patients' pain was relieved following these interventions. Only one patient received percutaneous nephrostomy due to pyonephrosis. No pregnancy complications were noted. Ureteral stent insertion is regarded as a reliable and stable first-line urological intervention for pregnant patients with renal colic following conservative treatments. Ureteral stent insertion has been found to be equally effective and safe as percutaneous nephrostomy, which is associated with complications that include bleeding and dislocation, and the inconvenience of using external drainage system. PMID:27231677

  17. Ureteral Stent Insertion in the Management of Renal Colic during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Il; Yu, Young Dong; Park, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    To determine an optimal invasive intervention for renal colic patients during pregnancy after conservative treatments have been found to be unhelpful. Among the available invasive interventions, we investigated the reliability of a ureteral stent insertion, which is considered the least invasive intervention during pregnancy. Between June 2006 and February 2015, a total of 826 pregnant patients came to the emergency room or urology outpatient department, and 39 of these patients had renal colic. The mean patient age was 30.49 years. In this retrospective cohort study, the charts of the patients were reviewed to collect data that included age, symptoms, the lateralities and locations of urolithiasis, trimester, pain following treatment and pregnancy complications. Based on ultrasonography diagnoses, 13 patients had urolithiasis, and 13 patients had hydronephrosis without definite echogenicity of the ureteral calculi. Conservative treatments were successful in 25 patients. Among these treatments, antibiotics were used in 15 patients, and the remaining patients received only hydration and analgesics without antibiotics. Several urological interventions were required in 14 patients. The most common intervention was ureteral stent insertion, which was performed in 13 patients to treat hydronephrosis or urolithiasis. The patients' pain was relieved following these interventions. Only one patient received percutaneous nephrostomy due to pyonephrosis. No pregnancy complications were noted. Ureteral stent insertion is regarded as a reliable and stable first-line urological intervention for pregnant patients with renal colic following conservative treatments. Ureteral stent insertion has been found to be equally effective and safe as percutaneous nephrostomy, which is associated with complications that include bleeding and dislocation, and the inconvenience of using external drainage system. PMID:27231677

  18. The circadian clock of teleost fish: a comparative analysis reveals distinct fates for duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Arroyo, José Ignacio; Opazo, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a central oscillator that coordinates endogenous rhythms. Members of six gene families underlie the metabolic machinery of this system. Although this machinery appears to correspond to a highly conserved genetic system in metazoans, it has been recognized that vertebrates possess a more diverse gene inventory than that of non-vertebrates. This difference could have originated in the two successive rounds of whole-genome duplications that took place in the common ancestor of the group. Teleost fish underwent an extra event of whole-genome duplication, which is thought to have provided an abundance of raw genetic material for the biological innovations that facilitated the radiation of the group. In this study, we assessed the relative contributions of whole-genome duplication and small-scale gene duplication to generate the repertoire of genes associated with the circadian clock of teleost fish. To achieve this goal, we annotated genes from six gene families associated with the circadian clock in eight teleost fish species, and we reconstructed their evolutionary history by inferring phylogenetic relationships. Our comparative analysis indicated that teleost species possess a variable repertoire of genes related to the circadian clock gene families and that the actual diversity of these genes has been shaped by a variety of phenomena, such as the complete deletion of ohnologs, the differential retention of genes, and lineage-specific gene duplications. From a functional perspective, the subfunctionalization of two ohnolog genes (PER1a and PER1b) in zebrafish highlights the power of whole-genome duplications to generate biological diversity.

  19. Incidence of Data Duplications in a Randomly Selected Pool of Life Science Publications.

    PubMed

    Oksvold, Morten P

    2016-04-01

    Since the solution to many public health problems depends on research, it is critical for the progress and well-being for the patients that we can trust the scientific literature. Misconduct and poor laboratory practice in science threatens the scientific progress, leads to loss of productivity and increased healthcare costs, and endangers lives of patients. Data duplication may represent one of challenges related to these problems. In order to estimate the frequency of data duplication in life science literature, a systematic screen through 120 original scientific articles published in three different cancer related journals [journal impact factor (IF) <5, 5-10 and >20] was completed. The study revealed a surprisingly high proportion of articles containing data duplication. For the IF < 5 and IF > 20 journals, 25% of the articles were found to contain data duplications. The IF 5-10 journal showed a comparable proportion (22.5%). The proportion of articles containing duplicated data was comparable between the three journals and no significant correlation to journal IF was found. The editorial offices representing the journals included in this study and the individual authors of the detected articles were contacted to clarify the individual cases. The editorial offices did not reply and only 1 out of 29 cases were apparently clarified by the authors, although no supporting data was supplied. This study questions the reliability of life science literature, it illustrates that data duplications are widespread and independent of journal impact factor and call for a reform of the current peer review and retraction process of scientific publishing.

  20. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases. PMID:27081236

  1. Pulsed dye laser fragmentation of ureteral calculi: a review of the first 50 cases performed at Virginia Mason Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Govier, F E; Gibbons, R P; Correa, R J; Brannen, G E; Weissman, R M; Pritchett, T R

    1990-04-01

    During the preceding 2 1/2 years 50 patients have undergone laser fragmentation of ureteral calculi at our medical center. Of these 50 patients 48 (96%) became free of stones without the need for an open operation: 44 (88%) were managed in 1 setting and 4 required adjunctive extracorporeal shock wave or ultrasonic lithotripsy, or a repeat session with the laser. Two patients (4%) eventually required an open operation: 1 required ureterolithotomy for a large impacted stone overlying the bony pelvis after a ureteroscope could not be advanced to this level and 1 had a good initial result with the laser but a persistent ureteral stricture developed and he required ureteroureterostomy 4 months later. Both open procedures were necessitated by mid ureteral stones, and the ureteral stricture was believed to be related to ureteroscopy and the impacted nature of the stone, rather than any damage by the laser probe.

  2. Investigating Occurrence of Duplicate Updates in BGP Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Han; Jen, Dan; Lad, Mohit; Amante, Shane; McPherson, Danny; Zhang, Lixia

    BGP is a hard-state protocol that uses TCP connections to reliably exchange routing state updates between neighbor BGP routers. According to the protocol, only routing changes should trigger a BGP router to generate updates; updates that do not express any routing changes are superfluous and should not occur. Nonetheless, such 'duplicate' BGP updates have been observed in reports as early as 1998 and as recently as 2007. To date, no quantitative measurement has been conducted on how many of these duplicates get sent, who is sending them, when they are observed, what impact they have on the global health of the Internet, or why these 'duplicate' updates are even being generated. In this paper, we address all of the above through a systematic assessment on the BGP duplicate updates. We first show that duplicates can have a negative impact on router processing loads; routers can receive upto 86.42% duplicates during their busiest times. We then reveal that there is a significant number of duplicates on the Internet - about 13% of all BGP routing updates are duplicates. Finally, through a detailed investigation of duplicate properties, we manage to discover the major cause behind the generation of pathological duplicate BGP updates.

  3. Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Force, A; Lynch, M; Pickett, F B; Amores, A; Yan, Y L; Postlethwait, J

    1999-01-01

    The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication. Under the classical model for the evolution of duplicate genes, one member of the duplicated pair usually degenerates within a few million years by accumulating deleterious mutations, while the other duplicate retains the original function. This model further predicts that on rare occasions, one duplicate may acquire a new adaptive function, resulting in the preservation of both members of the pair, one with the new function and the other retaining the old. However, empirical data suggest that a much greater proportion of gene duplicates is preserved than predicted by the classical model. Here we present a new conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of duplicate genes that may help explain this conundrum. Focusing on the regulatory complexity of eukaryotic genes, we show how complementary degenerative mutations in different regulatory elements of duplicated genes can facilitate the preservation of both duplicates, thereby increasing long-term opportunities for the evolution of new gene functions. The duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model predicts that (1) degenerative mutations in regulatory elements can increase rather than reduce the probability of duplicate gene preservation and (2) the usual mechanism of duplicate gene preservation is the partitioning of ancestral functions rather than the evolution of new functions. We present several examples (including analysis of a new engrailed gene in zebrafish) that appear to be consistent with the DDC model, and we suggest several analytical and experimental approaches for determining whether the complementary loss of gene subfunctions or the acquisition of novel functions are likely to be the primary mechanisms for the preservation of gene duplicates. For a newly duplicated paralog, survival depends on the outcome of the race between

  4. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  5. Total ureteral avulsion leading to early nephrectomy as a rare complication of simple lumbar discectomy; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Mousavi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lumbar discectomy constitutes the most common and probably easiest spine surgery but it is not without complications. The aim of this work is to report a case with total ureteral avulsion during lumbar discectomy due to careless advancement of the pituitary rongeur. Methods: A 59-year-old male presented with refractory left L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation. During the surgery, left sided total ureteral avulsion occurred. Early postoperative progressive abdominal pain was the main clue for further investigation and diagnostic work-up. Results: Abdominal ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography, and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) detected a left ureteral injury. Although the injury was detected early, ureteral repair or renal autotransplantation was not possible and nephrectomy was finally indicated, due to a significant ureteral loss. Discussion: Careful use of discectomy instruments, avoidance of excessive advancement of pituitary rongeurs (more than 3 cm), and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are critical in preventing ureteral injury. PMID:27163085

  6. Analysis of LMNB1 Duplications in Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy Provides Insights into Duplication Mechanisms and Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Elisa; Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Kropp, Laura; Chakka, Anish Baswanth; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Gregorio, Eleonora Di; Lacerenza, Daniela; Vaula, Giovanna; Talarico, Flavia; Mandich, Paola; Toro, Camilo; Pierre, Eleonore Eymard; Labauge, Pierre; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Miguel, Diego; Stubbolo, Danielle; Marques, Lourenco Charles; Gahl, William; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Melberg, Atle; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Pjontek, Rastislav; Grau, Armin; Klopstock, Thomas; Fogel, Brent; Meijer, Inge; Rouleau, Guy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre L; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi; Vanderver, Adeline; Dahl, Niklas; Hobson, Grace; Brusco, Alfredo; Brussino, Alessandro; Padiath, Quasar Saleem

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is an adult onset demyelinating disorder that is caused by duplications of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene. However, as only a few cases have been analyzed in detail, the mechanisms underlying LMNB1 duplications are unclear. We report the detailed molecular analysis of the largest collection of ADLD families studied, to date. We have identified the minimal duplicated region necessary for the disease, defined all the duplication junctions at the nucleotide level and identified the first inverted LMNB1 duplication. We have demonstrated that the duplications are not recurrent; patients with identical duplications share the same haplotype, likely inherited from a common founder and that the duplications originated from intrachromosomal events. The duplication junction sequences indicated that nonhomologous end joining or replication-based mechanisms such fork stalling and template switching or microhomology-mediated break induced repair are likely to be involved. LMNB1 expression was increased in patients’ fibroblasts both at mRNA and protein levels and the three LMNB1 alleles in ADLD patients show equal expression, suggesting that regulatory regions are maintained within the rearranged segment. These results have allowed us to elucidate duplication mechanisms and provide insights into allele-specific LMNB1 expression levels. PMID:23649844

  7. The evolutionary fate and consequences of duplicate genes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Conery, J S

    2000-11-10

    Gene duplication has generally been viewed as a necessary source of material for the origin of evolutionary novelties, but it is unclear how often gene duplicates arise and how frequently they evolve new functions. Observations from the genomic databases for several eukaryotic species suggest that duplicate genes arise at a very high rate, on average 0.01 per gene per million years. Most duplicated genes experience a brief period of relaxed selection early in their history, with a moderate fraction of them evolving in an effectively neutral manner during this period. However, the vast majority of gene duplicates are silenced within a few million years, with the few survivors subsequently experiencing strong purifying selection. Although duplicate genes may only rarely evolve new functions, the stochastic silencing of such genes may play a significant role in the passive origin of new species.

  8. Identifying and removing duplicate records from systematic review searches

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yoojin; Lemieux, Michelle; McTavish, Jill; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness of different options for de-duplicating records retrieved from systematic review searches. Methods Using the records from a published systematic review, five de-duplication options were compared. The time taken to de-duplicate in each option and the number of false positives (were deleted but should not have been) and false negatives (should have been deleted but were not) were recorded. Results The time for each option varied. The number of positive and false duplicates returned from each option also varied greatly. Conclusion The authors recommend different de-duplication options based on the skill level of the searcher and the purpose of de-duplication efforts. PMID:26512216

  9. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Kinetics of catalytically activated duplication in aggregation growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Gao, Yan; Xu, Chao

    2009-08-01

    We propose a catalytically activated duplication model to mimic the coagulation and duplication of the DNA polymer system under the catalysis of the primer RNA. In the model, two aggregates of the same species can coagulate themselves and a DNA aggregate of any size can yield a new monomer or double itself with the help of RNA aggregates. By employing the mean-field rate equation approach we analytically investigate the evolution behaviour of the system. For the system with catalysis-driven monomer duplications, the aggregate size distribution of DNA polymers ak(t) always follows a power law in size in the long-time limit, and it decreases with time or approaches a time-independent steady-state form in the case of the duplication rate independent of the size of the mother aggregates, while it increases with time increasing in the case of the duplication rate proportional to the size of the mother aggregates. For the system with complete catalysis-driven duplications, the aggregate size distribution ak(t) approaches a generalized or modified scaling form.

  10. Inherited partial direct duplication of 11q: First report and possible association with a midline developmental field defect

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.R.; Jenkins, L.; Pinheiro, S.

    1994-09-01

    A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. The fetal karyotype had an extra dark staining G band on the long arm of chromosome 11 with no other identifiable abnormalities. FISH studies using a chromosome 11 paint probe confirmed the origin of the extra band. The abnormality was identified as a partial duplication of 11q: 46,XX dir dup (11)(q13.5q21) or (q21q23.1). The specific duplicated band could not be identified with certainty. Detailed fetal sonograms were normal. Family studies revealed the identical duplication in the mother but normal karyotypes in both maternal grandparents. The mother had strabismus and a short tongue frenulum which required surgical correction. Menses occurred late in adolescence and complete development of secondary sexual characteristics was delayed until adulthood. An infertility evaluation revealed duplication of the uterus, cervix, and vagina. An evaluation for metorrhagia identified a pituitary adenoma which was resected. Her intelligence was normal. To our knowledge this is the first report of a heritable direct duplication of 11q. It is possible that one or more gene in the duplicated segment played a causal role in the pathophysiology of the patient`s anomalies through a disturbance of the so-called {open_quotes}midline developmental field{close_quotes}. Alternatively, the cytogenetic findings could be unrelated to the malformations. Rare instances of partial gain or loss of specific late-replicating heterochromatic regions without phenotypic effect have been reported. This region of 11q is also relatively late-replicating. This is consistent with previous reports suggesting a paucity of expressed genes in this 11q region. Molecular studies of the duplication are underway to determine the specific location and extent of duplication. Phenotypic evaluation of the patient`s baby will also be reported.

  11. Ulinastatin attenuates renal interstitial inflammation and inhibits fibrosis progression in rats under unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Tao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Dong; An, Hui-Xia; Jiao, Jun-Dong

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of the urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin (UTI) on renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the three groups; the sham operation (SOR) group (n=8), the UUO group (n=8) and the UUO+UTI group (post‑UUO UTI treatment, n=8). UUO was performed with complete ligation of the left ureter. As a medical intervention, saline (4 ml kg‑1 d‑1) and UTI (40000 units kg‑1 d‑1) were injected, respectively, into the animals of the corresponding groups on day one following surgery. The rats in all three groups were euthanized on day seven post surgery. Blood samples were harvested for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) content measurements. The degree of interstitial pathological changes in the tissues from the obstructed kidneys were observed through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. The CD68+ macrophage amount, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin 1β (IL‑1β), nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) and type I collagen (Col‑I) levels were examined immunohistochemically. The protein expression levels of NF‑κB were examined using western blot analysis. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of homogenates were measured spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that ulinastatin had no statistically significant effect on the BUN and Scr levels (P>0.05). However, in comparison with the SOR group, the UUO group exhibited significantly more severe renal interstitial pathological injury in terms of tubular dilation, epithelial atrophy, renal interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and proliferation of fibrous tissues, as well as significantly elevated levels of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, IL‑1β, TNF‑α, NF‑κB, TGF‑β1 and Col‑I (P<0.01). UTI

  12. Method of making an apertured casting. [using duplicate mold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terray, A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apertured casting is made by first forming a duplicate in the shape of the finished casting, positioning refractory metal bodies such as wires in the duplicate at points corresponding to apertures or passageways in finished products, forming a ceramic coating on the duplicate, removing the duplicate material, firing the ceramic in a vacuum or inert atmosphere, vacuum casting the metal in the ceramic form, removing the ceramic form, heating the cast object in an atmospheric furnace to oxidize the refractory metal bodies and then leaching the oxidized refractory bodies from the casting with a molten caustic agent or acid solution.

  13. Natural history and evolutionary principles of gene duplication in fungi.

    PubMed

    Wapinski, Ilan; Pfeffer, Avi; Friedman, Nir; Regev, Aviv

    2007-09-01

    Gene duplication and loss is a powerful source of functional innovation. However, the general principles that govern this process are still largely unknown. With the growing number of sequenced genomes, it is now possible to examine these events in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. Here, we develop a procedure that resolves the evolutionary history of all genes in a large group of species. We apply our procedure to seventeen fungal genomes to create a genome-wide catalogue of gene trees that determine precise orthology and paralogy relations across these species. We show that gene duplication and loss is highly constrained by the functional properties and interacting partners of genes. In particular, stress-related genes exhibit many duplications and losses, whereas growth-related genes show selection against such changes. Whole-genome duplication circumvents this constraint and relaxes the dichotomy, resulting in an expanded functional scope of gene duplication. By characterizing the functional fate of duplicate genes we show that duplicated genes rarely diverge with respect to biochemical function, but typically diverge with respect to regulatory control. Surprisingly, paralogous modules of genes rarely arise, even after whole-genome duplication. Rather, gene duplication may drive the modularization of functional networks through specialization, thereby disentangling cellular systems.

  14. Foregut Duplication Cyst: An Unusual Presentation During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Hourani, Mohammad; Akoum, Mouniat; Rajab, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Congenital duplications can occur anywhere in the GIT, one third of all duplications are foregut duplications (esophagus, stomach, first and second part of duodenum). Respiratory symptoms are the most common symptoms in foregut duplications, most cases present with respiratory distress which may be present from birth, or symptoms may be insidious with cough, wheeze, or recurrent respiratory infections. We are presenting a 2-year-old boy presenting with cough and fever. Radiological investigation showed left mediastinal mass that was removed by excisional biopsy and revealed an esophageal cyst. Cough with or without fever could be rare presentations for esophageal cyst. PMID:22754882

  15. Adaptive evolution of young gene duplicates in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mira V.; Demuth, Jeffery P.; McGrath, Casey L.; Casola, Claudio; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Duplicate genes act as a source of genetic material from which new functions arise. They exist in large numbers in every sequenced eukaryotic genome and may be responsible for many differences in phenotypes between species. However, recent work searching for the targets of positive selection in humans has largely ignored duplicated genes due to complications in orthology assignment. Here we find that a high proportion of young gene duplicates in the human, macaque, mouse, and rat genomes have experienced adaptive natural selection. Approximately 10% of all lineage-specific duplicates show evidence for positive selection on their protein sequences, larger than any reported amount of selection among single-copy genes in these lineages using similar methods. We also find that newly duplicated genes that have been transposed to new chromosomal locations are significantly more likely to have undergone positive selection than the ancestral copy. Human-specific duplicates evolving under adaptive natural selection include a surprising number of genes involved in neuronal and cognitive functions. Our results imply that genome scans for selection that ignore duplicated loci are missing a large fraction of all adaptive substitutions. The results are also in agreement with the classical model of evolution by gene duplication, supporting a common role for neofunctionalization in the long-term maintenance of gene duplicates. PMID:19411603

  16. Protein Subcellular Relocalization Increases the Retention of Eukaryotic Duplicate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Byun, S. Ashley; Singh, Sarabdeep

    2013-01-01

    Gene duplication is widely accepted as a key evolutionary process, leading to new genes and novel protein functions. By providing the raw genetic material necessary for functional expansion, the mechanisms that involve the retention and functional diversification of duplicate genes are one of the central topics in evolutionary and comparative genomics. One proposed source of retention and functional diversification is protein subcellular relocalization (PSR). PSR postulates that changes in the subcellular location of eukaryotic duplicate proteins can positively modify function and therefore be beneficial to the organism. As such, PSR would promote retention of those relocalized duplicates and result in significantly lower death rates compared with death rates of nonrelocalized duplicate pairs. We surveyed both relocalized and nonrelocalized duplicate proteins from the available genomes and proteomes of 59 eukaryotic species and compared their relative death rates over a Ks range between 0 and 1. Using the Cox proportional hazard model, we observed that the death rates of relocalized duplicate pairs were significantly lower than the death rates of the duplicates without relocalization in most eukaryotic species examined in this study. These observations suggest that PSR significantly increases retention of duplicate genes and that it plays an important, but currently underappreciated, role in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24265504

  17. Functional requirements driving the gene duplication in 12 Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplication supplies the raw materials for novel gene functions and many gene families arisen from duplication experience adaptive evolution. Most studies of young duplicates have focused on mammals, especially humans, whereas reports describing their genome-wide evolutionary patterns across the closely related Drosophila species are rare. The sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide the opportunity to address this issue. Results In our study, 3,647 young duplicate gene families were identified across the 12 Drosophila species and three types of expansions, species-specific, lineage-specific and complex expansions, were detected in these gene families. Our data showed that the species-specific young duplicate genes predominated (86.6%) over the other two types. Interestingly, many independent species-specific expansions in the same gene family have been observed in many species, even including 11 or 12 Drosophila species. Our data also showed that the functional bias observed in these young duplicate genes was mainly related to responses to environmental stimuli and biotic stresses. Conclusions This study reveals the evolutionary patterns of young duplicates across 12 Drosophila species on a genomic scale. Our results suggest that convergent evolution acts on young duplicate genes after the species differentiation and adaptive evolution may play an important role in duplicate genes for adaption to ecological factors and environmental changes in Drosophila. PMID:23945147

  18. Gene duplication and transfer events in plant mitochondria genome

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Aisheng Peng Rihe; Zhuang Jing; Gao Feng; Zhu Bo; Fu Xiaoyan; Xue Yong; Jin Xiaofen; Tian Yongsheng; Zhao Wei; Yao Quanhong

    2008-11-07

    Gene or genome duplication events increase the amount of genetic material available to increase the genomic, and thereby phenotypic, complexity of organisms during evolution. Gene duplication and transfer events have been important to molecular evolution in all three domains of life, and may be the first step in the emergence of new gene functions. Gene transfer events have been proposed as another accelerator of evolution. The duplicated gene or genome, mainly nuclear, has been the subject of several recent reviews. In addition to the nuclear genome, organisms have organelle genomes, including mitochondrial genome. In this review, we briefly summarize gene duplication and transfer events in the plant mitochondrial genome.

