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Sample records for complex antigens inhibition

  1. Intravenous IgA complexed with antigen reduces primary antibody response to the antigen and anaphylaxis upon antigen re-exposure by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Miyatake, Kenji; Nakashima, Takayuki; Morioka, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Midori; Ishibashi, Yuki; Ito, Ayaka; Kuranishi, Ayu; Yoshino, Shin

    2014-10-01

    Serum IgG, IgE and IgM have been shown to enhance the primary antibody responses upon exposure to the soluble antigens recognized by those antibodies. However, how IgA affects these responses remains unknown. We investigated the effects of intravenously administered monoclonal IgA on the immune responses in mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with ovalbumin in the presence or absence of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA. The Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin and the anaphylaxis induced by re-exposure to ovalbumin were measured. IgA complexed with antigen attenuated the primary antibody responses to the antigen in mice, in contrast to IgG2b and IgE. The primary antibody responses, i.e. the de novo synthesis of anti-ovalbumin IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE in the serum, and the subsequent anaphylaxis induced with re-exposure to ovalbumin were reduced by the co-injection of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA at ovalbumin immunization. The Th1, Th2 and Tr1 cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, respectively, released from ovalbumin-restimulated cultured splenocytes collected from allergic mice were also reduced by the treatment. The induction of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 secretion by splenocytes from ovalbumin-immunized mice stimulated in vitro with ovalbumin was also significantly reduced by the antigen complexed with anti-ovalbumin IgA. These data suggest that the direct inhibition of Th1 and Th2 activation by anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA participates in the inhibition of the primary antibody responses. IgA plays important immunosuppressive roles under physiological and pathological conditions and is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of immune disorders.

  2. Alternative endogenous protein processing via an autophagy-dependent pathway compensates for Yersinia-mediated inhibition of endosomal major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Rüssmann, Holger; Panthel, Klaus; Köhn, Brigitte; Jellbauer, Stefan; Winter, Sebastian E; Garbom, Sara; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Grauling-Halama, Silke; Geginat, Gernot

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular Yersinia pseudotuberculosis employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) for translocating virulence factors (Yersinia outer proteins [Yops]) directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Recently, we used YopE as a carrier molecule for T3SS-dependent secretion and translocation of listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrated that translocation of chimeric YopE/LLO into the cytosol of macrophages by Yersinia results in the induction of a codominant antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell response in orally immunized mice. In this study, we addressed the requirements for processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II presentation of chimeric YopE proteins translocated into the cytosol of macrophages by the Yersinia T3SS. Our data demonstrate the ability of Yersinia to counteract exogenous MHC class II antigen presentation of secreted hybrid YopE by the action of wild-type YopE and YopH. In the absence of exogenous MHC class II antigen presentation, an alternative pathway was identified for YopE fusion proteins originating in the cytosol. This endogenous antigen-processing pathway was sensitive to inhibitors of phagolysosomal acidification and macroautophagy, but it did not require the function either of the proteasome or of transporters associated with antigen processing. Thus, by an autophagy-dependent mechanism, macrophages are able to compensate for the YopE/YopH-mediated inhibition of the endosomal MHC class II antigen presentation pathway for exogenous antigens. This is the first report demonstrating that autophagy might enable the host to mount an MHC class II-restricted CD4 T-cell response against translocated bacterial virulence factors. We provide critical new insights into the interaction between the mammalian immune system and a human pathogen.

  3. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  4. Brucella abortus inhibits major histocompatibility complex class II expression and antigen processing through interleukin-6 secretion via Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Wallach, Jorge C; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection.

  5. Cyclosporine inhibits macrophage-mediated antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, H.K.; Palay, D.; Wentworth, P.; Cluff, C.

    1986-03-01

    The influence of cyclosporine on antigen-specific, macrophage-dependent T cell activation was analyzed in vitro. Murine T cell activation by antigens derived from Listeria monocytogenes was monitored by the production of interleukin-2. Pretreatment (2 hrs., 37/sup 0/C) of macrophages with cyclosporine resulted in a population of macrophages with a markedly diminished capacity to support the activation of T lymphocytes. When cyclosporine-pretreated macrophages were added to cultures of antigen and untreated T cells, the dose of cyclosporine which produced 50% inhibition was 1.5 ..mu..g/ml. Appropriate control experiments indicated that cyclosporine was indeed inhibiting at the macrophage level. The addition of interleukin-1 or indomethacin to the cultures did not alter the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine. Under conditions which produced >90% inhibition of antigen presentation, macrophage surface Ia expression was not altered, and the uptake and catabolism of radiolabelled antigen was normal. Thus, cyclosporine inhibits antigen presentation by a mechanism which appears unrelated to changes in Il-1 elaboration, prostaglandin production, Ia expression, or antigen uptake and catabolism.

  6. Methamphetamine inhibits antigen processing, presentation, and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tallóczy, Zsolt; Martinez, Jose; Joset, Danielle; Ray, Yonaton; Gácser, Attila; Toussi, Sima; Mizushima, Noboru; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Josh; Goldstein, Harris; Loike, John; Sulzer, David; Santambrogio, Laura

    2008-02-08

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is abused by over 35 million people worldwide. Chronic Meth abuse may be particularly devastating in individuals who engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners because it is associated with a 2-fold higher risk for obtaining HIV and associated secondary infections. We report the first specific evidence that Meth at pharmacological concentrations exerts a direct immunosuppressive effect on dendritic cells and macrophages. As a weak base, Meth collapses the pH gradient across acidic organelles, including lysosomes and associated autophagic organelles. This in turn inhibits receptor-mediated phagocytosis of antibody-coated particles, MHC class II antigen processing by the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, and antigen presentation to splenic T cells by dendritic cells. More importantly Meth facilitates intracellular replication and inhibits intracellular killing of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, two major AIDS-related pathogens. Meth exerts previously unreported direct immunosuppressive effects that contribute to increased risk of infection and exacerbate AIDS pathology.

  7. Methamphetamine Inhibits Antigen Processing, Presentation, and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Joset, Danielle; Ray, Yonaton; Gácser, Attila; Toussi, Sima; Mizushima, Noboru; Nosanchuk, Josh; Goldstein, Harris; Loike, John; Sulzer, David; Santambrogio, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is abused by over 35 million people worldwide. Chronic Meth abuse may be particularly devastating in individuals who engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners because it is associated with a 2-fold higher risk for obtaining HIV and associated secondary infections. We report the first specific evidence that Meth at pharmacological concentrations exerts a direct immunosuppressive effect on dendritic cells and macrophages. As a weak base, Meth collapses the pH gradient across acidic organelles, including lysosomes and associated autophagic organelles. This in turn inhibits receptor-mediated phagocytosis of antibody-coated particles, MHC class II antigen processing by the endosomal–lysosomal pathway, and antigen presentation to splenic T cells by dendritic cells. More importantly Meth facilitates intracellular replication and inhibits intracellular killing of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, two major AIDS-related pathogens. Meth exerts previously unreported direct immunosuppressive effects that contribute to increased risk of infection and exacerbate AIDS pathology. PMID:18282092

  8. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression by Disrupting Enhanceosome Assembly through Binding with the Regulatory Factor X Complex

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Suhani; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Gupta, Namrata; Challa, Shanthan; Cai, Qiliang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules play a central role in adaptive antiviral immunity by presenting viral peptides to CD4+ T cells. Due to their key role in adaptive immunity, many viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have evolved multiple strategies to inhibit the MHC-II antigen presentation pathway. The expression of MHC-II, which is controlled mainly at the level of transcription, is strictly dependent upon the binding of the class II transactivator (CIITA) to the highly conserved promoters of all MHC-II genes. The recruitment of CIITA to MHC-II promoters requires its direct interactions with a preassembled MHC-II enhanceosome consisting of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) complex and regulatory factor X (RFX) complex proteins. Here, we show that KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) disrupts the association of CIITA with the MHC-II enhanceosome by binding to the components of the RFX complex. Our data show that LANA is capable of binding to all three components of the RFX complex, RFX-associated protein (RFXAP), RFX5, and RFX-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), in vivo but binds more strongly with the RFXAP component in in vitro binding assays. Levels of MHC-II proteins were significantly reduced in KSHV-infected as well as LANA-expressing B cells. Additionally, the expression of LANA in a luciferase promoter reporter assay showed reduced HLA-DRA promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that LANA binds to the MHC-II promoter along with RFX proteins and that the overexpression of LANA disrupts the association of CIITA with the MHC-II promoter. These assays led to the conclusion that the interaction of LANA with RFX proteins interferes with the recruitment of CIITA to MHC-II promoters, resulting in an inhibition of MHC-II gene expression. Thus, the data presented here identify

  9. Circulating antigen-antibody complexes in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M W; Sisley, B; Mackenzie, C D; El Sheikh, H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of circulating antigen-antibody complexes in the sera of patients with onchocerciasis was investigated using the Clq and conglutinin solid-phase binding assays. Only 50% of patients' sera had demonstrable complexes, levels of complexes were unrelated to microfilarial load and specific anti-onchocercal antibody titres and results with the two tests for complexes were not correlated. Both IgM- and IgG-containing complexes were commonly involved but there was no correlation between the levels of complexes containing these isotypes. Evidence for the presence of IgE in complexes of sera from a minority of individuals was also obtained. PMID:6979445

  10. Antigen cross-presentation of immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α(+) DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8(+) T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8(-) DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets.

  11. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  12. Degenerate interfaces in antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed

    Decanniere, K; Transue, T R; Desmyter, A; Maes, D; Muyldermans, S; Wyns, L

    2001-10-26

    In most of the work dealing with the analysis of protein-protein interfaces, a single X-ray structure is available or selected, and implicitly it is assumed that this structure corresponds to the optimal complex for this pair of proteins. However, we have found a degenerate interface in a high-affinity antibody-antigen complex: the two independent complexes of the camel variable domain antibody fragment cAb-Lys3 and its antigen hen egg white lysozyme present in the asymmetric unit of our crystals show a difference in relative orientation between antibody and antigen, leading to important differences at the protein-protein interface. A third cAb-Lys3-hen lysozyme complex in a different crystal form adopts yet another relative orientation. Our results show that protein-protein interface characteristics can vary significantly between different specimens of the same high-affinity antibody-protein antigen complex. Consideration should be given to this type of observation when trying to establish general protein-protein interface characteristics.

  13. Characterization of the metabolism inhibition antigen of Mycoplasma arthritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, L R; Ramsay, J R; Roberts, L K

    1985-01-01

    The Mycoplasma arthritidis antigen(s) responsible for eliciting metabolism-inhibiting antibodies in rabbits has been partially characterized. Metabolism-inhibiting activity was absorbed from rabbit antisera by intact M. arthritidis cells and membranes but much less so by the soluble cytoplasmic fraction, indicating that the antigen is located on the outer membrane surface. It was stable to periodate and lipid extraction but labile to heat and proteolytic enzymes, indicating that it is protein in nature. Finally, it is most likely a tightly bound integral rather than a peripheral membrane protein, since it was not extracted by low-ionic-strength solutions or by the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40, and Tween 20. It was solubilized by both the anionic agent sodium deoxycholate and the zwitterionic detergent Zwittergent. Two two monoclonal antibodies with metabolism-inhibiting activity were produced. One recognized a 45,000-dalton surface protein; however, the other recognized an antigen which is probably of cytoplasmic origin, indicating that more than one cell component may be involved in the metabolism-inhibiting antibody response. Images PMID:4018874

  14. Amplification of Migratory Inhibition Factor Production During the First 48 Hours of Exposure to Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Philp, James R.; Johnson, Joseph E.; Spencer, J. Craig

    1973-01-01

    When lymphocyte-macrophage suspensions from sensitized animals are preincubated with specific antigen for 24 or more h, the following results are observed. (i) In a standard capillary macrophage migration test, there is complete inhibition of migration. (ii) When the preincubated cell suspension is mixed in varying proportions with a similar suspension from nonsensitized animals and a macrophage migration test is performed, there is no linear relationship between the degree of inhibition of migration and the proportion of sensitized lymphocytes initially present. Inhibition thus appears to be an “all-or-none” effect. (iii) In spite of the second observation, increasing periods of preincubation with antigen result in increasing inhibition. (iv) These results suggest the existence of a complex amplifying mechanism operating within the early period of exposure to antigen. (v) To test the possibility that cell proliferation contributes to this amplification, cells from sensitized guinea pigs were irradiated with a dose of 1,000 rads prior to preincubation with antigen. Despite this dose, which virtually abolishes cell division in other systems, no diminution whatever in the amplification of inhibition was observed. These results suggest the existence of an early phase of increased production of migratory inhibition factor that is not dependent on cell division but that may be related to “recruitment” of nonsensitized lymphocytes. PMID:4748945

  15. Inhibition of antigen-specific T lymphocyte activation by structurally related Ir gene-controlled polymers. II. Competitive inhibition of I-E- restricted, antigen-specific T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Our previous studies have defined a highly specific competitive inhibition between a pair of structurally related antigens (GT and GAT) for antigen presentation by accessory cells. The present report investigates this phenomenon in a second antigenic system, which is controlled by a distinct Ir gene product. Two GL phi-specific, I-Ed- restricted, interleukin 2-producing T cell hybridomas were constructed. The antigenic fine specificity of these two hybrid clones was distinct. One hybrid reacted solely with GL phi while the second cross-reacted with GLleu and GLT. These latter two copolymers, as well as the antigen GL, were found to inhibit the GL phi response of the non-cross-reactive hybrid. The structurally related antigen G phi was not inhibitory for this clone's response. The cross-reactive GL phi hybrid could also be inhibited, but, in this case, G phi and not GL caused the inhibition. Reciprocal inhibitions could be demonstrated between these and other hybrids (e.g., GAT responsive), indicating a very high degree of specificity to the inhibition. The inhibition caused by the various copolymers was reversible by increasing the concentration of GL phi, This effect was localized to the antigen-presenting cell and not the T cell hybridoma. Functionally, this competition did not appear to be for antigen uptake or general antigen processing. These findings generalize the phenomenon of antigen competition to a second antigen system in the context of a second Ia molecule. The possible mechanisms accounting for the complex pattern of specificities in this system are discussed. PMID:6210339

  16. Immune complexes inhibit interleukin-1 secretion and inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Janczy, John R.; Ciraci, Ceren; Haasken, Stefanie; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Olivier, Alicia K.; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes have been shown to modify immune responses driven by antigen presenting cells in either a pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending upon the context of stimulation. However, the ability of immune complexes to modulate the inflammasome-dependent innate immune response is unknown. Here we show that IgG immune complexes suppress IL-1α and IL-1β secretion through inhibition of inflammasome activation. The mechanism by which this inhibition occurs is via immune complex ligation of activating Fcγ receptors (FcγR), resulting in prevention of both activation and assembly of the inflammasome complex in response to NLRP3, NLRC4, or AIM2 agonists. In vivo, administration of antigen in the form of an immune complex during priming of the immune response inhibited resultant adaptive immune responses in a NLRP3 dependent model of allergic airway disease. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation, whereby immune complexes suppress inflammasome activation and the generation of IL-1α and IL-1β from antigen presenting cells, which are critical for the antigen-driven differentiation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25320279

  17. T-antigen-DNA polymerase alpha complex implicated in simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Smale, S T; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    We have combined in vitro DNA replication reactions and immunological techniques to analyze biochemical interactions between simian virus (SV40) large T antigen and components of the cellular replication apparatus. First, in vitro SV40 DNA replication was characterized with specific origin mutants. Next, monoclonal antibodies were used to demonstrate that a specific domain of T antigen formed a complex with cellular DNA polymerase alpha. Several antibodies were identified that coprecipitated T antigen and DNA polymerase alpha, while others were found to selectively prevent this interaction and concomitantly inhibit DNA replication. DNA polymerase alpha also bound efficiently to a T-antigen affinity column, confirming the immunoprecipitation results and providing a useful method for purification of the complete protein complex. Taken together, these results suggest that the T-antigen-polymerase association may be a key step in the initiation of SV40 DNA replication. Images PMID:3025630

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Antigenic Peptides in Complex with TAP

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Elisa; Tampé, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) selectively translocates antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. Loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and proofreading of these bound epitopes are orchestrated within the macromolecular peptide-loading complex, which assembles on TAP. This heterodimeric ABC-binding cassette (ABC) transport complex is therefore a major component in the adaptive immune response against virally or malignantly transformed cells. Its pivotal role predestines TAP as a target for infectious diseases and malignant disorders. The development of therapies or drugs therefore requires a detailed comprehension of structure and function of this ABC transporter, but our knowledge about various aspects is still insufficient. This review highlights recent achievements on the structure and dynamics of antigenic peptides in complex with TAP. Understanding the binding mode of antigenic peptides in the TAP complex will crucially impact rational design of inhibitors, drug development, or vaccination strategies. PMID:28194151

  19. AUTOLOGOUS IMMUNE COMPLEX NEPHRITIS INDUCED WITH RENAL TUBULAR ANTIGEN

    PubMed Central

    Glassock, Richard J.; Edgington, Thomas S.; Watson, J. Ian; Dixon, Frank J.

    1968-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanism involved in a form of experimental allergic glomerulonephritis induced by immunization of rats with renal tubular antigen has been investigated. A single immunization with less than a milligram of a crude renal tubular preparation, probably containing less than 25 µg of the specific nephritogenic antigen, is effective in the induction of this form of chronic membranous glomerulonephritis. In the nephritic kidney autologous nephritogenic tubular antigen is found in the glomerular deposits along with γ-globulin and complement. When large amounts of antigen are injected during induction of the disease the exogenous immunizing antigen can also be detected in the glomerular deposits. It appears that this disease results from the formation of circulating antibodies capable of reacting with autologous renal tubular antigen(s) and the deposition of these antibodies and antigen(s) plus complement apparently as immune complexes in the glomeruli. This pathogenetic system has been termed an autologous immune complex disease and the resultant glomerulonephritis has been similarly designated. PMID:4169966

  20. Complex Antigens Drive Permissive Clonal Selection in Germinal Centers.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Schmidt, Aaron G; Nojima, Takuya; Feng, Feng; Watanabe, Akiko; Kitamura, Daisuke; Harrison, Stephen C; Kepler, Thomas B; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2016-03-15

    Germinal center (GC) B cells evolve toward increased affinity by a Darwinian process that has been studied primarily in genetically restricted, hapten-specific responses. We explored the population dynamics of genetically diverse GC responses to two complex antigens-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and influenza hemagglutinin-in which B cells competed both intra- and interclonally for distinct epitopes. Preferred VH rearrangements among antigen-binding, naive B cells were similarly abundant in early GCs but, unlike responses to haptens, clonal diversity increased in GC B cells as early "winners" were replaced by rarer, high-affinity clones. Despite affinity maturation, inter- and intraclonal avidities varied greatly, and half of GC B cells did not bind the immunogen but nonetheless exhibited biased VH use, V(D)J mutation, and clonal expansion comparable to antigen-binding cells. GC reactions to complex antigens permit a range of specificities and affinities, with potential advantages for broad protection.

  1. Antigenic diversity of the serotype antigen complex of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: analysis by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, K H

    1980-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) has been developed to analyze the antigenic profile of the outer membrane serotype complex of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antisera raised in rabbits to serotype-specific vesicles (SSV) reacted primarily with homologous SSV; however, there was significant cross-reactivity (less than 50%) with heterologous SSV. N. meningitidis SSV cross-reacted with all antigonococcal SSV but at a lower degree (less than 20%). Preimmune sera did not cross-react significantly with all antigonoccoccal SSV. The sensitivity of the ELISA was enhanced when the integral SSV proteins 1a and 2 were used as adsorbed antigen. Heterologous anti-SSV cross-reacted slightly, having ELISA values less than 15% of the homologous reaction. Antisera prepared by immunoabsorbent affinity columns were highly specific. Homologous affinity anti-SSV reacted only with proteins 1a and 2. The reaction of immune sera was inhibited by homologous proteins 1a and 2; lipopolysaccharide and proteins 1a and 2 isolated from heterologous serotypes did not inhibit the reaction. The reaction of affinity-purified antisera could be inhibited only by homologous protein 1a. By the use of affinity-purified antisera, a specific and highly sensitive ELISA was developed to analyze the antigenic profile of strains of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:6769815

  2. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Lauren M.; Baskerville, Edward B.; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype–phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens. PMID:26194759

  3. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lauren M; Baskerville, Edward B; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-09-05

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype-phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens.

  4. A culture of Salmonella infantis of complex antigenic constitution.

    PubMed

    EDWARDS, P R; McWHORTER, A C; DOUGLAS, G W

    1962-07-01

    Edwards, P. R. (Communicable Disease Center, U.S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.), A. C. McWhorter, and G. W. Douglas. A culture of Salmonella infantis of complex antigenic constitution. J. Bacteriol. 84:95-98. 1962-An antigenically complex Salmonella serotype (6,7:z(49),r:z(49),1,5), in which the antigen z(49) is a major component of both phases, is described. Through loss variation, this form gives rise to cultures identical with S. infantis (6,7:r:1,5). Attention is drawn to the similarity of its behavior to that of S. montgomery and S. salinatis, and the possible origin of such complex forms is discussed briefly. The organism is not assigned a name, but is considered simply as a complex form of S. infantis.

  5. Antigenic analysis of immune complexes formed in normal human pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M

    1985-01-01

    Immune complexes, isolated from pregnancy sera by absorption to immobilized protein A, were dissociated and the antigen components separated from the IgG antibodies, which possessed immune reactivity directed against the plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. Gel filtration studies demonstrated that five separate antigens could be identified and were of placental origin, as observed by their reactivity in an ELISA with affinity purified anti-trophoblast antibodies isolated from maternal sera. The five antigens of apparent mol. wt 2 X 10(6), 400,000, 150,000, 13,000 and less than 10,000 daltons were designated maternally recognised trophoblast antigens (MRTA), numbers V-IX; the relative proportions of these antigens in the sera were 14%, 68%, 16%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Immune complexes were also identified in nulliparous non-pregnant female sera and consisted of the 150,000 and the less than 10,000 daltons antigen components. The relationship between the MRTA present in the immune complexes and the MRTA (numbers I-IV) previously identified as components of the trophoblast plasma membrane is discussed. Images Fig. 3 PMID:4042429

  6. Cholera Toxin Inhibits the T-Cell Antigen Receptor-Mediated Increases in Inositol Trisphosphate and Cytoplasmic Free Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, John B.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Pattison, Gregory; Stobo, John D.

    1986-08-01

    The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor.

  7. Recovery of a cell surface fetal antigen from circulating immune complexes of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, J H; Aguero, B; Gupta, R K; Morton, D L

    1988-01-01

    A well-characterized 69.5 x 10(3) dalton glycoprotein fetal antigen (FA), isolated from the spent culture medium of a melanoma cell line, UCLA-SO-14 (M14), was utilized to characterize the antigen component of circulating immune complexes (CIC) from melanoma patients. Ten serum samples from five patients with stage II melanoma at 1 and 4 months prior to the clinical detection of recurrent disease were selected for study. The CIC were dissociated with low pH and ultrafiltered through a 100 x 10(3) dalton exclusion limit membrane. The low pH treatment resulted in an increase in antibody titer in eight of ten serum samples. The antibody activity in membrane immunofluorescence was quantitatively inhibited by the filtered antigen fraction and purified FA, suggesting the presence of anti-FA antibodies in the treated serum, which possibly were complexed with FA in the untreated sample. As determined by competitive inhibition in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the filtrate (antigen fraction) contained an antigen that was immunologically similar to FA. These results clearly demonstrate that FA, expressed on the cell surface of melanoma cells, is present in CIC of selected melanoma patients.

  8. Antigen-B Cell Receptor Complexes Associate with Intracellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II Molecules*

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Margarida; Tucker, Heidi; Drake, Lisa; Nichol, Kathleen; Drake, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen processing and MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and B cells allows the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells and cognate interactions between B cells and effector CD4+ T cells, respectively. B cells are unique among class II-restricted antigen-presenting cells in that they have a clonally restricted antigen-specific receptor, the B cell receptor (BCR), which allows the cell to recognize and respond to trace amounts of foreign antigen present in a sea of self-antigens. Moreover, engagement of peptide-class II complexes formed via BCR-mediated processing of cognate antigen has been shown to result in a unique pattern of B cell activation. Using a combined biochemical and imaging/FRET approach, we establish that internalized antigen-BCR complexes associate with intracellular class II molecules. We demonstrate that the M1-paired MHC class II conformer, shown previously to be critical for CD4 T cell activation, is incorporated selectively into these complexes and loaded selectively with peptide derived from BCR-internalized cognate antigen. These results demonstrate that, in B cells, internalized antigen-BCR complexes associate with intracellular MHC class II molecules, potentially defining a site of class II peptide acquisition, and reveal a selective role for the M1-paired class II conformer in the presentation of cognate antigen. These findings provide key insights into the molecular mechanisms used by B cells to control the source of peptides charged onto class II molecules, allowing the immune system to mount an antibody response focused on BCR-reactive cognate antigen. PMID:26400081

  9. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Cram, Erik D; Simmons, Ryan S; Palmer, Amy L; Hildebrand, William H; Rockey, Daniel D; Dolan, Brian P

    2015-11-23

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8(+) T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8(+) killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins.

  10. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Erik D.; Simmons, Ryan S.; Palmer, Amy L.; Hildebrand, William H.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8+ T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8+ killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins. PMID:26597986

  11. The Structure and Function of the Rh antigen Complex

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Connie M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rh system is one of the most important and complex blood group systems because of the large number of antigens and the serious complications for the fetus of a woman sensitized by transfusion or pregnancy. Major advances in our understanding of the Rh system have occurred with the cloning of the genes and with functional evidence that the Rh blood group proteins belong to an ancient family of membrane proteins involved in ammonia transport. The arrangement and configuration of the genes at the RH locus promotes genetic exchange, generating new antigens. Importantly, RH genetic testing can now be applied to clinical transfusion medicine and prenatal practice. This includes testing for RHD zygosity, confirmation or resolution of D antigen status, and detection of altered RHD and RHCE genes in individuals at risk for producing antibodies to high incidence Rh antigens, particularly sickle cell disease patients. The Rh proteins form a core complex that is critical to the structure of the erythrocyte membrane, and may play a physiologically role in the sequestration of blood ammonia. The Rh family of proteins now includes non-erythroid Rh homologs present in many other tissues, and comparative genomics reveals Rh homologs in all domains of life. PMID:17198846

  12. Neisseria lactamica antigens complexed with a novel cationic adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B.; Rosetti, Andreza S.; Lincopan, Nilton; De Gaspari, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Colonization of the nasopharynx by non-pathogenic Neisseria species, including N. lactamica, has been suggested to lead to the acquisition of natural immunity against Neisseria meningitidis in young children. The aim of this study was to identify a model complex of antigens and adjuvant for immunological preparation against N. meningitidis B, based on cross reactivity with N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles (OMV) antigens and the (DDA-BF) adjuvant. Complexes of 25 µg of OMV in 0.1 mM of DDA-BF were colloidally stable, exhibiting a mean diameter and charge optimal for antigen presentation. Immunogenicity tests for these complexes were performed in mice. A single dose of OMV/DDA-BF was sufficient to induce a (DTH) response, while the same result was achieved only after two doses of OMV/alum. In addition, to achieve total IgG levels that are similar to a single immunization with OMV/DDA-BF, it was necessary to give the mice a second dose of OMV/alum. Moreover, the antibodies induced from a single immunization with OMV/DDA-BF had an intermediate avidity, but antibodies with a similar avidity were only induced by OMV/alum after two immunizations. The use of this novel cationic adjuvant for the first time with a N. lactamica OMV preparation revealed good potential for future vaccine design. PMID:23296384

  13. Neisseria lactamica antigens complexed with a novel cationic adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Rosetti, Andreza S; Lincopan, Nilton; De Gaspari, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Colonization of the nasopharynx by non-pathogenic Neisseria species, including N. lactamica, has been suggested to lead to the acquisition of natural immunity against Neisseria meningitidis in young children. The aim of this study was to identify a model complex of antigens and adjuvant for immunological preparation against N. meningitidis B, based on cross reactivity with N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles (OMV) antigens and the (DDA-BF) adjuvant. Complexes of 25 µg of OMV in 0.1 mM of DDA-BF were colloidally stable, exhibiting a mean diameter and charge optimal for antigen presentation. Immunogenicity tests for these complexes were performed in mice. A single dose of OMV/DDA-BF was sufficient to induce a (DTH) response, while the same result was achieved only after two doses of OMV/alum. In addition, to achieve total IgG levels that are similar to a single immunization with OMV/DDA-BF, it was necessary to give the mice a second dose of OMV/alum. Moreover, the antibodies induced from a single immunization with OMV/DDA-BF had an intermediate avidity, but antibodies with a similar avidity were only induced by OMV/alum after two immunizations. The use of this novel cationic adjuvant for the first time with a N. lactamica OMV preparation revealed good potential for future vaccine design.