  19. MR Imaging Findings in Xp21.2 Duplication Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Helman, Guy; Gropman, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Xp21.2 duplication syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of undetermined prevalence and clinical relevance. As the use of chromosomal microarray has become first line for the work-up of childhood developmental delay, more gene deletions and duplications have been recognized. To the best of our knowledge, the imaging findings of Xp21.2 duplication syndrome have not been reported. We report a case of a 33 month-old male referred for developmental delay that was found to have an Xp21.2 duplication containing IL1RAPL1 and multiple midline brain malformations. PMID:27761175

  20. Fertility measures in women after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of distal ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Erturk, E; Ptak, A M; Monaghan, J

    1997-10-01

    Long-term effects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) on female fertility remain a concern. Thirty-nine women of childbearing age who were treated for distal ureteral stones were surveyed. The mean age of these women was 33 years, and the average stone size was 6.9 mm. The mean calculated radiation exposure to the ovaries and the uterus was 7.53 and 10.9 mSv, respectively. Ten women (26%) attempted to become pregnant. No fertility problems were noted in these women, and 11 healthy babies were delivered. These preliminary findings provide further information regarding the safety of SWL in the treatment of distal ureteral stones in women of reproductive age.

  1. The treatment of the reno-ureteral calculi by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL).

    PubMed

    Ceban, E

    2012-06-12

    Urolithiasis has an important role in the structure of urological pathology, due to its high incidence, frequency of recurrence and complications it might cause. There are many methods of treatment for kidney stones described in the scientific literature as conservative, surgical, laparoscopic, endoscopic, and ESWL. In this study, we have analyzed the ESWL method of treatment of reno-ureteral stones.There are still many controversies about the effectiveness of different models of lithotripters but the lithotripter type Modulith SLK Storz Medical (Germany) used in our clinic has proved to be very effective. ESWL is currently the first-line treatment for the majority of kidney and ureteral stones, which are up to 20 mm in diameter.

  2. In situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of distal ureteral stones: parameters for therapeutic success.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, P; Schröder, T; Fischer, N; Jakse, G

    1994-01-01

    Between January and December 1989, 123 patients with distal ureteral stones were treated with in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) using a modified HM3 Dornier lithotriptor. One hundred and three patients (83.7%) were stone-free, 20 patients (16.3%) had small residual stones (< 1 mm2) that passed spontaneously. In situ ESWL treatment alone was successful in 88 of the 103 stone-free patients (85.4%). Fifty-six (54.4%) needed 1 ESWL session, 26 (25.2%) needed 2 ESWL sessions. Nineteen of the 123 patients (15.4%) needed auxiliary endourological measures. The results of ESWL treatment were correlated to pretherapeutically identified parameters such as stone size, radiopacity, outer contour, shape, inner structure, biochemical analysis of the stones and grade of dilatation of the upper urinary tract. The results prove that size (> or = 75 mm2), radiopacity and grade of dilatation have a direct correlation to the difficulty to disintegrate ureteral stones.

  3. Sutureless end-to-end ureteral anastomosis using a new albumin stent and diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Shaffer, Brian S.; Prahl, Scott A.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    1999-09-01

    Sutureless end to end ureteral anastomoses was successfully constructed in acute and chronic experiments. A photothermal sensitive hydrolyzable (PSH) albumin stent played roles as solder and intraluminal supporter to adhesion and position the anastomosed ureter by end to end fashion. The anastomosis seam was lased with 810 nm diode laser energy supplied through hand- held 600 micrometers noncontact optical fiber. A continuous 1 watt wave of power was applied for laser anastomosis. Integrity, welding strength, bursting pressures of anastomosis and histological reaction, and radiological phenomena were compared to those of anastomoses constructed using a liquidity soldering technique. The acute results of two methods were equivalent at welding strengths, but the liquid soldering showed more energy consumption. At chronic study, the radiological and histological studies were performed to evaluate the complications of the anastomosis. Excellent heating and varied degrees of complications were observed. We conclude that PSH stent showed great promise for ureteral anastomosis using laser welding.

  4. Laser welding with an albumin stent: experimental ureteral end-to-end anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Shaffer, Brian S.; Prahl, Scott A.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2000-05-01

    Porcine ureters were anastomosed using an albumin stent and diode laser in vitro. The albumin stent provided precise apposition for an end to end anastomosis and enhanced welding strength. The anastomosis seam was lasered with an 810 nm diode laser using continuous wave and pulse light through a hand-held 600 micrometer noncontact optical fiber. Tensile strength, burst pressures, operative times, total energy and thermal damaged were measured in this study. The results demonstrated that using an albumin stent to laser weld ureteral anastomoses produces strong weld strengths. The liquid albumin solder also provided satisfactory welding strength. There were no significant differences of tissue thermal damage between the albumin stent alone, liquid solder alone and both combination groups. Thermal damage to tissue depended on laser setting and energy. This study determined the appropriate laser setting parameters to perform in vivo ureteral end to end anastomosis.

  5. Rapidly progressive kidney failure induced by fungal mycelia obstructing indwelling ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Dubert, Marie; Loi, Valeria; Tligui, Mohamed; Hertig, Alexandre

    2012-12-14

    Antibiotics reduce the commensal flora in the gut, thereby facilitating the overgrowth of undesirable microorganisms such as Candida albicans. Here, we report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a history of obstructive uropathy consecutive to a radiation therapy, in whom both indwelling ureteral stents were rapidly occluded by fungal mycelia, resulting in a rapidly progressive kidney failure. Ascendant infection by C albicans had occurred after a 2- week course of antibiotics, prescribed for a perforative peritonitis also due to radiation-induced colitis. As shown by iterative CT scans made before (at the time of the diagnosis of peritonitis) and after the antibiotic course, kidney failure was explained by a sudden and bilateral pyelocaliceal dilation, due to the obstruction of the ureteral stents. Fungal mycelia were objectivised during the replacement procedure. Intravenous fluconazole was started, and renal function recovered ad integrum with the relief of the obstruction.

  6. Rapidly progressive kidney failure induced by fungal mycelia obstructing indwelling ureteral stents

    PubMed Central

    Dubert, Marie; Loi, Valeria; Tligui, Mohamed; Hertig, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics reduce the commensal flora in the gut, thereby facilitating the overgrowth of undesirable microorganisms such as Candida albicans. Here, we report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a history of obstructive uropathy consecutive to a radiation therapy, in whom both indwelling ureteral stents were rapidly occluded by fungal mycelia, resulting in a rapidly progressive kidney failure. Ascendant infection by C albicans had occurred after a 2- week course of antibiotics, prescribed for a perforative peritonitis also due to radiation-induced colitis. As shown by iterative CT scans made before (at the time of the diagnosis of peritonitis) and after the antibiotic course, kidney failure was explained by a sudden and bilateral pyelocaliceal dilation, due to the obstruction of the ureteral stents. Fungal mycelia were objectivised during the replacement procedure. Intravenous fluconazole was started, and renal function recovered ad integrum with the relief of the obstruction. PMID:23242091

  7. Nonleukemic Ureteral Granulocytic Sarcoma Presenting with Unilateral Urinary Obstruction and Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Tarık; Tecimer, Tülay; Çetiner, Mustafa; Peker, Önder; Musaoğlu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor which is composed of myeloblasts and immature myeloid cells. It usually occurs in association with acute myeloid leukemia and most commonly involves skin, soft tissue, lymph nodes, bone, and periosteum. We report a case of isolated ureteral granulocytic sarcoma without hematologic manifestations. Our patient presented with bloody urine and left-sided lumbar pain. Preoperative clinical and radiologic features raised the suspicion of an upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma, and he was scheduled for nephroureterectomy. However, perioperative pathologic feedback and the unusual endoscopic appearance of the tumor altered our surgical strategy towards segmental ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy. Eventual pathologic diagnosis was granulocytic sarcoma of the ureter. Postoperative workup failed to demonstrate any sign of an accompanying hematologic disorder. He started receiving the chemotherapy protocol of acute myeloblastic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of nonleukemic ureteral granulocytic sarcoma which came to attention due to urologic complaints. PMID:24024067

  8. Factors that predict the spontaneous passage of ureteric stones in children

    PubMed Central

    Mokhless, Ibrahim; Zahran, Abdel-Rahman; Youssif, Mohamed; Fouda, Khaled; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the natural history of stone passage in children with ureterolithiasis and to define factors predictive of spontaneous passage. Patients and methods In all, 72 children with ureteric stones were evaluated; patients with ureteric calculi of >10 mm were excluded, as were those with absolute indications for surgical stone removal. Stone size, location, side, presence of hydronephrosis, perinephric stranding and degree of the tissue-rim sign were estimated by unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT). All patients were sent home with no administration of an α-blocker. The stone status was evaluated by a plain abdominal film or CT at ≈6 weeks after the initial diagnostic evaluation. The time from the initial complaint to the passage of the stone was recorded for each patient. Results In all, 54 (75%) children with ureteric stones of ⩽6 mm eventually passed their stones spontaneously. However, stones of <4 mm and those in the distal ureter had a significantly higher spontaneous passage rate and shorter time to stone passage (P < 0.05). The UHCT findings of a higher degree of the tissue-rim sign, hydronephrosis and perinephric fat stranding were associated with a lower likelihood of stone passage. Conclusions The rate of spontaneous passage of ureteric stones in children varies with stone location, and perinephric stranding on UHCT seems to be useful for predicting the possibility of spontaneous passage. In cases with unfavourable signs an early intervention might have better outcomes than conservative therapy. PMID:26558058

  9. Long ureteric stricture replacement by buccal mucosa graft: an Armenian experience case series report

    PubMed Central

    Akopyan, Kristina; Levonyan, Arthur; Tsaturyan, Ashot

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to demonstrate the results of a case series concerning the replacement of long ureteric strictures using buccal mucosa grafts. Material and methods Five patients (3 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 35 years old, underwent reconstructive ureteral surgery using buccal mucosa graft with omental wrapping during the period of 2010–2013. In all cases, the location of strictures was in the proximal ureters with the length of strictures varying from 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Results We did not observe any major complications postoperatively. Two patients complained of constipation, which was resolved on the second day without any special treatment. Only one patient experienced fever (39°C) on the seventh day after the surgery due to inadequate drainage of the nephrostomic tube. Mean follow-up time was 39.6 months (range 26–52 months), mean hospital stay length was 10.6 days. Intravenous and antegrade urography were performed after removing JJ stents. Results were favorable without any signs of stricture. Repetitive ultrasound and radiologic imaging was performed at month 3, 6, 12 in the first year and every half-year thereafter. Intravenous urography showed no signs of strictures. Hydronephrosis was resolved in all patients by the sixth month following the surgery. Conclusions Postoperatively, we observed favorable results in all patients in terms of absence of short term-surgical complications. This technique could be considered for patients with long ureteric strictures in whom ureteral replacement with bowel interposition or kidney auto-transplantation is contraindicated. PMID:27551561

  10. Ureteritis Cystica: Important Consideration in the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernández, B.; Díaz-Alférez, FJ.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Martín-Izquierdo, M.; Silva-Abuín, JM.; Lorenzo-Gómez, MF.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is an uncommon cause of acute renal pain. The aetiology remains unclear and the diagnosis may be difficult to establish. We report the case of a 29 year old woman with a history of repeated urinary tract infections presenting with acute renal colic in the absence of lithiasis. We review the diagnostic tools available to make the diagnosis and the recent pertinent literature. PMID:22474406

  11. Ureteral lesion secondary to vaginal ultrasound follicular puncture for oocyte recovery in in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Coroleu, B; Lopez Mourelle, F; Hereter, L; Veiga, A; Calderón, G; Martinez, F; Carreras, O; Barri, P N

    1997-05-01

    Techniques of oocyte retrieval have progressed from laparoscopy to transvaginal follicular aspiration under ultrasonographic control. This highly efficient method, routinely used nowadays, is not free of complications. We present a case of a ureteral lesion secondary to vaginal ultrasound follicular puncture for oocyte recovery in in-vitro fertilization. Despite the surgical procedure to reimplant the ureter, the patient achieved a twin pregnancy which is ongoing uneventfully.

  12. Efficacy of silodosin in the treatment of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Serdar; Tokgoz, Husnu; Yalcinkaya, Soner; Baş, Serkan; Ipekci, Tümay; Yildiz, Ali; Ates, Nihat; Savas, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have investigated the efficacy of silodosin, a recently introduced selective alpha 1-A adrenoceptor antagonist, in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral calculi. The results of these studies, which all evaluated the efficacy of 8 mg/day, indicate that silodosin is a potential treatment for ureteral calculi. This study investigated the efficacy of 4 mg/day of silodosin for MET of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter. Material and Method: After 70 patients had been randomized into 2 groups of 35 patients each, both the control and experimental groups (groups 1 and 2, respectively) were advised to take 75 mg/day of diclofenacsodiumas needed for pain relief but only the experimental group to take 4 mg/day of silodosin. After 21 days, the groups were compared regarding the stone expulsion rate and duration, number of renalcolicepisodes, and analgesicdosage. Results: The median expulsion rates were 71.4% and 91.4% in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.031). The median expulsion durations were 12.91±6.14 and 8.03±4.99 days, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.001). No significant differences were found regarding the median number of renal colic episodes or median analgesic dosage. While no patients in group 1 experienced side effects, 5 patients (14%) in group 2 experienced retrograde ejaculation. Conclusion: These results indicate that 4 mg/day of silodos in facilitates the expulsion of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter but does not significantly reduce the number of renal colic episodes or analgesic dosage. PMID:26770537

  13. Bleeding Ureter: Endometriosis Mascarading as a Ureteral Malignancy - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Puvvada; Pathade, Amey; Nagaraj, H K

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. As the diagnosis is elusive, a heavy clinical suspicion is necessary. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Here, we are presenting a rare case of bleeding ureter in a young lady who had endometriosis of the ureter. PMID:25478397

  14. Tamsulosin versus tadalafil as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anil; Acharya, Ganesh Bhakta; Basnet, Robin Bahadur; Shah, Arvind Kumar; Shrestha, Parash Mani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Department of Urology of Bir Hospital over a period of 12 months in patients with distal ureteral stones sized 5 to 10 mm. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A received tamsulosin 0.4 mg and group B received tadalafil 10 mg at bedtime for 2 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, number of ureteric colic episodes and pain score, analgesic requirements, and adverse drug effects were noted in both groups. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t-test and chi-square test. Results Altogether 85 patients, 41 in group A and 44 in group B, were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 31.72±12.63 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Demographic profiles, stone size, and baseline investigations were comparable between the 2 groups. The stone expulsion rate was significantly higher in the tadalafil group than in the tamsulosin group (84.1% vs. 61.0%, p=0.017). Although the occurrence of side effects was higher with tadalafil, this difference was not significant (p=0.099). There were no serious adverse effects. Conclusions Tadalafil has a significantly higher stone expulsion rate than tamsulosin when used as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones sized 5–10 mm. Both drugs are safe, effective, and well tolerated with minor side effects. PMID:27617317

  15. Tamsulosin versus tadalafil as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anil; Acharya, Ganesh Bhakta; Basnet, Robin Bahadur; Shah, Arvind Kumar; Shrestha, Parash Mani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Department of Urology of Bir Hospital over a period of 12 months in patients with distal ureteral stones sized 5 to 10 mm. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A received tamsulosin 0.4 mg and group B received tadalafil 10 mg at bedtime for 2 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, number of ureteric colic episodes and pain score, analgesic requirements, and adverse drug effects were noted in both groups. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t-test and chi-square test. Results Altogether 85 patients, 41 in group A and 44 in group B, were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 31.72±12.63 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Demographic profiles, stone size, and baseline investigations were comparable between the 2 groups. The stone expulsion rate was significantly higher in the tadalafil group than in the tamsulosin group (84.1% vs. 61.0%, p=0.017). Although the occurrence of side effects was higher with tadalafil, this difference was not significant (p=0.099). There were no serious adverse effects. Conclusions Tadalafil has a significantly higher stone expulsion rate than tamsulosin when used as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones sized 5–10 mm. Both drugs are safe, effective, and well tolerated with minor side effects.