  14. Complex of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and 48,000-dalton host tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, D S; Carroll, R B

    1981-01-01

    Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T Ag) can be separated by sucrose gradient sedimentation into a rapidly sedimenting, maximally phosphorylated fraction and a slowly sedimenting, less phosphorylated fraction. The Mr 48,000 host tumor antigen (48,000 HTA, also called nonviral T Ag) is preferentially complexed with the maximally phosphorylated T Ag. Pulse-labeled T Ag sediments as a 5-6S monomer, whereas T Ag radiolabeled for progressively longer periods slowly increases in sedimentation coefficient to give a broad distribution between 5 S and greater than 28 S. Mutation in the viral A locus causes a decrease in T Ag phosphorylation and a marked decrease in 48,000 HTA binding, shifting the sedimentation coefficient of T Ag to the monomer value. The more highly phosphorylated T Ag also has the highest affinity for chromatin. Images PMID:6941238

  15. Characterization of antigenic components from circulating immune complexes in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lahey, S J; Steele, G; Rodrick, M L; Berkowitz, R; Goldstein, D P; Ross, D S; Ravikumar, T S; Wilson, R E; Byrn, R; Thomas, P

    1984-03-15

    The authors have studied serial circulating immune complex (CIC) levels in 15 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) for several reasons. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia can easily be followed from presentation to remission, and CIC changes can be compared with changes in human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) which is a specific and quantitative marker of trophoblastic tumor load. Twelve patients with hydatidiform molar pregnancy presented with normal CIC levels (255 delta OD450 +/- 97, mean SE [standard error]) as measured by our antigen nonspecific polyethylene glycol (PEG) turbidity assay. Only after reduction in tumor load as monitored by a fall in HCG did CIC rise. In contrast, three patients with choriocarcinoma presented with significantly elevated CIC levels (513 delta OD450 +/- 147, P less than 0.05 compared to normals) which slowly declined in parallel with HCG levels following evacuation and chemotherapy. Sera at peak PEG-CIC from three patients with molar pregnancy or choriocarcinoma were precipitated with 3.75% polyethylene glycol to concentrate circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complex levels were fractionated on Sephadex G-200 in an acid buffer (pH = 2.8). An identifiable antigenic component of the CIC in both diseases was found to be paternal HLA antigen. This was demonstrated by the ability of the latest eluting CIC fraction to inhibit paternal lymphocyte lysis using anti-HLA antisera against the husband's HLA tissue type. In each case, this fraction contained no immunoglobulin or beta-2 microglobulin and was antigenically crossreactive with only one of the husband's HLA haplotypes. The authors believe the PEG-CIC assay has allowed them to define the kinetics of host humoral response in GTN, and has provided a method for recovering immunogenic tumor-associated antigens from these complexes which may apply to other solid tumors.

  16. Ceramide Inhibits Antigen Uptake and Presentation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sallusto, Federica; Nicolò, Chiara; De Maria, Ruggero; Corinti, Silvia; Testi, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Ceramides are intramembrane diffusible mediators involved in transducing signals originated from a variety of cell surface receptors. Different adaptive and differentiative cellular responses, including apoptotic cell death, use ceramide-mediated pathways as an essential part of the program. Here, we show that human dendritic cells respond to CD40 ligand, as well as to tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β, with intracellular ceramide accumulation, as they are induced to differentiate. Dendritic cells down-modulate their capacity to take up soluble antigens in response to exogenously added or endogenously produced ceramides. This is followed by an impairment in presenting soluble antigens to specific T cell clones, while cell viability and the capacity to stimulate allogeneic responses or to present immunogenic peptides is fully preserved. Thus, ceramide-mediated pathways initiated by different cytokines can actively modulate professional antigen-presenting cell function and antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:8976196

  17. Leucocyte migration inhibition response to tissue antigens in asymptomatic individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, J M; Gill, K; Cordeiro Lima, M F; Coura, J R

    1981-01-01

    The direct leucocyte migration inhibition test was used to study 31 asymptomatic humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 23 normal uninfected controls. The antigenic preparations used were made from mouse and guinea-pig heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver and brain. Positive responses were found in the parasite-infected individuals to kidney, liver and brain antigen but not to antigen prepared from heart of skeletal muscle tissue. No correlation was found between T. cruzi antibody titres and migration index values to these various antigens. On the other hand, a positive correlation was only noted between the titres of tissue-reacting immunoglobulins and the migration indices induced by brain antigens: when titres of tissue-reacting immunoglobulins were elevated, less leucocyte migration inhibition was detected. PMID:6802533

  18. Efficient major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of exogenous antigen upon phagocytosis by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacsovics-Bankowski, M; Clark, K; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1993-01-01

    Antigens in extracellular fluids can be processed and presented with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules by a subset of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chicken egg ovalbumin (Ova) linked to beads was presented with MHC class I molecules by these cells up to 10(4)-fold more efficiently than soluble Ova. This enhanced presentation was observed with covalently or noncovalently linked Ova and with beads of different compositions. A key parameter in the activity of these conjugates was the size of the beads. The APC that is responsible for this form of presentation is a macrophage. These cells internalize the antigen constructs through phagocytosis, since cytochalasin B inhibited presentation. Processing of the antigen and association with MHC class I molecules appears to occur intracellularly as presentation was observed under conditions where there was no detectable release of peptides into the extracellular fluids. When injected in vivo in C57BL/6 mice, Ova-beads, but not soluble Ova, primed CD4- CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Similar results were obtained in BALB/c mice immunized with beta-galactosidase-beads. The implications of these findings for development of nonliving vaccines that stimulate CTL immunity are discussed. PMID:8506338

  19. Optimisation of immuno-gold nanoparticle complexes for antigen detection.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Susan; Russell, David A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to define the optimum method of binding antibodies to the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and then to apply the optimised antibody-functionalised AuNPs for the detection of a target antigen. A detailed investigation of three different techniques for the functionalisation of AuNPs with anti-cocaine antibody and methods for the subsequent characterisation of the antibody-functionalised AuNP are reported. The addition of anti-cocaine antibody onto the AuNP surface was facilitated by either: a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker with a COOH terminal functional group; an aminated PEG ligand; or an N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP)-Protein A/G intermediate. Characterisation of the functionalised particles was performed using transmission electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometry and by agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, the cocaine binding efficacy of the resultant AuNPs and their cocaine-binding capacity was determined using a cocaine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and by the application of a microtiter plate-based immunoassay. The results showed that the number of antibody per particle was the highest when the AuNP were functionalised with the Protein A/G intermediate. As compared to free antibody, the cocaine binding efficacy was significantly enhanced using the AuNP-Protein A/G-antibody complex. This optimal antibody-antigen binding efficacy is thought to be the result of the large number of antibody per particle and the oriented binding of the antibody to the Protein A/G on the AuNP surface. These results highlight the ideal immuno-gold nanoparticle characteristics for the detection of target antigens such as cocaine.

  20. Crystallization of antibody fragments and their complexes with antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulot, G.; Guillon, V.; Mariuzza, R. A.; Poljak, R. J.; Riottot, M.-M.; Souchon, H.; Spinelli, S.; Tello, D.

    1988-07-01

    Immunoglobulins, myeloma light chains and their fragments, and Fab fragments from monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity have been crystallized as single components or complexed with their specific antigens. The intersegmental flexibility of antibody molecules has imposed the strategy of attempting to crystallize their Fab and Fc fragments separately. Intrasegmental mobility in Fabs has not been an obstacle to their crystallization, although this has been a low frequency event, occuring in about 1 in 25 to 1 in 50 trials with different Fabs. However, the immune system provides a large functional and structural diversity of antibody molecules so that an active search may eventually reveal antibodies of the desired specificity suitable for crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies.

  1. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen DNA Vaccination Breaks Tolerance to Self-antigen and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sarfraz; Casey, Garrett; Sweeney, Paul; Tangney, Mark; O'Sullivan, Gerald C

    2009-01-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface antigen expressed in normal human prostate and over expressed in prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSCA protein in prostate cancer correlate with increased tumor stage/grade, with androgen independence and have higher expression in bone metastases. In this study, the PSCA gene was isolated from the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate cell line (TRAMPC1), and a vaccine plasmid construct was generated. This plasmid PSCA (pmPSCA) was delivered by intramuscular electroporation (EP) and induced effective antitumor immune responses against subcutaneous TRAMPC1 tumors in male C57 BL/6 mice. The pmPSCA vaccination inhibited tumor growth, resulting in cure or prolongation in survival. Similarly, the vaccine inhibited metastases in PSCA expressing B16 F10 tumors. There was activation of Th-1 type immunity against PSCA, indicating the breaking of tolerance to a self-antigen. This immunity was tumor specific and was transferable by adoptive transfer of splenocytes. The mice remained healthy and there was no evidence of collateral autoimmune responses in normal tissues. EP-assisted delivery of the pmPSCA evoked strong specific responses and could, in neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings, provide a safe and effective immune control of prostate cancer, given that there is significant homology between human and mouse PSCA. PMID:19337234

  2. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  3. Inhibition of T-cell antigen receptor-mediated transmembrane signaling by protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, R T; Ho, S N; Barna, T J; Rusovick, K M; McKean, D J

    1988-01-01

    The murine T-lymphoma cell line LBRM-33 is known to require synergistic signals delivered through the antigen receptor (Ti-CD3) complex, together with interleukin 1 (IL-1), for activation of IL-2 gene expression and IL-2 production. Although 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was capable of replacing IL-1 as an activating stimulus under certain conditions, biologic studies indicated that TPA failed to synergize with Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli under conditions in which IL-1 was clearly active. Acute exposure to TPA and other active phorbol esters resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the increases in phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration stimulated by phytohemagglutinin or anti-Ti antibodies. TPA treatment induced no direct alteration of phospholipase C enzymatic activities in LBRM-33 cells. In contrast, both Ti-CD3 cross-linkage and TPA rapidly stimulated the phosphorylation of identical CD3 complex polypeptides, presumably via activation of protein kinase C. Exposure of LBRM-33 cells to TPA resulted in a time-dependent, partial down-regulation of surface Ti-CD3 expression. Thus, TPA treatment inhibited the responsiveness of LBRM-33 cells to Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli by inducing an early desensitization of Ti-CD3 receptors, followed by a decrease in membrane receptor expression. These studies indicate that phorbol esters deliver bidirectional signals that both inhibit Ti-CD3-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis and augment IL-2 production in LBRM-33 cells. Images PMID:2977423

  4. Invasion-inhibitory antibodies inhibit proteolytic processing of apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sheetij; Haynes, J. David; Moch, J. Kathleen; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Lanar, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is a promising vaccine candidate for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Antibodies against AMA-1 of P. falciparum (PfAMA-1) interrupt merozoite invasion into RBCs. Initially localized within the apical complex, PfAMA-1 is proteolytically processed and redistributed circumferentially on merozoites at about the time of their release and invasion into RBCs. An 83-kDa precursor form of PfAMA-1 is processed to 66-kDa and then to 48- and 44-kDa products. We show that, even at low concentrations, IgG antibodies against correctly folded recombinant PfAMA-1 cross-linked and trapped the 52-, 48-, and 44-kDa proteolytic products on merozoites. These products are normally shed into the culture medium. At higher concentrations antibodies inhibited invasion into RBCs and caused a reduction in the amount of 44- and 48-kDa products, both on merozoites and in the culture medium. A corresponding increase also occurred in the amount of the 66- and 52-kDa forms detected on the merozoites. These antibodies also prevented circumferential redistribution of AMA-1. In contrast, monovalent invasion-inhibitory Fab fragments caused accumulation of 66- and 52-kDa forms, with no cross-linking, trapping, or prevention of redistribution. Antibodies at low concentrations can be used as trapping agents for intermediate and soluble forms of AMA-1 and are useful for studying proteolytic processing of AMA-1. With this technique, it was confirmed that protease inhibitor chymostatin and Ca2+ chelators can inhibit the breakdown of the 66-kDa form. We propose that antibodies to AMA-1 capable of inhibiting erythrocyte invasion act by disrupting proteolytic processing of AMA-1. PMID:14526103

  5. Chromatofocusing purification of CD1b-antigen complexes and their analysis by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alles, Luis Fernando; de la Salle, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of lipid antigens to T cells is mediated by the CD1 proteins. Purified functional CD1/lipid complexes are valuable tools to investigate such immune processes. Here, we describe how these complexes can be prepared in vitro, how they can be purified by chromatofocusing and how to control their antigen-loading status by isoelectric focusing.

  6. Interleukin 12 inhibits antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and Th2 cytokine expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia, and may be mediated by T helper (Th) lymphocytes expressing a Th2 cytokine pattern. Interleukin (IL) 12 suppresses the expression of Th2 cytokines and their associated responses, including eosinophilia, serum immunoglobulin E, and mucosal mastocytosis. We have previously shown in a murine model that antigen- induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia are CD4+ T cell dependent. We used this model to determine the ability of IL-12 to prevent antigen-induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils, and lung Th2 cytokine expression. Sensitized A/J mice developed airway hyperresponsiveness and increased numbers of BAL eosinophils and other inflammatory cells after single or repeated intratracheal challenges with sheep red blood cell antigen. Pulmonary mRNA and protein levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were increased after antigen challenge. Administration of IL-12 (1 microgram/d x 5 d) at the time of a single antigen challenge abolished the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia and promoted an increase in interferon (IFN) gamma and decreases in IL-4 and IL-5 expression. The effects of IL-12 were partially dependent on IFN-gamma, because concurrent treatment with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody partially reversed the inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia by IL-12. Treatment of mice with IL-12 at the time of a second antigen challenge also prevented airway hyperresponsiveness and significantly reduced numbers of BAL inflammatory cells, reflecting the ability of IL-12 to inhibit responses associated with ongoing antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data show that antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation can be blocked by IL-12, which suppresses Th2 cytokine expression. Local administration of IL-12 may provide a novel

  7. Three-dimensional structure of an antibody-antigen complex.

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, S; Silverton, E W; Padlan, E A; Cohen, G H; Smith-Gill, S J; Finzel, B C; Davies, D R

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of two crystal forms of an antilysozyme Fab-lysozyme complex by x-ray crystallography. The epitope on lysozyme consists of three sequentially separated subsites, including one long, nearly continuous, site from Gln-41 through Tyr-53 and one from Gly-67 through Pro-70. Antibody residues interacting with lysozyme occur in each of the six complementarity-determining regions and also include one framework residue. Arg-45 and Arg-68 form a ridge on the surface of lysozyme, which binds in a groove on the antibody surface. Otherwise the surface of interaction between the two proteins is relatively flat, although it curls at the edges. The surface of interaction is approximately 26 X 19 A. No water molecules are found in the interface. The positive charge on the two arginines is complemented by the negative charge of Glu-35 and Glu-50 from the heavy chain of the antibody. The backbone structure of the antigen, lysozyme, is mostly unperturbed, although there are some changes in the epitope region, most notably Pro-70. One side chain not in the epitope, Trp-63, undergoes a rotation of approximately 180 degrees about the C beta--C gamma bond. The Fab elbow bends in the two crystal forms differ by 7 degrees. Images PMID:2446316

  8. Restricted diversity of antigen binding residues of antibodies revealed by computational alanine scanning of 227 antibody-antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Robin, Gautier; Sato, Yoshiteru; Desplancq, Dominique; Rochel, Natacha; Weiss, Etienne; Martineau, Pierre

    2014-11-11

    Antibody molecules are able to recognize any antigen with high affinity and specificity. To get insight into the molecular diversity at the source of this functional diversity, we compiled and analyzed a non-redundant aligned collection of 227 structures of antibody-antigen complexes. Free energy of binding of all the residue side chains was quantified by computational alanine scanning, allowing the first large-scale quantitative description of antibody paratopes. This demonstrated that as few as 8 residues among 30 key positions are sufficient to explain 80% of the binding free energy in most complexes. At these positions, the residue distribution is not only different from that of other surface residues but also dependent on the role played by the side chain in the interaction, residues participating in the binding energy being mainly aromatic residues, and Gly or Ser otherwise. To question the generality of these binding characteristics, we isolated an antibody fragment by phage display using a biased synthetic repertoire with only two diversified complementarity-determining regions and solved its structure in complex with its antigen. Despite this restricted diversity, the structure demonstrated that all complementarity-determining regions were involved in the interaction with the antigen and that the rules derived from the natural antibody repertoire apply to this synthetic binder, thus demonstrating the robustness and universality of our results.

  9. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  10. Humoral immune response to the antigen administered as an immune complex.

    PubMed

    Marusić, M; Marusić-Galesić, S; Pokrić, B

    1992-12-01

    Antigen (HSA) bound in immune complexes at equivalence with syngeneic anti-HSA antibodies elicit much stronger humoral immune response then soluble HSA. On the other hand, administration of immune complexes formed with xenogeneic (rabbit) anti-HSA antibodies suppressed humoral immune response against HSA, but not against rabbit IgG in mice. We suggest that immunization with antigen bound in immune complex might represent a powerful tool in enhancing humoral immune responses.

  11. Continual Antigenic Diversification in China Leads to Global Antigenic Complexity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hongbo; Wu, Aiping; Dong, Libo; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Rongbao; Bo, Hong; Yang, Lei; Wang, Dayan; Lin, Xian; Jin, Meilin; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus poses a significant potential threat to human society due to its wide spread and rapid evolution. In this study, we present a comprehensive antigenic map for HPAI H5N1 viruses including 218 newly sequenced isolates from diverse regions of mainland China, by computationally separating almost all HPAI H5N1 viruses into 15 major antigenic clusters (ACs) based on their hemagglutinin sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 of these 15 ACs originated in China in a divergent pattern. Further analysis of the dissemination of HPAI H5N1 virus in China identified that the virus’s geographic expansion was co-incident with a significant divergence in antigenicity. Moreover, this antigenic diversification leads to global antigenic complexity, as typified by the recent HPAI H5N1 spread, showing extensive co-circulation and local persistence. This analysis has highlighted the challenge in H5N1 prevention and control that requires different planning strategies even inside China. PMID:28262734

  12. Continual Antigenic Diversification in China Leads to Global Antigenic Complexity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hongbo; Wu, Aiping; Dong, Libo; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Rongbao; Bo, Hong; Yang, Lei; Wang, Dayan; Lin, Xian; Jin, Meilin; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2017-03-06

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus poses a significant potential threat to human society due to its wide spread and rapid evolution. In this study, we present a comprehensive antigenic map for HPAI H5N1 viruses including 218 newly sequenced isolates from diverse regions of mainland China, by computationally separating almost all HPAI H5N1 viruses into 15 major antigenic clusters (ACs) based on their hemagglutinin sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 of these 15 ACs originated in China in a divergent pattern. Further analysis of the dissemination of HPAI H5N1 virus in China identified that the virus's geographic expansion was co-incident with a significant divergence in antigenicity. Moreover, this antigenic diversification leads to global antigenic complexity, as typified by the recent HPAI H5N1 spread, showing extensive co-circulation and local persistence. This analysis has highlighted the challenge in H5N1 prevention and control that requires different planning strategies even inside China.

  13. Comparison of an Established Antibody Sandwich Method with an Inhibition Method of Histoplasma capsulatum Antigen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Garringer, Todd O.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Brizendine, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    The Histoplasma antigen immunoassay utilizes an antibody sandwich method that provides a rapid and reliable means of diagnosing the more severe forms of histoplasmosis. Inhibition assays have been developed for antigen detection and offer at least one potential advantage, namely, reduced antibody requirements. We have developed an inhibition assay using the polyclonal antibody employed in our standard sandwich assay. Urine and serum specimens from patients with culture-proven histoplasmosis and controls were tested using both methods. The two methods had similar sensitivities for detection of antigen in urine (antibody sandwich = 92.5% versus inhibition = 87.5%, P = 0.500) and serum (82.5% versus 80.0%, P = 1.000). With serum, the specificities of both methods were similar (antibody sandwich assay = 95.0% versus inhibition assay = 92.5%, P = 1.000), and with urine, the specificity of the antibody sandwich method was superior (97.5% versus 80.0%, P = 0.039). While the overall reproducibility of both methods was excellent (with urine, antibody sandwich assay intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9975 and with serum = 0.9949; correlation coefficient of the inhibition assay with urine = 0.9736 and with serum = 0.9850), that of the inhibition method was only fair to poor for the controls: urine = −0.0152, serum = 0.5595. Reproducibility was good for the controls using the sandwich method: urine = 0.7717, serum = 0.9470. Cross-reactivity was observed in specimens from patients infected with Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Penicillium marneffei. In conclusion, the decreased specificity and inferior reproducibility with control specimens suggest that the inhibition assay has poorer precision toward the lower end of the detection range. PMID:10921949

  14. Epstein-Barr viral BNLF2a protein hijacks the tail-anchored protein insertion machinery to block antigen processing by the transport complex TAP.

    PubMed

    Wycisk, Agnes I; Lin, Jiacheng; Loch, Sandra; Hobohm, Kathleen; Funke, Jessica; Wieneke, Ralph; Koch, Joachim; Skach, William R; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Tampé, Robert

    2011-12-02

    Virus-infected cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which recognize viral epitopes displayed on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules at the cell surface. Herpesviruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape this immune surveillance. During the lytic phase of EBV infection, the viral factor BNLF2a interferes with antigen processing by preventing peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we reveal details of the inhibition mechanism of this EBV protein. We demonstrate that BNLF2a acts as a tail-anchored protein, exploiting the mammalian Asna-1/WRB (Get3/Get1) machinery for posttranslational insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where it subsequently blocks antigen translocation by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). BNLF2a binds directly to the core TAP complex arresting the ATP-binding cassette transporter in a transport-incompetent conformation. The inhibition mechanism of EBV BNLF2a is distinct and mutually exclusive of other viral TAP inhibitors.

  15. Filaggrin inhibits generation of CD1a neolipid antigens by house dust mite derived phospholipase

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Rachael; Salio, Mariolina; Lloyd-Lavery, Antonia; Subramaniam, Sumithra; Bourgeois, Elvire; Archer, Charles; Cheung, Ka Lun; Hardman, Clare; Chandler, David; Salimi, Maryam; Gutowska-Owsiak, Danuta; de la Serna, Jorge Bernardino; Fallon, Padraic G.; Jolin, Helen; Mckenzie, Andrew; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Podobas, Ewa Izabela; Bal, Wojciech; Johnson, David; Moody, D Branch

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic skin disease in which barrier dysfunction and cutaneous inflammation play a role in pathogenesis. Mechanisms underlying the associated inflammation are not fully understood, and while CD1a-expressing Langerhans cells are known to be enriched within lesions, their role in clinical disease pathogenesis has not been studied. Here we observed that house dust mite (HDM) generates neolipid antigens for presentation by CD1a to T cells in the blood and skin lesions of affected individuals. HDM-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells increased in frequency after birth and showed rapid effector function, consistent with antigen-driven maturation. To define the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed HDM-challenged human skin and observed allergen-derived phospholipase (PLA2) activity in vivo. CD1a-reactive T cell activation was dependent on HDM-derived PLA2 and such cells infiltrated the skin after allergen challenge. Filaggrin insufficiency is associated with atopic dermatitis, and we observed that filaggrin inhibits PLA2 activity and inhibits CD1a-reactive PLA2-generated neolipid-specific T cell activity from skin and blood. The most widely used classification schemes of hypersensitivity, such as Gell and Coombs are predicated on the idea that non-peptide stimulants of T cells act as haptens that modify peptides or proteins. However our results point to a broader model that does not posit haptenation, but instead shows that HDM proteins generate neolipid antigens which directly activate T cells. Specifically, the data identify a pathway of atopic skin inflammation, in which house dust mite-derived phospholipase A2 generates antigenic neolipids for presentation to CD1a-reactive T cells, and define PLA2 inhibition as a function of filaggrin, supporting PLA2 inhibition as a therapeutic approach. PMID:26865566

  16. Triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit the activation of EBV antigens as telomerase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dong-Shu; Chen, Liang-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease that threatens the health of humans. To find effective agents for the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with NPC, a phytochemical investigation of Ganoderma lucidum was carried out in the present study. Five triterpenoids were identified, including ganoderic acid A (compound 1), ganoderic acid B (compound 2), ganoderol B (compound 3), ganodermanontriol (compound 4), and ganodermanondiol (compound 5), on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. An inhibition of EBV antigens activation assay was implemented to elucidate the triterpenoids from G. lucidum and potentially prevent NPC. All the triterpenoids showed significant inhibitory effects on both EBV EA and CA activation at 16 nmol. At 3.2 nmol, all the compounds moderately inhibited the activation of the two antigens. The activity of telomerase was inhibited by these triterpenoids at 10 µM. Molecular docking demonstrated that compound 1 was able to inhibit telomerase as a ligand. In addition, the physicochemical properties of these compounds were calculated to elucidate their drug-like properties. These results provided evidence for the application of these triterpenoids and whole G. lucidum in the treatment of NPC.

  17. Serum proteases alter the antigenicity of peptides presented by class I major histocompatibility complex molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Colarusso, L J; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1992-01-01

    Any effect of serum on the antigenicity of peptides is potentially relevant to their use as immunogens in vivo. Here we demonstrate that serum contains distinct proteases that can increase or decrease the antigenicity of peptides. By using a functional assay, we show that a serum component other than beta 2-microglobulin enhances the presentation of ovalbumin peptides produced by cyanogen bromide cleavage. Three features of this serum activity implicate proteolysis: it is temperature dependent, it results in increased antigenicity in a low molecular weight peptide fraction, and it is inhibited by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Conversely, presentation of the synthetic peptide OVA-(257-264) is inhibited by serum. This inhibition is unaffected by leupeptin but is blocked by bestatin, a protease inhibitor with distinct substrate specificities. Implications for peptide-based vaccine design and immunotherapy are discussed. PMID:1518868

  18. Effect of antigen/antibody ratio on macrophage uptake, processing, and presentation to T cells of antigen complexed with polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Activation of a galactosidase-specific murine T hybridoma clone and of a human tetanus toxoid-specific T clone by antigen-presenting cells (APC) was used to evaluate the regulatory function of antibodies complexed with the relevant antigen. Complexed antigen, in fact, is taken up with high efficiency thanks to Fc receptors borne by APC. Antibody/antigen ratio in the complexes proved to be a critical parameter in enhancing antigen presentation. Complexes in moderate antibody excess provided optimal T cell activation independently of the physical state of the complexes (precipitated by a second antibody or solubilized by complement). Complexes in extreme antibody excess, on the contrary, did not yield T cell activation although taken up by APC efficiently. The effect of antibodies at extreme excess was observed with substimulatory dose of antigen (loss of potentiation) and with optimal dose of antigen (loss of stimulation). An excess of specific polyclonal antibodies hampers proteolytic degradation of antigen in vitro, supporting the view that a similar mechanism may operate within the APC that have internalized immune complexes in extreme antibody excess. The possibility that immune complex forming in extreme antibody excess may turn off the T cell response is proposed as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:1985125

  19. Inhibition of effector antigen-specific T cells by intradermal administration of heme oxygenase-1 inducers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas; Pogu, Julien; Rémy, Séverine; Brau, Frédéric; Pogu, Sylvie; Maquigneau, Maud; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Poirier, Nicolas; Vanhove, Bernard; Blancho, Gilles; Piaggio, Eliane; Anegon, Ignacio; Blancou, Philippe

    2017-03-22

    Developing protocols aimed at inhibiting effector T cells would be key for the treatment of T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases including type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers are clinically approved drugs for non-immune-related diseases, they do have immunosuppressive properties when administered systemically in rodents. Here we show that HO-1 inducers inhibit antigen-specific effector T cells when injected intradermally together with the T cell cognate antigens in mice. This phenomenon was observed in both a CD8(+) T cell-mediated model of T1D and in a CD4(+) T cell-dependent MS model. Intradermal injection of HO-1 inducers induced the recruitment of HO-1(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDCs) exclusively to the lymph nodes (LN) draining the site of intradermal injection. After encountering HO-1(+)MoDCs, effector T-cells exhibited a lower velocity and a reduced ability to migrate towards chemokine gradients resulting in impaired accumulation to the inflamed organ. Intradermal co-injection of a clinically approved HO-1 inducer and a specific antigen to non-human primates also induced HO-1(+) MoDCs to accumulate in dermal draining LN and to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity. Therefore, in both mice and non-human primates, HO-1 inducers delivered locally inhibited effector T-cells in an antigen-specific manner, paving the way for repositioning these drugs for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  20. Invasion of erythrocytes in vitro by Plasmodium falciparum can be inhibited by monoclonal antibody directed against an S antigen.

    PubMed

    Saul, A; Cooper, J; Ingram, L; Anders, R F; Brown, G V

    1985-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been produced which binds to the heat stable S antigen present in the FCQ-27/PNG isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. This monoclonal antibody also inhibits the invasion in vitro of erythrocytes by malarial merozoites thus demonstrating that the S antigens of Plasmodium falciparum may be a target of protective immune responses.

  1. Stability of isolated antibody-antigen complexes as a predictive tool for selecting toxin neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Patricia M.; Compton, Jaimee R.; Hale, Martha L.; Anderson, George P.; Olson, Mark A.; Millard, Charles B.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ricin is an A-B ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) toxin composed of an A-chain subunit (RTA) that contains a catalytic N-glycosidase and a B-chain (RTB) lectin domain that binds cell surface glycans. Ricin exploits retrograde transport to enter into the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum, and then dislocates into the cytoplasm where it can reach its substrate, the rRNA. A subset of isolated antibodies (Abs) raised against the RTA subunit protect against ricin intoxication, and RTA-based vaccine immunogens have been shown to provide long-lasting protective immunity against the holotoxin. Anti-RTA Abs are unlikely to cross a membrane and reach the cytoplasm to inhibit the enzymatic activity of the A-chain. Moreover, there is not a strict correlation between the apparent binding affinity (Ka) of anti-RTA Abs and their ability to successfully neutralize ricin toxicity. Some anti-RTA antibodies are toxin-neutralizing, whereas others are not. We hypothesize that neutralizing anti-RTA Abs may interfere selectively with conformational change(s) or partial unfolding required for toxin internalization. To test this hypothesis, we measured the melting temperatures (Tm) of neutralizing single-domain Ab (sdAb)-antigen (Ag) complexes relative to the Tm of the free antigen (Tm-shift = Tmcomplex – TmAg), and observed increases in the Tmcomplex of 9–20 degrees. In contrast, non-neutralizing sdAb-Ag complexes shifted the TmComplex by only 6–7 degrees. A strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.992) was observed between the magnitude of the Tm-shift and the viability of living cells treated with the sdAb and ricin holotoxin. The Tm-shift of the sdAb-Ag complex provided a quantitative biophysical parameter that could be used to predict and rank-order the toxin-neutralizing activities of Abs. We determined the first structure of an sdAb-RTA1-33/44-198 complex, and examined other sdAb-RTA complexes. We found that neutralizing sdAb bound to regions involved in the early stages

  2. Synthesis of cytokines during tumour development in mice immunized with the mycobacterial antigen complex A60.

    PubMed

    Maes, H; Cocito, C

    1996-10-01

    The authors have previously reported on the ability of A60, an immunodominant antigenic complex of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, to prevent cancer development in mice challenged with EMT 6 tumour cells. Such effect proved to rely on neoplastic cell lysis by cytolytic T lymphocytes and activated macrophages. The involvement of cytokines in triggering the immune response leading to tumour rejection is analysed in the present work. The synthesis of IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was strongly increased in A60-primed mice. Cancer development depressed the blood levels of these three cytokines. In vitro cultures of lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood of A60-primed mice produced higher levels of these cytokines in the presence of A60, as compared to cultures lacking A60. Such effect was inhibited by co-incubation of lymphocytes with EMT 6 tumour cells In vitro cultures of macrophages yielded higher levels of TNF-alpha in the presence of A60 and co-incubation of these cells with EMT 6 tumour cells also inhibited TNF-alpha production. The enhanced synthesis of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, which promote activation of cytolytic T lymphocytes and macrophages, accounts for the increased tumour cell lysis induced in vivo by A60. The A60-promoted synthesis of TNF-alpha is partly responsible for the latter effect. The inhibitory action of EMT-6 tumour cells on cytokine synthesis is a powerful mechanism of tumour escape from the immune system's control.

  3. A dual inhibition mechanism of herpesviral ICP47 arresting a conformationally thermostable TAP complex

    PubMed Central

    Herbring, Valentina; Bäucker, Anja; Trowitzsch, Simon; Tampé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As a centerpiece of antigen processing, the ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) became a main target for viral immune evasion. The herpesviral ICP47 inhibits TAP function, thereby suppressing an adaptive immune response. Here, we report on a thermostable ICP47-TAP complex, generated by fusion of different ICP47 fragments. These fusion complexes allowed us to determine the direction and positioning in the central cavity of TAP. ICP47-TAP fusion complexes are arrested in a stable conformation, as demonstrated by MHC I surface expression, melting temperature, and the mutual exclusion of herpesviral TAP inhibitors. We unveiled a conserved region next to the active domain of ICP47 as essential for the complete stabilization of the TAP complex. Binding of the active domain of ICP47 arrests TAP in an open inward facing conformation rendering the complex inaccessible for other viral factors. Based on our findings, we propose a dual interaction mechanism for ICP47. A per se destabilizing active domain inhibits the function of TAP, whereas a conserved C-terminal region additionally stabilizes the transporter. These new insights into the ICP47 inhibition mechanism can be applied for future structural analyses of the TAP complex. PMID:27845362

  4. Human Antibodies to a Mr 155,000 Plasmodium falciparum Antigen Efficiently Inhibit Merozoite Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlin, Birgitta; Wahlgren, Mats; Perlmann, Hedvig; Berzins, Klavs; Bjorkman, Anders; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Perlmann, Peter

    1984-12-01

    IgG from a donor clinically immune to Plasmodium falciparum malaria strongly inhibited reinvasion in vitro of human erythrocytes by the parasite. When added to monolayers of glutaraldehyde-fixed and air-dried erythrocytes infected with the parasite, this IgG also displayed a characteristic immunofluorescence restricted to the surface of infected erythrocytes. Elution of the IgG adsorbed to such monolayers gave an antibody fraction that was 40 times more efficient in the reinvasion inhibition assay (50% inhibition titer, <1 μ g/ml) than the original IgG preparation. The major antibody in this eluate was directed against a parasite-derived antigen of Mr 155,000 (Pf 155) deposited by the parasite in the erythrocyte membrane in the course of invasion. A detailed study of IgG fractions from 11 donors with acute P. falciparum malaria or clinical immunity revealed the existence of an excellent correlation between their capacities to stain the surface of infected erythrocytes, their titers in reinvasion inhibition, and the presence of antibodies to Pf 155 as detected by immunoblotting. No such correlations were seen when the IgG fractions were analyzed for immunofluorescence of intracellular parasites or for the presence of antibodies to other parasite antigens as detected by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled and NaDodSO4/PAGE-separated parasite extracts. The results suggest that Pf 155 has an important role in the process of erythrocyte infection and that host antibodies to this antigen may efficiently interfere with this process.

  5. Gastric Helicobacter Infection Inhibits Development of Oral Tolerance to Food Antigens in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; van Niel, Guillaume; Mégraud, Francis; Mayo, Kathryn; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valérie; Moreau, Marie-Christiane; Heyman, Martine

    2003-01-01

    The increase in the transcellular passage of intact antigens across the digestive epithelium infected with Helicobacter pylori may interfere with the regulation of mucosal immune responses. The aim of this work was to study the capacity of Helicobacter infection to inhibit the development of oral tolerance or to promote allergic sensitization and the capacity of a gastro-protective agent, rebamipide, to interfere with these processes in mice. Oral tolerance to ovalbumin (OVA) was studied in 48 C3H/He 4-week-old mice divided into four groups: (i) OVA-sensitized mice; (ii) OVA-“tolerized” mice (that is, mice that were rendered immunologically tolerant); (iii) H. felis-infected, OVA-tolerized mice; (iv) and H. felis-infected, OVA-tolerized, rebamipide-treated mice. Oral sensitization to hen egg lysozyme (HEL) was studied in 48 mice divided into four groups: (i) controls; (ii) HEL-sensitized mice; (iii) H. felis-infected, HEL-sensitized mice; and (iv) H. felis-infected, HEL-sensitized, rebamipide-treated mice. Specific anti-OVA or anti-HEL immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1/IgG2a serum titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, the capacity of rebamipide to interfere with antigen presentation and T-cell activation in vitro, as well as absorption of rebamipide across the epithelial monolayer, was tested. H. felis infection led to the inhibition of oral tolerance to OVA, but rebamipide prevented this inhibitive effect of H. felis. H. felis infection did not enhance the sensitization to HEL, but rebamipide inhibited the development of this sensitization. Moreover, rebamipide inhibited in a dose-dependent manner antigen presentation and T-cell activation in vitro and was shown to be able to cross the epithelium at a concentration capable of inducing this inhibitory effect. We conclude that H. felis can inhibit the development of oral tolerance to OVA in mice and that this inhibition is prevented by rebamipide. PMID:12933867

  6. Inhibiting DNA methylation activates cancer testis antigens and expression of the antigen processing and presentation machinery in colon and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Guzzetta, Angela A; Sharma, Anup; Jeschke, Jana; Vatapalli, Rajita; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Innovative therapies for solid tumors are urgently needed. Recently, therapies that harness the host immune system to fight cancer cells have successfully treated a subset of patients with solid tumors. These responses have been strong and durable but observed in subsets of patients. Work from our group and others has shown that epigenetic therapy, specifically inhibiting the silencing DNA methylation mark, activates immune signaling in tumor cells and can sensitize to immune therapy in murine models. Here we show that colon and ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit lower expression of transcripts involved in antigen processing and presentation to immune cells compared to normal tissues. In addition, treatment with clinically relevant low doses of DNMT inhibitors (that remove DNA methylation) increases expression of both antigen processing and presentation and Cancer Testis Antigens in these cell lines. We confirm that treatment with DNMT inhibitors upregulates expression of the antigen processing and presentation molecules B2M, CALR, CD58, PSMB8, PSMB9 at the RNA and protein level in a wider range of colon and ovarian cancer cell lines and treatment time points than had been described previously. In addition, we show that DNMTi treatment upregulates many Cancer Testis Antigens common to both colon and ovarian cancer. This increase of both antigens and antigen presentation by epigenetic therapy may be one mechanism to sensitize patients to immune therapies.

  7. A complex water network contributes to high-affinity binding in an antibody-antigen interface.

    PubMed

    Marino, S F; Olal, D; Daumke, O

    2016-03-01

    This data article presents an analysis of structural water molecules in the high affinity interaction between a potent tumor growth inhibiting antibody (fragment), J22.9-xi, and the tumor marker antigen CD269 (B cell maturation antigen, BCMA). The 1.89 Å X-ray crystal structure shows exquisite details of the binding interface between the two molecules, which comprises relatively few, mostly hydrophobic, direct contacts but many indirect interactions over solvent waters. These are partly or wholly buried in, and therefore part of, the interface. A partial description of the structure is included in an article on the tumor inhibiting effects of the antibody: "Potent anti-tumor response by targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) in a mouse model of multiple myeloma", Mol. Oncol. 9 (7) (2015) pp. 1348-58.

  8. Major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression in B and T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M E; Holgate, C S; Williamson, J M; Grigor, I; Quirke, P; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of 46 B and T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, using monoclonal antibodies to the products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen subregions, DP, DQ, and DR, showed that most B and T cell lymphomas express these antigens. Both coordinate and non-coordinate expression of MHC class II antigens was observed, but this did not correlate with immunological phenotype, morphological grade, or proliferation index as determined by flow cytometry. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3546388

  9. The inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligonucleotides-mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Fournier, R L; Relue, P A

    2000-11-20

    Gene transcription is regulated by transcription factors that can bind to specific regions on DNA. Antigene oligonucleotides (oligos) can bind to specific regions on DNA and form a triplex with the double-stranded DNA. The triplex can competitively inhibit the binding of transcription factors and, as a result, transcription can be inhibited. A genetically structured model has been developed to quantitatively describe the inhibition of the Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by triplex-forming oligos. The model predicts that the effect of triplex-forming oligos on the lac operon gene expression depends on their target sites. Oligonucleotides targeted to the operator are much more effective than those targeted to other regulatory sites on the lac operon. In some cases, the effect of oligo binding is similar to that of a mutation in the lac operon. The model provides insight as to the specific binding site to be targeted to achieve the most effective inhibition of gene expression. The model is also capable of predicting the oligo concentration needed to inhibit gene expression, which is in general agreement with results reported by other investigators.

  10. THE ANTIGENIC COMPLEX OF STREPTOCOCCUS HÆMOLYTICUS

    PubMed Central

    Lancefield, Rebecca C.

    1928-01-01

    1. The chemical and immunological characteristics of the species-specific substance (C) of Streptococcus hæmolyticus are considered. (a) It seems to be a carbohydrate because considerably purified preparations of C resisted prolonged tryptic and peptic digestion and were negative for the ordinary protein color tests but gave positive Molisch reactions to the limit of the precipitin titer. One such "purified" lot, however, had 4.2 per cent nitrogen and only 28 per cent reducing sugars on hydrolysis. Whether the nitrogen was due to impurities or was combined in the C substance itself, as is true of the Type I pneumococcus specific polysaccharide, cannot be stated without more material. (b) The C substance forms precipitates with antibacterial sera prepared against heterologous, as well as against homologous hemolytic streptococci. These precipitates are typical discs like those formed by type-specific carbohydrates of other species of bacteria. C does not precipitate antinucleoprotein sera. (c) While there is only slight direct evidence that the C substance is not antigenic, there is considerable indirect proof that this is the case. It probably is a haptene in the sense of Landsteiner. 2. A discussion is included of the chemical and immunological relationships of all the serologically active substances so far identified in extracts of the hemolytic streptococcus. PMID:19869425

  11. Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives

    DOE PAGES

    Goins, Christopher M.; Dajnowicz, Steven; Thanna, Sandeep; ...

    2017-03-13

    Previous studies identified ebselen as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, comprising three homologous enzymes required for the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, the Mtb Ag85C enzyme was cocrystallized with azido and adamantyl ebselen derivatives, resulting in two crystallographic structures of 2.01 and 1.30 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures displayed the anticipated covalent modification of the solvent accessible, noncatalytic Cys209 residue forming a selenenylsulfide bond. Continuous difference density for both thiol modifiers allowed for the assessment of interactions that influence ebselen binding and inhibitor orientationmore » that were unobserved in previous Ag85C ebselen structures. The kinact/KI values for ebselen, adamantyl ebselen, and azido ebselen support the importance of observed constructive chemical interactions with Arg239 for increased in vitro efficacy toward Ag85C. To better understand the in vitro kinetic properties of these ebselen derivatives, the energetics of specific protein–inhibitor interactions and relative reaction free energies were calculated for ebselen and both derivatives using density functional theory. These studies further support the different in vitro properties of ebselen and two select ebselen derivatives from our previously published ebselen library with respect to kinetics and protein–inhibitor interactions. In both structures, the α9 helix was displaced farther from the enzyme active site than the previous Ag85C ebselen structure, resulting in the restructuring of a connecting loop and imparting a conformational change to residues believed to play a role in substrate binding specific to Ag85C. These notable structural changes directly affect protein stability, reducing the overall melting temperature by up to 14.5 °C, resulting in the unfolding of protein at physiological temperatures. Additionally, this

  12. Characterization of entamoeba histolytica antigens in circulating immune complexes in sera of patients with amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, K; Ghosh, P K; Ganguly, S; Das, P; Maitra, T K; Jalan, K N

    2002-09-01

    Isolated circulating immune complexes (CICs) from sera of patients with amoebiasis were characterized to determine Entamoeba histolytica antigens that participate in the disease process. In total, 116 serum samples were collected before starting anti-amoebic therapy, and their CICs were isolated by differential polyethylene glycol precipitation. The presence of amoeba-specific antigens in CICs was detected by antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblot assay. Antigen capture ELISA showed significantly higher optical density (p < 0.001) in all patients with amoebiasis than in the normal healthy controls and patients of non-amoebic hepatic disorder. Immunoblot assay detected amoeba-specific CICs in all 18 patients (100%) with confirmed amoebic liver abscess, 28 (80%) of 35 patients with clinically-suspected amoebic liver abscess, and 18 (78.26%) of 23 patients with amoebic colitis. No patients with non-amoebic hepatic disorders and healthy control subjects had any detectable level of amoebic antigens in CICs. Immunoblot assay revealed E. histolytica antigens of relative molecular masses of 35, 56, 70, and 90 kDa present in CICs of 64 of 76 patients with amoebiasis. The 35-kDa polypeptide was observed in 52 patients (81.25%). The results of the study suggest that the 35-kDa polypeptide antigen can be a diagnostic marker in active amoebiasis.

  13. SHARPIN controls regulatory T cells by negatively modulating the T cell antigen receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Jin, Hyung-seung; Lopez, Justine; Lee, Jeeho; Liao, Lujian; Elly, Chris; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2016-01-01

    SHARPIN forms a linear-ubiquitin-chain-assembly complex that promotes signaling via the transcription factor NF-κB. SHARPIN deficiency leads to progressive multi-organ inflammation and immune system malfunction, but how SHARPIN regulates T cell responses is unclear. Here we found that SHARPIN deficiency resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of and defective function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Transfer of SHARPIN-sufficient Treg cells into SHARPIN-deficient mice considerably alleviated their systemic inflammation. SHARPIN-deficient T cells displayed enhanced proximal signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) without an effect on the activation of NF-κB. SHARPIN conjugated with Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains, which led to inhibition of the association of TCRζ with the signaling kinase Zap70; this affected the generation of Treg cells. Our study therefore identifies a role for SHARPIN in TCR signaling whereby it maintains immunological homeostasis and tolerance by regulating Treg cells. PMID:26829767

  14. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens in canine masticatory muscle myositis.

    PubMed

    Paciello, Orlando; Shelton, G Diane; Papparella, Serenella

    2007-04-01

    Studies in human immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies have documented expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) and class II (MHC class II) antigens on muscle fiber membranes in the presence or absence of cellular infiltration. Here we evaluate the presence and distribution of these antigens in canine masticatory muscle myositis, an immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy. Twelve samples of temporalis and masseter muscles from dogs with a clinical diagnosis of canine masticatory muscle myositis were examined by immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. MHC class I and class II antigens were expressed in muscle fibers independent of inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore MHC class I and class II antigens were expressed on the sarcolemma and co-localized with dystrophin. Our results suggest that MHC class I and class II expression in canine masticatory muscle myositis may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of the pathological condition, rather than just a consequence of a preceding local inflammation.

  15. Probing molecular interactions in intact antibody: antigen complexes, an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed Central

    Tito, M A; Miller, J; Walker, N; Griffin, K F; Williamson, E D; Despeyroux-Hill, D; Titball, R W; Robinson, C V

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of nanoflow-electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry we have analyzed the oligomeric state of the recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The mass spectrometry results show that at pH 6.8 the V antigen in solution exists predominantly as a dimer and a weakly associated tetramer. A monoclonal antibody 7.3, raised against the V antigen, gave rise to mass spectra containing a series of well-resolved charge states at m/z 6000. After addition of aliquots of solution containing V antigen in substoichiometric and molar equivalents, the spectra revealed that two molecules of the V antigen bind to the antibody. Collision-induced dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex results in the selective release of the dimer from the complex supporting the proposed 1:2 antibody:antigen stoichiometry. Control experiments with the recombinant F1 antigen, also from Yersinia pestis, establish that the antibody is specific for the V antigen because no complex with F1 was detected even in the presence of a 10-fold molar excess of F1 antigen. More generally this work demonstrates a rapid means of assessing antigen subunit interactions as well as the stoichiometry and specificity of binding in antibody-antigen complexes. PMID:11721011

  16. Nanoparticulate Tubular Immunostimulating Complexes: Novel Formulation of Effective Adjuvants and Antigen Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chopenko, Natalia; Mazeika, Andrey; Kostetsky, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    New generation vaccines, based on isolated antigens, are safer than traditional ones, comprising the whole pathogen. However, major part of purified antigens has weak immunogenicity. Therefore, elaboration of new adjuvants, more effective and safe, is an urgent problem of vaccinology. Tubular immunostimulating complexes (TI-complexes) are a new type of nanoparticulate antigen delivery systems with adjuvant activity. TI-complexes consist of cholesterol and compounds isolated from marine hydrobionts: cucumarioside A2-2 (CDA) from Cucumaria japonica and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from marine algae or seagrass. These components were selected due to immunomodulatory and other biological activities. Glycolipid MGDG from marine macrophytes comprises a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CDA is a well-characterized individual compound capable of forming stable complex with cholesterol. Such complexes do not possess hemolytic activity. Ultralow doses of cucumariosides stimulate cell as well as humoral immunity. Therefore, TI-complexes comprising biologically active components turned out to be more effective than the strongest adjuvants: immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) and complete Freund's adjuvant. In the present review, we discuss results published in series of our articles on elaboration, qualitative and quantitative composition, ultrastructure, and immunostimulating activity of TI-complexes. The review allows immersion in the history of creating TI-complexes. PMID:28808657

  17. A novel T cell receptor single-chain signaling complex mediates antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer D.; Harris, Daniel T.; Soto, Carolina M.; Chervin, Adam S.; Aggen, David H.; Roy, Edward J.; Kranz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells to treat cancer has shown promise in several clinical trials. Two main strategies have been applied to redirect T cells against cancer: 1) introduction of a full-length T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a tumor-associated peptide-MHC, or 2) introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), including an antibody fragment specific for a tumor cell surface antigen, linked intracellularly to T cell signaling domains. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages for clinical applications. Here, we present data on the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of a single-chain signaling receptor incorporating a TCR variable fragment as the targeting element (referred to as TCR-SCS). This receptor contained a single-chain TCR (Vβ-linker-Vα) from a high-affinity TCR called m33, linked to the intracellular signaling domains of CD28 and CD3ζ. This format avoided mispairing with endogenous TCR chains, and mediated specific T cell activity when expressed in either CD4 or CD8 T cells. TCR-SCS-transduced CD8-negative cells showed an intriguing sensitivity, compared to full-length TCRs, to higher densities of less stable pepMHC targets. T cells that expressed this peptide-specific receptor persisted in vivo, and exhibited polyfunctional responses. Growth of metastatic antigen-positive tumors was significantly inhibited by T cells that expressed this receptor, and tumor cells that escaped were antigen loss variants. TCR-SCS receptors represent an alternative targeting receptor strategy that combines the advantages of single-chain expression, avoidance of TCR chain mispairing, and targeting of intracellular antigens presented in complex with MHC proteins. PMID:25082071

  18. A sestrin-dependent Erk-Jnk-p38 MAPK activation complex inhibits immunity during aging.

    PubMed

    Lanna, Alessio; Gomes, Daniel C O; Muller-Durovic, Bojana; McDonnell, Thomas; Escors, David; Gilroy, Derek W; Lee, Jun Hee; Karin, Michael; Akbar, Arne N

    2017-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including Erk, Jnk and p38 regulate diverse cellular functions and are thought to be controlled by independent upstream activation cascades. Here we show that the sestrins bind to and coordinate simultaneous Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPK activation in T lymphocytes within a new immune-inhibitory complex (sestrin-MAPK activation complex (sMAC)). Whereas sestrin ablation resulted in broad reconstitution of immune function in stressed T cells, inhibition of individual MAPKs allowed only partial functional recovery. T cells from old humans (>65 years old) or mice (16-20 months old) were more likely to form the sMAC, and disruption of this complex restored antigen-specific functional responses in these cells. Correspondingly, sestrin deficiency or simultaneous inhibition of all three MAPKs enhanced vaccine responsiveness in old mice. Thus, disruption of sMAC provides a foundation for rejuvenating immunity during aging.

  19. Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen detection in urine specimens from dogs with blastomycosis using a competitive binding inhibition ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shurley, J F; Legendre, A M; Scalarone, G M

    2005-09-01

    A competitive binding inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Blastomyces dermatitidis antigens in urine specimens from dogs with blastomycosis. Sera from rabbits immunized with B. dermatitidis killed whole yeast cells were used as the primary antibody in the competitive ELISA. This initial study was performed to determine if B. dermatitidis antigen detection was possible and to test the efficacy of the rabbit sera as a primary antibody. An indirect ELISA was also performed to compare antigen detection in urine to antibody detection in the sera of the infected dogs. The results indicate 100% (36/36 specimens) detection of both antigen and antibody. Cross reactivity with Histoplasma capsulatum, as well as non-specific binding with the normal urine specimens, was observed with the competitive binding inhibition ELISA.

  20. Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 binds Rbx1 and inhibits ubiquitin ligase-mediated turnover of cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiaqing; Song, Xiao; Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Chengli; Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Yanhui

    2015-12-08

    Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 is normally expressed in testis but aberrantly expressed in various kinds of tumors. Its functions in tumor cells are mostly unknown. Here, we show that MAGE-C2 binds directly to the RING domain protein Rbx1, and participates in Skp1-Cullin1-F box protein (SCF) complex. Furthermore, MAGE-C2 can inhibit the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of SCF complex. Ablation of endogenous MAGE-C2 decreases the level of cyclin E and accelerates cyclin E turnover by inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation. Overexpression of MAGE-C2 increases the level of cyclin E and promotes G1-S transition and cell proliferation, and the results are further confirmed by knockdown of MAGE-C2. Overall, the study indicates that MAGE-C2 is involved in SCF complex and increases the stability of cyclin E in tumor cells.