  16. Bilateral ovarian metastases from ureteric urothelial cancer: Initial case report and distinguishing role of immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Venkatramani, Vivek; Banerji, John Samuel; Manojkumar, Ramani

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial cancers of the upper tract are aggressive malignancies with a propensity for distant metastases. Transitional cell carcinoma can also develop de novo in the ovaries and differentiation between these lesions requires immunohistochemistry. We report a case of right lower ureteric urothelial carcinoma with metastases to both ovaries. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral ovarian metastases from an upper tract primary, diagnosed with immunohistochemistry. PMID:25624971

  17. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  18. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  19. Impact of ureteric stent on outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: A propensity score analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gołąb, Adam; Słojewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is one of the most frequently performed procedures in patients with urolithiasis. For ureter-localized stones, SWL is often preceded by a double J stent insertion. However, fear of serious complications, including sepsis associated with stents, is often expressed. The following study assessed the impact of stent insertions on the results of SWL in patients with ureteric stones. Material and methods The study group consisted of 411 ureteric stone patients who were treated with SWL from January 2010 to December 2014. In 60 cases, treatment was preceded by ureteric stent insertion. A propensity scoring system was used to pair non-stented patients with the stented group. Success rates were assessed and compared using the chi-squared test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of particular variables on the stone-free rate. Results The overall success rate was 82.2%. After matching, the success rate of the stented group was not significantly different from the control group (85.0% vs. 83.3% respectively, p = 0.80). The mean number of sessions was higher in the stented group (1.88 per patient). Stones located in the lower part of the ureter have the greatest chance of being successfully treated. Conclusions The double J stent has no influence on the outcome of SWL treatment. In view of the greater likelihood of having additional sessions, this approach should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:27551556

  20. A Tissue-Specific Scaffold for Tissue Engineering-Based Ureteral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongde; Fu, Weijun; Wang, Zhongxin; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Terminally differentiated somatic cells can rapidly change phenotypes when they are isolated from their native tissue and cultured in vitro. This problem may become a barrier to tissue engineering-based organ reconstruction, which utilizes somatic cells. The present study was designed to validate the feasibility of maintaining the urothelial cell phenotype in a tissue-specific ureteral scaffold. The tissue-specific scaffold was fabricated by blending poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and ureteral extracellular matrix (UECM) using electrostatic spinning technology. PLLA was used to enhance the mechanical properties, and UECM was used to mimic the natural components of the ureter. Primary urothelial cells (UCs), derived from ureteral mucosa, were seeded onto the tissue-specific scaffold to assess cell adhesion, proliferation and phenotypes at designated time points. The results showed that UCs in the tissue-specific scaffold exhibited better proliferation compared to cells in pure PLLA or a PLLA-small intestinal submucosa (PLLA-SIS) scaffold (p<0.05). At different time points, the expression of a UC-specific marker (UroplakinⅢ) in the tissue-specific scaffold was significantly higher than its expression in pure PLLA or a PLLA-SIS scaffold (p<0.05). Therefore, the tissue-specific scaffold appears to be an ideal substrate for promoting UC survival and phenotype maintenance. PMID:25775033

  1. Retrograde versus Antegrade Approach for the Management of Large Proximal Ureteral Stones

    PubMed Central

    Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Isid, Ayman; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Rosenberg, Shilo; Hidas, Guy; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of retrograde versus antegrade ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with proximal ureteral stones >15 mm, treated in our institution from January 2011 to January 2016. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative outcomes, and complications were recorded and compared between the two techniques. Results. Our analysis included 57 patients. Thirty-four patients (59.6%) underwent retrograde and 23 patients (40.4%) underwent antegrade ureteroscopy. There was no significant difference in patients' demographics and stone characteristics between the groups. Stone-free rate was significantly higher (p = 0.033) in the antegrade group (100%) compared to retrograde one (82.4%). Fluoroscopy time, procedure duration, and length of hospitalization were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in retrograde approach. On the other hand, the need for postoperative stenting was significantly lower in the antegrade group (p < 0.001). No difference was found between the groups (p = 0.745) regarding postoperative complications. Conclusions. Antegrade ureteroscopy is an efficient and safe option for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. It may achieve high stone-free rates compared to retrograde ureteroscopy with the drawback of longer operative time, fluoroscopy time, and length of hospitalization. PMID:27766263

  2. Clinical observation of different minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanhua; Zhou, Zhangyan; Xia, An; Dai, Haitao; Guo, Linjie; Zheng, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effects of three minimally invasive surgeries on the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi. Methods: 135 patients with impacted upper ureteral calculi were selected and randomly divided into three groups (Group A-C) (n=45), which were treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy, minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy respectively. Relevant results of the three groups were compared. Results: The surgery time of Group C was significantly longer than those of Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). The postoperative hospitalization time of Group B was significantly longer than those of Group A and Group C (P < 0.05). 37.78% (17/45) of Group A patients required extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, being significantly more than those in Group B (6.67%, 3/45) and Group C (0, 0/45) (P < 0.05). The postoperative calculus clearance rate of Group A (51.11%, 82.22%) was significantly lower than those of Group B (91.11%, 97.78%) and Group C (93.33%, 100%) (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of postoperative complications in Group A-C were 11.11% (5/45), 8.89% (4/45) and 6.67% (3/45) respectively without significant differences (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The three surgical methods for impacted upper ureteral calculi should be selected according to practical conditions to improve therapeutic effects and to ensure safe surgery. PMID:24550953

  3. Modulation of ureteric Ca signaling and contractility in humans and rats by uropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Rachel V; Winstanley, Craig; Bakran, Ali; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor V

    2010-04-01

    Ascending urinary tract infections, a significant cause of kidney damage, are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). However, the role and mechanism of changes in ureteric function during infection are poorly understood. We therefore investigated the effects of UPEC on Ca signaling and contractions in rat (n = 17) and human (n = 6) ureters. Ca transients and force were measured and effects of UPEC on the urothelium were monitored in live tissues. In both species, luminal exposure of ureters to UPEC strains J96 and 536 caused significant time-dependent decreases in phasic and high K depolarization-induced contractility, associated with decreases in the amplitude and duration of the Ca transients. These changes were significant after 3-5 h and irreversible over the next 5 h. The infection causes increased activity of K channels, causing inhibition of voltage-gated Ca entry, and K channel blockers could reverse the effects of UPEC on ureteric function. A smaller direct effect on Ca entry also occurs. Nonpathogenic E. coli (TG2) or abluminal application of UPEC did not produce changes in Ca signaling or contractility. UPEC exposure also caused significant impairment of urothelial barrier function; luminal application of the Ca channel blocker nifedipine caused a reduction in contractions as it entered the tissue, an effect not observed in untreated ureters. Thus, UPEC impairs ureteric contractility in a Ca-dependent manner, largely caused by stimulation of potassium channels and this mechanism is dependent on host-urothelium interaction.

  4. Melatonin protects kidney against apoptosis induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Badem, Hüseyin; Cakmak, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Hakki; Kosem, Bahadir; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Cimentepe, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate whether there was a protective effect of melatonin on apoptotic mechanisms after an acute unilateral obstruction of the kidney. Material and methods A total of 25 rats consisting of five groups were used in the study, designated as follows: Group 1: control, Group 2: sham, Group 3: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with only saline, Group 4: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with melatonin immediately, and Group 5: unilateral obstruction treated with melatonin one day after obstruction. Melatonin was administered as a 10 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally. The kidneys were evaluated according to the apoptotic index and Ki-67 scores. Results Comparison of all obstruction groups (Group 3, 4, and 5), revealed that the apoptotic index was significantly higher in Groups 1 and 2. Despite melatonin reduced apoptotic mechanisms in Groups 4 and 5, there was no significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 in terms of the reduction of apoptosis. However, the reduction of apoptosis in the melatonin treated group did not decrease to the level of Groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Despite melatonin administration, which significantly reduces the apoptotic index occurring after acute unilateral ureteral obstruction, the present study did not observe a return to normal renal histology in the obstruction groups. PMID:27551563

  5. The Utility of Routine Ultrasound Imaging after Elective Transplant Ureteric Stent Removal

    PubMed Central

    Olsburgh, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ureteric stent insertion during kidney transplantation reduces the incidence of major urological complications (MUCs). We evaluated whether routine poststent removal graft ultrasonography (PSRGU) was useful in detecting MUCs before they became clinically or biochemically apparent. Methods. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical outcomes following elective stent removals from adult single renal transplant recipients (sRTRs) at our centre between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Results. Elective stent removal was performed for 338 sRTRs. Of these patients, 222 had routine PSRGU (median (IQR) days after stent removal = 18 (11–31)), 79 had urgent PSRGU due to clinical or biochemical indications, 12 had CT imaging, and 25 had no further renal imaging. Of the 222 sRTRs who underwent routine PSRGU, 210 (94.6%) had no change of management, three (1.4%) required repeat imaging only, and eight patients (3.6%) had incidental (nonureteric) findings. One patient (0.5%) had nephrostomy insertion as a result of routine PSRGU findings, but no ureteric stenosis was identified. Of 79 patients having urgent PSRGU after elective stent removal, three patients required transplant ureteric reimplantation. Conclusions. This analysis found no evidence that routine PSRGU at two to three weeks after elective stent removal provides any added value beyond standard clinical and biochemical monitoring. PMID:27493793

  6. Urological complications of renal transplantation: the impact of double J ureteric stents.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, M. L.; Veitch, P. S.; Donnelly, P. K.; Bell, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    In a 10 year series of 350 consecutive renal transplant operations, the overall urological complication rate was 7.7%. During this period double J stents were introduced and were used either in the treatment of actual urological complications or as a prophylactic measure to protect ureters which had been damaged at retrieval. A total of 34 double J stents were used in 33 patients. The indications were: ureteric obstruction (n = 13), urinary leak (n = 5), short transplant ureter anastomosed using an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy (n = 10) and ureteric injury at the time of organ retrieval (n = 6). Thirty-two double J stents were inserted at open operation and two were inserted by an antegrade method after percutaneous nephrostomy. Improvement in renal function occurred in 16 out of the 18 cases of urological complications. No kidneys were lost and there were no deaths as a direct result of these complications. In a number of cases the insertion of a double J stent was the only treatment, thus eliminating the need for more complex surgery. All 16 patients who had a ureteric stent inserted as a prophylactic measure at the time of transplantation made uncomplicated postoperative recoveries. Urinary tract infection was relatively common (27%) after double J stent insertion, but other complications were rare. In conclusion, double J stents have proved to be a useful adjunct in the management of renal transplant related urological complications. PMID:1929136

  7. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a)the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b)the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c)the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats’ ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of “ureteral crises” and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain. PMID:26509272

  8. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a) the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b) the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c) the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats' ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of "ureteral crises" and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain.

  9. Multiple Routes to Subfunctionalization and Gene Duplicate Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication is arguably the most significant source of new functional genetic material. A better understanding of the processes that lead to the stable incorporation of gene duplications into the genome is important both because it relates to interspecific differences in genome composition and because it can shed light on why some classes of gene are more prone to duplication than others. Typically, models of gene duplication consider the periods before duplication, during the spread and fixation of a new duplicate, and following duplication as distinct phases without a common underlying selective environment. I consider a scenario where a gene that is initially expressed in multiple contexts can undergo mutations that alter its expression profile or its functional coding sequence. The selective regime that acts on the functional output of the allele copies carried by an individual is constant. If there is a potential selective benefit to having different coding sequences expressed in each context, then, regardless of the constraints on functional variation at the single-locus gene, the waiting time until a gene duplication is incorporated goes down as population size increases. PMID:22143920

  10. Drosophila duplicate genes evolve new functions on the fly.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is thought to play a key role in phenotypic innovation. While several processes have been hypothesized to drive the retention and functional evolution of duplicate genes, their genomic contributions have never been determined. We recently developed the first genome-wide method to classify these processes by comparing distances between expression profiles of duplicate genes and their ancestral single-copy orthologs. Application of our approach to spatial gene expression profiles in two Drosophila species revealed that a majority of young duplicate genes possess new functions, and that new functions are acquired rapidly-often within a few million years. Surprisingly, new functions tend to arise in younger copies of duplicate gene pairs. Moreover, we found that young duplicates are often specifically expressed in testes, whereas old duplicates are broadly expressed across several tissues, providing strong support for the hypothetical "out-of-testes" origin of new genes. In this Extra View, I discuss our findings in the context of theoretical predictions about gene duplication, with a particular emphasis on the importance of natural selection in the evolution of novel phenotypes.

  11. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to subscribers within zip code...

  12. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to subscribers within zip code...

  13. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to subscribers within zip code...

  14. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to subscribers within zip code...

  15. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to subscribers within zip code...

  16. Gallbladder Duplication Associated with Gastro-Intestinal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Shilpi; Sharma, Pramila; Bhandari, Anu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Mathur, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder duplication in association with other GIT anomalies is a rare entity. We report two neonates; one with duodenal atresia and the other newborn with pyloric atresia, ileal atresia and colonic atresia, both were associated with gallbladder duplication which has not been reported earlier. PMID:27123398

  17. Supervised Learning for Detection of Duplicates in Genomic Sequence Databases

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Justin; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Verspoor, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation First identified as an issue in 1996, duplication in biological databases introduces redundancy and even leads to inconsistency when contradictory information appears. The amount of data makes purely manual de-duplication impractical, and existing automatic systems cannot detect duplicates as precisely as can experts. Supervised learning has the potential to address such problems by building automatic systems that learn from expert curation to detect duplicates precisely and efficiently. While machine learning is a mature approach in other duplicate detection contexts, it has seen only preliminary application in genomic sequence databases. Results We developed and evaluated a supervised duplicate detection method based on an expert curated dataset of duplicates, containing over one million pairs across five organisms derived from genomic sequence databases. We selected 22 features to represent distinct attributes of the database records, and developed a binary model and a multi-class model. Both models achieve promising performance; under cross-validation, the binary model had over 90% accuracy in each of the five organisms, while the multi-class model maintains high accuracy and is more robust in generalisation. We performed an ablation study to quantify the impact of different sequence record features, finding that features derived from meta-data, sequence identity, and alignment quality impact performance most strongly. The study demonstrates machine learning can be an effective additional tool for de-duplication of genomic sequence databases. All Data are available as described in the supplementary material. PMID:27489953

  18. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or...

  19. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or...

  20. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or...

  1. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or...

  2. 10 CFR 7.21 - Cost of duplication of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost of duplication of documents. 7.21 Section 7.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.21 Cost of duplication of documents. Copies of the records, reports, transcripts, minutes, appendices, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or...

  3. 29 CFR 1912.4 - Avoidance of duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of duplication. 1912.4 Section 1912.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.4 Avoidance of duplication....

  4. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  5. MECP2 duplication: possible cause of severe phenotype in females.

    PubMed

    Scott Schwoerer, Jessica; Laffin, Jennifer; Haun, Joanne; Raca, Gordana; Friez, Michael J; Giampietro, Philip F

    2014-04-01

    MECP2 duplication syndrome, originally described in 2005, is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder comprising infantile hypotonia, severe to profound intellectual disability, autism or autistic-like features, spasticity, along with a variety of additional features that are not always clinically apparent. The syndrome is due to a duplication (or triplication) of the gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). To date, the disorder has been described almost exclusively in males. Female carriers of the duplication are thought to have no or mild phenotypic features. Recently, a phenotype for females began emerging. We describe a family with ∼290 kb duplication of Xq28 region that includes the MECP2 gene where the proposita and affected family members are female. Twin sisters, presumed identical, presented early with developmental delay, and seizures. Evaluation of the proposita at 25 years of age included microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) which revealed the MECP2 gene duplication. The same duplication was found in the proposita's sister, who is more severely affected, and the proband's mother who has mild intellectual disability and depression. X-chromosome inactivation studies showed significant skewing in the mother, but was uninformative in the twin sisters. We propose that the MECP2 duplication caused for the phenotype of the proband and her sister. These findings support evidence for varied severity in some females with MECP2 duplications. PMID:24458799

  6. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  7. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section... Payments to States § 457.626 Prevention of duplicate payments. (a) General rule. No payment shall be made... CFR 144.103, which is not part of, or wholly owned by, a governmental entity. Prompt payment...

  8. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Lindsay, Bruce G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Carlson, John E.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth–death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella. PMID:16702410

  9. 33 CFR 173.73 - Duplicate certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duplicate certificate of number. 173.73 Section 173.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.73 Duplicate certificate of number. If a certificate of number is lost or destroyed,...

  10. Distribution and functional effects of neuropeptide Y on equine ureteral smooth muscle and resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; Hernández, M; Rivera, L; García-Sacristán, A; Simonsen, U

    1997-04-30

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) nerves, as well as the functional effects of NPY and the Y1- and Y2-receptor agonists, [Leu31,Pro34]NPY and NPY(13-36), respectively, have been investigated in vitro in both visceral and arterial smooth muscle of the horse intravesical ureter. NPY-IR nerve fibres were widely distributed along the entire length of the ureter, although the intravesical part was the most richly innervated region, and the only one where NPY-IR ganglion cells were found. NPY (10(-7) M) did not affect either basal tone or spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the isolated intravesical ureter, but significantly enhanced the increases in both tone and frequency of phasic activity elicited by noradrenaline (10(-6) and 10(-5) M). The Y1-receptor agonist, [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) did not significantly alter either ureteral basal tone or the contractile activity induced by noradrenaline, whereas the Y2-receptor agonist, NPY(13-36) (10(-7) M), mimicked the potentiating effect of NPY on noradrenaline responses. In ureteral resistance arteries (effective lumen diameters of 130-300 microm), NPY (10(-10) to 10(-7) M) elicited concentration-dependent contractions, which were inversely correlated with the arterial lumen diameter. Submaximal concentrations of NPY (10(-8) M) significantly increased the sensitivity of ureteral arteries to noradrenaline. [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (10(-10) to 10(-7) M), but not NPY(13-36), induced a contractile effect of similar magnitude and potency as those of NPY, and also potentiated noradrenaline responses. The present results demonstrate a rich NPY-innervation in the intravesical ureter and reveal functional effects of the peptide enhancing motor activity in both ureteral and arterial smooth muscles, although the receptors mediating such effects seem to be different. Thus, NPY potentiates the phasic contractions and tone elicited by noradrenaline through Y2-receptors, whereas it both contracts and

  11. Duplication of 7p: Further delineation of the phenotype and restriction of the critical region to the distal part of the short arm

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; King, R.A.; Dewald, G.

    1996-01-02

    We report on a patient with duplication of 7p15{r_arrow}pter and review of the literature. Patients with partial duplication of the distal 7p, including only the distal segment 7p15{r_arrow}pter, have a syndrome comparable to that of patients with a larger or complete duplication of 7p. This suggests that the critical region for the dup(7p) phenotype is restricted to 7p15{r_arrow}pter. The complete clinical phenotype of dup (7)(p15{r_arrow}pter) includes mental retardation, skull anomalies, large anterior fontanel, cardiovascular defects, joint dislocation and contraction, and gastrointestinal and genital defects. Recognition of the clinical spectrum in patients with a smaller duplication 7p, and the assignment of this critical region, should prove valuable for accurate counseling, prediction of outcome, and further gene mapping. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Gene duplication in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Minyoung J; Cutter, Asher D; Rowe, Locke

    2012-05-01

    Males and females share most of the same genes, so selection in one sex will typically produce a correlated response in the other sex. Yet, the sexes have evolved to differ in a multitude of behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits. How did this sexual dimorphism evolve despite the presence of a common underlying genome? We investigated the potential role of gene duplication in the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Because duplication events provide extra genetic material, the sexes each might use this redundancy to facilitate sex-specific gene expression, permitting the evolution of dimorphism. We investigated this hypothesis at the genome-wide level in Drosophila melanogaster, using the presence of sex-biased expression as a proxy for the sex-specific specialization of gene function. We expected that if sexually antagonistic selection is a potent force acting upon individual genes, duplication will result in paralog families whose members differ in sex-biased expression. Gene members of the same duplicate family can have different expression patterns in males versus females. In particular, duplicate pairs containing a male-biased gene are found more frequently than expected, in agreement with previous studies. Furthermore, when the singleton ortholog is unbiased, duplication appears to allow one of the paralog copies to acquire male-biased expression. Conversely, female-biased expression is not common among duplicates; fewer duplicate genes are expressed in the female-soma and ovaries than in the male-soma and testes. Expression divergence exists more in older than in younger duplicates pairs, but expression divergence does not correlate with protein sequence divergence. Finally, genomic proximity may have an effect on whether paralogs differ in sex-biased expression. We conclude that the data are consistent with a role of gene duplication in fostering male-biased, but not female-biased, gene expression, thereby aiding the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  13. Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplication and subsequent functional divergence especially expression divergence have been widely considered as main sources for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication, thus leading to accelerated expression divergence and diversification. However, little is known whether epigenetic factors have mediated the evolution of expression regulation since gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM), the major epigenetics type in this organism, as well as other available functional genomics data to address this issue. Results Duplicate genes, on average, share more common HM-code patterns than random singleton pairs in their promoters and open reading frames (ORF). Though HM-code divergence between duplicates in both promoter and ORF regions increase with their sequence divergence, the HM-code in ORF region evolves slower than that in promoter region, probably owing to the functional constraints imposed on protein sequences. After excluding the confounding effect of sequence divergence (or evolutionary time), we found the evidence supporting the notion that in yeast, the HM-code may co-evolve with cis- and trans-regulatory factors. Moreover, we observed that deletion of some yeast HM-related enzymes increases the expression divergence between duplicate genes, yet the effect is lower than the case of transcription factor (TF) deletion or environmental stresses. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that after gene duplication, yeast histone modification profile between duplicates diverged with evolutionary time, similar to genetic regulatory elements. Moreover, we found the evidence of the co-evolution between genetic and epigenetic elements since gene duplication, together contributing to the expression divergence between duplicate genes. PMID:22776110

  14. Factors influencing the failure of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with Piezolith 3000 in the management of solitary ureteral stone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insang; Jung, Seung-Il; Kim, Kwang Ho; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2014-06-01

    Studies of predictive factors of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) failure in patients with ureteral stones have not yielded results sufficient to prevent ESWL failure. The present study investigated patients with ureteral stone and analyzed the predictive factors of ESWL failure. Ninety patients with ureteral stone treated from January 2006 to June 2012 using ESWL for ureteral stone were enrolled. Patient's demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), symptoms and calculous characteristics including location, size, episode and the grade of hydronephrosis were recorded. Statistical results were performed using univariate and multivariate analyses for the predictive factors of ESWL failure. In univariate analysis, calculous location, size, and grade of hydronephrosis between two groups displayed significant differences (p < 0.05). The predictive factors of ESWL failure were BMI >25 kg/m(2) [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-11.0], calculous size ≥ 1 cm (OR = 10.5, 95% CI 3.0-36.2), calculous location (mid-ureter; OR = 8.49, 95% CI 1.5-45.7) and severe grade of hydronephrosis (OR = 12.3, 95% CI 1.9-79.5). In conclusions, ESWL failure can be predicted in cases of obesity, calculous size exceeding 1 cm, mid-ureteral stone and severe hydronephrosis. When we consider calculous management in patients with these risk factors, initial surgical approach is recommended instead of ESWL.

  15. Multichannel impedance monitoring for evaluation of alpha-adrenoblocker effect on the ureteral function in patients with stone disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolikhin, O. I.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Mudraya, I. S.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Serdyuk, A. A.

    2010-04-01

    The study of distal ureter function was carried out on patients with stones in the upper urinary tract, who underwent ureteroscopy and lithotripsy procedures. The parameters of ureteral peristalsis such as peristalsis amplitude, peristalsis rate, ureteral wall tone, contractile wave duration, and its direction obtained by multichannel impedance ureterography were assessed and compared from two groups of patients. The group I patients received tamsulosin in addition to standard regimen, while the group II patients matched according to the stone size and location were managed without tamsulosin medical therapy. In comparison with group II, the group I patients demonstrated smaller average peristalsis amplitude (0.60±0.08 vs 0.81±0.06 Ohm), shorter contractions (7.1±0.3 vs 7.7±0.3 s), greater peristalsis rate (3.3±0.3 vs 2.8±0.2 per minute), and diminished ureteral tone (4.0±0.5 vs 4.7±0.2 Ohm-1). Incidence of the retrograde contractile waves was two-fold greater in the group II, while normal antegrade regular contractions were 30% more frequent in the group I. In addition, our results showed that the effect of tamsulosin on ureteral function was manifested in the patients with different stone size and location in the upper urinary tract, and it depended pronouncedly on individual ureteral tone and contractility parameters.

  16. Unilateral versus bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks during ureteric shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Shabana, Waleed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for intra- and post-operative analgesia during abdominal operations and for ureteric shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as well. Aim: This study aimed at comparing ultrasound-guided unilateral versus bilateral TAP blocks as analgesic techniques for unilateral ureteric SWL. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized comparative study. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for unilateral ureteric SWL were randomly allocated into two groups: Group (U) received unilateral TAP block in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg), and Group (B) received bilateral TAP blocks in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg) on each side. Statistical Analysis: This was performed using SPSS program version 19 ((IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and EP 16 program. Results: The mean values of intra- and post-procedural visual analog scale at different time intervals were around (30), which was statistically insignificant between groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups regarding cardiopulmonary stability, postanesthesia care unit time, the total amount of rescue fentanyl and patient satisfaction scores (P > 0.05). There were no significant side effects in both groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block is as safe and effective analgesic technique as bilateral TAP blocks during unilateral ureteric SWL. It can be used as the sole analgesic technique during ureteric SWL. PMID:27453645

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of a rare form of congenital mid-ureteral stricture: a case report and literature revisited

    PubMed Central

    Brugnara, Milena; Cecchetto, Mariangela; Manfredi, Riccardo; Zuffante, Michele; Fanos, Vassilios; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Zaffanello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital mid-ureteral stricture is a rare malformation of the ureter leading to prenatal and neonatal hydronephrosis. Site characterization of the narrowing is important to optimize the surgical approach to the newborn affected by hydronephrosis. Case presentation We report a female EM with a rare form of hydronephrosis, (i.e. mid-ureteral stricture) which was detected early during pregnancy by imaging techniques. During fetal life both conventional fetal Ultrasound and maternal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were used to diagnose the obstruction. Magnetic Resonance pyelography and retrograde Ureteropyelography were performed after delivery and before surgical correction and confirmed the finding. Furthermore, we revisited the literature using online MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The literature reported only a few cases of prenatal diagnosis of early onset mid-ureteral stricture. Conclusion Mid-ureteral stricture is a rare cause of prenatal hydronephrosis. The diagnosis should not be delayed in order to apply the appropriate surgical approach. As a result, we showed the usefulness of fetal MRI and postnatal Magnetic Resonance pyelography, in the event that radionuclide renography with Tc-MAG3 was less informative, to allow the detection of the site of ureteral narrowing. Intrasurgical retrograde ureteropyelography confirmed these findings. PMID:17559650

  18. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyung Min; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-06-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.

  19. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-01-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management. PMID:25077096

  20. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R.; Morelli, John N.; Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C.

    2013-12-15

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  1. Recent segmental and gene duplications in the mouse genome

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Wilson, Michael D; Zhang, Junjun; Khaja, Razi; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Heng, Henry HQ; Koop, Ben F; Scherer, Stephen W

    2003-01-01

    Background The high quality of the mouse genome draft sequence and its associated annotations are an invaluable biological resource. Identifying recent duplications in the mouse genome, especially in regions containing genes, may highlight important events in recent murine evolution. In addition, detecting recent sequence duplications can reveal potentially problematic regions of the genome assembly. We use BLAST-based computational heuristics to identify large (≥ 5 kb) and recent (≥ 90% sequence identity) segmental duplications in the mouse genome sequence. Here we present a database of recently duplicated regions of the mouse genome found in the mouse genome sequencing consortium (MGSC) February 2002 and February 2003 assemblies. Results We determined that 33.6 Mb of 2,695 Mb (1.2%) of sequence from the February 2003 mouse genome sequence assembly is involved in recent segmental duplications, which is less than that observed in the human genome (around 3.5-5%). From this dataset, 8.9 Mb (26%) of the duplication content consisted of 'unmapped' chromosome sequence. Moreover, we suspect that an additional 18.5 Mb of sequence is involved in duplication artifacts arising from sequence misassignment errors in this genome assembly. By searching for genes that are located within these regions, we identified 675 genes that mapped to duplicated regions of the mouse genome. Sixteen of these genes appear to have been duplicated independently in the human genome. From our dataset we further characterized a 42 kb recent segmental duplication of Mater, a maternal-effect gene essential for embryogenesis in mice. Conclusion Our results provide an initial analysis of the recently duplicated sequence and gene content of the mouse genome. Many of these duplicated loci, as well as regions identified to be involved in potential sequence misassignment errors, will require further mapping and sequencing to achieve accuracy. A Genome Browser database was set up to display the

  2. Duplication of the MECP2 region is a frequent cause of severe mental retardation and progressive neurological symptoms in males.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, Hilde; Bauters, Marijke; Ignatius, Jaakko; Jansen, Mieke; Raynaud, Martine; Hollanders, Karen; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jensen, Lars Riff; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene at Xq28 are associated with Rett syndrome in females and with syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation (MR) in males. By array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), we identified a small duplication at Xq28 in a large family with a severe form of MR associated with progressive spasticity. Screening by real-time quantitation of 17 additional patients with MR who have similar phenotypes revealed three more duplications. The duplications in the four patients vary in size from 0.4 to 0.8 Mb and harbor several genes, which, for each duplication, include the MR-related L1CAM and MECP2 genes. The proximal breakpoints are located within a 250-kb region centromeric of L1CAM, whereas the distal breakpoints are located in a 300-kb interval telomeric of MECP2. The precise size and location of each duplication is different in the four patients. The duplications segregate with the disease in the families, and asymptomatic carrier females show complete skewing of X inactivation. Comparison of the clinical features in these patients and in a previously reported patient enables refinement of the genotype-phenotype correlation and strongly suggests that increased dosage of MECP2 results in the MR phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, not only impaired or abolished gene function but also increased MeCP2 dosage causes a distinct phenotype. Moreover, duplication of the MECP2 region occurs frequently in male patients with a severe form of MR, which justifies quantitative screening of MECP2 in this group of patients.

  3. Duplication of the MECP2 Region Is a Frequent Cause of Severe Mental Retardation and Progressive Neurological Symptoms in Males

    PubMed Central

    Van Esch, Hilde ; Bauters, Marijke ; Ignatius, Jaakko ; Jansen, Mieke ; Raynaud, Martine ; Hollanders, Karen ; Lugtenberg, Dorien ; Bienvenu, Thierry ; Jensen, Lars Riff ; Gécz, Jozef ; Moraine, Claude ; Marynen, Peter ; Fryns, Jean-Pierre ; Froyen, Guy 

    2005-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene at Xq28 are associated with Rett syndrome in females and with syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation (MR) in males. By array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), we identified a small duplication at Xq28 in a large family with a severe form of MR associated with progressive spasticity. Screening by real-time quantitation of 17 additional patients with MR who have similar phenotypes revealed three more duplications. The duplications in the four patients vary in size from 0.4 to 0.8 Mb and harbor several genes, which, for each duplication, include the MR-related L1CAM and MECP2 genes. The proximal breakpoints are located within a 250-kb region centromeric of L1CAM, whereas the distal breakpoints are located in a 300-kb interval telomeric of MECP2. The precise size and location of each duplication is different in the four patients. The duplications segregate with the disease in the families, and asymptomatic carrier females show complete skewing of X inactivation. Comparison of the clinical features in these patients and in a previously reported patient enables refinement of the genotype-phenotype correlation and strongly suggests that increased dosage of MECP2 results in the MR phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, not only impaired or abolished gene function but also increased MeCP2 dosage causes a distinct phenotype. Moreover, duplication of the MECP2 region occurs frequently in male patients with a severe form of MR, which justifies quantitative screening of MECP2 in this group of patients. PMID:16080119

  4. Surface-Based Morphometry of Cortical Thickness and Surface Area Associated with Heschl's Gyri Duplications in 430 Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Damien; Maingault, Sophie; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We applied Surface-Based Morphometry to assess the variations in cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA) in relation to the occurrence of Heschl's gyrus (HG) duplications in each hemisphere. 430 healthy brains that had previously been classified as having a single HG, Common Stem Duplication (CSD) or Complete Posterior Duplication (CPD) in each hemisphere were analyzed. To optimally align the HG area across the different groups of gyrification, we computed a specific surface-based template composed of 40 individuals with a symmetrical HG gyrification pattern (20 single HG, 10 CPD, 10 CSD). After normalizing the 430 participants' T1 images to this specific template, we separately compared the groups constituted of participants with a single HG, CPD, and CSD in each hemisphere. The occurrence of a duplication in either hemisphere was associated with an increase in CT posterior to the primary auditory cortex. This may be the neural support of expertise or great abilities in either speech or music processing domains that were related with duplications by previous studies. A decrease in CSA in the planum temporale was detected in cases with duplication in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, a medial decrease in CSA and a lateral increase in CSA were present in HG when a CPD occurred together with an increase in CSA in the depth of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in CSD compared to a single HG. These variations associated with duplication might be related to the functions that they process jointly within each hemisphere: temporal and speech processing in the left and spectral and music processing in the right. PMID:27014013

  5. De novo direct duplication of chromosome segment 22q11.2-q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Atsuko; Lin, Ming S.

    1996-03-29

    Lindsay et al. [1995] reported a case of de novo duplication of the segment 22q11-q12. Molecular cytogenetics studies showed that the segment includes the regions responsible for the {open_quotes}cat eye,{close_quotes} DiGeorge, and velo-cardio-facial syndrome, and extends distal to the breakpoint cluster region. The phenotype was milder than that of complete trisomy 22 and der(22)t(11;22) (q23;q11) syndrome and was similar in type and severity to that of {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES). They suggested that trisomy of gene(s) responsible for the CES might have a predominant phenotypic effect over other genes present in the region duplicated in their patient. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak

    2007-08-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is an effort to address both their positive and negative aspects, through speckle interferometric observations, targeting ~1200 systems where useful information can be obtained with only a single additional observation. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Raghavan's Ph.D. thesis, which is a comprehensive survey aimed at determining the multiplicity fraction among solar-type stars.

  7. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hatkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak

    2008-02-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is an effort to address both their positive and negative aspects, through speckle interferometric observations, targeting ~1200 systems where useful information can be obtained with only a single additional observation. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Raghavan's Ph.D. thesis, which is a comprehensive survey aimed at determining the multiplicity fraction among solar-type stars.

  8. Topological rearrangements and local search method for tandem duplication trees.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Denis; Gascuel, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing the duplication history of a set of tandemly repeated sequences was first introduced by Fitch . Many recent studies deal with this problem, showing the validity of the unequal recombination model proposed by Fitch, describing numerous inference algorithms, and exploring the combinatorial properties of these new mathematical objects, which are duplication trees. In this paper, we deal with the topological rearrangement of these trees. Classical rearrangements used in phylogeny (NNI, SPR, TBR, ...) cannot be applied directly on duplication trees. We show that restricting the neighborhood defined by the SPR (Subtree Pruning and Regrafting) rearrangement to valid duplication trees, allows exploring the whole duplication tree space. We use these restricted rearrangements in a local search method which improves an initial tree via successive rearrangements. This method is applied to the optimization of parsimony and minimum evolution criteria. We show through simulations that this method improves all existing programs for both reconstructing the topology of the true tree and recovering its duplication events. We apply this approach to tandemly repeated human Zinc finger genes and observe that a much better duplication tree is obtained by our method than using any other program.

  9. A 20-basepair duplication in the human thyroid peroxidase gene results in a total iodide organification defect and congenital hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Bikker, H.; Hartog, M.T. den; Gons, M.H.; Vulsma, T.; Vijlder, J.J.M. de; Baas, F.

    1994-07-01

    In this study, the authors present the molecular basis of a total iodide organification defect causing severe congenital hypothyroidism. In the thyroid gland of the patient, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity and the iodination degree of thyroglobulin were below detection limits, and no TPO messenger ribonucleic acid was detectable by Northern blot analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of the TPO gene of the patient revealed a homozygous mutation in exon 2. Sequence analysis showed the presence of a 20-basepair duplication, 47 basepairs down-stream of the ATG start codon. This duplication generates a frame shift, resulting in a termination signal in exon 3, compatible with the complete absence of TPO. Both parents of the patient are heterozygous for the same duplication, confirming the recessive mode of inheritance of the mutation. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Case report of a ureteral obstruction by Candida albicans fungus balls detected by magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Arichi, Naoko; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Kohei; Nagami, Taichi; Anjiki, Haruki; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Mitsui, Yozo; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    In kidney transplant recipients, acute renal failure resulting from a ureteral obstruction by fungus balls is uncommon. We report a 60-year-old man diagnosed with ureteral obstruction caused by Candida albicans fungus balls early after transplant. Diagnosis was made by a T2-weighted magnetic resonance image, which demonstrated fungus balls as a low-intensity mass in the pelvis and microscopic examination findings in the urine. The patient was treated successfully with an antifungal agent and direct irrigation. It should be noted that fungus balls may cause ureteral obstruction of transplanted kidneys, possibly resulting in graft failure. Imaging of the kidneys and collecting system and aggressive debridement that adds to systemic therapy are necessary for early diagnosis and are central to a successful outcome.

  11. Duplication Cyst Presenting as Hydrocoele in a Child.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Naeem; Nayyer, Sajid; Yousaf, Abdul Rehman; Iqbal, Nayyer; Ahmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

    2015-10-01

    Enteric duplication cyst can occur anywhere in Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT), from oropharynx to rectum. Their presentation depends upon the portion of GIT involved. The most common site of GIT involved is small intestine, in 50% of cases. Small intestinal duplication cyst usually present with abdominal pain or mass and rarely as intussusception, volvulus or small bowel obstruction. It may also present very rarely as inguinal hernia of which only 2 cases have been reported yet. We report a 3 years child presenting as hydrocoele of the cord which turned to be duplication cyst which is very rare presentation.

  12. Methods, apparatus and system for selective duplication of subtasks

    DOEpatents

    Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Cher, Chen-Yong; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-03-29

    A method for selective duplication of subtasks in a high-performance computing system includes: monitoring a health status of one or more nodes in a high-performance computing system, where one or more subtasks of a parallel task execute on the one or more nodes; identifying one or more nodes as having a likelihood of failure which exceeds a first prescribed threshold; selectively duplicating the one or more subtasks that execute on the one or more nodes having a likelihood of failure which exceeds the first prescribed threshold; and notifying a messaging library that one or more subtasks were duplicated.

  13. 7 CFR 91.29 - Issuance of duplicate certificates or reissuance of an analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... initial analysis report shall be shown on the duplicate form. (e) Duplicate certificates or...

  14. Endoureteral Management of Renal Graft Ureteral Stenosis by the Use of Long-Term Metal Stent: An Appealing Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Treacy, Patrick-Julien; Rastinehad, Art R.; Imbert de la Phalecque, Laetitia; Albano, Laetitia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Ureteral stenosis is part of the common complications of renal graft reported in 3% to 7% of cases. Multiple treatments have been introduced regarding length and position of the stenosis. Metal stents for urologic purpose were created in 1998. Double percutaneous antegrade and transurethral retrograde access to a ureteral stenosis to a long-term metal stent procedure has been rarely described. Case Presentation: Here, we present a case of a ureteral stricture in a double ipsilateral kidney graft with a common ureter. A 67-year-old patient presented with obstructive nephritis associated with acute renal failure 6 years after a double renal graft with a uretero-ureteral end-to-side anastomosis. Abdominal CT scan showed double pelvic dilation. The patient underwent double percutaneous nephrostomies and antegrade pyelogram showed both renal pelvic and ureter dilations caused by a severe chronic ureteral stenosis at junction into the bladder. A Double-J ureteric stent was then inserted retrogradely over a guidewire as first-line treatment. Due to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), removal and replacement of Double-J stents were carried out by placing a thermoexpandable metal stent Memokath® 051 (Bard, Pnn Medical) through the common ureter by a double antegrade and retrograde approach. Treatment was effective with a good renal function maintained after a 3-year follow-up without UTIs. Conclusion: Double antegrade and retrograde access to a long-term metal stent treatment can be seen as an alternative treatment to either endoscopy or open surgery. Further studies should be continued using larger series. PMID:27704056

  15. Comparative efficacy of tadalafil versus tamsulosin as the medical expulsive therapy in lower ureteric stone: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Aggarwal, Kuldeep; Patil, Avinash; Joshi, Prarthan; Desigowda, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, medical expulsive therapy has been used in the management of distal ureteric stones as a supplement to conservative treatment. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the possible role of tadalafil individually in comparison with proven tamsulosin therapy in ureteric stone expulsion. The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (tadalafil) and an α-1 blocker (tamsulosin) as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric calculi. Material and methods Between August 2014 and October 2015, 207 patients who presented with distal ureteric stones of size 5–10 mm were randomly divided into two groups: tadalafil (Group A) and tamsulosin (Group B). Therapy was given for a maximum of 4 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, time to stone expulsion, analgesic use, number of hospital visits for pain, follow-up, endoscopic treatment and adverse effects of drugs were noted. Both groups were compared for normally distributed data by percentage, analysis of variance, and T-test. All the classified and categorical data were analyzed for both groups using the chi-square test. Results A statistically significant expulsion rate of 84.0% in Group A compared with 68.0% in Group B (P value = 0.0130), and shorter stone expulsion time in Group A (14.7±3.8) in comparison to Group B (16.8 ±4.5) was observed. Statistically significant differences were noted in renal colic episodes and analgesic requirement in Group A than Group B. No serious adverse effects were noted. Conclusions Tadalafil is safe, efficacious, and well tolerated as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones. This study showed that tadalafil increases ureteric stone expulsion quite significantly along with better control of pain and significantly lower analgesic requirement. PMID:27551555

  16. Two-year experience with ureteral stones: extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy v ureteroscopic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Park, M; Park, T

    1998-12-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopic manipulation became the standard treatments for ureteral stones in recent years. There still exists significant debate as to the most appropriate treatment modality for ureteral stones. During a period of 2 years, from January 1994 to December 1995, 651 patients with ureteral stones were treated, and 589 patients were retrospectively reviewed, excluding 62 patients with incomplete follow-up. Four hundred forty-two patients were treated with SWL using the MPL 9000 with ultrasonic guidance and 115 patients with ureteroscopic manipulations using 7.9F to 11.5F rigid and semirigid ureteroscopes. In SWL treatments, the overall stone-free rate was 74.7% with one session. The stone-free rate was significantly affected by the size of stones, being 83.6% when the stone was <1.0 cm and 42.1% when the stone was >1.0 cm. The stone-free rate after a second SWL session was 84.4% and was 90.3% after a third session. The stone-free rates according to the site of the stone were 72.4 (proximal), 70.0 (mid), and 80.2% (distal) after a single session. In ureteroscopic manipulation, an overall stone-free rate of 87.8% was obtained regardless of the size of the stones. The success rates according to the location of stones were 75.0 (proximal), 94.6 (mid), and 86.4% (distal). Open ureterolithotomy was performed in 32 patients, with a 100% success rate. In our study, the size of the stones was the most important factor influencing the success rate of SWL treatment. We consider ureteroscopic manipulation as the first-line treatment modality when the stone is >1.0 cm, especially if it is in the distal ureter. Proper selection of patients for in situ SWL or ureteroscopy would improve the results of initial treatment.

  17. High-energy v low-energy shockwave lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Mathes, G L; Mathes, L T

    1997-10-01

    The size of the crater formed in a urinary calculus subjected to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is directly proportional to the energy delivered to the stone surface. This study compared the effect of high and low energy levels on the outcomes of ureteral SWL. Ureteral calculi (N = 336) were treated with the conventional low-energy Siemens Lithostar and 62 with the higher-energy (1.02 v 0.5 mJ/mm2) modification of the Lithostar, the Siemens Shock Tube C. Stone locations included all regions of the ureter. The average stone treated with the standard Lithostar measured 8.1 mm in diameter and received 5461 shockwaves (treatment time 45 minutes) at 17.2 kV (range 14.5-19.0 kV). The stone-free rate was 72%, with stents being used in 16% of patients and a retreatment rate of 9%. The typical stone treated with Shock Tube C was 10.4 mm in diameter and received 3528 shockwaves (treatment time 30 minutes) at an average energy setting of 4.1 (range 1.5-8.0). The stone-free rate was 75%, with stents being used in 9.8% of cases, and a retreatment rate of only 1.6% (P < 0.003). In this study, Shock Tube C yielded stone-free rates equivalent to those of the conventional machine. However, the number of shockwaves, treatment time, and retreatment rate were significantly lower with the new shock tube. High-energy lithotripsy is more efficient than low-energy treatment of ureteral calculi.