  1. Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 binds Rbx1 and inhibits ubiquitin ligase-mediated turnover of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Chengli; Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 is normally expressed in testis but aberrantly expressed in various kinds of tumors. Its functions in tumor cells are mostly unknown. Here, we show that MAGE-C2 binds directly to the RING domain protein Rbx1, and participates in Skp1-Cullin1-F box protein (SCF) complex. Furthermore, MAGE-C2 can inhibit the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of SCF complex. Ablation of endogenous MAGE-C2 decreases the level of cyclin E and accelerates cyclin E turnover by inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation. Overexpression of MAGE-C2 increases the level of cyclin E and promotes G1-S transition and cell proliferation, and the results are further confirmed by knockdown of MAGE-C2. Overall, the study indicates that MAGE-C2 is involved in SCF complex and increases the stability of cyclin E in tumor cells. PMID:26540345

  2. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  3. Transgenic Ly-49A inhibits antigen-driven T cell activation and delays diabetes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sherry S; Patterson, Tricia; Pauza, Mary E

    2005-04-01

    Activation of islet-specific T cells plays a significant role in the development of type 1 diabetes. In an effort to control T cell activation, we expressed the inhibitory receptor, Ly-49A, on islet-specific mouse CD4 cells. Ag-mediated activation of Ly-49A T cells was inhibited in vitro when the Ly-49A ligand, H-2D(d), was present on APCs. Ag-driven T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and changes in surface receptor expression were significantly reduced. Inhibition was also evident during secondary antigenic challenge. Addition of exogenous IL-2 did not rescue cells from inhibition, suggesting that Ly-49A engagement does not lead to T cell anergy. Importantly, in an adoptive transfer model, Ly-49A significantly delays the onset of diabetes. Together these results demonstrate that the inhibitory receptor Ly-49A effectively limits Ag-specific CD4 cell responses even in the presence of sustained autoantigen expression in vivo.

  4. Complex Antigens Elicit Diverse Patterns of Clonal Selection in Germinal Centers

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Nojima, Takuya; Feng, Feng; Watanabe, Akiko; Kitamura, Daisuke; Harrison, Stephen C.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Germinal center (GC) B cells evolve towards increased affinity by a Darwinian process that has been studied primarily in genetically restricted, hapten-specific responses. We explored the population dynamics of genetically diverse GC responses to two complex antigens – Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and influenza hemagglutinin – in which B cells competed both intra- and interclonally for distinct epitopes. Preferred VH rearrangements among antigen-binding, naïve B cells were similarly abundant in early GCs but, unlike responses to haptens, clonal diversity increased in GC B cells as early “winners” were replaced by rarer, high-affinity clones. Despite affinity maturation, inter- and intraclonal avidities varied greatly, and half of GC B cells did not bind the immunogen but nonetheless exhibited biased VH use, V(D)J mutation, and clonal expansion comparable to antigen-binding cells. GC reactions to complex antigens permit a range of specificities and affinities, with potential advantages for broad protection. PMID:26948373

  5. Modified lymphocyte response to mitogens after intraperitoneal injection of glycopeptidolipid antigens from Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Brownback, P E; Barrow, W W

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens from Mycobacterium avium complex serovar 4 resulted in the decreased ability of murine splenic lymphocytes to respond to nonspecific-mitogen-induced blastogenesis when exposed to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide. Adherent cell depletion and cell mixing experiments with T lymphocytes indicated that macrophages were not a major contributor to the immunosuppression observed in this study. Enumeration of splenic lymphocytes by means of flow-cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of GPL antigens resulted in a significant decrease in Thy-1+ and Lyt-1+ cells but no change in the numbers of Lyt-2+ cells. Treatment with GPL antigens in vitro affected the ability of splenic mononuclear cells to respond optimally for concanavalin A-induced blastogenesis at 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml and lipopolysaccharide-induced blastogenesis at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml. However, in vitro treatment with GPL antigens did not affect phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml. These findings suggest that GPL antigens or their metabolites affect lymphocyte function and may be important cofactors in the overall pathogenesis of M. avium complex infections. PMID:3258582

  6. Antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfMSPDBL1 inhibit merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Maier, Alexander G; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cowman, Alan F; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2012-03-02

    One approach to develop a malaria blood-stage vaccine is to target proteins that play critical roles in the erythrocyte invasion of merozoites. The merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) and the erythrocyte-binding antigens (EBAs) are considered promising vaccine candidates, for they are known to play important roles in erythrocyte invasion and are exposed to host immune system. Here we focused on a Plasmodium falciparum antigen, PfMSPDBL1 (encoded by PF10_0348 gene) that is a member of the MSP3 family and has both Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain and secreted polymorphic antigen associated with merozoites (SPAM) domain. Therefore, we aimed to characterize PfMSPDBL1 as a vaccine candidate. Recombinant full-length protein (rFL) of PfMSPDBL1 was synthesized by a wheat germ cell-free system, and rabbit antiserum was raised against rFL. We show that rabbit anti-PfMSPDBL1 antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion of wild type parasites in vitro in a dose dependent manner, and the specificity of inhibitory activity was confirmed using PfMSPDBL1 knockout parasites. Pre-incubation of the anti-PfMSPDBL1 antibodies with the recombinant SPAM domain had no effect on the inhibitory activity suggesting that antibodies to this region were not involved. In addition, antibodies to rFL were elicited by P. falciparum infection in malaria endemic area, suggesting the PfMSLDBL1 is immunogenic to humans. Our results suggest that PfMSPDBL1 is a novel blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate.

  7. Voltage-induced inhibition of antigen-antibody binding at conducting optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Liron, Zvi; Tender, Leonard M; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2002-06-01

    Optical waveguides coated with electrically conducting indium-tin oxide (ITO) are demonstrated here as a new class of substrate for fluorescent immunosensors. These waveguides combine electrochemical control with evanescent excitation and image-based detection. Presented here are preliminary results utilizing these waveguides that demonstrate influence of waveguide voltage on antigen binding. Specifically, waveguide surfaces were bisected into electrically addressable halves, anti-ovalbumin immobilized in patterns on their surfaces, and a 1.3 V bias applied between waveguide halves in the presence of Cy5-labeled ovalbumin in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween-20. Fluorescence imaging indicated that binding of the antigen to positively biased waveguide halves was inhibited nearly 10-fold compared with negatively biased waveguide halves and unbiased controls. Furthermore, it is shown that ovalbumin binding to positively biased waveguide regions is regenerated after removal of applied voltage. These results suggest that electrochemical control of immunosensor substrates can be used as a possible strategy toward minimizing cross-reactive binding and/or nonspecific adsorption, immunosensor regeneration, and controlled binding.

  8. Pharmacologic inhibition of Notch signaling suppresses food antigen-induced mucosal mast cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Asuka; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Susumu; Hara, Mutsuko; Uchida, Koichiro; Kitaura, Jiro; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Yagita, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMCs) play a central role in the development of symptoms associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. Recently, Notch2-mediated signaling was shown to be involved in proper MMC distribution in the intestinal tract. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates MMC distribution in the intestinal mucosa. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of Notch signaling was evaluated as a treatment for symptoms associated with experimental food allergy. Bone marrow-derived mast cells generated from mice were cultured with Notch ligands, and then expression of genes associated with MMCs was measured in the cells. In addition, the effect of an inhibitor of Notch signaling on food antigen-induced allergic reactions was examined in a mouse model of food allergy. Notch signaling induced MMC differentiation through upregulation of expression of genes characteristic of MMCs in the presence of IL-3. Some lamina propria cells isolated from the mouse small intestine expressed Notch ligands and were able to upregulate MMC markers in bone marrow-derived mast cells through Notch signaling. In a mouse model of food allergy, administration of a Notch signaling inhibitor led to suppression of food antigen-induced hyperplasia of intestinal MMCs, resulting in alleviation of allergic diarrhea and systemic anaphylaxis. Notch signaling contributes to differentiation and accumulation of MMCs in the intestinal mucosa. Thus inhibition of Notch signaling alleviates symptoms associated with experimental food allergy. These results raise the possibility that Notch signaling in mast cells is a novel target for therapy in patients with food allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Existence of a squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin complex causes a deviation between squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations determined using two different immunoassays: first report of squamous cell carcinoma antigen coupling with immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Mori, Eriko; Kurano, Makoto; Tobita, Akiko; Shimosaka, Hironori; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method). We performed polyethylene glycol precipitation and size exclusion chromatography to assess the molecular weight and spike recovery and absorption tests to examine the presence of an autoantibody. Results Both methods exhibited good performances for the measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, although a correlation test showed large differences in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations measured using the two methods in three cases. The results of polyethylene glycol treatment and size exclusion chromatography indicated the existence of a large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen in these three cases. The spike recovery tests suggested the possible presence of an autoantibody against squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Moreover, the absorption test revealed that large squamous cell carcinoma antigen complexes were formed by the association of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgG in two cases and with both IgG and IgA in one case. Conclusions This study describes the existence of large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen that has complexed with immunoglobulin in the serum samples. The reason for the deviations between the two immunoassays might be due to differences of their reactivities against the squamous cell carcinoma antigen immune complexes with their autoantibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the coupling of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgA.

  10. HIV infection of monocytes inhibits the T-lymphocyte proliferative response to recall antigens, via production of eicosanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, P; Kazazi, F; Biti, R; Sorrell, T C; Cunningham, A L

    1992-01-01

    Human monocytes infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) soon after adherence to plastic substrate demonstrated a significantly decreased ability to restimulate autologous immune T-lymphocyte proliferation after exposure to soluble (tetanus toxoid) and particulate [herpes simplex virus (HSV)] antigen. Incubation with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (2-5 microM), prevented inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. The inhibitory activity was identified in ultrafiltrates containing the low molecular weight fraction (less than 3000 MW) of supernatants from HIV-infected monocyte cultures. This activity was significantly and markedly reduced in similar ultrafiltrates prepared from indomethacin-treated cultures. Increased concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were detected in ultrafiltrates from HIV-infected monocyte cultures compared with uninfected cultures and cultures preincubated with indomethacin. Ultrafiltrates were inhibitory when added during the presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes but not when removed from monocyte cultures prior to the addition of lymphocytes. In addition, ultrafiltrates inhibited antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation to the same extent. These data indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid, including PGE2, are produced in excess by HIV-infected monocytes and that PGE2 and perhaps other cyclo-oxygenase products are implicated in the inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation via a direct effect on T lymphocytes. PMID:1572689

  11. Human epidermal Langerhans cells cointernalize by receptor-mediated endocytosis "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (T6 antigens) and class II molecules (HLA-DR antigens).

    PubMed Central

    Hanau, D; Fabre, M; Schmitt, D A; Garaud, J C; Pauly, G; Tongio, M M; Mayer, S; Cazenave, J P

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR and T6 surface antigens are expressed only by Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells in normal human epidermis. We have previously demonstrated that T6 antigens are internalized in Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is induced by the binding of BL6, a monoclonal antibody directed against T6 antigens. In the present study, using a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-DR antigens, on human epidermal cells in suspension, we show that the surface HLA-DR antigens are also internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis in Langerhans and indeterminate cells. Moreover, using immunogold double labeling, we demonstrate that T6 and HLA-DR antigens are internalized through common coated regions of the membrane of Langerhans or indeterminate cells. The receptor-mediated endocytosis that is induced involves coated pits and vesicles, receptosomes, lysosomes, and also, in Langerhans cells, the Birbeck granules. Thus, T6 antigens, which are considered to be "unusual" or "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, HLA-DR, are internalized in Langerhans and indeterminate cells through common receptor-mediated endocytosis organelles. Images PMID:3106979

  12. Class I major histocompatibility complex antigens and tumor ploidy in breast and bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M; Concha, A; Ruiz-Cabello, F; Morell, M; Esteban, F; Talavera, P; Garrido, F

    1997-01-01

    We determined the frequency of expression of the major histocompatibility complex antigens HLA-A,B,C in tumor cells from 207 primary tumor lesions of breast and bronchogenic carcinomas, to see if the expression of theses antigens was linked with several clinicopathological parameters associated with tumor aggressivity, such as abnormal cellular DNA content. We compared tumor tissues with nonneoplastic tissues and tissues from 15 benign breast lesions. HLA class I expressor and nonexpressor tumor cells were determined by using immunohistochemical stains (PAP and APAAP methods) and antibodies against these antigens. Reduction of HLA class I antigen was detected in 65 tumors (31.7%) and was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation and abnormal cellular DNA content (p < 0.001). These characteristics might define a group of aggressive tumors in which the decrease of HLA class I antigens would enable tumor cells to avoid eliciting host immune responses. On the other hand, the altered regulatory mechanisms, of tumors with abnormal cellular DNA content, might modulate the expression of HLA class I molecules.

  13. Inhibition of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation by the transforming growth factor-β/Smad signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer C; Iyer, Abhirami K; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Lin, Yinling; Nguyen, Hoa; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation activates a subset of innate immune lymphocytes called invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells that, by virtue of their potent cytokine production, bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a known immune modulator that can activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38; we have previously shown that p38 is a negative regulator of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Several studies implicate a role for TGF-β in the activation of p38. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β would impair antigen presentation by CD1d. Indeed, a dose-dependent decrease in CD1d-mediated antigen presentation and impairment of lipid antigen processing was observed in response to TGF-β treatment. However, it was found that this inhibition was not through p38 activation. Instead, Smads 2, 3 and 4, downstream elements of the TGF-β canonical signalling pathway, contributed to the observed effects. In marked contrast to that observed with CD1d, TGF-β was found to enhance MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation. Overall, these results suggest that the canonical TGF-β/Smad pathway negatively regulates an important arm of the host's innate immune responses - CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation to NKT cells.

  14. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Receptor 5 Inhibits B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling and Antibody Response1

    PubMed Central

    Shotts, Kristin; Donovan, Erin E.; Strauch, Pamela; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Victorino, Francisco; Al-Shami, Amin; Fujiwara, Yuko; Tigyi, Gabor; Oravecz, Tamas; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysophospholipids have emerged as biologically important chemoattractants capable of directing lymphocyte development, trafficking and localization. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a major lysophospholipid found systemically and whose levels are elevated in certain pathological settings such as cancer and infections. Here, we demonstrate that BCR signal transduction by mature murine B cells is inhibited upon LPA engagement of the LPA5 (GPR92) receptor via a Gα12/13 – Arhgef1 pathway. The inhibition of BCR signaling by LPA5 manifests by impaired intracellular calcium store release and most likely by interfering with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity. We further show that LPA5 also limits antigen-specific induction of CD69 and CD86 expression and that LPA5-deficient B cells display enhanced antibody responses. Thus, these data show that LPA5 negatively regulates BCR signaling, B cell activation and immune response. Our findings extend the influence of lysophospholipids on immune function and suggest that alterations in LPA levels likely influence adaptive humoral immunity. PMID:24890721

  15. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP. PMID:27141962

  16. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen Disrupts Host Genomic Integrity and Inhibits Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xin; Diaz, Jason; Tsang, Sabrina H.; Buck, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Clonal integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA into the host genome has been observed in at least 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The integrated viral genome typically carries mutations that truncate the C-terminal DNA binding and helicase domains of the MCV large T antigen (LT), suggesting a selective pressure to remove this MCV LT region during tumor development. In this study, we show that MCV infection leads to the activation of host DNA damage responses (DDR). This activity was mapped to the C-terminal helicase-containing region of the MCV LT. The MCV LT-activated DNA damage kinases, in turn, led to enhanced p53 phosphorylation, upregulation of p53 downstream target genes, and cell cycle arrest. Compared to the N-terminal MCV LT fragment that is usually preserved in mutants isolated from MCC tumors, full-length MCV LT shows a decreased potential to support cellular proliferation, focus formation, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These apparently antitumorigenic effects can be reversed by a dominant-negative p53 inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that MCV LT-induced DDR activates p53 pathway, leading to the inhibition of cellular proliferation. This study reveals a key difference between MCV LT and simian vacuolating virus 40 LT, which activates a DDR but inhibits p53 function. This study also explains, in part, why truncation mutations that remove the MCV LT C-terminal region are necessary for the oncogenic progression of MCV-associated cancers. PMID:23760247

  17. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-05-03

    Here, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.

  18. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    DOE PAGES

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; ...

    2016-05-03

    Here, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain amore » canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.« less

  19. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-05-03

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.

  20. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-05-03

    Here, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.

  1. Isoflurane Selectively Inhibits Distal Mitochondrial Complex I in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Suthammarak, Wichit; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) is a possible target of volatile anesthetics (VAs). Complex I enzymatic activities are inhibited by VAs, and dysfunction of complex I can lead to hypersensitivity to VAs in worms and in people. Mutant analysis in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans suggests that VAs may specifically interfere with complex I function at the binding site for its substrate ubiquinone. We hypothesized that isoflurane inhibits electron transport by competing with ubiquinone for binding to complex I. METHODS Wildtype and mutant C. elegans were used to study the effects of isoflurane on isolated mitochondria. Enzymatic activities of the ETC were assayed and dose-response curves determined using established techniques. Two-dimensional native gels of mitochondrial proteins were performed after exposure of mitochondria to isoflurane. RESULTS Complex I is the most sensitive component of the ETC to isoflurane inhibition; however the proximal portion of complex I (the flavoprotein) is relatively insensitive to isoflurane. Isoflurane and quinone do not compete for a common binding site on complex I. The absolute rate of complex I enzymatic activity in vitro does not predict immobilization of the animal by isoflurane. Isoflurane had no measurable effect on stability of mitochondrial supercomplexes. Reduction of ubiquinone by complex I displayed positive cooperative kinetics not disrupted by isoflurane. CONCLUSIONS Isoflurane directly inhibits complex I at a site distal to the flavoprotein subcomplex. However, we have excluded our original hypothesis that isoflurane and ubiquinone compete for a common hydrophobic binding site on complex I. In addition, immobilization of the nematode by isoflurane is not due to limiting absolute amounts of complex I electron transport as measured in isolated mitochondria. PMID:21467554

  2. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with

  3. Inhibition during response preparation is sensitive to response complexity

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Dylan; Hoang, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Motor system excitability is transiently suppressed during the preparation of movement. This preparatory inhibition is hypothesized to facilitate response selection and initiation. Given that demands on selection and initiation processes increase with movement complexity, we hypothesized that complexity would influence preparatory inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we probed corticospinal excitability during a delayed-response task in which participants were cued to prepare right- or left-hand movements of varying complexity. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over right primary motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of the left hand. MEP suppression was greater during the preparation of responses involving coordination of the FDI and adductor digiti minimi relative to easier responses involving only the FDI, independent of which hand was cued to respond. In contrast, this increased inhibition was absent when the complex responses required sequential movements of the two muscles. Moreover, complexity did not influence the level of inhibition when the response hand was fixed for the trial block, regardless of whether the complex responses were performed simultaneously or sequentially. These results suggest that preparatory inhibition contributes to response selection, possibly by suppressing extraneous movements when responses involve the simultaneous coordination of multiple effectors. PMID:25717168

  4. Noncovalent mass spectrometry for the characterization of antibody/antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Atmanene, Cédric; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have taken on an increasing importance for the treatment of various diseases including cancers, immunological disorders, and other pathologies. These large biomolecules display specific structural features, which affect their efficiency and need therefore to be extensively characterized using sensitive and orthogonal analytical techniques. Among them, mass spectrometry (MS) has become the method of choice to study mAb amino acid sequences as well as their posttranslational modifications with the aim of reducing their chemistry, manufacturing, and control liabilities. This chapter will provide the reader with a description of the general approach allowing antibody/antigen systems to be characterized by noncovalent MS. In the present chapter, we describe how recent noncovalent MS technologies are used to characterize immune complexes involving both murine and humanized mAb 6F4 directed against human JAM-A, a newly identified antigenic protein (Ag) over-expressed in tumor cells. We will detail experimental conditions (sample preparation, optimization of instrumental parameters, etc.) required for the detection of noncovalent antibody/antigen complexes by MS. We will then focus on the type and the reliability of the information that we get from noncovalent MS data, with emphasis on the determination of the stoichiometry of antibody/antigen systems. Noncovalent MS appears as an additional supporting technique for therapeutic mAbs lead characterization and development.

  5. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a new approach to mimic complex antigens for diagnostic purposes?

    PubMed

    Hausammann, Stefanie; Vogel, Monique; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sebastien; Stadler, Beda M; Horn, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibitory antibodies. Therefore, we aimed at replacing the intricate antigen FVIII by Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins) mimicking the epitopes of FVIII inhibitors. As a model we used the well-described inhibitory human monoclonal anti-FVIII antibody, Bo2C11, for the selection on DARPin libraries. Two DARPins were selected binding to the antigen-binding site of Bo2C11, which mimic thus a functional epitope on FVIII. These DARPins inhibited the binding of the antibody to its antigen and restored FVIII activity as determined in the Bethesda assay. Furthermore, the specific DARPins were able to recognize the target antibody in human plasma and could therefore be used to test for the presence of Bo2C11-like antibodies in a large set of hemophilia A patients. These data suggest, that our approach might be used to isolate epitopes from different sets of anti-FVIII antibodies in order to develop an ELISA-based screening assay allowing the distinction of inhibitory and non-inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies according to their antibody signatures.

  6. Increased Mobility of Major Histocompatibility Complex I-Peptide Complexes Decreases the Sensitivity of Antigen Recognition*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Jean-Manuel; Guillaume, Philippe; Mark, Silke; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Johannsen, Alexandre; Bosshard, Giovanna; Angelov, Georgi; Legler, Daniel F.; Vogel, Horst; Luescher, Immanuel F.

    2008-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can recognize and kill target cells expressing only a few cognate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I-peptide complexes. This high sensitivity requires efficient scanning of a vast number of highly diverse MHC I-peptide complexes by the T cell receptor in the contact site of transient conjugates formed mainly by nonspecific interactions of ICAM-1 and LFA-1. Tracking of single H-2Kd molecules loaded with fluorescent peptides on target cells and nascent conjugates with CTL showed dynamic transitions between states of free diffusion and immobility. The immobilizations were explained by association of MHC I-peptide complexes with ICAM-1 and strongly increased their local concentration in cell adhesion sites and hence their scanning by T cell receptor. In nascent immunological synapses cognate complexes became immobile, whereas noncognate ones diffused out again. Interfering with this mobility modulation-based concentration and sorting of MHC I-peptide complexes strongly impaired the sensitivity of antigen recognition by CTL, demonstrating that it constitutes a new basic aspect of antigen presentation by MHC I molecules. PMID:18579518

  7. Inhibition of Proteasome Activity Induces Formation of Alternative Proteasome Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Vanessa; Coux, Olivier; Kleene, Vera; Abeza, Claire; Trümbach, Dietrich; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is an intracellular protease complex consisting of the 20S catalytic core and its associated regulators, including the 19S complex, PA28αβ, PA28γ, PA200, and PI31. Inhibition of the proteasome induces autoregulatory de novo formation of 20S and 26S proteasome complexes. Formation of alternative proteasome complexes, however, has not been investigated so far. We here show that catalytic proteasome inhibition results in fast recruitment of PA28γ and PA200 to 20S and 26S proteasomes within 2–6 h. Rapid formation of alternative proteasome complexes did not involve transcriptional activation of PA28γ and PA200 but rather recruitment of preexisting activators to 20S and 26S proteasome complexes. Recruitment of proteasomal activators depended on the extent of active site inhibition of the proteasome with inhibition of β5 active sites being sufficient for inducing recruitment. Moreover, specific inhibition of 26S proteasome activity via siRNA-mediated knockdown of the 19S subunit RPN6 induced recruitment of only PA200 to 20S proteasomes, whereas PA28γ was not mobilized. Here, formation of alternative PA200 complexes involved transcriptional activation of the activator. Alternative proteasome complexes persisted when cells had regained proteasome activity after pulse exposure to proteasome inhibitors. Knockdown of PA28γ sensitized cells to proteasome inhibitor-mediated growth arrest. Thus, formation of alternative proteasome complexes appears to be a formerly unrecognized but integral part of the cellular response to impaired proteasome function and altered proteostasis. PMID:27129254

  8. The overlooked "nonclassical" functions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens in immune and nonimmune cells.

    PubMed

    Altomonte, M; Pucillo, C; Maio, M

    1999-06-01

    Besides their "classical" antigenic peptide-presenting activity, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens can activate different cellular functions in immune and nonimmune cells. However, this "nonclassical" role and its functional consequences are still substantially overlooked. In this review, we will focus on these alternative functional properties of MHC class II antigens, to reawaken attention to their present and foreseeable immunobiologic and pathogenetic implications. The main issues that will be addressed concern 1) the role of MHC class II molecules as basic components of exchangeable oligomeric protein complexes with intracellular signaling ability; 2) the nonclassical functions of MHC class II antigens in immune cells; 3) the pathogenetic role of MHC class II antigens in inflammatory/autoimmune and infectious disease; and 4) the functional role of MHC class II antigens in solid malignancies.

  9. Cross-linking analysis of antigenic outer membrane protein complexes of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Arenas, Jesús; Criado, María Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2006-03-01

    Polysaccharide-based approaches have not enabled the development of effective vaccines against meningococci of serogroup B, and the most promising current research is focused on the use of outer membrane vesicles. Due to the toxicity of the outer membrane oligosaccharides, new vaccines based on purified proteins are being sought, but despite the application of advanced techniques, they remain elusive, perhaps due to the fact that standard techniques for analysis of antigens overlook conformational epitopes located in membrane complexes. Membrane complex antigens have been analyzed in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and a study published on Neisseria meningitidis has reported the in vitro formation of 800-kD complexes by deposition of a purified protein (MSP63) onto synthetic lipid layers; however, no studies to date have attempted to identify membrane complexes present in vivo in N. meningitidis. In the present study, cross-linking with formaldehyde was used to identify outer membrane protein associations in various N. meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica strains. In N. meningitides, complexes of about 450 kD (also present in N. lactamica), 165 and 95 kD were detected and shown to be made up of the proteins MSP63, PorA/PorB/RmpM/FetA, and PorA/PorB/RmpM, respectively. In western blots, the 450-kD complex was identified by mouse antibodies raised against outer membrane vesicles, but not by antibodies raised against the purified complex, demonstrating the importance of conformational epitopes, and thus suggesting that the analysis of antigens in their native conformation may be useful or even essential for the design of effective vaccines against meningococci.

  10. Inhibition of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by monoclonal antibodies specific for the beta chain of HLA-DR antigens.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, M; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Ishikawa, N; Okuyama, T; Fukasawa, Y; Kojima, H; Kunikane, H; Hawkin, S; Ohhashi, T

    1984-09-01

    Recent studies using rabbit antisera to the separated HLA-DR alpha and beta subunits have suggested that alpha chain-specific, but not beta chain-specific, antisera inhibit T cell proliferative responses in primary and secondary human autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In the present study, with the aid of sequential co-precipitation assays and Western blotting methods, a monoclonal rat alloantibody 1E4, specific for the beta chain of rat class II molecules carrying an Ia determinant Ba-2.7, was characterized to recognize a monomorphic determinant located on the beta chain of DR antigens. This antibody and a murine monoclonal antibody HU-4, also specific for the beta chain of DR antigens, strongly inhibited both primary and secondary AMLR through a mechanism distinct from an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity reaction. These results indicate that the inhibition of AMLR is not a unique feature of DR alpha-specific antibodies.

  11. Model Building of Antibody-Antigen Complex Structures Using GBSA Scores.

    PubMed

    Shimba, Noriko; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-10-24

    Structure prediction of antibody-antigen complexes, which involves molecular docking to generate decoys that are ranked using a scoring function, is an important approach in the design of antibody drugs and biosensors. However, it is not easy to evaluate the stability of protein-protein complexes, using a single scoring function. Here, we developed a prediction method of antibody-antigen complex structures using the docking engine "surFit" and a scoring function (GBSA score) that combined the generalized Born (GB) energy and the hydration energy based on the solvent-accessible surface area (SA). We chose 95 antibody-antigen structural datasets for self-docking and generated many decoy structures using the surFit program. The GBSA scores were computed for all of the decoys, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the GBSA scores yielded a higher value (0.972) than the values obtained by the original surFit scores (0.873) and the ZRANK scores (0.953). To improve the accuracy of prediction, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for several decoy structures that had good GBSA scores. Consequently, average GBSA scores from MD trajectories can reduce the number of non-native decoys that have GBSA scores competitive with the near-native ones.