  18. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy without using ureteral stent: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Burak; Coşkuner, Enis Rauf; Yalçın, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To share our results of robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) we performed without using ureteral stent in a single center from Turkey. Material and methods Medical records of consecutive 45 patients (34 men and 11 women) who underwent RAPN for kidney lesions between March 2011 and December 2014 were retrieved, and evaluated. All the procedures were performed by a transperitoneal approach without using ureteral stent prior to surgery. Renal artery clamping was used in all cases and intraoperative ultrasonography was used in 2 cases. Results Patients undergoing RAPN had a mean tumor size of 4.42 cm (2–8) and a mean renal nephrometry score of 5.82 (4–11). The mean estimated blood loss was 250 mL (150–450 ml) and the mean operative time was 195 minutes (150–300). There was no statistical difference between the preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels at the first follow-up visit (0.9 vs. 0.95, p=0.087). Surgical margin positivity was not detected in any patient, and the mean surgical margin distance was calculated as 0.4 mm (0.2–10). In only 1 patient disease recurrence was detected at the 21st month of the the follow-up period, and no distant metastases was reported in our patients at a mean follow-up of 10 months (3–36 mos). Our complication rate was 11.1% and according to the Clavien system complications were as; grade 2 (3 patients), grade 3a (1 patient) and grade 3b (1 patient). Conclusion With appropriately selected patients and adequate surgical experience, RAPN performed without using ureteral stent is a safe and feasible method for localized renal tumors. PMID:27011873

  19. Aliskiren restores renal AQP2 expression during unilateral ureteral obstruction by inhibiting the inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Luo, Renfei; Lin, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Zheng, Peili; Levi, Moshe; Yang, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is associated with reduced expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs), urinary concentrating defects, and an enhanced inflammatory response, in which the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play an important role. We evaluated whether RAS blockade by a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, would prevent the decreased renal protein expression of AQPs in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model and what potential mechanisms may be involved. UUO was performed for 3 days (3UUO) and 7 days (7UUO) in C57BL/6 mice with or without aliskiren injection. In 3UUO and 7UUO mice, aliskiren abolished the reduction of AQP2 protein expression but not AQP1, AQP3, and AQP4. mRNA levels of renal AQP2 and vasopressin type 2 receptor were decreased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were prevented by aliskiren treatment. Aliskiren treatment was also associated with a reduced inflammatory response in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Aliskiren significantly decreased mRNA levels of several proinflammatory factors, such as transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α, seen in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Interestingly, mRNA and protein levels of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, caspase-1, and IL-1β were dramatically increased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were significantly suppressed by aliskiren. In primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, IL-1β significantly decreased AQP2 expression. In conclusions, RAS blockade with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increased water channel AQP2 expression in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, at least partially by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with ureteral obstruction. PMID:25694485

  20. Immediate and late management of iatrogenic ureteric injuries: 28 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    El Abd, Ahmed S.; El-Abd, Shawky A.; El-Enen, Mohamed Abo; Tawfik, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Mohamed G.; Abo-Farha, Mohamed; Gamasy, Abd-El Naser El; El-Sharaby, Mahmoud; El-Gamal, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term results after managing intraoperative and late-diagnosed cases of iatrogenic ureteric injury (IUI), treated endoscopically or by open surgery. Patients and methods Patients immediately diagnosed with IUI were managed under the same anaesthetic, while those referred late had a radiological assessment of the site of injury, and endoscopic management. Open surgical procedures were used only for the failed cases with previous diversion. Results In all, 98 patients who were followed had IUI after gynaecological, abdominopelvic and ureteroscopic procedures in 60.2%, 14.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The 27 patients diagnosed during surgery were managed immediately, while in the late-referred 71 patients ureteroscopic ureteric realignment with stenting was successful in 26 (36.6%). Complex open reconstruction with re-implantation or ureteric substitution, using bladder-tube or intestinal-loop procedures, was used in 27 (60%), 16 (35.5%) and two (4.5%) patients of the late group, respectively. A long-term radiological follow-up with a mean (range) of 46.6 (24.5–144) months showed recurrent obstruction in 16 (16.3%) patients managed endoscopically and reflux in six (8.3%) patients. Three renal units only (3%) were lost in the late-presenting patients. Conclusion Patients managed immediately had better long-term results. More than a third of the late-diagnosed patients were successfully managed endoscopically with minimal morbidity. Open reconstruction by an experienced urologist who can perform a complex substitutional procedure was mandatory to preserve renal units in the long-term. PMID:26609443

  1. A mathematical simulation of the ureter: effects of the model parameters on ureteral pressure/flow relations.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, Bahman; Fatouraee, Nasser; Imanparast, Ali; Moghadam, Abbas Nasiraei

    2011-03-01

    Ureteral peristaltic mechanism facilitates urine transport from the kidney to the bladder. Numerical analysis of the peristaltic flow in the ureter aims to further our understanding of the reflux phenomenon and other ureteral abnormalities. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) plays an important role in accuracy of this approach and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation is a strong method to analyze the coupled fluid-structure interaction between the compliant wall and the surrounding fluid. This formulation, however, was not used in previous studies of peristalsis in living organisms. In the present investigation, a numerical simulation is introduced and solved through ALE formulation to perform the ureteral flow and stress analysis. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used as the governing equations for the fluid, and a linear elastic model is utilized for the compliant wall. The wall stimulation is modeled by nonlinear contact analysis using a rigid contact surface since an appropriate model for simulation of ureteral peristalsis needs to contain cell-to-cell wall stimulation. In contrast to previous studies, the wall displacements are not predetermined in the presented model of this finite-length compliant tube, neither the peristalsis needs to be periodic. Moreover, the temporal changes of ureteral wall intraluminal shear stress during peristalsis are included in our study. Iterative computing of two-way coupling is used to solve the governing equations. Two phases of nonperistaltic and peristaltic transport of urine in the ureter are discussed. Results are obtained following an analysis of the effects of the ureteral wall compliance, the pressure difference between the ureteral inlet and outlet, the maximum height of the contraction wave, the contraction wave velocity, and the number of contraction waves on the ureteral outlet flow. The results indicate that the proximal part of the ureter is prone to a higher shear stress during

  2. [EFFECTIVENESS OF URETERAL STENTS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED COATING IN RENAL TRANSPLANTATION (PRELIMINARY RESULTS)].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Mojsjuk, Ja G; Shkodkin, S V; Sajdulaev, D A; Idashkin, Ju B

    2015-01-01

    From a surgeon's perspective, intraureteral jj-stent is an optimal tool to ensure upper urinary tract drainage. This paper presents preliminary results of our study investigating the use of ureteral stents with nanostructured coating in renal transplant recipients. The use of nanostructured coating based on amorphous carbon and silver nanocrystallites eliminated bacteriuria by week 4 after stenting in the treatment group with significant decrease of urine sediments while in the control group bacteriuria was found in 83,3% cases. Symptoms of bladder irritability depended on stent construction rather than presence of coating.

  3. BET 2: Tadalafil medical expulsive therapy in ureteral calculi: a new kid on the block?

    PubMed

    Christie, Brian; Oostema, Adam

    2016-08-01

    A short cut review was carried out to see if tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was superior to standard α-adrenergic antagonists at promoting spontaneous ureteric calculi excretion. Two relevant papers were found, published by the same research group. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Tadalafil was not shown to have significant superiority in terms of efficacy or adverse effects compared with standard treatment.

  4. CHANGES IN LIPID CONTENT OF SERUM AND OF LIVER FOLLOWING BILATERAL RENAL ABLATION OR URETERAL LIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, A. W.; Durlacher, S. H.; Hoff, H. E.; Man, E. B.

    1943-01-01

    1. In the dog and monkey bilateral nephrectomy or ureteral ligation results in a marked, progressive increase of total fatty acids, of free and esterified cholesterol, of phospholipid, and of free fat of serum. 2. No such changes follow unilateral nephrectomy, splenectomy, or fasting. 3. The increase after bilateral nephrectomy is not inhibited by glucose administration. 4. A marked increase of the phospholipid and a less significant elevation in cholesterol content of the liver accompanies this increase of serum lipids after bilateral nephrectomy. PMID:19871298

  5. BET 2: Tadalafil medical expulsive therapy in ureteral calculi: a new kid on the block?

    PubMed

    Christie, Brian; Oostema, Adam

    2016-08-01

    A short cut review was carried out to see if tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was superior to standard α-adrenergic antagonists at promoting spontaneous ureteric calculi excretion. Two relevant papers were found, published by the same research group. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Tadalafil was not shown to have significant superiority in terms of efficacy or adverse effects compared with standard treatment. PMID:27440770

  6. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid–fluid and fluid–substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  7. A Simulation Model for Purchasing Duplicate Copies in a Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, W. Y.; Walter, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    A method of estimating the number of duplicate copies of books needed based on a computer simulation which takes into account number of copies available, number of loans, total underlying demand, satisfaction level, percentage time on shelf. (LS)

  8. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  9. A case of sigmoid colon duplication in an adult woman.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroof, Abdulla Hassan; Al-Zayer, Faisal; Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Colonic duplication is a rare congenital anomaly that is often diagnosed in childhood, but may go unrecognised until adulthood. It often presents with chronic abdominal pain and constipation, and the preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. We present a case of sigmoid duplication in a 33-year-old Indonesian woman who presented with right-sided colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical examination was unremarkable and radiological investigations raised the possibility of a giant colon diverticulum. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy that revealed a tubular sigmoid duplication. A sigmoid colectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. She was discharged a week later and remained well at 1 year follow-up. Colon duplications rarely present in adult life and the accurate diagnosis is often made at laparotomy. PMID:25096653

  10. Perspective view of the Swiss Chalet to duplicate that seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Swiss Chalet to duplicate that seen in MD-1109-O-22; view looking from approximately the same vantage point - National Park Seminary, Swiss Chalet, 2802 Woodstock Avenue, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. Habitat Variability Correlates with Duplicate Content of Drosophila Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2012-01-01

    The factors limiting the habitat range of species are crucial in understanding their biodiversity and response to environmental change. Yet the genetic and genomic architectures that produce genetic variation to enable environmental adaptation have remained poorly understood. Here we show that the proportion of duplicated genes (PD) in the whole genomes of fully sequenced Drosophila species is significantly correlated with environmental variability within the habitats measured by the climatic envelope and habitat diversity. Furthermore, species with a low PD tend to lose the duplicated genes owing to their faster evolution. These results indicate that the rapid relaxation of functional constraints on duplicated genes resulted in a low PD for species with lower habitat diversity, and suggest that the maintenance of duplicated genes gives organisms an ecological advantage during evolution. We therefore propose that the PD in a genome is related to adaptation to environmental variation. PMID:22586328

  12. Are the duplication cost and Robinson-Foulds distance equivalent?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Louxin

    2014-08-01

    In the tree reconciliation approach for species tree inference, a tree that has the minimum reconciliation score for given gene trees is taken as an estimate of the species tree. The scoring models used in existing tree reconciliation methods include the duplication, mutation, and deep coalescence costs. Since existing inference methods all are heuristic, their performances are often evaluated by using the Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance between the true species trees and the estimates output on simulated multi-locus datasets. To better understand these methods, we study the relationships between the duplication cost and the RF distance. We prove that the gap between the duplication cost and the RF distance is unbounded, but the symmetric duplication cost is logarithmically equivalent to the RF distance. The relationships between other reconciliation costs and the RF distance are also investigated. PMID:24988427

  13. p53 protects against genome instability following centriole duplication failure.

    PubMed

    Lambrus, Bramwell G; Uetake, Yumi; Clutario, Kevin M; Daggubati, Vikas; Snyder, Michael; Sluder, Greenfield; Holland, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Centriole function has been difficult to study because of a lack of specific tools that allow persistent and reversible centriole depletion. Here we combined gene targeting with an auxin-inducible degradation system to achieve rapid, titratable, and reversible control of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4), a master regulator of centriole biogenesis. Depletion of Plk4 led to a failure of centriole duplication that produced an irreversible cell cycle arrest within a few divisions. This arrest was not a result of a prolonged mitosis, chromosome segregation errors, or cytokinesis failure. Depleting p53 allowed cells that fail centriole duplication to proliferate indefinitely. Washout of auxin and restoration of endogenous Plk4 levels in cells that lack centrioles led to the penetrant formation of de novo centrioles that gained the ability to organize microtubules and duplicate. In summary, we uncover a p53-dependent surveillance mechanism that protects against genome instability by preventing cell growth after centriole duplication failure.

  14. Licensing of yeast centrosome duplication requires phosphoregulation of sfi1.

    PubMed

    Avena, Jennifer S; Burns, Shannon; Yu, Zulin; Ebmeier, Christopher C; Old, William M; Jaspersen, Sue L; Winey, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Duplication of centrosomes once per cell cycle is essential for bipolar spindle formation and genome maintenance and is controlled in part by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Our study identifies Sfi1, a conserved component of centrosomes, as the first Cdk substrate required to restrict centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. We found that reducing Cdk1 phosphorylation by changing Sfi1 phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues leads to defects in separation of duplicated spindle pole bodies (SPBs, yeast centrosomes) and to inappropriate SPB reduplication during mitosis. These cells also display defects in bipolar spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and growth. Our findings lead to a model whereby phosphoregulation of Sfi1 by Cdk1 has the dual function of promoting SPB separation for spindle formation and preventing premature SPB duplication. In addition, we provide evidence that the protein phosphatase Cdc14 has the converse role of activating licensing, likely via dephosphorylation of Sfi1.

  15. Gene duplication and the evolution of moonlighting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; Ascencio, Diana; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; DeLuna, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is a recurring phenomenon in genome evolution and a major driving force in the gain of biological functions. Here, we examine the role of gene duplication in the origin and maintenance of moonlighting proteins, with special focus on functional redundancy and innovation, molecular tradeoffs, and genetic robustness. An overview of specific examples-mainly from yeast-suggests a widespread conservation of moonlighting behavior in duplicate genes after long evolutionary times. Dosage amplification and incomplete subfunctionalization appear to be prevalent in the maintenance of multifunctionality. We discuss the role of gene-expression divergence and paralog responsiveness in moonlighting proteins with overlapping biochemical properties. Future studies analyzing multifunctional genes in a more systematic and comprehensive manner will not only enable a better understanding of how this emerging class of protein behavior originates and is maintained, but also provide new insights on the mechanisms of evolution by gene duplication. PMID:26217376

  16. Pregnancy complications in women with uterine duplication abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda Demetri; Levine, Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Patients with duplication anomalies have a higher incidence of infertility, repeated first trimester spontaneous abortions, fetal intrauterine growth restriction, fetal malposition, preterm labor, and retained placenta. The role of imaging is not only to detect and diagnose müllerian anomalies but also to help distinguish surgically correctable forms of müllerian duct anomalies from nonsurgical forms. Imaging is also important to identify the location of the pregnancy, because ultrasound guidance may be needed after miscarriage or when pregnancies occur in an ectopic location. Attention to the position of the fetus within a normal-appearing uterus, with normal thickness surrounding myometrium, is important for recognizing an otherwise unsuspected uterine duplication abnormality. In this article, we review and illustrate the imaging features and complications of uterine duplication anomalies in pregnancy and identify potential mimics of duplication anomalies.

  17. The complete human olfactory subgenome.

    PubMed

    Glusman, G; Yanai, I; Rubin, I; Lancet, D

    2001-05-01

    Olfactory receptors likely constitute the largest gene superfamily in the vertebrate genome. Here we present the nearly complete human olfactory subgenome elucidated by mining the genome draft with gene discovery algorithms. Over 900 olfactory receptor genes and pseudogenes (ORs) were identified, two-thirds of which were not annotated previously. The number of extrapolated ORs is in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions. The sequence of at least 63% of the ORs is disrupted by what appears to be a random process of pseudogene formation. ORs constitute 17 gene families, 4 of which contain more than 100 members each. "Fish-like" Class I ORs, previously considered a relic in higher tetrapods, constitute as much as 10% of the human repertoire, all in one large cluster on chromosome 11. Their lower pseudogene fraction suggests a functional significance. ORs are disposed on all human chromosomes except 20 and Y, and nearly 80% are found in clusters of 6-138 genes. A novel comparative cluster analysis was used to trace the evolutionary path that may have led to OR proliferation and diversification throughout the genome. The results of this analysis suggest the following genome expansion history: first, the generation of a "tetrapod-specific" Class II OR cluster on chromosome 11 by local duplication, then a single-step duplication of this cluster to chromosome 1, and finally an avalanche of duplication events out of chromosome 1 to most other chromosomes. The results of the data mining and characterization of ORs can be accessed at the Human Olfactory Receptor Data Exploratorium Web site (http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/HORDE). PMID:11337468

  18. The complete human olfactory subgenome.

    PubMed

    Glusman, G; Yanai, I; Rubin, I; Lancet, D

    2001-05-01

    Olfactory receptors likely constitute the largest gene superfamily in the vertebrate genome. Here we present the nearly complete human olfactory subgenome elucidated by mining the genome draft with gene discovery algorithms. Over 900 olfactory receptor genes and pseudogenes (ORs) were identified, two-thirds of which were not annotated previously. The number of extrapolated ORs is in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions. The sequence of at least 63% of the ORs is disrupted by what appears to be a random process of pseudogene formation. ORs constitute 17 gene families, 4 of which contain more than 100 members each. "Fish-like" Class I ORs, previously considered a relic in higher tetrapods, constitute as much as 10% of the human repertoire, all in one large cluster on chromosome 11. Their lower pseudogene fraction suggests a functional significance. ORs are disposed on all human chromosomes except 20 and Y, and nearly 80% are found in clusters of 6-138 genes. A novel comparative cluster analysis was used to trace the evolutionary path that may have led to OR proliferation and diversification throughout the genome. The results of this analysis suggest the following genome expansion history: first, the generation of a "tetrapod-specific" Class II OR cluster on chromosome 11 by local duplication, then a single-step duplication of this cluster to chromosome 1, and finally an avalanche of duplication events out of chromosome 1 to most other chromosomes. The results of the data mining and characterization of ORs can be accessed at the Human Olfactory Receptor Data Exploratorium Web site (http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/HORDE).

  19. Congenital Esophageal Duplication Cyst: A Rare Cause of Dysphagia in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit S.; Surude, Ravindra G.; Mohite, Ashok R.; Rathi, Pravin M.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital embryonal gastrointestinal (GI) malformation which is diagnosed most commonly in childhood. In adults, they can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from dysphagia, chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting to more serious complications including infections, hemorrhage, and ulcerations. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressive dysphagia to solids for 4 months without significant weight loss. Clinical examination and routine laboratory examination were unrevealing. Upper GI endoscopy revealed a well-defined submucosal lesion bulging into the esophageal lumen involving the right antero-lateral wall of the distal esophagus. The overlying mucosa was normal with mild luminal narrowing but gastroscope could be negotiated across this narrowing. Differential diagnosis included lipoma, leiomyoma or GI stromal tumors. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of thorax revealed a 3.5 × 2.3 × 3 cm well-defined homogenous hypodense lesion involving the right antero-lateral wall of the distal thoracic esophagus with likely possibility of submucosal or intramural lesion. Subsequently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a 3.3 × 2.8 cm homogenous hypoechoic lesion without any vascularity involving the distal esophagus wall suggestive of duplication cyst. The lesion was intramural in location as muscularis propria was seen to go around the lesion. Bronchogenic cyst was excluded due to absence of cartilage and close proximity of the cyst to lumen. Fine-needle aspiration was not attempted in view of high risk of introducing infection. Being symptomatic, the patient underwent complete surgical excision of the cyst with exteriorization of the base which on histopathology confirmed duplication cyst. Esophageal duplication cysts are exceedingly rare congenital embryonal malformations with estimated prevalence of 0.0122% arising from aberration of posterior division of embryonic foregut at 3 - 4 weeks of

  20. Duplicate genes increase gene expression diversity within and between species.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenglong; Rifkin, Scott A; White, Kevin P; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2004-06-01

    Using microarray gene expression data from several Drosophila species and strains, we show that duplicated genes, compared with single-copy genes, significantly increase gene expression diversity during development. We show further that duplicate genes tend to cause expression divergences between Drosophila species (or strains) to evolve faster than do single-copy genes. This conclusion is also supported by data from different yeast strains.

  1. Familial partial duplication (1)(p21p31)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoechstetter, L.; Soukup, S.; Schorry, E.K.

    1995-11-20

    A partial duplication (1)(p21p31), resulting from a maternal direct insertion (13,1) (q22p21p31), was found in a 30-year-old woman with mental retardation, cleft palate, and multiple minor anomalies. Two other affected and deceased relatives were presumed to have the same chromosome imbalance. Duplication 1p cases are reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Retroperitoneal gastric duplication cyst: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pachl, Max; Patel, Kamlesh; Bowen, Claire; Parikh, Dakshesh

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of retroperitoneal gastric duplication is reported and discussed. An intra-abdominal cyst was detected at 31 weeks gestation and was followed up prenatally as a left sided duplex kidney. Post-natal ultrasound however, showed a normal kidney, but a cyst with features of enteric duplication in the left upper quadrant adjacent and compressing the kidney. Surgery was carried out during infancy and a retroperitoneal cyst was excised that contained heterotrophic gastric mucosa.

  3. [Respiratory insufficiency due to duplications of the oesophagus].

    PubMed

    Luoma, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Duplications of the oesophagus are uncommon congenital malformations with possible occurrence in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The duplications may be cysts, diverticula or tubular-shaped. Cysts may even occur further away from the gastrointestinal tract, not necessarily having contact with it. I present a patient case, in which a 13-month-old child was brought to the emergency room due to gradually increasing dyspnea. The child made a full recovery after the surgical procedure.

  4. The postobstructive kidney. Observations on nephron function after the relief of 24 hr of ureteral ligation in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Bercovitch, D. Danny; Kasen, Leonard; Blann, Laurence; Levitt, Marvin F.

    1971-01-01

    After the relief of 24 hr of complete unilateral ureteral obstruction in the dog, the experimental kidney is characterized by a decrease in filtration rate and an increase in fractional and often absolute excretion of sodium before and after the administration of mannitol. In the hydrated state, the failure to conserve sodium is associated with increases in fractional free water clearance and fractional sodium supply to water-freeing sites signifying that the augmented sodium excretion is derived from a proximal source. In the hydropenic state there is decreased fractional free water reabsorption, and sometimes free water excretion, in the postobstructive kidney. An early plateau in free water reabsorption is associated with an increased fractional excretion of sodium. These findings are attributed to the early development of distal nephron impermeability to water as a result of enhanced distal tubular supply and transport of sodium. There is a decrease in maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity (Tm) of glucose in the post-obstructive kidney which is, however, less marked than the decrease in filtration rate. The fall in filtration rate is to some extent likely due to a dropping out of nephrons from the circulation while the remaining nephrons are hypoperfused. The magnitude of the sodium reabsorptive defect is markedly exaggerated as the concentration of nonreabsorbable solute (mannitol) in the glomerular perfusate is increased. It is concluded that the postobstructive increase in sodium excretion during mannitol administration is in part due to a limit in the capacity to reabsorb sodium against a concentration gradient in the proximal tubule. PMID:5552413

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition aggravates renal interstitial injury resulting from partial unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina O; Park, Matthew H; Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Kiley, Susan C; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Chevalier, Robert L

    2007-03-01

    Congenital urinary tract obstruction is the most important cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors attenuate the progression of renal disease in adults. ACE inhibitors are increasingly utilized in children with progressive renal disease. Because angiotensin is necessary for normal renal development, we examined the effects of ACE inhibition both during and immediately following the period of postnatal nephrogenesis in the neonatal rat subjected to sham operation or partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) under general anesthesia within the first 48 h of life. Rats in group I received enalapril 30 mg/kg body wt (or vehicle) daily for the first 10 days, while in group II, the 10 days of treatment began 10 days after surgery. Kidneys were harvested at day 21 and analyzed for apoptosis (TUNEL), interstitial macrophages (ED-1 immunohistochemistry), myofibroblasts (alpha-smooth muscle actin), and collagen (Sirius red). Partial UUO delayed glomerular maturation and increased ipsilateral renal macrophage infiltration, alpha-smooth muscle actin and Sirius red staining. In group I, enalapril increased myofibroblast accumulation in sham-operated kidneys, but not in obstructed kidneys. In contrast, in group II, enalapril further increased macrophage, myofibroblast, and collagen accumulation following partial UUO. The relative abundance of components of the kallikrein-kinin system, measured by Western blot, was not altered by partial UUO in the 14- and 28-day-old rat. Thus, in contrast to its salutary effects at later ages, ACE inhibition can worsen injury to the partially obstructed kidney during renal maturation even after the completion of nephrogenesis. PMID:17107943

  6. Has gene duplication impacted the evolution of Eutherian longevity?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Aoife; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest unresolved questions in aging biology is determining the genetic basis of interspecies longevity variation. Gene duplication is often the key to understanding the origin and evolution of important Eutherian phenotypes. We systematically identified longevity-associated genes in model organisms that duplicated throughout Eutherian evolution. Longevity-associated gene families have a marginally significantly higher rate of duplication compared to non-longevity-associated gene families. Anti-longevity-associated gene families have significantly increased rate of duplication compared to pro-longevity gene families and are enriched in neurodegenerative disease categories. Conversely, duplicated pro-longevity-associated gene families are enriched in cell cycle genes. There is a cluster of longevity-associated gene families that expanded solely in long-lived species that is significantly enriched in pathways relating to 3-UTR-mediated translational regulation, metabolism of proteins and gene expression, pathways that have the potential to affect longevity. The identification of a gene cluster that duplicated solely in long-lived species involved in such fundamental processes provides a promising avenue for further exploration of Eutherian longevity evolution. PMID:27378378

  7. Structure and expression analysis of rice paleo duplications

    PubMed Central

    Throude, Mickael; Bolot, Stéphanie; Bosio, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Sarda, Xavier; Quraishi, Umar Masood; Bourgis, Fabienne; Lessard, Philippe; Rogowsky, Peter; Ghesquiere, Alain; Murigneux, Alain; Charmet, Gilles; Perez, Pascual; Salse, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Having a well-known history of genome duplication, rice is a good model for studying structural and functional evolution of paleo duplications. Improved sequence alignment criteria were used to characterize 10 major chromosome-to-chromosome duplication relationships associated with 1440 paralogous pairs, covering 47.8% of the rice genome, with 12.6% of genes that are conserved within sister blocks. Using a micro-array experiment, a genome-wide expression map has been produced, in which 2382 genes show significant differences of expression in root, leaf and grain. By integrating both structural (1440 paralogous pairs) and functional information (2382 differentially expressed genes), we identified 115 paralogous gene pairs for which at least one copy is differentially expressed in one of the three tissues. A vast majority of the 115 paralogous gene pairs have been neofunctionalized or subfunctionalized as 88%, 89% and 96% of duplicates, respectively, expressed in grain, leaf and root show distinct expression patterns. On the basis of a Gene Ontology analysis, we have identified and characterized the gene families that have been structurally and functionally preferentially retained in the duplication showing that the vast majority (>85%) of duplicated have been either lost or have been subfunctionalized or neofunctionalized during 50–70 million years of evolution. PMID:19136467

  8. Structure and expression analysis of rice paleo duplications.

    PubMed

    Throude, Mickael; Bolot, Stéphanie; Bosio, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Sarda, Xavier; Quraishi, Umar Masood; Bourgis, Fabienne; Lessard, Philippe; Rogowsky, Peter; Ghesquiere, Alain; Murigneux, Alain; Charmet, Gilles; Perez, Pascual; Salse, Jérôme

    2009-03-01

    Having a well-known history of genome duplication, rice is a good model for studying structural and functional evolution of paleo duplications. Improved sequence alignment criteria were used to characterize 10 major chromosome-to-chromosome duplication relationships associated with 1440 paralogous pairs, covering 47.8% of the rice genome, with 12.6% of genes that are conserved within sister blocks. Using a micro-array experiment, a genome-wide expression map has been produced, in which 2382 genes show significant differences of expression in root, leaf and grain. By integrating both structural (1440 paralogous pairs) and functional information (2382 differentially expressed genes), we identified 115 paralogous gene pairs for which at least one copy is differentially expressed in one of the three tissues. A vast majority of the 115 paralogous gene pairs have been neofunctionalized or subfunctionalized as 88%, 89% and 96% of duplicates, respectively, expressed in grain, leaf and root show distinct expression patterns. On the basis of a Gene Ontology analysis, we have identified and characterized the gene families that have been structurally and functionally preferentially retained in the duplication showing that the vast majority (>85%) of duplicated have been either lost or have been subfunctionalized or neofunctionalized during 50-70 million years of evolution.

  9. Differential selection after duplication in mammalian developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Dermitzakis, E T; Clark, A G

    2001-04-01

    Gene duplication provides the opportunity for subsequent refinement of distinct functions of the duplicated copies. Either through changes in coding sequence or changes in regulatory regions, duplicate copies appear to obtain new or tissue-specific functions. If this divergence were driven by natural selection, we would expect duplicated copies to have differentiated patterns of substitutions. We tested this hypothesis using genes that duplicated before the human/mouse split and whose orthologous relations were clear. The null hypothesis is that the number of amino acid changes between humans and mice was distributed similarly across different paralogs. We used a method modified from Tang and Lewontin to detect heterogeneity in the amino acid substitution pattern between those different paralogs. Our results show that many of the paralogous gene pairs appear to be under differential selection in the human/mouse comparison. The properties that led to diversification appear to have arisen before the split of the human and mouse lineages. Further study of the diverged genes revealed insights regarding the patterns of amino acid substitution that resulted in differences in function and/or expression of these genes. This approach has utility in the study of newly identified members of gene families in genomewide data mining and for contrasting the merits of alternative hypotheses for the evolutionary divergence of function of duplicated genes. PMID:11264407

  10. Duplication of floral regulatory genes in the Lamiales.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jan E; Olmstead, Richard G; Willis, John H; Phillips, Patrick C

    2005-08-01

    Duplication of some floral regulatory genes has occurred repeatedly in angiosperms, whereas others are thought to be single-copy in most lineages. We selected three genes that interact in a pathway regulating floral development conserved among higher tricolpates (LFY/FLO, UFO/FIM, and AP3/DEF) and screened for copy number among families of Lamiales that are closely related to the model species Antirrhinum majus. We show that two of three genes have duplicated at least twice in the Lamiales. Phylogenetic analyses of paralogs suggest that an ancient whole genome duplication shared among many families of Lamiales occurred after the ancestor of these families diverged from the lineage leading to Veronicaceae (including the single-copy species A. majus). Duplication is consistent with previous patterns among angiosperm lineages for AP3/DEF, but this is the first report of functional duplicate copies of LFY/FLO outside of tetraploid species. We propose Lamiales taxa will be good models for understanding mechanisms of duplicate gene preservation and how floral regulatory genes may contribute to morphological diversity. PMID:21646149

  11. Maintenance and Loss of Duplicated Genes by Dosage Subfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have contributed to gene-repertoire enrichment in many eukaryotic lineages. However, most duplicated genes are eventually lost and it is still unclear why some duplicated genes are evolutionary successful whereas others quickly turn to pseudogenes. Here, we show that dosage constraints are major factors opposing post-WGD gene loss in several Paramecium species that share a common ancestral WGD. We propose a model where a majority of WGD-derived duplicates preserve their ancestral function and are retained to produce enough of the proteins performing this same ancestral function. Under this model, the expression level of individual duplicated genes can evolve neutrally as long as they maintain a roughly constant summed expression, and this allows random genetic drift toward uneven contributions of the two copies to total expression. Our analysis suggests that once a high level of imbalance is reached, which can require substantial lengths of time, the copy with the lowest expression level contributes a small enough fraction of the total expression that selection no longer opposes its loss. Extension of our analysis to yeast species sharing a common ancestral WGD yields similar results, suggesting that duplicated-gene retention for dosage constraints followed by divergence in expression level and eventual deterministic gene loss might be a universal feature of post-WGD evolution. PMID:25908670

  12. Duplicate publication rate decline in Korean medical journals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Bae, Chong-Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Cho, Hye Min

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends in duplicate publication in Korean medical articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from 2004 to 2009, before and after a campaign against scientific misconduct launched by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors in 2006. The study covered period from 2007 to 2012; and 5% of the articles indexed in KoreaMed were retrieved by random sampling. Three authors reviewed full texts of the retrieved articles. The pattern of duplicate publication, such as copy, salami slicing (fragmentation), and aggregation (imalas), was also determined. Before the launching ethics campaign, the national duplication rate in medical journals was relatively high: 5.9% in 2004, 6.0% in 2005, and 7.2% in 2006. However, duplication rate steadily declined to 4.5% in 2007, 2.8% in 2008, and 1.2 % in 2009. Of all duplicated articles, 53.4% were classified as copies, 27.8% as salami slicing, and 18.8% as aggregation (imalas). The decline in duplicate publication rate took place as a result of nationwide campaigns and monitoring by KoreaMed and KoreaMed Synapse, starting from 2006.

  13. Human Cep192 and Cep152 cooperate in Plk4 recruitment and centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Katharina F; Gabryjonczyk, Anna-Maria; Anselm, Eduard; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Nigg, Erich A

    2013-07-15

    Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a key regulator of centriole duplication, but the mechanism underlying its recruitment to mammalian centrioles is not understood. In flies, Plk4 recruitment depends on Asterless, whereas nematodes rely on a distinct protein, Spd-2. Here, we have explored the roles of two homologous mammalian proteins, Cep152 and Cep192, in the centriole recruitment of human Plk4. We demonstrate that Cep192 plays a key role in centrosome recruitment of both Cep152 and Plk4. Double-depletion of Cep192 and Cep152 completely abolishes Plk4 binding to centrioles as well as centriole duplication, indicating that the two proteins cooperate. Most importantly, we show that Cep192 binds Plk4 through an N-terminal extension that is specific to the largest isoform. The Plk4 binding regions of Cep192 and Cep152 (residues 190-240 and 1-46, respectively) are rich in negatively charged amino acids, suggesting that Plk4 localization to centrioles depends on electrostatic interactions with the positively charged polo-box domain. We conclude that cooperation between Cep192 and Cep152 is crucial for centriole recruitment of Plk4 and centriole duplication during the cell cycle.

  14. Gene duplication and divergence of long wavelength-sensitive opsin genes in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Watson, Corey T; Gray, Suzanne M; Hoffmann, Margarete; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Joy, Jeffrey B; Sandkam, Ben A; Weigel, Detlef; Loew, Ellis; Dreyer, Christine; Davidson, William S; Breden, Felix

    2011-02-01

    Female preference for male orange coloration in the genus Poecilia suggests a role for duplicated long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in facilitating behaviors related to mate choice in these species. Previous work has shown that LWS gene duplication in this genus has resulted in expansion of long wavelength visual capacity as determined by microspectrophotometry (MSP). However, the relationship between LWS genomic repertoires and expression of LWS retinal cone classes within a given species is unclear. Our previous study in the related species, Xiphophorus helleri, was the first characterization of the complete LWS opsin genomic repertoire in conjunction with MSP expression data in the family Poeciliidae, and revealed the presence of four LWS loci and two distinct LWS cone classes. In this study we characterized the genomic organization of LWS opsin genes by BAC clone sequencing, and described the full range of cone cell types in the retina of the colorful Cumaná guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In contrast to X. helleri, MSP data from the Cumaná guppy revealed three LWS cone classes. Comparisons of LWS genomic organization described here for Cumaná to that of X. helleri indicate that gene divergence and not duplication was responsible for the evolution of a novel LWS haplotype in the Cumaná guppy. This lineage-specific divergence is likely responsible for a third additional retinal cone class not present in X. helleri, and may have facilitated the strong sexual selection driven by female preference for orange color patterns associated with the genus Poecilia.

  15. Age-dependent gain of alternative splice forms and biased duplication explain the relation between splicing and duplication

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We analyze here the relation between alternative splicing and gene duplication in light of recent genomic data, with a focus on the human genome. We show that the previously reported negative correlation between level of alternative splicing and family size no longer holds true. We clarify this pattern and show that it is sufficiently explained by two factors. First, genes progressively gain new splice variants with time. The gain is consistent with a selectively relaxed regime, until purifying selection slows it down as aging genes accumulate a large number of variants. Second, we show that duplication does not lead to a loss of splice forms, but rather that genes with low levels of alternative splicing tend to duplicate more frequently. This leads us to reconsider the role of alternative splicing in duplicate retention. PMID:21173032

  16. Origin and evolution of eukaryotic chaperonins: phylogenetic evidence for ancient duplications in CCT genes.

    PubMed

    Archibald, J M; Logsdon, J M; Doolittle, W F

    2000-10-01

    Chaperonins are oligomeric protein-folding complexes which are divided into two distantly related structural classes. Group I chaperonins (called GroEL/cpn60/hsp60) are found in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, while group II chaperonins are present in archaea and the cytoplasm of eukaryotes (called CCT/TriC). While archaea possess one to three chaperonin subunit-encoding genes, eight distinct CCT gene families (paralogs) have been characterized in eukaryotes. We are interested in determining when during eukaryotic evolution the multiple gene duplications producing the CCT subunits occurred. We describe the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of five CCT genes from TRICHOMONAS: vaginalis and seven from GIARDIA: lamblia, representatives of amitochondriate protist lineages thought to have diverged early from other eukaryotes. Our data show that the gene duplications producing the eight CCT paralogs took place prior to the organismal divergence of TRICHOMONAS: and GIARDIA: from other eukaryotes. Thus, these divergent protists likely possess completely hetero-oligomeric CCT complexes like those in yeast and mammalian cells. No close phylogenetic relationship between the archaeal chaperonins and specific CCT subunits was observed, suggesting that none of the CCT gene duplications predate the divergence of archaea and eukaryotes. The duplications producing the CCTdelta and CCTepsilon subunits, as well as CCTalpha, CCTbeta, and CCTeta, are the most recent in the CCT gene family. Our analyses show significant differences in the rates of evolution of archaeal chaperonins compared with the eukaryotic CCTs, as well as among the different CCT subunits themselves. We discuss these results in light of current views on the origin, evolution, and function of CCT complexes.

  17. Negative pathology of ureteral carcinoma significantly delaying the diagnosis of the primary tumor of osteoblastic metastases: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Lan; Liu, Yong-Mei; Chen, Hui-Jiao; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Lu, You

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignant tumor. The most common clinical manifestations of ureteral UC are hematuria, increased urinary frequency, dysuria and pain. The diagnosis of ureteral UC is made via radiography, endoscopy and pathology. Although osteoblastic destruction is usually observed in metastasis of prostate cancer, UC can also be a reason for osteoblastic metastasis. The present study reports the case of a 66-year-old man presenting with osteoblastic metastases, in which the primary tumor was finally diagnosed as a ureteral UC. However, the lack of pathological evidence significantly delayed the diagnosis of the primary tumor (>6 months), even though the results of radiographic examination, and the type and mode of bone metastases significantly suggested a ureteral UC. The case reveals that a suitable screening test should be recommended for patients at high risk due to the possibility of a negative pathology result for ureteral UC. Additionally, a more efficient diagnostic method is required. Moreover, the possibility of new diagnostic criterion that do not rely on the pathology of primary foci in ureteral UC should be considered in future. PMID:27698807

  18. Negative pathology of ureteral carcinoma significantly delaying the diagnosis of the primary tumor of osteoblastic metastases: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Lan; Liu, Yong-Mei; Chen, Hui-Jiao; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Lu, You

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignant tumor. The most common clinical manifestations of ureteral UC are hematuria, increased urinary frequency, dysuria and pain. The diagnosis of ureteral UC is made via radiography, endoscopy and pathology. Although osteoblastic destruction is usually observed in metastasis of prostate cancer, UC can also be a reason for osteoblastic metastasis. The present study reports the case of a 66-year-old man presenting with osteoblastic metastases, in which the primary tumor was finally diagnosed as a ureteral UC. However, the lack of pathological evidence significantly delayed the diagnosis of the primary tumor (>6 months), even though the results of radiographic examination, and the type and mode of bone metastases significantly suggested a ureteral UC. The case reveals that a suitable screening test should be recommended for patients at high risk due to the possibility of a negative pathology result for ureteral UC. Additionally, a more efficient diagnostic method is required. Moreover, the possibility of new diagnostic criterion that do not rely on the pathology of primary foci in ureteral UC should be considered in future.

  19. Ureteric stone in the presence of existing backache: lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Z; Ho, C C K; Goh, E H; Praveen, S; Das, S

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of urolithiasis is on the rise due to climatic changes especially global warming.The pain due to presence of ureteric stone is a well known identity but many times it may be asymptomatic or even masked by concurrent presence of backache. In the present article, we describe the case of a 43-year-old male who came to the clinic for treatment of backache persisting for more than two years. The patient complained of backache two years back for which he was treated with analgesics and physiotherapy which relieved his pain. No X-ray was taken earlier because the attending clinician thought the backache to be musculo-skeletal in origin. Recently, one day a sudden episode of backache in the midst of night compelled him to seek medical treatment. However, this time a X-ray was performed and it showed the presence of calculi in the right upper pelvis of ureter which measured 1.9 cm vertically. An ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with two episodes of shock wave therapy which failed to crush the stone. A Double-J stent was inserted under general anaesthesia. The stone was crushed using a ureteroscope guided laser. The present case report describes how backache in professionals cannot be lightly attended. Even the characteristic groin to loin pain may be absent. All cases of backache should be properly investigated with an X-ray to rule out renal or ureteric calculi.