  12. Application of fluorescent monocytes for probing immune complexes on antigen microarrays.

    PubMed

    Szittner, Zoltán; Papp, Krisztián; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Prechl, József

    2013-01-01

    Microarrayed antigens are used for identifying serum antibodies with given specificities and for generating binding profiles. Antibodies bind to these arrayed antigens forming immune complexes and are conventionally identified by secondary labelled antibodies.In the body immune complexes are identified by bone marrow derived phagocytic cells, such as monocytes. In our work we were looking into the possibility of replacing secondary antibodies with monocytoid cells for the generation of antibody profiles. Using the human monocytoid cell line U937, which expresses cell surface receptors for immune complex components, we show that cell adhesion is completely dependent on the interaction of IgG heavy chains and Fcγ receptors, and this recognition is susceptible to differences between heavy chain structures and their glycosylation. We also report data on a possible application of this system in autoimmune diagnostics.Compared to secondary antibodies, fluorescent monocytesas biosensors are superior in reflecting biological functions of microarray-bound antibodies and represent an easy and robust alternative for profiling interactions between serum proteins and antigens.

  13. Inhibition of the antigen-induced activation of RBL-2H3 cells by cetiedil and some of its analogues.

    PubMed

    Narenjkar, Jamshid; Assem, El-Sayed K; Ganellin, C Robin

    2004-01-12

    Our previous studies on rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells suggested that IK(Ca) channels similar to those in red blood cells (RBC) may be involved in the antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release. Since cetiedil blocks these channels in both cell types, we studied the inhibition by a selection of the synthetic analogues of cetiedil (UCL compounds) of antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release and 86Rb(+)-efflux from RBL-2H3 cells. We tested the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of cetiedil (UCL 1348 and UCL 1349), the more lipophilic triphenylacetic acid derivatives (UCL 1495 and UCL 1617) and (9-benzyl-fluoren)-9-yl derivatives (UCL 1608 and UCL 1710). They all inhibited antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release and 86Rb(+)-efflux. Their relative potency in inhibiting antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release was UCL 1608>1710>1617>1348>1349>1495, with IC(50) values of 9.6+/-0.6, 14.4+/-2.2, 23.4+/-1.4, 29.8+/-1.1, 77.5+/-11.8 and 104.6+/-14.7 (microM), respectively. These IC(50)s suggest some dissimilarity between IK(Ca) in RBL-2H3 cells and RBC. Lipophilicity and potency were well correlated in RBC, but not in RBL-2H3 cells.

  14. Investigation of vesicle-capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. P.; Maximova, Irina S.; Romanov, Sergey V.; Shubochkin, L. P.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.

    1991-05-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases. The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations. In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations. This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. The capsular antigen Fl was obtained from EV plague microbe grown at 37° C on Huttinger agar. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA-22 followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage.

  15. Immune complexes inhibit IL-1 secretion and inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Janczy, John R; Ciraci, Ceren; Haasken, Stefanie; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Olivier, Alicia K; Cassel, Suzanne L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S

    2014-11-15

    IgG immune complexes have been shown to modify immune responses driven by APCs in either a pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending upon the context of stimulation. However, the ability of immune complexes to modulate the inflammasome-dependent innate immune response is unknown. In this study, we show that IgG immune complexes suppress IL-1α and IL-1β secretion through inhibition of inflammasome activation. The mechanism by which this inhibition occurs is via immune complex ligation of activating FcγRs, resulting in prevention of both activation and assembly of the inflammasome complex in response to nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) P3, NLRC4, or AIM2 agonists. In vivo, administration of Ag in the form of an immune complex during priming of the immune response inhibited resultant adaptive immune responses in an NLRP3-dependent model of allergic airway disease. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism regulating CD4(+) T cell differentiation, by which immune complexes suppress inflammasome activation and the generation of IL-1α and IL-1β from APCs, which are critical for the Ag-driven differentiation of CD4(+) T cells.

  16. Effects of Display Complexity on Location and Feature Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    K.Hu, Frank; Fan, Zhiwei; Samuel, Arthur G.; He, ShuChang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the slowing of reaction times to a target when a preceding stimulus has occupied the same location in space. Recently, we observed a robust inhibitory effect for color and shape in moderately complex displays: It is more difficult to detect a target with a particular nonspatial attribute if a stimulus with the same attribute was recently the focus of attention. Such nonspatial inhibitory effects have not generally been found in simpler displays. In the present study, we test how location-based and nonspatial inhibitory effects vary as a function of display complexity (8, 6, 4 and 2 locations). The results demonstrated that: (1) location based inhibition effects were much stronger in more complex displays, whereas the nonspatial inhibition was only slightly stronger in more complex displays; (2) Nonspatial inhibitory effects emerged at longer SOAs than location-based effects; and (3) Nonspatial inhibition only appeared when cues and targets occurred in the same locations, confirming that pure feature repetition does not produce a cost. Taken together, the results are consistent with perceptual processes based on object files that are organized by spatial location. Using somewhat more complex displays than are most commonly employed provides a more sensitive method to observe the role of inhibitory processes in facilitating visual search. In addition, using a relatively wide set of cue-target timing relationships is necessary in order to clearly see how inhibitory effects operate. PMID:23907617

  17. Ethanol Metabolism Alters Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Restricted Antigen Presentation In Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osna, Natalia A.; White, Ronda L.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Donohue, Terrence M.

    2009-01-01

    The proteasome is a major enzyme that cleaves proteins for antigen presentation. Cleaved peptides traffic to the cell surface, where they are presented in the context of MHC class I. Recognition of these complexes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is crucial for elimination of cells bearing “non-self” proteins. Our previous studies revealed that ethanol suppresses proteasome function in ethanol-metabolizing liver cells. We hypothesized that proteasome suppression reduces the hydrolysis of antigenic peptides, thereby decreasing the presentation of the peptide-MHC class I-complexes on the cell surface. To test this, we used the mouse hepatocyte cell line (CYP2E1/ADH-transfected HepB5 cells) or primary mouse hepatocytes, both derived from livers of C57Bl/6 mice, which present the ovalbumin peptide, SIINFEKL, complexed with H2Kb. To induce H2Kb expression, HepB5 cells were treated with interferon gamma (IFNγ) and then exposed to ethanol. In these cells, ethanol metabolism decreased not only proteasome activity, but also hydrolysis of the C-extended peptide, SIINFEKL-TE and the presentation of SIINFEKL-H2Kb complexes measured after the delivery of SIINFEKL-TE to cytoplasm. The suppressive effects of ethanol were, in part, attributed to ethanol-elicited impairment of IFNγ signaling. However, in primary hepatocytes, even in the absence of IFNγ, we observed a similar decline in proteasome activity and antigen presentation after ethanol exposure. We conclude that proteasome function is directly suppressed by ethanol metabolism and indirectly, by preventing the activating effects of IFNγ. Ethanol-elicited reduction in proteasome activity contributes to the suppression of SIINFEKL-H2Kb presentation on the surface of liver cells. Immune response to viral antigens plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C or B viral infections (HCV and HBV, respectively). Professional antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages) are responsible for priming the

  18. Identification of Small Molecule Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Inhibitor That Disrupts Interactions with PIP-box Proteins and Inhibits DNA Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Inoue, Akira; Hishiki, Asami; Fujikawa, Yoshihiro; Connelly, Michele; Evison, Benjamin; Shao, Youming; Heath, Richard; Kuraoka, Isao; Rodrigues, Patrick; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Sato, Mamoru; Yagi, Takashi; Fujii, Naoaki

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered that 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) inhibits binding of a PIP-box sequence peptide to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein by competing for the same binding site, as evidenced by the co-crystal structure of the PCNA-T3 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Based on this observation, we have designed a novel, non-peptide small molecule PCNA inhibitor, T2 amino alcohol (T2AA), a T3 derivative that lacks thyroid hormone activity. T2AA inhibited interaction of PCNA/PIP-box peptide with an IC50 of ∼1 μm and also PCNA and full-length p21 protein, the tightest PCNA ligand protein known to date. T2AA abolished interaction of PCNA and DNA polymerase δ in cellular chromatin. De novo DNA synthesis was inhibited by T2AA, and the cells were arrested in S-phase. T2AA inhibited growth of cancer cells with induction of early apoptosis. Concurrently, Chk1 and RPA32 in the chromatin are phosphorylated, suggesting that T2AA causes DNA replication stress by stalling DNA replication forks. T2AA significantly inhibited translesion DNA synthesis on a cisplatin-cross-linked template in cells. When cells were treated with a combination of cisplatin and T2AA, a significant increase in phospho(Ser139)histone H2AX induction and cell growth inhibition was observed. PMID:22383522

  19. Complex formation between human prostate-specific antigen and protease inhibitors in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Hekim, Can; Riipi, Tero; Zhu, Lei; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    When secreted from the prostate, most of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is free and enzymatically active. Upon reaching circulation, active PSA is inactivated by complex formation with protease inhibitors. To justify the use of mouse models for evaluation of the function of PSA and for studies on therapeutic modalities based on modulation of PSA activity, it is important to know whether PSA complexation is similar in mouse and man. To characterize the circulating forms of PSA in mouse, we used subcutaneous LNCaP and 22RV1 human prostate cancer cell xenograft tumor models. We also added PSA directly to mouse serum. Free and total PSA were measured by immunoassay, and PSA complexes were extracted by immunopurification followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel trypsin digestion and identification of signature peptides by mass spectrometry. In mice bearing xenograft tumors, 68% of the immunoreactive PSA occurred in complex, and when added to mouse serum, over 70% of PSA forms complexes that comprises alpha(2)-macroglobulin and members of the alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) family. In mouse plasma, PSA forms complexes similar to those in man, but the major immunoreactive complex contains AAT rather than alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin, which is the main complex forming serpin in man. The complex formation of PSA produced by xenograft tumor models in mice is similar to that of human prostate tumors with respect to the complexation of PSA. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cif Protein Enhances the Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation of the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) and Reduces Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Ely, Kenneth H.; Bangia, Naveen; Ye, Siying; Green, Kathy A.; Green, William R.; Enelow, Richard I.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Cif (PA2934), a bacterial virulence factor secreted in outer membrane vesicles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, increases the ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of some, but not all, plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and P-glycoprotein. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cif enhances the ubiquitination and degradation of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), members of the ABC transporter family that play an essential role in antigen presentation and intracellular pathogen clearance. Cif selectively increased the amount of ubiquitinated TAP1 and increased its degradation in the proteasome of human airway epithelial cells. This effect of Cif was mediated by reducing USP10 deubiquitinating activity, resulting in increased polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TAP1. The reduction in TAP1 abundance decreased peptide antigen translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, an effect that resulted in reduced antigen available to MHC class I molecules for presentation at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and recognition by CD8+ T cells. Cif is the first bacterial factor identified that inhibits TAP function and MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:24247241

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cif protein enhances the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and reduces major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Bomberger, Jennifer M; Ely, Kenneth H; Bangia, Naveen; Ye, Siying; Green, Kathy A; Green, William R; Enelow, Richard I; Stanton, Bruce A

    2014-01-03

    Cif (PA2934), a bacterial virulence factor secreted in outer membrane vesicles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, increases the ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of some, but not all, plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and P-glycoprotein. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cif enhances the ubiquitination and degradation of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), members of the ABC transporter family that play an essential role in antigen presentation and intracellular pathogen clearance. Cif selectively increased the amount of ubiquitinated TAP1 and increased its degradation in the proteasome of human airway epithelial cells. This effect of Cif was mediated by reducing USP10 deubiquitinating activity, resulting in increased polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TAP1. The reduction in TAP1 abundance decreased peptide antigen translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, an effect that resulted in reduced antigen available to MHC class I molecules for presentation at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and recognition by CD8(+) T cells. Cif is the first bacterial factor identified that inhibits TAP function and MHC class I antigen presentation.

  2. An experimental and theoretical study of the inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Fournier, R L; Relue, P A; Schisler, J

    2001-08-05

    Previously, we have developed a genetically structured mathematical model to describe the inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligos. Our model predicted that antigene oligos targeted to the operator region of the lac operon would have a significant inhibitory effect on beta-galactosidase production. In this investigation, the E. coli lac operon gene expression in the presence of antigene oligos was studied experimentally. A 21-mer oligo, which was designed to form a triplex with the operator, was found to be able to specifically inhibit beta-galactosidase production in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to the 21-mer triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), several control oligos showed no inhibitory effect. The ineffectiveness of the various control oligos, along with the fact that the 21-mer oligo has no homology sequence with lacZYA, and no mRNA is transcribed from the operator, suggests that the 21-mer oligo inhibits target gene expression by an antigene mechanism. To simulate the kinetics of lac operon gene expression in the presence of antigene oligos, a genetically structured kinetic model, which includes transport of oligo into the cell, growth of bacteria cells, and lac operon gene expression, was developed. Predictions of the kinetic model fit the experimental data quite well after adjustment of the value of the oligonucleotide transport rate constant (9.0 x 10(-)(3) min(-)(1)) and oligo binding affinity constant (1.05 x 10(6) M(-)(1)). Our values for these two adjusted parameters are in the range of reported literature values.

  3. Aspartate aminotransferase is potently inhibited by copper complexes: Exploring copper complex-binding proteome.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuqi; Lu, Liping; Yuan, Caixia; Feng, Sisi; Zhu, Miaoli

    2017-05-01

    Recent researches indicated that a copper complex-binding proteome that potently interacted with copper complexes and then influenced cellular metabolism might exist in organism. In order to explore the copper complex-binding proteome, a copper chelating ion-immobilized affinity chromatography (Cu-IMAC) column and mass spectrometry were used to separate and identify putative Cu-binding proteins in primary rat hepatocytes. A total of 97 putative Cu-binding proteins were isolated and identified. Five higher abundance proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), catalase (CAT), calreticulin (CRT) and albumin (Alb) were further purified using a SP-, and (or) Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column. The interaction between the purified proteins and selected 11 copper complexes and CuCl2 was investigated. The enzymes inhibition tests demonstrated that AST was potently inhibited by copper complexes while MDH and CAT were weakly inhibited. Schiff-based copper complexes 6 and 7 potently inhibited AST with the IC50 value of 3.6 and 7.2μM, respectively and exhibited better selectivity over MDH and CAT. Fluorescence titration results showed the two complexes tightly bound to AST with binding constant of 3.89×10(6) and 3.73×10(6)M(-1), respectively and a stoichiometry ratio of 1:1. Copper complex 6 was able to enter into HepG2 cells and further inhibit intracellular AST activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  5. Immunoagglutination test to diagnose Chagas disease: comparison of different latex-antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Valeria S; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Ivan S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of novel latex-protein complexes obtained from different antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi through immunoagglutination test using a panel of T. cruzi-positive sera, leishmaniasis-positive sera and negative sera for both parasites. Complexes' behaviour using total parasite homogenate (TPH), two simple recombinant proteins (RP1 and RP5) and two chimeric recombinant proteins (CP1 and CP2) was comparatively evaluated. The area under ROC curves was used as an index of accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination efficiency were assessed. All recombinant antigens showed higher specificity than TPH. The lower specificity of TPH was mainly due to cross-reacting peptides between T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. In turn, all performance indicators were higher for CP1 and CP2 than for RP1 and RP5. The carboxylated latex-CP2 (C2-CP2) complex was able to detect antibodies against T. cruzi. The values of area under ROC curve (0.96), sensitivity (92.3%, 95% CI: 79.4-100.0%) and specificity (84.0%, 95% CI: 67.6-100.0%) indicate that the assay could be used as a screening test. The C2-CP2 complex could be an important tool to carry out sero-epidemiological studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cinacalcet inhibits neuroblastoma tumor growth and upregulates cancer-testis antigens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos J; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; García, Marta; Casalà, Carla; Briansó, Ferran; Castrejón, Nerea; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Carcaboso, Angel M; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-03-29

    The calcium-sensing receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that exerts cell-type specific functions in numerous tissues and some cancers. We have previously reported that this receptor exhibits tumor suppressor properties in neuroblastoma. We have now assessed cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR approved for clinical use, as targeted therapy for this developmental tumor using neuroblastoma cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) with different MYCN and TP53 status. In vitro, acute exposure to cinacalcet induced endoplasmic reticulum stress coupled to apoptosis via ATF4-CHOP-TRB3 in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells. Both phenotypes were partially abrogated by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Prolonged in vitro treatment also promoted dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells and, irrespective of MYCN status, differentiation in surviving cells. Cinacalcet significantly inhibited tumor growth in MYCN-amplified xenografts and reduced that of MYCN-non amplified PDX. Morphology assessment showed fibrosis in MYCN-amplified xenografts exposed to the drug. Microarrays analyses revealed up-regulation of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in cinacalcet-treated MYCN-amplified tumors. These were predominantly CTAs encoded by genes mapping on chromosome X, which are the most immunogenic. Other modulated genes upon prolonged exposure to cinacalcet were involved in differentiation, cell cycle exit, microenvironment remodeling and calcium signaling pathways. CTAs were up-regulated in PDX and in vitro models as well. Moreover, progressive increase of CaSR expression upon cinacalcet treatment was seen both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, cinacalcet reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth and up-regulates CTAs. This effect represents a therapeutic opportunity and provides surrogate circulating markers of neuroblastoma response to this treatment.

  7. Cinacalcet inhibits neuroblastoma tumor growth and upregulates cancer-testis antigens

    PubMed Central

    Casalà, Carla; Briansó, Ferran; Castrejón, Nerea; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Carcaboso, Angel M.; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The calcium–sensing receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that exerts cell-type specific functions in numerous tissues and some cancers. We have previously reported that this receptor exhibits tumor suppressor properties in neuroblastoma. We have now assessed cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR approved for clinical use, as targeted therapy for this developmental tumor using neuroblastoma cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) with different MYCN and TP53 status. In vitro, acute exposure to cinacalcet induced endoplasmic reticulum stress coupled to apoptosis via ATF4-CHOP-TRB3 in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells. Both phenotypes were partially abrogated by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Prolonged in vitro treatment also promoted dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in CaSR-positive, MYCN-amplified cells and, irrespective of MYCN status, differentiation in surviving cells. Cinacalcet significantly inhibited tumor growth in MYCN-amplified xenografts and reduced that of MYCN-non amplified PDX. Morphology assessment showed fibrosis in MYCN-amplified xenografts exposed to the drug. Microarrays analyses revealed up-regulation of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in cinacalcet-treated MYCN-amplified tumors. These were predominantly CTAs encoded by genes mapping on chromosome X, which are the most immunogenic. Other modulated genes upon prolonged exposure to cinacalcet were involved in differentiation, cell cycle exit, microenvironment remodeling and calcium signaling pathways. CTAs were up-regulated in PDX and in vitro models as well. Moreover, progressive increase of CaSR expression upon cinacalcet treatment was seen both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, cinacalcet reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth and up-regulates CTAs. This effect represents a therapeutic opportunity and provides surrogate circulating markers of neuroblastoma response to this treatment. PMID:26893368

  8. Immunity Provided by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Cholera Vaccine Is Due to O-Antigen-Specific Antibodies Inhibiting Bacterial Motility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Lazinski, David W; Camilli, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-based cholera vaccine is highly efficacious in preventing intestinal colonization in the suckling mouse model. Immunity from OMVs comes from immunoglobulin (Ig), particularly IgG, in the milk of mucosally immunized dams. Anti-OMV IgG renders Vibrio cholerae organisms immotile, thus they pass through the small intestine without colonizing. However, the importance of motility inhibition for protection and the mechanism by which motility is inhibited remain unclear. By using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that IgG inhibits motility by specifically binding to the O-antigen of V. cholerae We demonstrate that the bivalent structure of IgG, although not required for binding to the O-antigen, is required for motility inhibition. Finally, we show using competition assays in suckling mice that inhibition of motility appears to be responsible for most, if not all, of the protection engendered by OMV vaccination, thus providing insight into the mechanism of immune protection. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Human lymphocyte subpopulations. Human thymus-lymphoid tissue (HTL) antigen-positive lymphocytes forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and HTL antigen-negative lymphocytes interacting with antigen-antibody-complement complexes

    PubMed Central

    Yata, J.; Tsukimoto, I.; Tachibana, T.

    1973-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from various lymphoid tissues were studied for the relationship between the existence of HTL (human thymus-lymphoid tissue) antigen, and binding of sheep erythrocytes (E) or sheep erythrocyte–antibody-complement complexes (EA(IgM)C43). E adhered to the majority of thymus lymphocytes and formed rosettes. These lymphocytes were shown to be HTL antigen positive by immunofluorescence performed simultaneously. In the peripheral lymphoid tissues, 10–30% of lymphocytes formed E rosettes and almost all E rosette-forming lymphocytes were HTL antigen positive. Conversely HTL antigen-negative cells did not form E rosettes. In contrast, the cells binding EA(IgM)C43 were always HTL antigen negative. There were very few HTL antigen-positive or rosette-forming lymphocytes either with E or EA(IgM)C43 in bone marrow. From these data we conclude that E-rosette-forming and HTL antigen-positive lymphocytes are of thymus origin and EA(IgM)C43-rosette-forming cells are not thymus-dependent cells. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4579778

  10. Posttranscriptional inhibition of class I major histocompatibility complex presentation on hepatocytes and lymphoid cells in chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Michalak, T I; Hodgson, P D; Churchill, N D

    2000-05-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), similar to human hepatitis B virus, causes acute liver inflammation that can progress to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. WHV also invades cells of the host lymphatic system, where it persists for life. We report here that acute and chronic hepadnavirus hepatitis is characterized by a profound difference in the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected hepatocytes and, notably, lymphoid cells. While acute WHV infection is accompanied by the enhanced hepatocyte surface presentation of class I MHC antigen and upregulated transcription of the relevant hepatic genes, inhibition of class I antigen display on liver cells is a uniform hallmark of chronic WHV infection. This inhibition in chronic hepatitis occurs despite augmented (as in acute infection) expression of hepatic genes for class I MHC heavy chain, beta(2)-microglobulin, and transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2). Further, the class I antigen inhibition is not related to the histological severity of hepatocellular injury, the extent of lymphocytic infiltrations, the level of intrahepatic gamma interferon induction, or the hepatic WHV load. Importantly, the antigen expression is also inhibited on organ lymphoid cells of chronically infected hosts. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the defective presentation of class I MHC molecules on cells supporting persistent WHV replication is due to viral posttranscriptional interference. This event may diminish the susceptibility of infected hepatocytes to virus-specific T-cell-mediated elimination, hinder virus clearance, and deregulate the class I MHC-dependent functions of the host immune system. This multifarious effect could be critical for perpetuation of liver damage and evasion of the antiviral immunological surveillance in chronic infection and therefore could be supportive of hepadnavirus persistence.

  11. Rapid formation of cell-particle complexes via dielectrophoretic manipulation for the detection of surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuma; Yamamoto, Masashi; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Fumio

    2014-11-15

    A rapid and simple method for the fabrication of the island patterns with particles and cells was applied to detect the presence of specific antigens on the cell surface. An upper interdigitated microband array (IDA) electrode was mounted on a lower substrate with the same design to fabricate a microfluidic-channel device for dielectrophoretic manipulation. The electrode grid structure was fabricated by rotating the upper template IDA by 90° relative to the lower IDA. A suspension of anti-CD33 modified particles and HL-60 cells was introduced into the channel. An AC electrical signal (typically 20 V peak-to-peak, 100 kHz) was then applied to the bands of the upper and lower IDAs, resulting in the formation of island patterns at the intersections with low electric fields. Immunoreactions between the antibodies immobilized on the accumulated particles and the CD33 present on the surface of the cells led to the formation of complexes comprising corresponding antigen-antibody pairs. Non-specific pairs accumulated at the intersection, which did not form complexes, were then dispersed after removal of the applied field. The time required for the detection of the formation/dispersion of the complexes is as short as 6 min in the present procedure. Furthermore, this novel cell binding assay does not require pretreatment such as target labeling or washing of the unbound cells.

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition by metals and metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli

    2014-05-10

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play essential roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, communication, and adhesion. The dysregulated activities of PTPs are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Many PTPs have emerged as potential new targets for novel drug discovery. PTP inhibitors have attracted much attention. Many PTP inhibitors have been developed. Some of them have been proven to be efficient in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo or inhibiting tumor xenograft growth. Some metal ions and metal complexes potently inhibit PTPs. The metal atoms within metal complexes play an important role in PTP binding, while ligand structures influence the inhibitory potency and selectivity. Some metal complexes can penetrate the cell membrane and selectively bind to their targeting PTPs, enhancing the phosphorylation of the related substrates and influencing cellular metabolism. PTP inhibition is potentially involved in the pathophysiological and toxicological processes of metals and some PTPs may be cellular targets of certain metal-based therapeutic agents. Investigating the structural basis of the interactions between metal complexes and PTPs would facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the structure-activity relationship and accelerate the development of promising metal-based drugs targeting specific PTPs.

  13. Parasite Manipulation of the Invariant Chain and the Peptide Editor H2-DM Affects Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen Presentation during Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Manami; El-Hage, Sandy; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. This apicomplexan is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a leading cause of central nervous system disease in AIDS. It has long been known that T. gondii interferes with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation to attenuate CD4+ T cell responses and establish persisting infections. Transcriptional downregulation of MHC-II genes by T. gondii was previously established, but the precise mechanisms inhibiting MHC-II function are currently unknown. Here, we show that, in addition to transcriptional regulation of MHC-II, the parasite modulates the expression of key components of the MHC-II antigen presentation pathway, namely, the MHC-II-associated invariant chain (Ii or CD74) and the peptide editor H2-DM, in professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs). Genetic deletion of CD74 restored the ability of infected dendritic cells to present a parasite antigen in the context of MHC-II in vitro. CD74 mRNA and protein levels were, surprisingly, elevated in infected cells, whereas MHC-II and H2-DM expression was inhibited. CD74 accumulated mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and this phenotype required live parasites, but not active replication. Finally, we compared the impacts of genetic deletion of CD74 and H2-DM genes on parasite dissemination toward lymphoid organs in mice, as well as activation of CD4+ T cells and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels during acute infection. Cyst burdens and survival during the chronic phase of infection were also evaluated in wild-type and knockout mice. These results highlight the fact that the infection is influenced by multiple levels of parasite manipulation of the MHC-II antigen presentation pathway. PMID:26195549

  14. Bioactive surfaces for antibody-antigen complex detection by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ierardi, Vincenzo; Ferrera, Francesca; Millo, Enrico; Damonte, Gianluca; Filaci, Gilberto; Valbusa, Ugo

    2013-06-01

    Recently there has been a great develop of new antibodies immobilization procedures, that keep antibodies to retain their orientation and functionality after the binding to a solid support. This allows the formation of immune-complexes useful for the detection of biomarkers from biological samples. We have developed a new method of functionalization for solid substrates that involves an initial surface activation, then a functionalization by means of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-followed by another functionalization step with a layer of very small peptides, which have a high affinity to the Antibody Fc portion, acting as antibody linkers. These antibody binding peptides can immobilize the antibodies with a proper configuration that allows an unambiguous detection of antibody-antigen complexes by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM can act as a powerful label free detection technique, which allows to detect, in principle, single molecule interactions, with the only limitation to use substrate with low-roughness surfaces; in this case, the roughness can be interpreted as background noise in the AFM analysis. Moreover, our functionalization method can be used to obtain bioactive surfaces on a wide range of solid supports, making them capable to suitably immobilize the antibodies for the antigenic binding.