  20. Double-pigtail stents for distal ureteral calculi: an alternative form of definitive treatment.

    PubMed

    Deliveliotis, C; Giannakopoulos, S; Louras, G; Koutsokalis, G; Alivizatos, G; Kostakopoulos, A

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we treated patients with a solitary distal ureteral stone of less than 10 mm in maximum diameter by placing a double-pigtail stent and subsequently removing it allowing the calculus to pass spontaneously. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean stone size of 5.1 x 3.5 mm (range 2-8 mm in length and 2-7 mm in width). The indication for intervention was intractable pain in 5 patients, infection due to obstruction in 2, highly obstructed urinary tract in 10, absence of progression for 30 days in 21 and desire of the patient to be free of stone in 2. A double-pigtail stent was inserted in the involved ureter under local anesthesia and left in place for 2 weeks. After stent removal, 34 patients succeeded in passing the stone within an average time of 5.8 days. The overall success rate was 85%. We suggest this method as an alternative form of treatment for distal ureteral calculi to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of ureterolithotripsy under selected clinical circumstances.

  1. Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Grande, Maria T; Eleno, Nélida; Arévalo, Miguel; Guerrero, Carmen; Santos, Eugerio; López-Novoa, José M

    2008-07-01

    Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.

  2. Comparative efficacy of tamsulosin versus nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Man, Li Bo; Huang, Guang Lin; Li, Gui Zhong; Wang, Jian Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically compare the therapeutic effect and safety of tamsulosin with nifedipine in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi. Methods Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trial Register Centers, were comprehensively searched. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected, and quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RevMan software was used to analyze the outcome measures, which consisted of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and complications. Results Twelve RCTs consisting of 4,961 patients were included (tamsulosin group, 2,489 cases; nifedipine group, 2,472 cases). Compared with nifedipine, tamsulosin significantly increased the expulsion rate (risk ratio =1.29, 95% CI [1.25, 1.33], P<0.0001) and reduced the expulsion time (standard mean difference =−0.39, 95% CI [−0.72, −0.05], P=0.02). Regarding safety, tamsulosin was associated with fewer complications than nifedipine (risk ratio =0.45, 95% CI [0.28, 0.72], P=0.0008), and further subgroup analysis showed that tamsulosin was associated with a lower risk of both mild and moderate-to-severe complications. Conclusion On the bias of current evidence, tamsulosin showed an overall superiority to nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi <10 mm in aspects of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and safety. Tamsulosin was supposed to be the first drug to be recommended to patients willing to receive medical expulsive therapy. PMID:27099471

  3. A novel ureteral stent material with antibacterial and reducing encrustation properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Cao, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ling; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Bingchun; Liu, Rui; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Ureteral stents have been used to relieve ureterostenosis. Complications such as infection and encrustation occur in the long time of stent implantation, which is a clinical problem needs to be resolved. Indwelling ureteral stents have shown to develop microbial biofilm that may lead to recurrent infection and encrustation. This study was aiming to reduce those complications by using a novel material, Cu-bearing antibacterial stainless steel. The antibacterial performance, encrustation property, and biocompatibility were examined by SEM, image analysis, MTT and would healing. The in vitro immersion test showed that 316LCu-bearing stainless steel (316LCu-SS) not only inhibited proliferation of bacteria and formation of biofilm, but also had less encrustation deposition. Its antibacterial effectiveness against Escherichia coli reached to 92.7% in the artificial urine for 24h and 90.3% in the human urine for 6h. The encrustation surface coverage percentage was 30.2% by 12weeks, which was nearly one half of NiTi alloy. The in vitro tests showed that 316LCu-SS had no toxicity, and promoted the migration of urethral epithelial cells.

  4. Designing of dynamic polyethyleneimine (PEI) brushes on polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents to prevent infections.

    PubMed

    Gultekinoglu, Merve; Tunc Sarisozen, Yeliz; Erdogdu, Ceren; Sagiroglu, Meral; Aksoy, Eda Ayse; Oh, Yoo Jin; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2015-07-01

    Permanent antibacterial coatings have been developed by brush-like polyethyleneimine (PEI) on polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents since bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation with the following encrustation on stent surface limit their long term usage. In order to control or prevent bacterial infections; PEI chains with two different molecular weights (Mn: 1800 or 60,000 Da) were covalently attached on the polyurethane (PU) surface by "grafting to" approach to obtain a brush-like structure. Then, PEI brushes were alkylated with bromohexane to enhance the disruption of bacterial membranes with increasing polycationic character. X-ray Photoelectron and Infrared Spectroscopy investigations confirmed that PEI grafting and alkylation steps were performed successfully. Surface roughness in dry state increased dramatically from 65.8 nm to 277.7 nm and 145.2 nm for short chain PEI and long chain PEI grafted samples, respectively. Both low and high molecular weight PEI grafts exhibited a brush-like structure and potent antibacterial activity by lowering the adherence of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis species up to two orders of magnitude without any cytotoxic effect on L929 and G/G cells. Thus, permanent bactericidal activity was achieved by the contact-active strategy of dynamic PEI brush-like structures on polyurethane ureteral stent.

  5. A novel ureteral stent material with antibacterial and reducing encrustation properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Cao, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ling; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Bingchun; Liu, Rui; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Ureteral stents have been used to relieve ureterostenosis. Complications such as infection and encrustation occur in the long time of stent implantation, which is a clinical problem needs to be resolved. Indwelling ureteral stents have shown to develop microbial biofilm that may lead to recurrent infection and encrustation. This study was aiming to reduce those complications by using a novel material, Cu-bearing antibacterial stainless steel. The antibacterial performance, encrustation property, and biocompatibility were examined by SEM, image analysis, MTT and would healing. The in vitro immersion test showed that 316LCu-bearing stainless steel (316LCu-SS) not only inhibited proliferation of bacteria and formation of biofilm, but also had less encrustation deposition. Its antibacterial effectiveness against Escherichia coli reached to 92.7% in the artificial urine for 24h and 90.3% in the human urine for 6h. The encrustation surface coverage percentage was 30.2% by 12weeks, which was nearly one half of NiTi alloy. The in vitro tests showed that 316LCu-SS had no toxicity, and promoted the migration of urethral epithelial cells. PMID:27524016

  6. Preparation, degradation and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin-eluting ureteral stents for potential antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofei; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Lang, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymers as reservoirs have shown great potential in the application of interventional therapy due to their capability of local drug delivery. Herein, poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) with three different compositions as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate (CIP) was coated on ureteral stents by the dipping method. To simulate a body environment, degradation behavior of PLCL as both the bulk film and the stent coating was evaluated in artificial urine (AU, pH6.20) respectively at 37°C for 120days by tracing their weight/Mn loss, water absorption and surface morphologies. Furthermore, the release profile of the eluting drug CIP on each stent exhibited a three-stage pattern, which was greatly affected by the degradation behavior of PLCL except for the burst stage. Interestingly, the degradation results on both macroscopic and molecular level indicated that the release mechanism at stage I was mainly controlled by chain scission instead of the weight loss or morphological changes of the coatings. While for stage II, the release profile was dominated by erosion resulting from the hydrolysis reaction autocatalyzed by acidic degradation residues. In addition, ciprofloxacin-loaded coatings displayed a significant bacterial resistance against E. coli and S. aureus without obvious cytotoxicity to Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Our results suggested that PLCL copolymers with tunable degradation rate as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate could be used as a promising long-term antibacterial coating for ureteral stents.

  7. Application of Skin Electrical Conductance of Acupuncture Meridians for Ureteral Calculus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Xu, Jian-Ming; Chen, Der-Cherng; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lee, Chao-Te

    2011-01-01

    Renal colic is a common condition seen in the emergency department (ED). Our recent study showed that measures of electrical conductance may be used as supplementary diagnostic methods for patients with acute renal colic. Here, we describe the case of a 30-year-old male subject with a left ureteral calculus who presented with frequency and normal-looking urine. He had already visited the outpatient department, but in vain. Normal urinalysis and nonobstructive urogram were reported at that time. Two days later, he was admitted to the ED because of abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant. The urinalysis did not detect red blood cells. Ultrasonography did not indicate hydronephrosis. The meridian electrical conductance and index of sympathovagal balance were found to be abnormal. High level of electrical conductance on the left bladder meridian was found. An unenhanced helical computed tomography was scheduled to reveal a left ureterovesical stone. Ureteroscopic intervention was later uneventfully performed, and the patient's pain was relieved. The follow-up measurements showed that the meridian parameters had returned to normal one month after treatment. This case suggests that bladder meridian electrical conductance might be used as a supplemental method for ureteral calculus diagnosis. PMID:24533191

  8. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on renal injury in the experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Murat; Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Ozsoy, Ozgur Doga; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction/Objective: Ureteral obstruction is a common pathology and causes kidney fibrosis and dysfunction at late period. In this present study, we investigated the antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was control, group 2 was sham, group 3 included rats with UUO and group 4 rats with UUO which were given sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS)-exogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide (intraperitoneally 56μmoL/kg/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were determined histopathologically in a part of the kidneys; nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the other part of the kidneys. Urea-creatinine levels were investigated by blood analysis. Statistical analyses were made by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significantly difference for urea-creatinine levels among groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 3 and there was significantly decreasing of tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 4 (p<0.005). Also, there was significantly increase of NO and MDA levels and decrease of GSH levels in group 3 compared to other groups (p<0.005). Conclusions: hydrogen sulfide prevents kidney damage with antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect. PMID:26742979

  9. Metformin prevents renal interstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Cavaglieri, Rita C; Day, Robert T; Feliers, Denis; Abboud, Hanna E

    2015-09-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction causes important tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in the kidney. Metformin reduces fibrosis in mice with diabetic nephropathy. We examined the effects of metformin in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Expression of inflammation and fibrosis markers was studied by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Seven days after UUO, kidneys presented dilated tubules, expansion of the tubulo-interstitial compartment, and significant infiltration of inflammatory cells. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation markers expression were increased in obstructed kidneys and reduced by metformin. Metformin reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins and profibrotic factor TGFβ in obstructed kidneys, measured by immunohistochemistry. Interstitial fibroblast activation was evident in obstructed kidneys and ameliorated by metformin. UUO did not affect adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) activity, but metformin activated AMPK. Our results show that metformin prevents or slows down the onset of renal inflammation and fibrosis in mice with UUO, an effect that could be mediated by activation of AMPK.

  10. LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF DISTAL URETERIC STONE IN BILHARZIAL URETER: RESULTS OF A SINGLE CENTER PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Nour, Hani H; Elgobashy, Samir E; Elkholy, Amr; Kamal, Ahmad M; Ali, Mohamed; Roshdy, Mamdouh A; Elbaz, Ahmad G; Riad, Essam

    2015-08-01

    No doubt, Bilharzial ureters are complicated by distal stricture due to precipitation of Bilharzial ova in distal ureter. These cases are associated with poorly functioning and grossly hydronephroic kidneys that hinder endoscopic manipulation of the coexistent distal, high burden, long standing impacted stones. Thus, laparoscopic uretrolithotomy was performed in 51 bilharzial patients with distal ureteric stones 4 trocars were used. The ureter was opened directly over the stone and the stone was extracted. A double-J stent was inserted into the ureter which was closed by 4-0 polyglactin running suture. The results showed that among 51 cases 33 males and 18 females; the mean age was 40.13 years. the mean stone size was 2.73 cm. Conversion to open surgery was in only one case; the mean operative time 92.05 (range 75-120 minutes); postoperative pain score ranged from 20 to 60, the mean number of PO analgesic request was 1.72 (range 1-3); it was once in 21, twice in 23 and thrice in 7 cases. Hospital stay ranged from 2 to 5 with a mean of 2.74 days; total duration of follow up ranged from 7 to 12 with a mean of 9.68. Stone recurrence reported in 4 cases; ureteric stricture reported in 2 cases. Stone free rate was reported to be 100%.

  11. Subcutaneous nephrovesical bypass: Treatment for ureteral obstruction in advanced metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUNYAN; WANG, GONGCHENG; HOU, PEIJIN; ZHUANG, HAIJUN; YANG, XIAOSONG; GU, SHUO; WANG, HENGBING; JI, LU; XU, ZONGYUAN; MENG, JUNSONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the value of subcutaneous nephrovesical bypass (SNVB) for the treatment of ureteral obstruction due to pelvic metastatic disease. SNVB stents (n=30) were implanted in 24 patients with advanced metastatic disease between January 2008 and December 2012. Urinalysis, serum creatinine (SCr), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), quality of life (QoL) scores, and renal ultrasonography were evaluated at follow-up. The SNVB procedures were successful in all 24 patients. Patient follow-ups occurred at an average of 10.6 months. Preoperative hydronephrosis was eliminated in 16 cases (53.3%) and reduced in the remaining patients. Following surgery, SCr levels reduced significantly from 256±46 to 124±23 μmol/l (P<0.001). GFRs increased from 25±4.8 to 45±5.3 ml/min (P<0.01). The mean QoL scores were 3.4±1.4 preoperatively and 7.6±1.0 postoperatively (P<0.001). The results showed that SNVB is a minimally invasive, effective and safe procedure for patients with ureteral obstruction resulting from advanced malignant disease. As an alternative procedure to percutaneous nephrostomy, SNVB offers patients a better QoL. PMID:25435997

  12. A mathematical model for the induction of the mammalian ureteric bud.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brodie A J; Flegg, Mark B

    2016-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract collectively form the most common type of prenatally diagnosed malformations. Whilst many of the crucial genes that direct the kidney developmental program are known, the mechanisms by which kidney organogenesis is achieved is still largely unclear. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for the localisation of the ureteric bud, the precursor to the ureter and collecting duct system of the kidney. The mathematical model presented fundamentally implicates Schnakenberg-like ligand-receptor Turing patterning as the mechanism by which the ureteric bud is localised on the Wolfian duct as proposed by Menshykaul and Iber (2013). This model explores the specific roles of regulatory proteins GREM1 and BMP as well as the domain properties of GDNF production. Our model demonstrates that this proposed pattern formation mechanism is capable of naturally predicting the phenotypical outcomes of many genetic experiments from the literature. Furthermore, we conclude that whilst BMP inhibits GDNF away from the budding site and GREM1 permits GDNF to signal, GREM1 also stabilises the effect of BMP on GDNF signalling from fluctuations in BMP sensitivity but not signal strength. PMID:26801874

  13. Recurrent 70.8 Mb 4q22.2q32.3 duplication due to ovarian germinal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Petit, François M; Lecerf, Laure; Rousseau, Ghislaine; Bas, Cécile; Laroudie, Mireille; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Tapia, Sylvie; Picone, Olivier; Prevot, Sophie; Goossens, Michel; Labrune, Philippe; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2010-08-01

    A mosaicism is defined by the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual. Chromosomal germinal mosaicism occurs in germ cells before the onset of meiosis. Previously, few studies have described germinal mosaicism. In this study, we report on two siblings who carried identical pure and direct interstitial 4q22.2q32.3 duplication. Procedure investigations included complete clinical description, conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array experiments and microsatellite study searching for parental origin of the duplication. Microarray CGH and further FISH experiments with BAC clones showed the same 70.8 Mb direct duplication, dup(4)(q22.2q32.3). Molecular studies of the 4q duplication were consistent with maternal origin associated with mitotic or meiotic rearrangements. This structural chromosomal aberration was associated in both cases with increased nuchal translucency, growth retardation and dysmorphy. Cardiopathy and lung malformations were only evident in the first case. These clinical manifestations are similar to those previously reported in previous studies involving pure 4q trisomy of the same region, except for thumb and renal abnormalities that were not obvious in the presented cases. The amplified region included genes involved in neurological development (NEUROG2, MAB21L2, PCDH10/18 and GRIA2). The recurrent 4q duplication in these siblings is consistent with a maternal ovarian germinal mosaicism. This is the first description of germinal mosaicism for a large chromosomal duplication and highlights that genetic counselling for apparently de novo chromosome aberration should be undertaken with care.

  14. TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

  15. Comparison of Two Types of Double-J Ureteral Stents that Differ in Diameter and the Existence of Multiple Side Holes along the Straight Portion in Malignant Ureteral Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Myung Gyu Seo, Tae-Seok Lee, Chang Hee Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Jun Suk Oh, Sang Cheul; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was decided to evaluate the impact of diameter and the existences of multiple side holes along the straight portion of double-J ureteral stents (DJUS) on early dysfunction of stents placed for malignant ureteral strictures.MethodsBetween April 2007 and December 2011, 141 DJUSs were placed via a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tract in 110 consecutive patients with malignant ureteral strictures. 7F DJUSs with multiple side holes in the straight portion were placed in 58 ureters of 43 patients (Group 1). 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion were placed in 83 ureters of 67 patients (Group 2). The incidence of early DJUS dysfunction was compared between the two groups, and nephrostographic findings were evaluated in the cases of early dysfunction.ResultsEarly dysfunction of the DJUS was noted in 14 of 58 patients (24.1 %) in Group 1, which was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in Group 2 in which only 1 of 83 patients (1.2 %) had early dysfunction of the DJUS. Nephrostographic findings of early dysfunction included dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system, filling defects in the ureteral stent, and no passage of contrast media into the urinary bladder.ConclusionsIn malignant ureteral strictures, multiple side holes in the straight portion of the 7-F DJUS seem to cause early dysfunction. The 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion may be superior at preventing early dysfunction.

  16. Role of lasertripsy in the management of ureteral calculi: experience with alexandrite laser system in 232 patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, P; Wolff, J M; Mattelaer, P; Jakse, G

    1996-08-01

    In 232 patients with ureteral stones, lasertripsy was used as primary treatment or as second-line therapy after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). In all patients, a semirigid 6.5F ureteroscope or a flexible 6F ureteroscope was used. Lithotripsy was performed employing an alexandrite laser with an energy of 50 to 65 mJ. The immediate success rate was 67.5% for stones in the upper ureter, 86.1% for those in the midureter, and 94.5% for those in the distal ureter. In 16.5% of the treatments, it was necessary to insert a double-J stent. A perforation of the ureter happened in two patients (0.9%), but no laser-related complications were seen. Stone fragmentation was not dependent on stone composition or size. Using small semirigid or flexible ureteroscopes, lasertripsy of ureteral stones is a minimally invasive treatment with an insignificant complication rate. In case of midureteral stones, our results revealed a higher immediate stone-free rate than is reported in the literature after treatment by SWL, and we can therefore recommend lasertripsy as primary treatment. For upper ureteral stones, lasertripsy can be recommended as a helpful auxillary procedure. Furthermore, in cases of distal ureteral stones, lasertripsy challenges SWL as the primary treatment.

  17. Right-sided Bochdalek hernia causing septic ureteric obstruction. Percutaneous treatment with placement of a nephroureteral double pigtail

    PubMed Central

    Hatzidakis, Adam; Kozana, Androniki; Glaritis, Dimitrios; Mamoulakis, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of an 86-year-old female patient who presented with a septic, right ureteric obstruction, caused by a symptomatic Bochdalek hernia. The patient was initially managed with percutaneous nephrostomy and final treatment was achieved by placement of an external-internal nephroureteral double pigtail. PMID:25362189

  18. History of Ureteral Stenting Negatively Affects the Outcomes of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy. Results of a Matched-pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Landau, Ezekiel H; Yutkin, Vladimir; Latke, Arie; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of ureteral stenting history to the outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, we retrospectively analysed patients who underwent shockwave lithotripsy with Dornier Gemini lithotripter between September 2010 and August 2012. Forty seven patients (group A) who had a double J stent which was removed just before the procedure were matched-paired with another 47 patients (group B) who underwent shockwave lithotripsy having no stent history. The correlation between ureteral stenting history and stone-free rates was assessed. Stone-free rates were 68.1% and 87.2% for patients of group A and B, respectively (p=0.026). Postoperative complications were not different between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that stone size (p=0.007), stone location (p=0.044) and history of ureteral stenting (p=0.046) were independent predictors for stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy. Ureteral stents adversely affect shockwave lithotripsy outcome, even if they are removed before the procedure. Stenting history should divert treatment plan towards intracorporeal lithotripsy.