  15. Global Inhibition of DC Priming Capacity in the Spleen of Self-Antigen Vaccinated Mice Requires IL-10.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Douglas M; Finn, Olivera J

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) in the spleen are highly activated following intravenous vaccination with a foreign-antigen, promoting expansion of effector T cells, but remain phenotypically and functionally immature after vaccination with a self-antigen. Up-regulation or suppression of expression of a cohort of pancreatic enzymes 24-72 h post-vaccination can be used as a biomarker of stimulatory versus tolerogenic DC, respectively. Here we show, using MUC1 transgenic mice and a vaccine based on the MUC1 peptide, which these mice perceive as a self-antigen, that the difference in enzyme expression that predicts whether DC will promote immune response or immune tolerance is seen as early as 4-8 h following vaccination. We also identify early production of IL-10 as a predominant factor that both correlates with this early-time point and controls DC function. Pre-treating mice with an antibody against the IL-10 receptor prior to vaccination results in DC that up-regulate CD40, CD80, and CD86 and promote stronger IFNγ+ T cell responses. This study suggests that transient inhibition of IL-10 prior to vaccination could improve responses to cancer vaccines that utilize self-tumor antigens.

  16. Global Inhibition of DC Priming Capacity in the Spleen of Self-Antigen Vaccinated Mice Requires IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Douglas M.; Finn, Olivera J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) in the spleen are highly activated following intravenous vaccination with a foreign-antigen, promoting expansion of effector T cells, but remain phenotypically and functionally immature after vaccination with a self-antigen. Up-regulation or suppression of expression of a cohort of pancreatic enzymes 24–72 h post-vaccination can be used as a biomarker of stimulatory versus tolerogenic DC, respectively. Here we show, using MUC1 transgenic mice and a vaccine based on the MUC1 peptide, which these mice perceive as a self-antigen, that the difference in enzyme expression that predicts whether DC will promote immune response or immune tolerance is seen as early as 4–8 h following vaccination. We also identify early production of IL-10 as a predominant factor that both correlates with this early-time point and controls DC function. Pre-treating mice with an antibody against the IL-10 receptor prior to vaccination results in DC that up-regulate CD40, CD80, and CD86 and promote stronger IFNγ+ T cell responses. This study suggests that transient inhibition of IL-10 prior to vaccination could improve responses to cancer vaccines that utilize self-tumor antigens. PMID:24596571

  17. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B enhances the capacity of immature dendritic cells to induce antigen-specific tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Iruretagoyena, Mirentxu I; Sepúlveda, Sofía E; Lezana, J Pablo; Hermoso, Marcela; Bronfman, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Miguel A; Jacobelli, Sergio H; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2006-07-01

    Autoimmune disorders develop as a result of deregulated immune responses that target self-antigens and cause destruction of healthy host tissues. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance, we are interested in identifying means of enhancing their therapeutic potential in autoimmune diseases. It is thought that during steady state, DCs are able to anergize potentially harmful T cells bearing T cell receptors that recognize self-peptide-major histocompatibility complexes. The tolerogenic capacity of DCs requires an immature phenotype, which is characterized by a reduced expression of costimulatory molecules. On the contrary, activation of antigen-specific naive T cells is enhanced by DC maturation, a process that involves expression of genes controlled by the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. We evaluated the capacity of drugs that inhibit NF-kappaB to enhance the tolerogenic properties of immature DCs in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We show that andrographolide, a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, and rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, were able to interfere with NF-kappaB activation in murine DCs. As a result, treated DCs showed impaired maturation and a reduced capacity to activate antigen-specific T cells. Furthermore, NF-kappaB-blocked DCs had an enhanced tolerogenic capacity and were able to prevent EAE development in mice. The tolerogenic feature was specific for myelin antigens and involved the expansion of regulatory T cells. These data suggest that NF-kappaB blockade is a potential pharmacological approach that can be used to enhance the tolerogenic ability of immature DCs to prevent detrimental autoimmune responses.

  18. Alisporivir inhibition of hepatocyte cyclophilins reduces HBV replication and hepatitis B surface antigen production.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sandra; Chokshi, Shilpa; Chatterji, Udayan; Riva, Antonio; Bobardt, Michael; Williams, Roger; Gallay, Philippe; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophilins are host factors required for hepatitis C virus replication. Cyclophilin inhibitors such as alisporivir have shown strong anti-hepatitis C virus activity in vitro and in clinical studies. However, little is known about whether hepatocyte cyclophilins are involved in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle. We investigated the effects of 2 cyclophilin inhibitors (alisporivir and NIM811) on HBV replication and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production in cell lines. Liver-derived cell lines producing full-length HBV and HBsAg particles, owing to stable (HepG2215) or transient (HuH-7) transfection, or infected with HBV (HepaRG cells; Invitrogen [Carlsbad, CA]), were incubated with alisporivir or NIM811 alone, or alisporivir in combination with a direct antiviral (telbivudine). The roles of individual cyclophilins in drug response was evaluated by small interfering RNA knockdown of cyclophilin (CYP)A, CYPC, or CYPD in HepG2215 cells, or CYPA knockdown in HuH-7 cells. The kinetics of antiviral activity were assessed based on levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg and Southern blot analysis. In HepG2215, HuH-7, and HepaRG cells, alisporivir reduced intracellular and secreted HBV DNA, in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of CYPA, CYPC, or CYPD (reduced by 80%) significantly reduced levels of HBV DNA and secreted HBsAg. Knockdown of CYPA significantly reduced secretion of HBsAg, leading to accumulation of intracellular HBsAg; the addition of alisporivir greatly reduced levels of HBsAg in these cells. The combination of alisporivir and telbivudine had greater antiviral effects than those of telbivudine or alisporivir alone. Alisporivir inhibition of cyclophilins in hepatocyte cell lines reduces replication of HBV DNA and HBsAg production and secretion. These effects are potentiated in combination with direct antiviral agents that target HBV-DNA polymerase. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dephosphorylation of JC virus agnoprotein by protein phosphatase 2A: Inhibition by small t antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker K.; Khalili, Kamel; Safak, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the JC virus (JCV) late regulatory protein agnoprotein is phosphorylated by the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase-C (PKC) and mutants of this protein at the PKC phosphorylation sites exhibit defects in the viral replication cycle. We have now investigated whether agnoprotein phosphorylation is regulated by PP2A, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase and whether JCV small t antigen (Sm t-Ag) is involved in this regulation. Protein–protein interaction studies demonstrated that PP2A associates with agnoprotein and dephosphorylates it at PKC-specific sites. Sm t-Ag was also found to interact with PP2A and this interaction inhibited the dephosphorylation of agnoprotein by PP2A. The interaction domains of Sm t-Ag and agnoprotein with PP2A were mapped, as were the interaction domains of Sm t-Ag with agnoprotein. The middle portion of Sm t-Ag (aa 82–124) was found to be critical for the interaction with both agnoprotein and PP2A and the N-terminal region of agnoprotein for interaction with Sm t-Ag. To further understand the role of Sm t-Ag in JCV regulation, a stop codon was introduced at Ser90 immediately after splice donor site of the JCV early gene and the functional consequences of this mutation were investigated. The ability of this mutant virus to replicate was substantially reduced compared to WT. Next, the functional significance of PP2A in JCV replication was examined by siRNA targeting. Downregulation of PP2A caused a significant reduction in the level of JCV replication. Moreover, the impact of Sm t-Ag on agnoprotein phosphorylation was investigated by creating a double mutant of JCV, where Sm t-Ag stop codon mutant was combined with an agnoprotein triple phosphorylation mutant (Ser7, Ser11 and Thr21 to Ala). Results showed that double mutant behaves much like the triple phosphorylation mutant of agnoprotein during viral replication cycle, which suggests that agnoprotein might be an important target of

  20. T-cell recognition of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii: inhibition of parasitemia by this antigen(s).

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, B; Engels, A; Camus, D; Haque, A

    1993-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the presence of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in the erythrocyte stage from Plasmodium yoelii (265 BY strain) and Plasmodium falciparum through recognition by T cells primed in vivo with antigens from each of these parasites. BALB/c mice are naturally resistant to P. falciparum but are susceptible to P. yoelii infection. Mice that had recovered from P. yoelii primary infection became resistant to a second infection. A higher in vitro proliferative response to a soluble blood stage preparation of P. falciparum was observed in splenic cells from immune animals than in those from mice with a patent P. yoelii infection. The antigen-induced proliferative response was enhanced when animals were exposed to a secondary infection. Animals exposed to a challenge infection were treated with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies to deplete the corresponding subset of T cells. There was a marked diminution in P. falciparum antigen-induced proliferative response in the total splenic cell populations from CD8-depleted but not from CD4-depleted mice. In CD8-depleted and nondepleted animals, the antigen-induced proliferation in the total cell populations was markedly lower than in the T-cell-rich populations, indicating inhibitory activities of B cells and/or macrophages. There was no such difference in the stimulation between total and T-enriched cell populations from CD4-depleted animals. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the presence of an almost equal percentage of CD8+ (59.6%) and CD4+ (64%) T cells in the spleen preparations following in vivo depletion of CD4- and CD8-bearing T cells, respectively. When cultured with P. yoelii blood stage antigen, splenocytes from animals immunized with P. falciparum antigen displayed a significant proliferative response which was markedly diminished by treatment with anti-Thy-1.2 antibody plus complement. Animals immunized with P. falciparum antigen and then challenged with P. yoelii blood stage

  1. Size and structure of antigen-antibody complexes. Electron microscopy and light scattering studies.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, R M; Slayter, H; Schurtenberger, P; Chamberlin, R A; Colton, C K; Yarmush, M L

    1988-01-01

    Size parameters of model antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) complexes formed by the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and pairs of monoclonal anti-BSA antibodies (mAb) were evaluated by quasielastic light scattering, classical light scattering, and electron microscopy (EM). Mean values for the hydrodynamic radius, radius of gyration, and molecular weight were determined by light scattering. Detailed information regarding the molecular weight distribution and the presence of cycles or open chains was obtained with EM. Average molecular weights were calculated from the EM data, and the Porod-Kratky wormlike chain theory was used to model the conformational behavior of the Ag-mAb complexes. Ag-mAb complexes prepared from three different mAb pairs displayed significantly different properties as assessed by each of the techniques employed. Observations and size parameter calculations from EM photomicrographs were consistent with the results from light scattering. The differences observed between the mab pairs would not have been predicted by idealized thermodynamic models. These results suggest that the geometric constraints imposed by the individual epitope environment and/or the relative epitope location are important in determining the average size of complexes and the ratio of linear to cyclic complexes. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:3416033

  2. Structure of an antibody-antigen complex: crystal structure of the HyHEL-10 Fab-lysozyme complex.

    PubMed Central

    Padlan, E A; Silverton, E W; Sheriff, S; Cohen, G H; Smith-Gill, S J; Davies, D R

    1989-01-01

    The crystal structure of the complex of the anti-lysozyme HyHEL-10 Fab and hen egg white lysozyme has been determined to a nominal resolution of 3.0 A. The antigenic determinant (epitope) on the lysozyme is discontinuous, consisting of residues from four different regions of the linear sequence. It consists of the exposed residues of an alpha-helix together with surrounding amino acids. The epitope crosses the active-site cleft and includes a tryptophan located within this cleft. The combining site of the antibody is mostly flat with a protuberance made up of two tyrosines that penetrate the cleft. All six complementarity-determining regions of the Fab contribute at least one residue to the binding; one residue from the framework is also in contact with the lysozyme. The contacting residues on the antibody contain a disproportionate number of aromatic side chains. The antibody-antigen contact mainly involves hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions; there is one ion-pair interaction but it is weak. Images PMID:2762305

  3. Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Raymond E; Cornejo, Melanie; Davis, Tina N; Del Bianco, Cristina; Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C; Kung, Andrew L; Gilliland, D Gary; Verdine, Gregory L; Bradner, James E

    2009-11-12

    Direct inhibition of transcription factor complexes remains a central challenge in the discipline of ligand discovery. In general, these proteins lack surface involutions suitable for high-affinity binding by small molecules. Here we report the design of synthetic, cell-permeable, stabilized alpha-helical peptides that target a critical protein-protein interface in the NOTCH transactivation complex. We demonstrate that direct, high-affinity binding of the hydrocarbon-stapled peptide SAHM1 prevents assembly of the active transcriptional complex. Inappropriate NOTCH activation is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of several disease states, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). The treatment of leukaemic cells with SAHM1 results in genome-wide suppression of NOTCH-activated genes. Direct antagonism of the NOTCH transcriptional program causes potent, NOTCH-specific anti-proliferative effects in cultured cells and in a mouse model of NOTCH1-driven T-ALL.

  4. Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Raymond E.; Cornejo, Melanie; Davis, Tina N.; Del Bianco, Cristina; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kung, Andrew L.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Verdine, Gregory L.; Bradner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Direct inhibition of transcription factor complexes remains a central challenge in the discipline of ligand discovery. In general, these proteins lack surface involutions suitable for high-affinity binding by small molecules. Here we report the design of synthetic, cell-permeable, stabilized α-helical peptides that target a critical protein–protein interface in the NOTCH transactivation complex. We demonstrate that direct, high-affinity binding of the hydrocarbon-stapled peptide SAHM1 prevents assembly of the active transcriptional complex. Inappropriate NOTCH activation is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of several disease states, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). The treatment of leukaemic cells with SAHM1 results in genome-wide suppression of NOTCH-activated genes. Direct antagonism of the NOTCH transcriptional program causes potent, NOTCH-specific anti-proliferative effects in cultured cells and in a mouse model of NOTCH1-driven T-ALL. PMID:19907488

  5. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II by the Anticancer Agent Lonidamine*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Shestov, Alexander A.; Worth, Andrew J.; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Blair, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND inhibits the formation of fumarate and malate and suppresses succinate-induced respiration of isolated mitochondria. Utilizing biochemical assays, we determined that LND inhibits the succinate-ubiquinone reductase activity of respiratory complex II without fully blocking succinate dehydrogenase activity. LND also induces cellular reactive oxygen species through complex II, which reduced the viability of the DB-1 melanoma cell line. The ability of LND to promote cell death was potentiated by its suppression of the pentose phosphate pathway, which resulted in inhibition of NADPH and glutathione generation. Using stable isotope tracers in combination with isotopologue analysis, we showed that LND increased glutaminolysis but decreased reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate. Our findings on the previously uncharacterized effects of LND may provide potential combinational therapeutic approaches for targeting cancer metabolism. PMID:26521302

  6. Effect of temperature on the expression of major histocompatibility complex class-I antigens.

    PubMed

    Aboud, M; Segal, S; Priel, E; Blair, D G; O'Hara, B

    1992-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of temperature on MHC class-I gene expression in BALB/C 3T3 cells incubated for 5 days at 34 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C. FACS analysis revealed no significant difference in the cell surface expression of any of the 3 major class-I antigens at 34 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Strikingly, however, when the level of the respective mRNA was determined, only that of the H-2K was comparable at both temperatures, whereas the levels of the H-2D and H-2L mRNA were profoundly higher at 37 degrees C. These data appear to reflect a differential temperature-related transcriptional control of the different class-I genes or a different temperature effect on the stability of their mRNA. The absence of a parallel increase in surface expression of the corresponding H-2D and H-2L antigens may result from some translational or post-translational limiting factors. At 39 degrees C, however, these limiting factors seem to be overcome since the surface expression of all the 3 antigens was remarkably increased although the level of their encoding mRNA was rather lower than in 37 degrees C. This stimulatory effect might be ascribed to heat shock proteins which are known to arise in cells at heat or other stress conditions. They participate in assembly and disassembly of various protein complexes and in transport of certain proteins across intracellular membranes. Such proteins may have arisen in our cells at 39 degrees C and facilitated the intracellular assembly of the class-I molecules and their transport to the cell surface. The possible implication of such heat shock proteins in the anti-tumor effect of hyperthermia is discussed.

  7. The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) inhibits myeloid differentiation in normal hematopoietic and leukemic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Cummings, Carrie L.; Sabo, Kathleen; Wood, Brent L.; Gooley, Ted; Yang, Taimei; Epping, Mirjam T.; Shou, Yaping; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era; Ladne, Paula; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Radich, Jerald P.

    2009-01-01

    The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is expressed in several hematologic malignancies, but either is not expressed or is expressed at only low levels in normal hematopoietic cells, making it a target for cancer therapy. PRAME is a tumor-associated antigen and has been described as a corepressor of retinoic acid signaling in solid tumor cells, but its function in hematopoietic cells is unknown. PRAME mRNA expression increased with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease progression and its detection in late chronic-phase CML patients before tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy was associated with poorer therapeutic responses and ABL tyrosine kinase domain point mutations. In leukemia cell lines, PRAME protein expression inhibited granulocytic differentiation only in cell lines that differentiate along this lineage after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exposure. Forced PRAME expression in normal hematopoietic progenitors, however, inhibited myeloid differentiation both in the presence and absence of ATRA, and this phenotype was reversed when PRAME was silenced in primary CML progenitors. These observations suggest that PRAME inhibits myeloid differentiation in certain myeloid leukemias, and that its function in these cells is lineage and phenotype dependent. Lastly, these observations suggest that PRAME is a target for both prognostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:19625708

  8. Inhibition of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by monoclonal antibodies specific for the β chain of HLA-DR antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, M.; Ikeda, H.; Ogasawara, K.; Ishikawa, N.; Okuyama, T.; Fukasawa, Y.; Kojima, H.; Kunikane, H.; Hawkin, S.; Ohhashi, T.; Natori, T.; Wakisaka, A.; Kikuchi, Y.; Aizawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies using rabbit antisera to the separated HLA-DR α and β subunits have suggested that α chain-specific, but not β chain-specific, antisera inhibit T cell proliferative responses in primary and secondary human autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In the present study, with the aid of sequential co-precipitation assays and Western blotting methods, a monoclonal rat alloantibody 1E4, specific for the β chain of rat class II molecules carrying an Ia determinant Ba-2.7, was characterized to recognize a monomorphic determinant located on the β chain of DR antigens. This antibody and a murine monoclonal antibody HU-4, also specific for the β chain of DR antigens, strongly inhibited both primary and secondary AMLR through a mechanism distinct from an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity reaction. These results indicate that the inhibition of AMLR is not a unique feature of DR α-specific antibodies. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:6205985

  9. Immunotherapy of tumors with α2-macroglobulin-antigen complexes pre-formed in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pawaria, Sudesh; Kropp, Laura E; Binder, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The cell surface receptor CD91/LRP-1 binds to immunogenic heat shock proteins (HSP) and α(2)M ligands to elicit T cell immune responses. In order to generate specific immune responses, the peptides chaperoned by HSPs or α(2)M are cross-presented on MHC molecules to T cells. While the immunogenic HSPs naturally chaperone peptides within cells and can be purified as an intact HSP-peptide complex, the peptides have had to be complexed artificially to α(2)M in previous studies. Here, we show that immunogenic α(2)M-peptide complexes can be isolated from the blood of tumor-bearing mice without further experimental manipulation in vitro demonstrating the natural association of tumor antigens with α(2)M. The naturally formed immunogenic α(2)M-peptide complexes are effective in prophylaxis and therapy of cancer in mouse models. We investigate the mechanisms of cross-presentation of associated peptides and co-stimulation by APCs that interact with α(2)M. These data have implications for vaccine design in immunotherapy of cancer and infectious disease.

  10. Eosinophil granule lysis in vitro induced by soluble antigen antibody complexes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G. T.; Nelson, Margaret; Johnston, Jill

    1969-01-01

    A simple test system is described, for the demonstration of antigen—antibody reactions capable of causing eosinophil granule lysis in vitro. The antigen preparations used were extracts of the nematode Amplicaecum robertsi and body fluid of Ascaris suum. Antisera were obtained from rats infested with Amplicaecum. Eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of normal rats. Centrifugation of the cells to form a cell button was an essential step in the procedure. Lysis of eosinophils occurred with antiserum obtained from the animals between the 12th and 32nd days of infestation with Amplicaecum, and was accompanied by vacuole formation in macrophages and mast cell disruption. The reaction was most pronounced during the 3rd week. Serum from adrenalectomized infested animals caused the most marked changes in eosinophils. Serum from cortisonetreated infested animals failed to cause eosinophil changes. Attempts at purification of the antigen in Ascaris body fluid resulted in two fractions with marked activity in the test system. The same two fractions were found to form precipitin lines on agarose gel diffusion against rat antiserum. It is postulated that antigen—antibody complexes soluble in low concentration were responsible for the changes observed in the eosinophils, macrophages and mast cells. One or more labile factors in the serum were found to be necessary for eosinophil granule lysis. The evidence, though incomplete, would favour the suggestion that both labile antibody and complement were necessary. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4982023

  11. IgM antigen receptor complex contains phosphoprotein products of B29 and mb-1 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K S; Hager, E J; Friedrich, R J; Cambier, J C

    1991-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) and mIgD are major B-lymphocyte antigen receptors, which function by internalizing antigens for processing and presentation to T cells and by transducing essential signals for proliferation and differentiation. Although ligation of mIgM or mIgD results in rapid activation of a phospholipase C and a tyrosine kinase(s), these receptors have cytoplasmic tails of only three amino acid residues (Lys-Val-Lys), which seem ill suited for direct physical coupling with cytoplasmic signal transduction structures. In this report, we identify the alpha, beta, and gamma components of the mIgM-associated phosphoprotein complex, which may play a role in signal transduction. Proteolytic peptide mapping demonstrated that the IgM-alpha chain differs from Ig-beta and Ig-gamma. The chains were purified, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed identity with two previously cloned B-cell-specific genes. One component, IgM-alpha, is a product of the mb-1 gene, and the two additional components, Ig-beta and Ig-gamma, are products of the B29 gene. Immunoblotting analysis using rabbit antibodies prepared against predicted peptide sequences of each gene product confirmed the identification of these mIgM-associated proteins. The deduced sequence indicates that these receptor subunits lack inherent protein kinase domains but include common tyrosine-containing sequence motifs, which are likely sites of induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:2023945

  12. Labor inhibits placental mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lager, S; Aye, I L M H; Gaccioli, F; Ramirez, V I; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-12-01

    Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n = 15 no-labor; n = 12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFĸB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFĸB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  14. Recombinant Lipoprotein Rv1016c Derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a TLR-2 Ligand that Induces Macrophages Apoptosis and Inhibits MHC II Antigen Processing.

    PubMed

    Su, Haibo; Zhu, Shenglin; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Wei; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    TLR2-dependent cellular signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages causes apoptosis and inhibits class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules antigen processing, leading to evasion of surveillance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipoproteins are an important class of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, and identified as specific components that mediate these effects. In this study, we identified and characterized MTB lipoprotein Rv1016c (lpqT) as a cell wall associated-protein that was exposed on the cell surface and enhanced the survival of recombinants M. smegmatis_Rv1016c under stress conditions. We found that Rv1016c lipoprotein was a novel TLR2 ligand and able to induce macrophage apoptosis in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, apoptosis induced by Rv1016c was reserved in THP-1 cells blocked with anti-TLR-2 Abs or in TLR2(-/-) mouse macrophages, indicating that Rv1016c-induced apoptosis is dependent on TLR2. Moreover, we demonstrated that Rv1016c lipoprotein inhibited IFN-γ-induced MHC-II expression and processing of soluble antigens in a TLR2 dependent manner. Class II transactivator (CIITA) regulates MHC II expression. In this context, Rv1016c lipoprotein diminished IFN-γ-induced expression of CIITA IV through TLR2 and MAPK Signaling. TLR2-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of MHC-II Ag processing induced by Rv1016c during mycobacteria infection may promote the release of residual bacilli from apoptotic cells and decrease recognition by CD4(+) T cells. These mechanisms may allow intracellular MTB to evade immune surveillance and maintain chronic infection.

  15. Recombinant Lipoprotein Rv1016c Derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a TLR-2 Ligand that Induces Macrophages Apoptosis and Inhibits MHC II Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Su, Haibo; Zhu, Shenglin; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Wei; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    TLR2-dependent cellular signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages causes apoptosis and inhibits class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules antigen processing, leading to evasion of surveillance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipoproteins are an important class of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, and identified as specific components that mediate these effects. In this study, we identified and characterized MTB lipoprotein Rv1016c (lpqT) as a cell wall associated-protein that was exposed on the cell surface and enhanced the survival of recombinants M. smegmatis_Rv1016c under stress conditions. We found that Rv1016c lipoprotein was a novel TLR2 ligand and able to induce macrophage apoptosis in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, apoptosis induced by Rv1016c was reserved in THP-1 cells blocked with anti-TLR-2 Abs or in TLR2−/− mouse macrophages, indicating that Rv1016c-induced apoptosis is dependent on TLR2. Moreover, we demonstrated that Rv1016c lipoprotein inhibited IFN-γ-induced MHC-II expression and processing of soluble antigens in a TLR2 dependent manner. Class II transactivator (CIITA) regulates MHC II expression. In this context, Rv1016c lipoprotein diminished IFN-γ-induced expression of CIITA IV through TLR2 and MAPK Signaling. TLR2-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of MHC-II Ag processing induced by Rv1016c during mycobacteria infection may promote the release of residual bacilli from apoptotic cells and decrease recognition by CD4+ T cells. These mechanisms may allow intracellular MTB to evade immune surveillance and maintain chronic infection. PMID:27917375

  16. Synthesis of biocompatible nanoparticle drug complexes for inhibition of mycobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Tejashree; Ghoderao, Prachi; Sanghavi, Sonali; Babrekar, Harshada; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ganesan, V.; Kulkarni, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most critical infectious diseases affecting the world today. Current TB treatment involves six months long daily administration of four oral doses of antibiotics. Due to severe side effects and the long treatment, a patient's adherence is low and this results in relapse of symptoms causing an alarming increase in the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Hence, it is imperative to develop a new drug delivery technology wherein these effects can be reduced. Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the widely used anti-tubercular drugs (ATD). The present study discusses the development of biocompatible nanoparticle-RIF complexes with superior inhibitory activity against both Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by gas phase condensation and NP-RIF complexes were tested against M. smegmatis SN2 strain as well as M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. These complexes showed significantly better inhibition of M. smegmatis SN2 strain at a much lower effective concentration (27.5 μg ml-1) as compared to neat RIF (125 μg ml-1). Similarly M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain was susceptible to both nanoparticle-RIF complex and neat RIF at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.22 and 1 μg ml-1, respectively. Further studies are underway to determine the efficacy of NPs-RIF complexes in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis as well as MDR isolates.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of major histocompatibility complex antigens and quantitative analysis of tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Sato, S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the anti-tumour immune responsiveness of patients with renal cell cancer (RCC), we examined 30 such patients for the degree of expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on RCC and the populations of tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIM). Normal renal tubular cells expressed class I but not class II antigens. Most of the tumour cells expressed class I antigens in 25 (83%) cases, but the proportion of such cells was reduced in five cases, three of which were of granular cell type histologically. Class II antigens were detected in all specimens with class I positivity. Various numbers of TIM were detected in 25 cases, being composed mainly of T cells and a smaller number of macrophages. Examination for the phenotype of T cells showed that CD8-positive cells were the dominant population. B cells were not detected. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of TIM were significantly lower in cases showing class I reduction than in those with normal class I expression. Therefore, it was clear that class I antigens were preserved in RCC cells in most cases. Furthermore, a higher rate of reduction of class I antigens was observed in cases of granular cell type, which has been reported to have a worse prognosis than the clear cell type. The present data suggest that degree of the expression of MHC class I antigen on RCC might influence the host immune responsiveness against it. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2206942

  18. Influence of antigen charge in the pathogenicity of immune complexes in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, T. M.; Gouveia, M. A.; Ebisui, L.; Barbosa, J. E.; Lachat, J. J.; de Carvalho, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    Immune complexes (IC) formed in the presence of excess antigen with native human anionic (AA) or cationic (CA) albumin and anti-human albumin rabbit gamma globulin were administered to 51 female Wistar rats. In animals injected with IC formed with CA, IC deposition in the renal glomeruli (glomerular capillary walls and mesangium) occurred as early as 5 min after injection. These animals also showed slight alterations in renal structure and albuminuria, whereas in the animals injected with IC formed with AA there was no IC deposition in the renal glomeruli nor any alteration in renal structure or albuminuria. The serum complement levels of animals injected with IC formed with CA were significantly lower than those observed in animals treated with similar doses of IC formed with AA. In vitro experiments also showed that the IC formed with CA fixed more complement than those formed with AA. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2 and 3 Figs. 4, 5 and 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2415147

  19. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T.; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell’s own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors—tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II—contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity. PMID:28367149

  20. Reduction of HIV-1 antigen production by phosphatidylcholine containing formulations via growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Willer, A; Heinzmann, U; Mellert, W; Kleinschmidt, A; Goebel, F D; Erfle, V

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and licensed formulations containing PC were tested for their influence on the proliferation and viability of cells permanently infected with HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1). PC alone, as well as pharmaceutical formulations containing PC, selectively inhibited the growth of productively infected lymphoid cells. The strongest growth inhibition was observed with formulations containing PC, glycerol and triglyceride together. The growth inhibition was dose-dependent for HIV-1-infected cells. Additionally, PC-containing formulations dramatically reduced antigen production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vitro with HIV-1. In vivo experiments with Rauscher-MuLV-infected mice showed that PC administered either intraperitoneally or orally was able to inhibit Rauscher-virus-induced splenomegaly. PC-containing formulations are currently used in man for supportive therapy at doses, which in vitro induced 50% growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. Such doses have been used in man without side effects for many years. Thus, PC-containing formulations may be valuable for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals.

  1. Biomedical nanoparticles modulate specific CD4+ T cell stimulation by inhibition of antigen processing in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Blank, Fabian; Gerber, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Salaklang, Jatuporn; De Peyer, Karin; Gehr, Peter; Nicod, Laurent P; Hofmann, Heinrich; Geiser, Thomas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Von Garnier, Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how nanoparticles may affect immune responses is an essential prerequisite to developing novel clinical applications. To investigate nanoparticle-dependent outcomes on immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with model biomedical poly(vinylalcohol)-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PVA-SPIONs). PVA-SPIONs uptake by human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) was analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS) and advanced imaging techniques. Viability, activation, function, and stimulatory capacity of MDDCs were assessed by FACS and an in vitro CD4+ T cell assay. PVA-SPION uptake was dose-dependent, decreased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MDDC maturation at higher particle concentrations, and was inhibited by cytochalasin D pre-treatment. PVA-SPIONs did not alter surface marker expression (CD80, CD83, CD86, myeloid/plasmacytoid DC markers) or antigen-uptake, but decreased the capacity of MDDCs to process antigen, stimulate CD4+ T cells, and induce cytokines. The decreased antigen processing and CD4+ T cell stimulation capability of MDDCs following PVA-SPION treatment suggests that MDDCs may revert to a more functionally immature state following particle exposure.

  2. Free and complexed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tello, F L; Prats, C H; González, M D

    2001-02-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance and diagnostic utility of complexed prostate-specific antigen (CPSA) and their ratios, complexed-to-total PSA (C/T PSA) and free-to-complexed PSA (F/C PSA), in comparison with the total PSA (TPSA) and free-to-total PSA ratio (F/T PSA) as means of diagnosing prostate cancer (PC). Samples (n=101) were drawn from men with no evidence of malignancy (n=80) and from men with PC (n=21) at biopsy. For determination of the F/T PSA ratio, the DPC Immulite-2000 method was used; and the Bayer Immuno-1 CPSA and TPSA assays were used to determine the C/T PSA ratio. The Bayer Immuno-1 CPSA assay provides accurate and precise CPSA values in human serum. The performance of the different forms and ratios was compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. CPSA had the greatest area under the curve (AUC, 0.689) although it was not statistically different from the other parameters. A cut-off value of 4.66 ng/ml for CPSA provided a specificity of 38% and a sensitivity of 93%. The F/C PSA ratio maintained a sensitivity of 93% and had an increased specificity of 41%. The measurement of CPSA provides a slight increase in specificity compared with the use of the TPSA in the early detection of prostate cancer.

  3. Presentation of antigen in immune complexes is boosted by soluble bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Léonetti, M; Galon, J; Thai, R; Sautès-Fridman, C; Moine, G; Ménez, A

    1999-04-19

    Using a snake toxin as a proteic antigen (Ag), two murine toxin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), splenocytes, and two murine Ag-specific T cell hybridomas, we showed that soluble protein A (SpA) from Staphylococcus aureus and protein G from Streptococcus subspecies, two Ig binding proteins (IBPs), not only abolish the capacity of the mAbs to decrease Ag presentation but also increase Ag presentation 20-100-fold. Five lines of evidence suggest that this phenomenon results from binding of an IBP-Ab-Ag complex to B cells possessing IBP receptors. First, we showed that SpA is likely to boost presentation of a free mAb, suggesting that the IBP-boosted presentation of an Ag in an immune complex results from the binding of IBP to the mAb. Second, FACS analyses showed that an Ag-Ab complex is preferentially targeted by SpA to a subpopulation of splenocytes mainly composed of B cells. Third, SpA-dependent boosted presentation of an Ag-Ab complex is further enhanced when splenocytes are enriched in cells containing SpA receptors. Fourth, the boosting effect largely diminishes when splenocytes are depleted of cells containing SpA receptors. Fifth, the boosting effect occurs only when IBP simultaneously contains a Fab and an Fc binding site. Altogether, our data suggest that soluble IBPs can bridge immune complexes to APCs containing IBP receptors, raising the possibility that during an infection process by bacteria secreting these IBPs, Ag-specific T cells may activate IBP receptor-containing B cells by a mechanism of intermolecular help, thus leading to a nonspecific immune response.

  4. Human Prostate Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8+ Regulatory T Cells are Inhibited by CTLA-4 or IL-35 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brian M.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Becker, Jordan T.; Vignali, Dario A.A.; Burlingham, William J.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells play important roles in cancer development and progression by limiting the generation of innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity. We hypothesized that in addition to natural CD4+CD25+ Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor antigen-specific regulatory T cells interfere with the detection of anti-tumor immunity following immunotherapy. Using samples from prostate cancer patients immunized with a DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and a trans-vivo delayed type hypersensitivity (tvDTH) assay, we found that the detection of PAP-specific effector responses following immunization was prevented by the activity of PAP-specific regulatory cells. These regulatory cells were CD8+CTLA-4+, and their suppression was relieved by blockade of CTLA-4, but not IL-10 or TGF-β. Moreover, antigen-specific CD8+ regulatory T cells were detected prior to immunization in the absence of PAP-specific effector responses. These PAP-specific CD8+CTLA-4+ suppressor T cells expressed IL-35, which was decreased following blockade of CTLA-4, and inhibition of either CTLA-4 or IL-35 reversed PAP-specific suppression of tvDTH response. PAP-specific CD8+CTLA-4+ T cells also suppressed T-cell proliferation in an IL-35-dependent, contact-independent fashion. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel population of CD8+CTLA-4+ IL-35-secreting tumor antigen-specific regulatory T cells arise spontaneously in some prostate cancer patients, persist during immunization, and can prevent the detection of antigen-specific effector responses by an IL-35-dependent mechanism. PMID:23152566

  5. Sera of glaucoma patients show autoantibodies against myelin basic protein and complex autoantibody profiles against human optic nerve antigens.

    PubMed

    Joachim, Stephanie C; Reichelt, Jan; Berneiser, Simone; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more information about the possible immunological mechanisms in glaucoma. We analyzed the complex autoantibody patterns against human optic nerve antigens in sera of patients with glaucoma and tried to identify important antigens. Sera of 133 patients were included: healthy control subjects (n = 44), primary open-angle glaucoma (n = 44), and normal tension glaucoma patients (n = 45). The sera were tested against Western blots of human optic nerve, and antibody bands were visualized with chloronaphthol. IgG antibody patterns were analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques, and the most significant antigens were identified by mass spectrometry (Maldi-TOFTOF). All subjects, even healthy ones, showed different and complex antibody patterns. Glaucoma groups showed specific up- and down-regulations of antibody reactivities compared to the control group. The multivariate analysis of discriminance found significant differences (P < 0.05) in IgG antibody profiles against human optic nerve antigens between both glaucoma groups and healthy subjects. The identified antigens include: myelin basic protein (up-regulated in the POAG group), glial fibrillary acidic protein (down-regulated in the glaucoma groups), and vimentin (down-regulated in the glaucoma groups in comparison to controls). Using human optic nerve antigen, we were able to demonstrate that complex IgG autoantibody patterns exist in sera of patients with glaucoma. Large correlations between the given and our previous studies using bovine optic nerve antigens could be seen. Furthermore, anti-myelin basic protein antibodies, which can also be detected in patients with multiple sclerosis, were found in sera of glaucoma patients.

  6. Inhibition of TDP-43 Accumulation by Bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-Copper Complexes

    PubMed Central

    James, Janine L.; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M.; Lim, SinChun; Paterson, Brett M.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, motor neuron disease with no effective long-term treatment options. Recently, TDP-43 has been identified as a key protein in the pathogenesis of some cases of ALS. Although the role of TDP-43 in motor neuron degeneration is not yet known, TDP-43 has been shown to accumulate in RNA stress granules (SGs) in cell models and in spinal cord tissue from ALS patients. The SG association may be an early pathological change to TDP-43 metabolism and as such a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Accumulation of TDP-43 in SGs induced by inhibition of mitochondrial activity can be inhibited by modulation of cellular kinase activity. We have also found that treatment of cells and animal models of neurodegeneration, including an ALS model, with bioavailable bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copperII complexes (CuII(btsc)s) can modulate kinase activity and induce neuroprotective effects. In this study we examined the effect of diacetylbis(-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copperII (CuII(atsm)) and glyoxalbis(-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copperII (CuII(gtsm)) on TDP-43-positive SGs induced in SH-SY5Y cells in culture. We found that the CuII(btsc)s blocked formation of TDP-43-and human antigen R (HuR)-positive SGs induced by paraquat. The CuII(btsc)s protected neurons from paraquat-mediated cell death. These effects were associated with inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Co-treatment of cultures with either CuII(atsm) or an ERK inhibitor, PD98059 both prevented ERK activation and blocked formation of TDP-43-and HuR-positive SGs. CuII(atsm) treatment or ERK inhibition also prevented abnormal ubiquitin accumulation in paraquat-treated cells suggesting a link between prolonged ERK activation and abnormal ubiquitin metabolism in paraquat stress and inhibition by Cu. Moreover, CuII(atsm) reduced accumulation of C-terminal (219–414) TDP-43 in transfected SH-SY5Y cells. These results demonstrate that CuII(btsc) complexes could

  7. Accurate structure prediction of peptide–MHC complexes for identifying highly immunogenic antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Min-Sun; Park, Sung Yong; Miller, Keith R.; Collins, Edward J.; Lee, Ha Youn

    2013-11-01

    Designing an optimal HIV-1 vaccine faces the challenge of identifying antigens that induce a broad immune capacity. One factor to control the breadth of T cell responses is the surface morphology of a peptide–MHC complex. Here, we present an in silico protocol for predicting peptide–MHC structure. A robust signature of a conformational transition was identified during all-atom molecular dynamics, which results in a model with high accuracy. A large test set was used in constructing our protocol and we went another step further using a blind test with a wild-type peptide and two highly immunogenic mutants, which predicted substantial conformational changes in both mutants. The center residues at position five of the analogs were configured to be accessible to solvent, forming a prominent surface, while the residue of the wild-type peptide was to point laterally toward the side of the binding cleft. We then experimentally determined the structures of the blind test set, using high resolution of X-ray crystallography, which verified predicted conformational changes. Our observation strongly supports a positive association of the surface morphology of a peptide–MHC complex to its immunogenicity. Our study offers the prospect of enhancing immunogenicity of vaccines by identifying MHC binding immunogens.

  8. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein-RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-02-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus.

  9. Characterization of anti-P monoclonal antibodies directed against the ribosomal protein–RNA complex antigen and produced using Murphy Roths large autoimmune-prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Onozuka, M; Hagiya, A; Hoshino, S; Narita, I; Uchiumi, T

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies, including anti-ribosomal P proteins (anti-P), are thought to be produced by an antigen-driven immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted the ribosomal antigenic complex in vitro using human P0, phosphorylated P1 and P2 and a 28S rRNA fragment covering the P0 binding site, and immunized Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lrp lupus mice with this complex without any added adjuvant to generate anti-P antibodies. Using hybridoma technology, we subsequently obtained 34 clones, each producing an anti-P monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized the conserved C-terminal tail sequence common to all three P proteins. We also obtained two P0-specific monoclonal antibodies, but no antibody specific to P1, P2 or rRNA fragment. Two types of mAbs were found among these anti-P antibodies: one type (e.g. 9D5) reacted more strongly with the phosphorylated P1 and P2 than that with their non-phosphorylated forms, whereas the other type (e.g. 4H11) reacted equally with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of P1/P2. Both 9D5 and 4H11 inhibited the ribosome/eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2)-coupled guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase activity. However, preincubation with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to all three P proteins, but not the peptide that lacked the last three C-terminal amino acids, mostly prevented the mAb-induced inhibition of GTPase activity. Thus, at least two types of anti-P were produced preferentially following the immunization of MRL mice with the reconstituted antigenic complex. Presence of multiple copies of the C-termini, particularly that of the last three C-terminal amino acid residues, in the antigenic complex appears to contribute to the immunogenic stimulus. PMID:25255895

  10. Complex regulation of transcription from the hepatitis B virus major surface antigen promoter in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Raney, A K; Milich, D R; McLachlan, A

    1991-01-01

    A detailed mutational analysis of the regulatory DNA sequence elements that control expression of the hepatitis B virus major surface antigen gene was performed in the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2.1 and Huh7, using transient transfection assays. Seven regions (A to G) of the major surface antigen promoter located within 200 nucleotides of the RNA initiation site have been identified which influence the level of transcription from this promoter. The three distal regions (A to C), located between -188 and -68, appear to possess a level of redundancy in their ability to influence the transcriptional activity from the major surface antigen promoter. The simultaneous deletion of regions A, B, and C resulted in an approximately fourfold reduction in transcription from the major surface antigen promoter. Region D, located between -67 and -49, is an essential element of the major surface antigen promoter. The three proximal regions (E to G) are located within 45 nucleotides of the major transcription initiation site. Region E prevents the negative influence of region F and can compensate for the effect of mutation of region G on transcription from the major surface antigen promoter. Region G can compensate for the effect of the loss of a functional region E sequence on the transcriptional activity of the major surface antigen promoter only in the absence of a functional region F sequence. These results imply that the level of expression of the major surface antigen gene is controlled by the complex interplay between a minimum of six transcription factors which activate and one transcription factor which represses transcription from this gene. PMID:1651407

  11. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bajenova, Olga; Chaika, Nina; Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander; Gapon, Svetlana; Thomas, Peter; O’Brien, Stephen

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  12. Tricomponent complex loaded with a mosquito-stage antigen of the malaria parasite induces potent transmission-blocking immunity.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takeshi; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sakao, Kozue; Torii, Motomi; Miyata, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    The development of malaria vaccines is challenging, partly because the immunogenicity of recombinant malaria parasite antigens is low. We previously demonstrated that parasite antigens integrated into a tricomponent immunopotentiating complex increase antiparasitic immunity. In this study, the B domains of a group G Streptococcus (SpG) strain and Peptostreptococcus magnus (PpL) were used to evaluate whether vaccine efficacy is influenced by the type of immunoglobulin-binding domain (IBD) in the tricomponent complex. IBDs were fused to a pentameric cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase the binding avidity of the complexes for their targets. The COMP-IBD fusion proteins generated (COMP-SpG and COMP-PpL and the previously constructed COMP-Z) bound a large fraction of splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. These carrier molecules were then loaded with an ookinete surface protein of Plasmodium vivax, Pvs25, by chemical conjugation. The administration of the tricomponent complexes to mice induced more Pvs25-specific serum IgG than did the unloaded antigen. The PpL complex, which exhibited a broad Ig-binding spectrum, conferred higher vaccine efficacy than did the Z or SpG complexes when evaluated with a membrane feed assay. This study demonstrates that this tricomponent immunopotentiating system, incorporating IBDs as the B-lymphocyte-targeting ligands, is a promising technology for the delivery of malaria vaccines, particularly when combined with an aluminum salt adjuvant.

  13. Identification of small molecules that inhibit the interaction of TEM8 with anthrax protective antigen using a FRET assay

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Lorna M.; Habeshian, Kaiane A.; Caldwell, Thomas P.; Morris, Meredith T.; Ackroyd, P. Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A.; Rogers, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor marker endothelial 8 (TEM8) is a receptor for the Protective Antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin. TEM8 is upregulated on endothelial cells lining the blood vessels within tumors, compared to normal blood vessels. A number of studies have demonstrated a pivotal role for TEM8 in developmental and tumor angiogenesis. We have also shown that targeting the anthrax receptors with a mutated form of PA inhibits angiogenesis and tumor formation in vivo. Here we describe the development and testing of a high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay to identify molecules that strongly inhibit the interaction of PA and TEM8. The assay we describe is sensitive and robust, with a Z-prime value of 0.8. A preliminary screen of 2310 known bioactive library compounds identified ebselen and thimerosal as inhibitors of the TEM8-PA interaction. These molecules each contain a cysteine-reactive transition metal, and complimentary studies indicate that their inhibition of interaction is due to modification of a cysteine residue in the TEM8 extracellular domain. This is the first demonstration of a high-throughput screening assay that identifies inhibitors of TEM8, with potential application for anti-anthrax and anti-angiogenic diseases. PMID:23479355

  14. A large-tumor-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody inhibits DNA replication of simian virus 40 minichromosomes in an in vitro elongation system.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, H; Dröge, P; Zentgraf, H; Knippers, R

    1985-01-01

    In productively infected cells, a fraction of large-tumor antigen (T antigen) is tightly bound to replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) minichromosomes and does not dissociate at salt concentrations of greater than 1 M NaCl. We present electronmicrograms demonstrating the presence of T antigen on the replicated sections of replicating SV40 minichromosomes. We also show that the fraction of tightly bound T antigen is recognized by antibodies from mouse tumor serum and, more specifically, by a particular T-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody, PAb 1630. A second T-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody, PAb 101, does not react with the T-antigen fraction remaining on replicating SV40 chromatin at high salt concentrations. We used an in vitro replication system which allows, via semiconservative DNA replication, the completion of in vivo-initiated replicative intermediate DNA molecules. We show that monoclonal antibody PAb 1630, but not monoclonal antibody PAb 101, inhibits viral DNA replication. We discuss the possibility that SV40 T antigen may play a role in chain elongation during SV40 chromatin replication. Images PMID:2985809

  15. Pharmacologic IKK/NF-κB inhibition causes antigen presenting cells to undergo TNFα dependent ROS-mediated programmed cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Gaddy, Daniel F.; Zhao, Jing; Davé, Shaival H.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Plevy, Scott E.; Robbins, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte-derived antigen presenting cells (APC) are central mediators of the innate and adaptive immune response in inflammatory diseases. As such, APC are appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention to ameliorate certain diseases. APC differentiation, activation and functions are regulated by the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Herein, we examined the effect of NF-κB inhibition, via suppression of the IκB Kinase (IKK) complex, on APC function. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), as well as macrophage and DC lines, underwent rapid programmed cell death (PCD) after treatment with several IKK/NF-κB inhibitors through a TNFα-dependent mechanism. PCD was induced proximally by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which causes a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of a caspase signaling cascade. NF-κB-inhibition-induced PCD of APC may be a key mechanism through which therapeutic targeting of NF-κB reduces inflammatory pathologies.

  16. Structure of an anti-Lewis X Fab fragment in complex with its Lewis X antigen.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Pannu, Navraj S; de Vrind, Johannes P M; van der Marel, Gijs A; van Boom, Jacques H; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2004-07-01

    The Lewis X trisaccharide is pivotal in mediating specific cell-cell interactions. Monoclonal antibody 291-2G3-A, which was generated from mice infected with schistosomes, has been shown to recognize the Lewis X trisaccharide. Here we describe the structure of the Fab fragment of 291-2G3-A, with Lewis X, to 1.8 A resolution. The crystallographic analysis revealed that the antigen binding site is a rather shallow binding pocket, and residues from all six complementary determining regions of the antibody contact all sugar residues. The high specificity of the binding pocket does not result in high affinity; the K(D) determined by isothermal calorimetry is 11 microM. However, this affinity is in the same range as for other sugar-antibody complexes. The detailed understanding of the antibody-Lewis X interaction revealed by the crystal structure may be helpful in the design of better diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis and for studying Lewis X-mediated cell-cell interactions by antibody interference.

  17. EAU in the guinea pig: inhibition of cell-mediated immunity and Ia antigen expression by cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    Liversidge, J; Thomson, A W; Sewell, H F; Forrester, J V

    1987-01-01

    Guinea pigs were immunized subcutaneously with highly purified bovine retinal S antigen (SAg) in complete Freund's adjuvant and treated from day 0 with cyclosporin A (CsA; 25 mg/kg by mouth) or drug vehicle. Skin tests carried out at 7 and 13 days showed maximal reactions to SAg at 24 h; at 13 days, however, strong, early, 'Arthus'-like responses to SAg were also recorded. CsA profoundly reduced DTH skin reactions to SAg and PPD, and prevented vitreal inflammation assessed at 17 days and retinal damage. Lymphocytes from the draining lymph nodes but not spleens of immunized guinea pigs showed a proliferative response to SAg which was suppressed by CsA administration. Responses to PHA, Con A or LPS were not so affected. Immunohistochemical staining (alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase; APAAP) of the eye with newly available monoclonal antibodies to guinea pig T lymphocytes revealed a predominantly T cytotoxic/suppressor cell (Tc/s) infiltrate of the choroid and retina. CsA administration did not affect choroidal infiltration of Tc/s cells but markedly inhibited Ia antigen expression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3478162

  18. Targeting Tumor Initiating Cells through Inhibition of Cancer Testis Antigens and Notch Signaling: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Michela; Mirandola, Leonardo; Reidy, Adair; Suvorava, Natallia; Konala, Venu; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Grizzi, Fabio; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Nugyen, Diane D; Dalhbeck, Scott; Cobos, Everardo; Figueroa, Jose A; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) differ from normal stem cells (SCs) in their ability to initiate tumorigenesis, invasive growth, metastasis and the acquisition of chemo and/or radio-resistance. Over the past years, several studies have indicated the potential role of the Notch system as a key regulator of cellular stemness and tumor development. Furthermore, the expression of cancer testis antigens (CTA) in TICs, and their role in SC differentiation and biology, has become an important area of investigation. Here, we propose a model in which CTA expression and Notch signaling interacts to maintain the sustainability of self-replicating tumor populations, ultimately leading to the development of metastasis, drug resistance and cancer progression. We hypothesize that Notch-CTA interactions in TICs offer a novel opportunity for meaningful therapeutic interventions in cancer.

  19. Identifying Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen 3 (MSP3) protein peptides that bind specifically to erythrocytes and inhibit merozoite invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Luis E.; Curtidor, Hernando; Ocampo, Marisol; Garcia, Javier; Puentes, Alvaro; Valbuena, John; Vera, Ricardo; López, Ramses; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    Receptor–ligand interactions between synthetic peptides and normal human erythrocytes were studied to determine Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) FC27 strain regions that specifically bind to membrane surface receptors on human erythrocytes. Three MSP-3 protein high activity binding peptides (HABPs) were identified; their binding to erythrocytes became saturable, had nanomolar affinity constants, and became sensitive on being treated with neuraminidase and trypsin but were resistant to chymotrypsin treatment. All of them specifically recognized 45-, 55-, and 72-kDa erythrocyte membrane proteins. They all presented α-helix structural elements. All HABPs inhibited in vitro P. falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes by ~55%–85%, suggesting that MSP-3 protein’s role in the invasion process probably functions by using mechanisms similar to those described for other MSP family antigens. PMID:15987906

  20. Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells after Immunization with DNA Encoding a Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II–restricted Viral Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Casares, Sofia; Inaba, Kayo; Brumeanu, Teodor-Doru; Steinman, Ralph M.; Bona, Constantin A.

    1997-01-01

    Intramuscular and intracutaneous immunization with naked DNA can vaccinate animals to the encoded proteins, but the underlying mechanisms of antigen presentation are unclear. We used DNA that encodes an A/PR/8/34 influenza peptide for CD4 T cells and that elicits protective antiviral immunity. DNA-transfected, cultured muscle cells released the influenza polypeptide, which then could be presented on the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of dendritic cells. When DNA was injected into muscles or skin, and antigen-presenting cells were isolated from either the draining lymph nodes or the skin, dendritic, but not B, cells presented antigen to T cells and carried plasmid DNA. We suggest that the uptake of DNA and/or the protein expressed by dendritic cells triggers immune responses to DNA vaccines. PMID:9348305

  1. Antigen-specific detection of HBsAG-containing immune complexes in the course of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, W; Sodomann, C P; Lüben, G; Seiler, F R; Sedlacek, H H

    1979-01-01

    In recent studies extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis have been recognized as immune complex diseases. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been successfully identified in immune complexes, but the pathogenic role of HBsAg-containing immune complexes (IC) remains questionable. The subject of the present study was the antigen-specific determination of IC in the course of hepatitis B virus infection using a new HBsAg-specific IC test (Pernice & Sedlacek, 1978). This test is based on the following principle: rabbit anti-HBs-coated polystyrole test tubes are incubated with the IC-containing test sample. The HBsAg-containing IC bind to the solid phase by their free antigenic determinants. There they can be quantified using a peroxidase-labelled anti-human IgG antibody. A good correlation was found between the level of HBsAg-containing immune complexes and the clinical state of six patients in a follow-up study. IC could be detected simultaneously with HBsAg and either decreased or disappeared before the occurrence of free anti-HBs. In the sera of an additional twenty-eight patient suffering from chronic active hepatitis, HBsAg-containing immune complexes were detected in 85% of cases. One patient suffering from polyarteritis nodosa was also positive. Occasionally, extremely high levels of IC were found in the course of these diseases. PMID:91465

  2. Viral inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP): a striking example of functional convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Marieke C; Horst, Daniëlle; Griffin, Bryan D; Luteijn, Rutger D; Davison, Andrew J; Ressing, Maaike E; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2015-04-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses that are highly abundant within their host populations. Even in the presence of a healthy immune system, these viruses manage to cause lifelong infections. This persistence is partially mediated by the virus entering latency, a phase of infection characterized by limited viral protein expression. Moreover, herpesviruses have devoted a significant part of their coding capacity to immune evasion strategies. It is believed that the close coexistence of herpesviruses and their hosts has resulted in the evolution of viral proteins that specifically attack multiple arms of the host immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in antiviral immunity. CTLs recognize their target through viral peptides presented in the context of MHC molecules at the cell surface. Every herpesvirus studied to date encodes multiple immune evasion molecules that effectively interfere with specific steps of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. This is reflected by the numerous ways herpesviruses have developed to block TAP function. In this review, we describe the characteristics and mechanisms of action of all known virus-encoded TAP inhibitors. Orthologs of these proteins encoded by related viruses are identified, and the conservation of TAP inhibition is discussed. A phylogenetic analysis of members of the family Herpesviridae is included to study the origin of these molecules. In addition, we discuss the characteristics of the first TAP inhibitor identified outside the herpesvirus family, namely, in cowpox virus. The strategies of TAP inhibition employed by viruses are very distinct and are likely to have been acquired independently during evolution. These findings and the recent discovery of a non-herpesvirus TAP inhibitor represent a striking example of functional convergent evolution.