  19. Fat4/Dchs1 signaling between stromal and cap mesenchyme cells influences nephrogenesis and ureteric bud branching.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yaopan; Francis-West, Philippa; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    Formation of the kidney requires reciprocal signaling among the ureteric tubules, cap mesenchyme and surrounding stromal mesenchyme to orchestrate complex morphogenetic events. The protocadherin Fat4 influences signaling from stromal to cap mesenchyme cells to regulate their differentiation into nephrons. Here, we characterize the role of a putative binding partner of Fat4, the protocadherin Dchs1. Mutation of Dchs1 in mice leads to increased numbers of cap mesenchyme cells, which are abnormally arranged around the ureteric bud tips, and impairment of nephron morphogenesis. Mutation of Dchs1 also reduces branching of the ureteric bud and impairs differentiation of ureteric bud tip cells into trunk cells. Genetically, Dchs1 is required specifically within cap mesenchyme cells. The similarity of Dchs1 phenotypes to stromal-less kidneys and to those of Fat4 mutants implicates Dchs1 in Fat4-dependent stroma-to-cap mesenchyme signaling. Antibody staining of genetic mosaics reveals that Dchs1 protein localization is polarized within cap mesenchyme cells, where it accumulates at the interface with stromal cells, implying that it interacts directly with a stromal protein. Our observations identify a role for Fat4 and Dchs1 in signaling between cell layers, implicate Dchs1 as a Fat4 receptor for stromal signaling that is essential for kidney development, and establish that vertebrate Dchs1 can be molecularly polarized in vivo. PMID:26116666

  20. Hydronephrosis in the mouse: the effects of the short-ear gene, sex and ureteral vascular system.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M E

    1976-09-01

    The short-ear gene in the mouse, se, affects a number of soft tissues; skeletal effects result in reduced body cavities. A high incidence of hydronephrosis in short-ear genotypes has been ascribed to pressure on the lower ureter resulting from crowding of organs in the body cavity. This study concerns the ureteral vascular system as observed in 861 autopsies of mice of varying age, of the three short-ear genotypes, drawn from ten stocks. Incidence and expression of hydronephrosis is greater in short-ear males than in females, and the ratio between the two varies from one stock to another. This study seeks an explanation. Short-ear genotypes have an abnormally high incidence of unusual ureteral veins, hydronephrosis being strongly associated with the more posterior ones. Ureteraonadal and iliac veins. The spermatic vein's more posterior position, compared with the ovarian, is strongly correlated with the sex difference in posterior ureteral venation and thus with the sex difference in incidence of hydronephrosis. Stocks are compared according to the amount of selection for fitness of short-ear genotypes; there is a reduced incidence of hydronephrosis with selection, accompanied by fewer posterior ureteral veins. Age also affects hydronephrosis; its expression increases slightly with age, and the male sese progeny of young mothers appear to be particularly prone to hydronephrosis. Three skeletal mutants segregate; of these fidget, fi, causes a type of hydronephrosis differing somewhat from that caused by se.

  1. Is There Hope for Renal Growth on Imaging Studies Following Ureteral Reimplant for Boys With Fetal Hydronephrosis and Urinary Reflux?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Reflux nephropathy is thought to be the etiology for renal maldevelopment. We present two boys with fetal hydronephrosis and sterile vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). There was lack of renal growth of the refluxing renal units on surveillance renal ultrasound. Parents elected to undergo open ureteral reimplants. Post-surgical ultrasounds demonstrated improved renal growth. PMID:26793522

  2. History of Ureteral Stenting Negatively Affects the Outcomes of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy. Results of a Matched-pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Landau, Ezekiel H; Yutkin, Vladimir; Latke, Arie; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of ureteral stenting history to the outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, we retrospectively analysed patients who underwent shockwave lithotripsy with Dornier Gemini lithotripter between September 2010 and August 2012. Forty seven patients (group A) who had a double J stent which was removed just before the procedure were matched-paired with another 47 patients (group B) who underwent shockwave lithotripsy having no stent history. The correlation between ureteral stenting history and stone-free rates was assessed. Stone-free rates were 68.1% and 87.2% for patients of group A and B, respectively (p=0.026). Postoperative complications were not different between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that stone size (p=0.007), stone location (p=0.044) and history of ureteral stenting (p=0.046) were independent predictors for stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy. Ureteral stents adversely affect shockwave lithotripsy outcome, even if they are removed before the procedure. Stenting history should divert treatment plan towards intracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:26445394

  3. Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations. Methods 88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P = 0.020). Results Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1 ± 0.1 (1–3) and for distal calculi was 1.0 ± 0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P = 0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P = 0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependant on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed. Conclusions The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size. PMID:25107528

  4. Ureteroscopic treatment of ureteral stones: only an auxiliary measure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or a primary therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Osti, A H; Hofmockel, G; Frohmüller, H

    1997-01-01

    Both extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy are well-established methods in stone treatment; however, the therapeutic procedure in ureteral calculi, especially in the distal third of the ureter, is still controversially discussed. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of ureteroscopy as an auxiliary measure after ESWL and its importance as an alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of distal ureteral stones. Between 1991 and 1994, 115 ureteroscopic procedures in 104 patients with ureteral stones or stone fragments were carried out at our institution. During the same period of time, 1,595 patients with ureteral calculi (in the proximal two thirds of the ureter: n = 956; in the distal third of the ureter: n = 639) were treated with a Dornier HM-3 lithotriptor. In 77 of those 104 patients treated by ureteroscopy, this procedure was indicated as an auxiliary measure after failure of ESWL including 34 out of the 639 patients (5.3%) with stones in the distal part of the ureter. The overall direct success rate during the ureteroscopic stone treatment (including 11 cases with a second procedure) in the proximal, middle and distal third of the ureter was 74, 81 and 92%, respectively. The success rate of primary ureteroscopic removal of distal-third ureteral stones alone was 100% in 27 of these 104 patients. After 3 months the overall stone-free rate of all patients treated with ureteroscopy was 94%. Ureteroscopy appears to be a safe and effective treatment modality, if used as an auxiliary measure after failure of ESWL as well as a primary treatment modality in the case of stones in the distal third of the ureter. On the other hand, ESWL alone is a noninvasive and also successful procedure in treating stones situated in the distal part of the ureter.

  5. Formation of Regulatory Modules by Local Sequence Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Turnover of regulatory sequence and function is an important part of molecular evolution. But what are the modes of sequence evolution leading to rapid formation and loss of regulatory sites? Here we show that a large fraction of neighboring transcription factor binding sites in the fly genome have formed from a common sequence origin by local duplications. This mode of evolution is found to produce regulatory information: duplications can seed new sites in the neighborhood of existing sites. Duplicate seeds evolve subsequently by point mutations, often towards binding a different factor than their ancestral neighbor sites. These results are based on a statistical analysis of 346 cis-regulatory modules in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, and a comparison set of intergenic regulatory sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fly regulatory modules, pairs of binding sites show significantly enhanced sequence similarity up to distances of about 50 bp. We analyze these data in terms of an evolutionary model with two distinct modes of site formation: (i) evolution from independent sequence origin and (ii) divergent evolution following duplication of a common ancestor sequence. Our results suggest that pervasive formation of binding sites by local sequence duplications distinguishes the complex regulatory architecture of higher eukaryotes from the simpler architecture of unicellular organisms. PMID:21998564

  6. Investigating the root causes of duplicate publication in research articles.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Payman; Kianpour, Maryam; Shirani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Duplicate publication is the republication of an article in which a lot of important parts overlap with the published copy. This issue is nearly at the top of the list of subjects, which medical journal editors discuss. this study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the publication patterns and determining it's root causes in research articles in the Isfahan University of Medical Science and to find a solution to prevent it. In a cross sectional study, All the discovered cases of duplicate publication, which were referred to the ethics committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Science during 2005-2008 were selected to be investigated through a descriptive method. After confirmation about the case of a duplicate publication, the requisite investigation was conducted through interviews and review of the correspondence and documentaries, and then, a radical line was charted. After investigating the cases and classifying the radical causes and incidents, categorization and definition of duplicate publication are presented. Eight out of nine republished articles belonged to the first category of Baily's index (copy publication) and one was in the third category (minimum publishable unit: Salami slicing). The results of the present article indicate that, the scientific community of the country is not yet familiar with the professional principles of scientific and research affairs. According to the results of this investigation, it is recommended to take official action against duplicate publication cases, violation of copyright, and also to have strict instructions against this unethical practice. PMID:25861659

  7. Formation of regulatory modules by local sequence duplication.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Turnover of regulatory sequence and function is an important part of molecular evolution. But what are the modes of sequence evolution leading to rapid formation and loss of regulatory sites? Here we show that a large fraction of neighboring transcription factor binding sites in the fly genome have formed from a common sequence origin by local duplications. This mode of evolution is found to produce regulatory information: duplications can seed new sites in the neighborhood of existing sites. Duplicate seeds evolve subsequently by point mutations, often towards binding a different factor than their ancestral neighbor sites. These results are based on a statistical analysis of 346 cis-regulatory modules in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, and a comparison set of intergenic regulatory sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fly regulatory modules, pairs of binding sites show significantly enhanced sequence similarity up to distances of about 50 bp. We analyze these data in terms of an evolutionary model with two distinct modes of site formation: (i) evolution from independent sequence origin and (ii) divergent evolution following duplication of a common ancestor sequence. Our results suggest that pervasive formation of binding sites by local sequence duplications distinguishes the complex regulatory architecture of higher eukaryotes from the simpler architecture of unicellular organisms.

  8. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation.

  9. Investigating the root causes of duplicate publication in research articles

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Payman; Kianpour, Maryam; Shirani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Duplicate publication is the republication of an article in which a lot of important parts overlap with the published copy. This issue is nearly at the top of the list of subjects, which medical journal editors discuss. this study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the publication patterns and determining it's root causes in research articles in the Isfahan University of Medical Science and to find a solution to prevent it. In a cross sectional study, All the discovered cases of duplicate publication, which were referred to the ethics committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Science during 2005–2008 were selected to be investigated through a descriptive method. After confirmation about the case of a duplicate publication, the requisite investigation was conducted through interviews and review of the correspondence and documentaries, and then, a radical line was charted. After investigating the cases and classifying the radical causes and incidents, categorization and definition of duplicate publication are presented. Eight out of nine republished articles belonged to the first category of Baily's index (copy publication) and one was in the third category (minimum publishable unit: Salami slicing). The results of the present article indicate that, the scientific community of the country is not yet familiar with the professional principles of scientific and research affairs. According to the results of this investigation, it is recommended to take official action against duplicate publication cases, violation of copyright, and also to have strict instructions against this unethical practice. PMID:25861659

  10. Proximity interactions among centrosome components identify regulators of centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Firat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Rauniyar, Navin; Yates, John R; Stearns, Tim

    2014-03-17

    The centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). Many vertebrate cells also have an array of granules, termed centriolar satellites, that localize around the centrosome and are associated with centrosome and cilium function. Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle and is effected by a set of proteins including PLK4, CEP192, CEP152, CEP63, and CPAP. Information on the relationships between these components is limited due to the difficulty in assaying interactions in the context of the centrosome. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) to identify proximity interactions among centriole duplication proteins. PLK4, CEP192, and CEP152 BioID identified known physically interacting proteins and a new interaction between CEP152 and CDK5RAP2 consistent with a function of CEP152 in PCM recruitment. BioID for CEP63 and its paralog CCDC67 revealed extensive proximity interactions with centriolar satellite proteins. Focusing on these satellite proteins identified two new regulators of centriole duplication, CCDC14 and KIAA0753. Both proteins colocalize with CEP63 to satellites, bind to CEP63, and identify other satellite proteins by BioID. KIAA0753 positively regulates centriole duplication and CEP63 centrosome localization, whereas CCDC14 negatively regulates both processes. These results suggest that centriolar satellites have a previously unappreciated function in regulating centriole duplication. PMID:24613305

  11. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  12. Genome duplication and the evolution of conspecific pollen precedence

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Sarah J.; Husband, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Conspecific pollen precedence can be a strong reproductive barrier between polyploid and diploid species, but the role of genome multiplication in the evolution of this barrier has not been investigated. Here, we examine the direct effect of genome duplication on the evolution of pollen siring success in tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. To separate the effects of genome duplication from selection after duplication, we compared pollen siring success of synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids) with that of naturally occurring tetraploids by applying 2x, 4x (neo or established) or 2x + 4x pollen to diploid and tetraploid flowers. Seed set increased in diploids and decreased in both types of tetraploids as the proportion of pollen from diploid plants increased. Based on offspring ploidy from mixed-ploidy pollinations, pollen of the maternal ploidy always sired the majority of offspring but was strongest in established tetraploids and weakest in neotetraploids. Pollen from established tetraploids had significantly higher siring rates than neotetraploids when deposited on diploid (4xest = 47.2%, 4xneo = 27.1%) and on tetraploid recipients (4xest = 91.9%, 4xneo = 56.0%). Siring success of established tetraploids exceeded that of neotetraploids despite having similar pollen production per anther and pollen diameter. Our results suggest that, while pollen precedence can arise in association with the duplication event, the strength of polyploid siring success evolves after the duplication event. PMID:21123263

  13. Genome duplication and the evolution of conspecific pollen precedence.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Sarah J; Husband, Brian C

    2011-07-01

    Conspecific pollen precedence can be a strong reproductive barrier between polyploid and diploid species, but the role of genome multiplication in the evolution of this barrier has not been investigated. Here, we examine the direct effect of genome duplication on the evolution of pollen siring success in tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. To separate the effects of genome duplication from selection after duplication, we compared pollen siring success of synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids) with that of naturally occurring tetraploids by applying 2x, 4x (neo or established) or 2x + 4x pollen to diploid and tetraploid flowers. Seed set increased in diploids and decreased in both types of tetraploids as the proportion of pollen from diploid plants increased. Based on offspring ploidy from mixed-ploidy pollinations, pollen of the maternal ploidy always sired the majority of offspring but was strongest in established tetraploids and weakest in neotetraploids. Pollen from established tetraploids had significantly higher siring rates than neotetraploids when deposited on diploid (4x(est) = 47.2%, 4x(neo) = 27.1%) and on tetraploid recipients (4x(est) = 91.9%, 4x(neo) = 56.0%). Siring success of established tetraploids exceeded that of neotetraploids despite having similar pollen production per anther and pollen diameter. Our results suggest that, while pollen precedence can arise in association with the duplication event, the strength of polyploid siring success evolves after the duplication event. PMID:21123263

  14. Proximity interactions among centrosome components identify regulators of centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Firat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Rauniyar, Navin; Yates, John R; Stearns, Tim

    2014-03-17

    The centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). Many vertebrate cells also have an array of granules, termed centriolar satellites, that localize around the centrosome and are associated with centrosome and cilium function. Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle and is effected by a set of proteins including PLK4, CEP192, CEP152, CEP63, and CPAP. Information on the relationships between these components is limited due to the difficulty in assaying interactions in the context of the centrosome. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) to identify proximity interactions among centriole duplication proteins. PLK4, CEP192, and CEP152 BioID identified known physically interacting proteins and a new interaction between CEP152 and CDK5RAP2 consistent with a function of CEP152 in PCM recruitment. BioID for CEP63 and its paralog CCDC67 revealed extensive proximity interactions with centriolar satellite proteins. Focusing on these satellite proteins identified two new regulators of centriole duplication, CCDC14 and KIAA0753. Both proteins colocalize with CEP63 to satellites, bind to CEP63, and identify other satellite proteins by BioID. KIAA0753 positively regulates centriole duplication and CEP63 centrosome localization, whereas CCDC14 negatively regulates both processes. These results suggest that centriolar satellites have a previously unappreciated function in regulating centriole duplication.

  15. PGDD: a database of gene and genome duplication in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (GD) has permanently shaped the architecture and function of many higher eukaryotic genomes. The angiosperms (flowering plants) are outstanding models in which to elucidate consequences of GD for higher eukaryotes, owing to their propensity for chromosomal duplication or even triplication in a few cases. Duplicated genome structures often require both intra- and inter-genome alignments to unravel their evolutionary history, also providing the means to deduce both obvious and otherwise-cryptic orthology, paralogy and other relationships among genes. The burgeoning sets of angiosperm genome sequences provide the foundation for a host of investigations into the functional and evolutionary consequences of gene and GD. To provide genome alignments from a single resource based on uniform standards that have been validated by empirical studies, we built the Plant Genome Duplication Database (PGDD; freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/), a web service providing synteny information in terms of colinearity between chromosomes. At present, PGDD contains data for 26 plants including bryophytes and chlorophyta, as well as angiosperms with draft genome sequences. In addition to the inclusion of new genomes as they become available, we are preparing new functions to enhance PGDD. PMID:23180799

  16. The complete sequence of human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Martin, Joel; Terry, Astrid; Couronne, Olivier; Grimwood, Jane; Lowry, State; Gordon, Laurie A.; Scott, Duncan; Xie, Gary; Huang, Wayne; Hellsten, Uffe; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; She, Xinwei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Aerts, Andrea; Altherr, Michael; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Branscomb, Elbert; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chan, Yee Man; Denys, Mirian; Detter, Chris; Escobar, Julio; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstenin, David; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Kadner, Kristen; Kimbal, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Martinez, Diego; Medina, Catherine; Morgan, Jenna; Nandkeshwar, Richard; Noonan, James P.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Priest, James; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Rodriguez, Alex; Rogers, Stephanie; Salamov, Asaf; Salazar, Angelica; Thayer, Nina; Tice, Hope; Tsai, Ming; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; Wheeler, Jeremy; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; Dickson, Mark; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Eichler, Evan E.; Olsen, Anne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan M.; Myers, Richard M.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-04-15

    Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes yet has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of noncoding and syntenic conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting they are functionally constrained. In total, we compiled 177.7 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence containing 923 manually curated protein-encoding genes including the protocadherin and interleukin gene families and the first complete versions of each of the large chromosome 5 specific internal duplications. These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and play a likely mechanistic role, since deletions of these regions are the cause of debilitating disorders including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

  17. The sequence and analysis of duplication rich human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

    2004-08-01

    We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

  18. Paralogue Interference Affects the Dynamics after Gene Duplication.

    PubMed

    Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-12-01

    Proteins tend to form homomeric complexes of identical subunits, which act as functional units. By definition, the subunits are encoded from a single genetic locus. When such a gene is duplicated, the gene products are suggested initially to cross-interact when coexpressed, thus resulting in the phenomenon of paralogue interference. In this opinion article, we explore how paralogue interference can shape the fate of a duplicated gene. One important outcome is a prolonged time window in which both copies remain under selection increasing the chance to accumulate mutations and to develop new properties. Thereby, paralogue interference can mediate the coevolution of duplicates and here we illustrate the potential of this phenomenon in light of recent new studies. PMID:26638775

  19. The sequence and analysis of duplication rich human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J; Han, C; Gordon, L A; Terry, A; Prabhakar, S; She, X; Xie, G; Hellsten, U; Chan, Y M; Altherr, M; Couronne, O; Aerts, A; Bajorek, E; Black, S; Blumer, H; Branscomb, E; Brown, N; Bruno, W J; Buckingham, J; Callen, D F; Campbell, C S; Campbell, M L; Campbell, E W; Caoile, C; Challacombe, J F; Chasteen, L A; Chertkov, O; Chi, H C; Christensen, M; Clark, L M; Cohn, J D; Denys, M; Detter, J C; Dickson, M; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M; Escobar, J; Fawcett, J J; Flowers, D; Fotopulos, D; Glavina, T; Gomez, M; Gonzales, E; Goodstein, D; Goodwin, L A; Grady, D L; Grigoriev, I; Groza, M; Hammon, N; Hawkins, T; Haydu, L; Hildebrand, C E; Huang, W; Israni, S; Jett, J; Jewett, P B; Kadner, K; Kimball, H; Kobayashi, A; Krawczyk, M; Leyba, T; Longmire, J L; Lopez, F; Lou, Y; Lowry, S; Ludeman, T; Manohar, C F; Mark, G A; McMurray, K L; Meincke, L J; Morgan, J; Moyzis, R K; Mundt, M O; Munk, A C; Nandkeshwar, R D; Pitluck, S; Pollard, M; Predki, P; Parson-Quintana, B; Ramirez, L; Rash, S; Retterer, J; Ricke, D O; Robinson, D; Rodriguez, A; Salamov, A; Saunders, E H; Scott, D; Shough, T; Stallings, R L; Stalvey, M; Sutherland, R D; Tapia, R; Tesmer, J G; Thayer, N; Thompson, L S; Tice, H; Torney, D C; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Tsai, M; Ulanovsky, L E; Ustaszewska, A; Vo, N; White, P S; Williams, A L; Wills, P L; Wu, J; Wu, K; Yang, J; DeJong, P; Bruce, D; Doggett, N A; Deaven, L; Schmutz, J; Grimwood, J; Richardson, P; Rokhsar, D S; Eichler, E E; Gilna, P; Lucas, S M; Myers, R M; Rubin, E M; Pennacchio, L A

    2005-04-06

    Human chromosome 16 features one of the highest levels of segmentally duplicated sequence among the human autosomes. We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9% of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein-coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes, and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin, and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobase pairs were identified and result in gene content differences among humans. While the segmental duplications of chromosome 16 are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

  20. The origins and impact of primate segmental duplications

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Girirajan, Santhosh; Eichler, Evan E.

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated sequences are substrates for the emergence of new genes and are an important source of genetic instability associated with rare and common diseases. Analyses of primate genomes have shown an increase in the proportion of interspersed segmental duplications (SDs) within the genomes of humans and great apes. This contrasts with other mammalian genomes that seem to have their recently duplicated sequences organized in a tandem configuration. In this review, we focus on the mechanistic origin and impact of this difference with respect to evolution, genetic diversity and primate phenotype. Although many genomes will be sequenced in the future, resolution of this aspect of genomic architecture still requires high quality sequences and detailed analyses. PMID:19796838