  3. Viral Inhibition of the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP): A Striking Example of Functional Convergent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marieke C.; Horst, Daniëlle; Griffin, Bryan D.; Luteijn, Rutger D.; Davison, Andrew J.; Ressing, Maaike E.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses that are highly abundant within their host populations. Even in the presence of a healthy immune system, these viruses manage to cause lifelong infections. This persistence is partially mediated by the virus entering latency, a phase of infection characterized by limited viral protein expression. Moreover, herpesviruses have devoted a significant part of their coding capacity to immune evasion strategies. It is believed that the close coexistence of herpesviruses and their hosts has resulted in the evolution of viral proteins that specifically attack multiple arms of the host immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in antiviral immunity. CTLs recognize their target through viral peptides presented in the context of MHC molecules at the cell surface. Every herpesvirus studied to date encodes multiple immune evasion molecules that effectively interfere with specific steps of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. This is reflected by the numerous ways herpesviruses have developed to block TAP function. In this review, we describe the characteristics and mechanisms of action of all known virus-encoded TAP inhibitors. Orthologs of these proteins encoded by related viruses are identified, and the conservation of TAP inhibition is discussed. A phylogenetic analysis of members of the family Herpesviridae is included to study the origin of these molecules. In addition, we discuss the characteristics of the first TAP inhibitor identified outside the herpesvirus family, namely, in cowpox virus. The strategies of TAP inhibition employed by viruses are very distinct and are likely to have been acquired independently during evolution. These findings and the recent discovery of a non-herpesvirus TAP inhibitor represent a striking example of functional convergent evolution

  4. Crystal Structure of Plasmodium knowlesi Apical Membrane Antigen 1 and Its Complex with an Invasion-Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Marjolein; Thomas, Alan W.; Singh, Balbir; Kocken, Clemens H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, previously associated only with infection of macaques, is now known to infect humans as well and has become a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia. This species should therefore be targeted in vaccine and therapeutic strategies against human malaria. Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), which plays a role in Plasmodium merozoite invasion of the erythrocyte, is currently being pursued in human vaccine trials against P. falciparum. Recent vaccine trials in macaques using the P. knowlesi orthologue PkAMA1 have shown that it protects against infection by this parasite species and thus should be developed for human vaccination as well. Here, we present the crystal structure of Domains 1 and 2 of the PkAMA1 ectodomain, and of its complex with the invasion-inhibitory monoclonal antibody R31C2. The Domain 2 (D2) loop, which is displaced upon binding the Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2) receptor, makes significant contacts with the antibody. R31C2 inhibits binding of the Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2) receptor by steric blocking of the hydrophobic groove and by preventing the displacement of the D2 loop which is essential for exposing the complete binding site on AMA1. R31C2 recognizes a non-polymorphic epitope and should thus be cross-strain reactive. PkAMA1 is much less polymorphic than the P. falciparum and P. vivax orthologues. Unlike these two latter species, there are no polymorphic sites close to the RON2-binding site of PkAMA1, suggesting that P. knowlesi has not developed a mechanism of immune escape from the host’s humoral response to AMA1. PMID:25886591

  5. Effects of messenger RNA structure and other translational control mechanisms on major histocompatibility complex-I mediated antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Pierre; Tellam, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Effective T-cell surveillance of antigen-presenting cells is dependent on the expression of an array of antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-I) or class II (MHC-II) molecules. Pathogens co-evolving with their hosts exploit crucial translational regulatory mechanisms in order to evade host immune recognition and thereby sustain their infection. Evasion strategies that downregulate viral protein synthesis and thereby restrict antigen presentation to cytotoxic T-cells through the endogenous MHC-I pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral-associated malignancies. An understanding of the mechanisms by which messenger RNA (mRNA) structure modulates both viral mRNA translation and the antigen processing machinery to escape immune surveillance, will stimulate the development of alternative therapeutic strategies focused on RNA-directed drugs designed to enhance immune responses against infected cells. In this review, we discuss regulatory aspects of the MHC-I pathway and summarize current knowledge of the role attributed by mRNA structure and other translational regulatory mechanisms in immune evasion. In particular we highlight the impact of recently identified G-quadruplex structures within virally encoded transcripts as unique regulatory signals for translational control and antigen presentation. WIREs RNA 2015, 6:157–171. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1262 PMID:25264139

  6. Effects of messenger RNA structure and other translational control mechanisms on major histocompatibility complex-I mediated antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Murat, Pierre; Tellam, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Effective T-cell surveillance of antigen-presenting cells is dependent on the expression of an array of antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-I) or class II (MHC-II) molecules. Pathogens co-evolving with their hosts exploit crucial translational regulatory mechanisms in order to evade host immune recognition and thereby sustain their infection. Evasion strategies that downregulate viral protein synthesis and thereby restrict antigen presentation to cytotoxic T-cells through the endogenous MHC-I pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral-associated malignancies. An understanding of the mechanisms by which messenger RNA (mRNA) structure modulates both viral mRNA translation and the antigen processing machinery to escape immune surveillance, will stimulate the development of alternative therapeutic strategies focused on RNA-directed drugs designed to enhance immune responses against infected cells. In this review, we discuss regulatory aspects of the MHC-I pathway and summarize current knowledge of the role attributed by mRNA structure and other translational regulatory mechanisms in immune evasion. In particular we highlight the impact of recently identified G-quadruplex structures within virally encoded transcripts as unique regulatory signals for translational control and antigen presentation.

  7. Structure-based non-canonical amino acid design to covalently crosslink an antibody-antigen complex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianqing; Tack, Drew; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2014-02-01

    Engineering antibodies to utilize non-canonical amino acids (NCAA) should greatly expand the utility of an already important biological reagent. In particular, introducing crosslinking reagents into antibody complementarity determining regions (CDRs) should provide a means to covalently crosslink residues at the antibody-antigen interface. Unfortunately, finding the optimum position for crosslinking two proteins is often a matter of iterative guessing, even when the interface is known in atomic detail. Computer-aided antibody design can potentially greatly restrict the number of variants that must be explored in order to identify successful crosslinking sites. We have therefore used Rosetta to guide the introduction of an oxidizable crosslinking NCAA, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), into the CDRs of the anti-protective antigen scFv antibody M18, and have measured crosslinking to its cognate antigen, domain 4 of the anthrax protective antigen. Computed crosslinking distance, solvent accessibility, and interface energetics were three factors considered that could impact the efficiency of l-DOPA-mediated crosslinking. In the end, 10 variants were synthesized, and crosslinking efficiencies were generally 10% or higher, with the best variant crosslinking to 52% of the available antigen. The results suggest that computational analysis can be used in a pipeline for engineering crosslinking antibodies. The rules learned from l-DOPA crosslinking of antibodies may also be generalizable to the formation of other crosslinked interfaces and complexes.

  8. Antigenicity in sheep of synthetic peptides derived from stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins and comparison with recombinant protein and complex native antigens.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-03-15

    Serum antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is the most commonly used test for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ruminants. However, the assay requires serum preabsorption with Mycobacterium phlei proteins to reduce cross reactions potentially contributed by the exposure of livestock to environmental mycobacteria. To trial the discovery of novel antigens which do not require serum absorption, synthetic MAP-specific peptides were selected based on in silico research to identify putative B cell epitopes. Four peptides from previously identified stress-regulated proteins were synthesized and evaluated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep. Two peptides were from hypothetical MAP proteins (MAP3567 and MAP1168c) and two were from proteins with known function (MAP2698c, an acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase-DesA2 and MAP2487c a carbonic anhydrase). The ability of each peptide to discriminate between unexposed and MAP exposed (infected and vaccinated) animals was similar to that of the parent recombinant MAP antigen, with area under receiver operating curve values of 0.86-0.93. Assays run with a combination of two peptides showed slightly higher reactivity than those of individual peptides. Peptides evaluated in this study had diagnostic potential similar to corresponding recombinant proteins but not superior to a complex native MAP antigen or a commercial assay. Further study is required to investigate other peptides for their diagnostic potential, and this may be simpler and cheaper than subunit protein-based research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Varying expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens on human renal endothelium and epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P. R.; Trickett, L. P.; Smith, J. L.; MacIver, A. G.; Tate, D.; Slapak, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pre-anastomosis wedge biopsies from 14 cadaveric donor kidneys were examined for the expression of class I (HLA-ABC) and class II (HLA-DR) antigens in renal tissue. Two monoclonal antibodies to class I antigens and four to class II antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Consistent expression of both antigens was demonstrated on the surface of glomerular, peritubular capillary and venous endothelial cells. Renal arteries contained only class I antigens. Proximal tubules contained varying amounts of each antigen in their cytoplasm. Sixteen human lymphocytotoxic allo-antisera showed marked variation in their ability to detect HLA antigens on the kidney. The selection of donors for recipients of renal allografts involves the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test and the failure of some lymphocytotoxic antisera to bind to the kidney indicates that some suitable patients may be incorrectly excluded. The use of a binding assay using an immunoperoxidase technique should be included in cross-match techniques particularly for patients who have high levels of circulating cytotoxic antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3855644

  10. Need for tripeptidyl-peptidase II in major histocompatibility complex class I viral antigen processing when proteasomes are detrimental.

    PubMed

    Guil, Sara; Rodríguez-Castro, Marta; Aguilar, Francisco; Villasevil, Eugenia M; Antón, Luis C; Del Val, Margarita

    2006-12-29

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes recognize infected cells that display virus-derived antigenic peptides complexed with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Peptides are mainly byproducts of cellular protein turnover by cytosolic proteasomes. Cytosolic tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) also participates in protein degradation. Several peptidic epitopes unexpectedly do not require proteasomes, but it is unclear which proteases generate them. We studied antigen processing of influenza virus nucleoprotein epitope NP(147-155), an archetype epitope that is even destroyed by a proteasome-mediated mechanism. TPPII, with the assistance of endoplasmic reticulum trimming metallo-aminopeptidases, probably ERAAP (endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing), was crucial for nucleoprotein epitope generation both in the presence of functional proteasomes and when blocked by lactacystin, as shown with specific chemical inhibitors and gene silencing. Different protein contexts and subcellular targeting all allowed epitope processing by TPPII as well as trimming. The results show the plasticity of the cell's assortment of proteases for providing ligands for recognition by antiviral CD8(+) T cells. Our observations identify for the first time a set of proteases competent for antigen processing of an epitope that is susceptible to destruction by proteasomes.

  11. Investigating Substitutions in Antibody–Antigen Complexes Using Molecular Dynamics: A Case Study with Broad-spectrum, Influenza A Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lees, William D.; Stejskal, Lenka; Moss, David S.; Shepherd, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    In studying the binding of host antibodies to the surface antigens of pathogens, the structural and functional characterization of antibody–antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is important. However, the characterization requires experiments that are typically time consuming and expensive: thus, many antibody–antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to assess the impact of amino acid substitutions on antibody binding. For example, are there antibody substitutions capable of improving binding without a loss of breadth, or antigen substitutions that lead to antigenic escape? The questions cannot be answered reliably from sequence variation alone, exhaustive substitution assays are usually impractical, and alanine scans provide at best an incomplete identification of the critical residue–residue interactions. Here, we show that, given an initial structure of an antibody bound to an antigen, molecular dynamics simulations using the energy method molecular mechanics with Generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) can model the impact of single amino acid substitutions on antibody–antigen binding energy. We apply the technique to three broad-spectrum antibodies to influenza A hemagglutinin and examine both previously characterized and novel variant strains observed in the human population that may give rise to antigenic escape. We find that in some cases the impact of a substitution is local, while in others it causes a reorientation of the antibody with wide-ranging impact on residue–residue interactions: this explains, in part, why the change in chemical properties of a residue can be, on its own, a poor predictor of overall change in binding energy. Our estimates are in good agreement with experimental results—indeed, they approximate the degree of agreement between different experimental techniques. Simulations were performed on commodity computer hardware; hence

  12. Investigating Substitutions in Antibody-Antigen Complexes Using Molecular Dynamics: A Case Study with Broad-spectrum, Influenza A Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lees, William D; Stejskal, Lenka; Moss, David S; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    In studying the binding of host antibodies to the surface antigens of pathogens, the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is important. However, the characterization requires experiments that are typically time consuming and expensive: thus, many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to assess the impact of amino acid substitutions on antibody binding. For example, are there antibody substitutions capable of improving binding without a loss of breadth, or antigen substitutions that lead to antigenic escape? The questions cannot be answered reliably from sequence variation alone, exhaustive substitution assays are usually impractical, and alanine scans provide at best an incomplete identification of the critical residue-residue interactions. Here, we show that, given an initial structure of an antibody bound to an antigen, molecular dynamics simulations using the energy method molecular mechanics with Generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) can model the impact of single amino acid substitutions on antibody-antigen binding energy. We apply the technique to three broad-spectrum antibodies to influenza A hemagglutinin and examine both previously characterized and novel variant strains observed in the human population that may give rise to antigenic escape. We find that in some cases the impact of a substitution is local, while in others it causes a reorientation of the antibody with wide-ranging impact on residue-residue interactions: this explains, in part, why the change in chemical properties of a residue can be, on its own, a poor predictor of overall change in binding energy. Our estimates are in good agreement with experimental results-indeed, they approximate the degree of agreement between different experimental techniques. Simulations were performed on commodity computer hardware; hence, this approach

  13. T-cell receptor gene therapy targeting melanoma-associated antigen-A4 inhibits human tumor growth in non-obese diabetic/SCID/γcnull mice.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yukari; Wang, Linan; Imai, Naoko; Amaike, Chisaki; Sato, Eiichi; Ito, Mamoru; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to express tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. We have been exploring the development of TCR gene therapy targeting cancer/testis antigens, including melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family antigens, that are ideal targets for adoptive T-cell therapy. The efficacy of TCR gene therapy targeting MAGE family antigens, however, has not yet been evaluated in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo antitumor activity in immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/SCID/γc(null) (NOG) mice of human lymphocytes genetically engineered to express TCR specific for the MAGE-A4 antigen. Polyclonal T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transduced with the αβ TCR genes specific for MAGE-A4, then adoptively transferred into NOG mice inoculated with MAGE-A4 expressing human tumor cell lines. The transferred T cells maintained their effector function in vivo, infiltrated into tumors, and inhibited tumor growth in an antigen-specific manner. The combination of adoptive cell therapy with antigen peptide vaccination enhanced antitumor activity, with improved multifunctionality of the transferred cells. These data suggest that TCR gene therapy with MAGE-A4-specific TCR is a promising strategy to treat patients with MAGE-A4-expressing tumors; in addition, the acquisition of multifunctionality in vivo is an important factor to predict the quality of the T-cell response during adoptive therapy with human lymphocytes.

  14. Interferon gamma regulates antigen-induced eosinophil recruitment into the mouse airways by inhibiting the infiltration of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have previously shown that antigen-induced eosinophil recruitment into the tissue of sensitized mice is mediated by CD4+ T cells and interleukin 5. To determine whether interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) regulates antigen-induced eosinophil recruitment into the tissue, we studied the effect of recombinant (r) murine IFN-gamma and of anti-IFN- gamma monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the eosinophil infiltration of the trachea induced by antigen inhalation in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of rIFN-gamma prevented antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration in the trachea of sensitized mice. The administration of rIFN-gamma also decreased antigen-induced CD4+ T cell but not CD8+ T cell infiltration in the trachea. On the other hand, pretreatment with anti-IFN-gamma mAb enhanced antigen-induced eosinophil and CD4+ T cell infiltration in the trachea. These results indicate that IFN-gamma regulates antigen-induced eosinophil recruitment into the tissue by inhibiting CD4+ T cell infiltration. PMID:8093895

  15. Pectinesterase Inhibitor from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) Achene Inhibits Surface Antigen Expression by Human Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chuen; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Yu-Yawn

    2013-01-01

    Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) is an edible component of a popular drink consumed in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asia, and current treatments for HBV infection need improvement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PEI on the surface antigen expression by HBV (HBsAg). Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 served as in vitro models for assessing the cytotoxicity and HBsAg expression. A culture of primary hepatocytes cultured from mice served as the normal counterpart. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. HBsAg expression was evaluated by measuring HBsAg secretion into the culture medium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that PEI did not affect the viability of the human hepatoma cell lines or primary mouse hepatocytes. PEI inhibited the expression of HBsAg in hepatoma cell lines harboring endogenous (Hep3B) and integrated (Huh7) HBV genomes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thus implicating a universal activity against HBV gene expression. In conclusion, it suggests that PEI from jelly fig inhibits the expression of human HBsAg in host cells without toxic effects on normal primary hepatocytes.

  16. Allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppress NF-κB and Ets-1 DNA binding activity, and inhibit phosphorylated NF-κB p65 nuclear localization in CD4+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Obata, Fumiya; Kubo, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    CD8+ T-cells of asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers (AC) suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I)-restricted and -unrestricted manner. In order to investigate the mechanism of MHC-I-unrestricted CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV-1 suppression, we previously established allo-antigen stimulated CD8+T-cells from HIV-1-uninfected donors. These allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppressed HIV-1 replication in acutely infected autologous CD4+ T-cells when directly co-cultured. To elucidate the mechanism of HIV-1 replication suppression, we analyzed DNA-binding activity and phosphorylation of transcriptional factors associated with HIV-1 replication by electrophoresis mobility shift assay and Western blotting. When CD4+ T-cells were cultured with allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells, the reduction of NF-κB and Ets-1 DNA-binding activity was observed. Nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 and Ets-1 was suppressed in CD4+ T-cells. Although NF-κB p65 and Ets-1 are known to be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA), no difference was observed in the expression and phosphorylation of the PKA catalytic subunit in CD4+ T-cells cultured with PHA-treated CD8+ T-cells or allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells. Cyclic AMP is also known to enter through gap junctions, but the suppression of HIV-1 replication mediated by allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells was not affected by the gap junction inhibitor. The nuclear transport of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (Ser276) was inhibited only in CD4+ T-cells cultured with allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells. Our results indicate that allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppress the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 or Ets-1 in an antigen-nonspecific manner, and inhibit the nuclear transport of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (Ser276).

  17. Lipopeptides: a novel antigen repertoire presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Morita, Daisuke; Sugita, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Post-translationally modified peptides, such as those containing either phosphorylated or O-glycosylated serine/threonine residues, may be presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by MHC class I molecules. Most of these modified peptides are captured in the MHC class I groove in a similar manner to that for unmodified peptides. N-Myristoylated 5-mer lipopeptides have recently been identified as a novel chemical class of MHC class I-presented antigens. The rhesus classical MHC class I allele, Mamu-B*098, was found to be capable of binding N-myristoylated lipopeptides and presenting them to CTLs. A high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analysis of the Mamu-B*098:lipopeptide complex revealed that the myristic group as well as conserved C-terminal serine residue of the lipopeptide ligand functioned as anchors, whereas the short stretch of three amino acid residues located in the middle of the lipopeptides was only exposed externally with the potential to interact directly with specific T-cell receptors. Therefore, the modes of lipopeptide-ligand interactions with MHC class I and with T-cell receptors are novel and fundamentally distinct from that for MHC class I-presented peptides. Another lipopeptide-presenting MHC class I allele has now been identified, leading us to the prediction that MHC class I molecules may be separated on a functional basis into two groups: one presenting long peptides and the other presenting short lipopeptides. Since the N-myristoylation of viral proteins is often linked to pathogenesis, CTLs capable of sensing N-myristoylation may serve to control pathogenic viruses, raising the possibility for the development of a new type of lipopeptide vaccine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Bioinformatic identification of tandem repeat antigens of the Leishmania donovani complex.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2007-02-01

    With large amounts of parasite gene sequence available, additional bioinformatic tools to screen these sequences for identifying genes encoding antigens are needed. Proteins containing tandem repeat (TR) domains are often B-cell antigens, and antibody responses toward TR domains of the proteins are dominant in human infected with certain parasites. We hypothesized that antigens of serological significance could be identified with a search for TR domains. Here we show the result of bioinformatic screening of the gene sequence database of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Of 8,191 genes scanned, 64 genes contained TR domains. Of the 64 genes, 22 encoded previously characterized antigens; the remaining 42 genes were previously uncharacterized. By using sera from Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis patients, we confirmed that the TR domains of LinJ11.0070, LinJ25.1100, LinJ27.0400, and LinJ29.0110, which were from the 42 uncharacterized proteins, are also antigenic. The results suggest the validity of this approach for identifying leishmanial antigens of serological significance.

  19. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel; Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  20. BRAF and MEK inhibition variably affect GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Fraser, Cara K; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Brown, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has long been used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, and an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody treatment has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Targeted therapies such as small molecule kinase inhibitors targeting deregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling have markedly improved melanoma control in up to 50% of metastatic disease patients and have likewise been recently approved. Combination therapies for melanoma have been proposed as a way to exploit the high-level but short-term responses associated with kinase inhibitor therapies and the low-level but longer-term responses associated with immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy now includes adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and this mode of therapy is a candidate for combination with small molecule drugs. This paper describes CART cells that target GD2-expressing melanoma cells and investigates the effects of approved MAPK pathway-targeted therapies for melanoma [vemurafenib (Vem), dabrafenib (Dab), and trametinib (Tram)] on the viability, activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity of these CAR T cells, as well as on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We report that, although all these drugs lead to inhibition of stimulated T cells at high concentrations in vitro, only Vem inhibited T cells at concentrations equivalent to reported plasma concentrations in treated patients. Although the combination of Dab and Tram also resulted in inhibition of T-cell effector functions at some therapeutic concentrations, Dab itself had little adverse effect on CAR T-cell function. These findings may have implications for novel therapeutic combinations of adoptive CAR T-cell immunotherapy and MAPK pathway inhibitors.

  1. Initial HIV-1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection inhibit transmitted/founder virus replication.

    PubMed

    Freel, Stephanie A; Picking, Ralph A; Ferrari, Guido; Ding, Haitao; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Soderberg, Kelly A; Weinhold, Kent J; Cunningham, Coleen K; Denny, Thomas N; Crump, John A; Cohen, Myron S; McMichael, Andrew J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2012-06-01

    CD8-mediated virus inhibition can be detected in HIV-1-positive subjects who naturally control virus replication. Characterizing the inhibitory function of CD8(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) can elucidate the nature of the CD8(+) responses that can be rapidly elicited and that contribute to virus control. We examined the timing and HIV-1 antigen specificity of antiviral CD8(+) T cells during AHI. Autologous and heterologous CD8(+) T cell antiviral functions were assessed longitudinally during AHI in five donors from the CHAVI 001 cohort using a CD8(+) T cell-mediated virus inhibition assay (CD8 VIA) and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Potent CD8(+) antiviral responses against heterologous T/F viruses appeared during AHI at the first time point sampled in each of the 5 donors (Fiebig stages 1/2 to 5). Inhibition of an autologous T/F virus was durable to 48 weeks; however, inhibition of heterologous responses declined concurrent with the resolution of viremia. HIV-1 viruses from 6 months postinfection were more resistant to CD8(+)-mediated virus inhibition than cognate T/F viruses, demonstrating that the virus escapes early from CD8(+) T cell-mediated inhibition of virus replication. CD8(+) T cell antigen-specific subsets mediated inhibition of T/F virus replication via soluble components, and these soluble responses were stimulated by peptide pools that include epitopes that were shown to drive HIV-1 escape during AHI. These data provide insights into the mechanisms of CD8-mediated virus inhibition and suggest that functional analyses will be important for determining whether similar antigen-specific virus inhibition can be induced by T cell-directed vaccine strategies.

  2. Cathepsin S activity regulates antigen presentation and immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Riese, R J; Mitchell, R N; Villadangos, J A; Shi, G P; Palmer, J T; Karp, E R; De Sanctis, G T; Ploegh, H L; Chapman, H A

    1998-01-01

    MHC class II molecules display antigenic peptides on cell surfaces for recognition by CD4(+) T cells. Proteolysis is required in this process both for degradation of invariant chain (Ii) from class II-Ii complexes to allow subsequent binding of peptides, and for generation of the antigenic peptides. The cysteine endoprotease, cathepsin S, mediates Ii degradation in human and mouse antigen-presenting cells. Studies described here examine the functional significance of cathepsin S inhibition on antigen presentation and immunity. Specific inhibition of cathepsin S in A20 cells markedly impaired presentation of an ovalbumin epitope by interfering with class II-peptide binding, not by obstructing generation of the antigen. Administration of a cathepsin S inhibitor to mice in vivo selectively inhibited activity of cathepsin S in splenocytes, resulting in accumulation of a class II-associated Ii breakdown product, attenuation of class II-peptide complex formation, and inhibition of antigen presentation. Mice treated with inhibitor had an attenuated antibody response when immunized with ovalbumin but not the T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll. In a mouse model of pulmonary hypersensitivity, treatment with the inhibitor also abrogated a rise in IgE titers and profoundly blocked eosinophilic infiltration in the lung. Thus, inhibition of cathepsin S in vivo alters Ii processing, antigen presentation, and immunity. These data identify selective inhibition of cysteine proteases as a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma and autoimmune disease processes. PMID:9616206

  3. Serosurvey of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex in birds from Andalusia, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Busquets, Núria; Napp, Sebastián; Alba, Ana; Zorrilla, Irene; Villalba, Rubén; Arenas, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex, including West Nile virus (WNV), are recognized as emerging and reemerging pathogens. Circulation of flaviviruses has been recently detected in different mosquito and vertebrate species in several European countries. A serosurvey study was carried out to evaluate the circulation of WNV and other flaviviruses of the JEV antigenic complex in different wild bird species in Spain between 2006 and 2009. Seropositiviy against JEV using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found in common coot, Montagu's Harrier, black kite, black vulture, Bonelli's eagle, Spanish imperial eagle, Egyptian vulture, and Eurasian spoonbill. Seropositivity to JEV antigenic complex viruses was significantly higher in samples collected during autumn compared with animals sampled during summer. Significantly higher seroprevalence was also observed in 2007 compared with 2009, whereas there were no significant differences in seropositivity among taxonomic levels, migratory versus resident behavior, body size (large vs. medium), or habitats (free-ranging vs. captivity). Neutralizing antibodies against WNV were detected in common coot and Spanish imperial eagle using a virus-neutralization test. Oral shedding of WNV was not detected in any of the Spanish imperial eagles, Egyptian vultures, Eurasian Spoonbills, Lammergeiers, and the Black vultures analyzed by means of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate that WNV and others flaviviruses of the JEV antigenic group circulated in migratory and resident wild bird species in Spain between 2007 and 2008. Further studies are necessary to determine the precise role that each of these wild bird species, some of them cataloged as "near threatened," "vulnerable," or "endangered," play in the epidemiology of those viruses.

  4. Circulating immune complexes of Hodgkin's disease contain an antigen that is present in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Bepler, G; Zhen, Q Y; Havemann, K

    1985-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes (CIC), isolated from the serum of a patient with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and from control serum (CS) of healthy adults, were used to generate heterologous antisera in rabbits. The antiserum directed against CIC from HD (AS-HD) and the antiserum directed against CIC from CS (AS-CS) were used to identify immunoglobulins, complement factors and alpha2-macroglobulin as immune complex components. After adsorbing both antisera with normal human sera, we found that the adsorbed AS-HD was immunoreactive with radio-labelled CIC from HD serum but not with radiolabelled CIC from CS. Sera of patients with different diseases and sera of healthy adults were assessed for the occurrence of this Hodgkin immune complex-associated antigen (HIC-Ag). The HIC-Ag was present in 37% (12/33) of sera from patients with HD, 8% (8/101) of sera from patients with nonmalignant diseases, and 0% (0/6) of sera from healthy adults. This antigen was equally distributed among HD patients with and without symptoms, but its occurrence correlated with an advanced clinical stage of the disease. Using the adsorbed AS-HD in the immunoperoxidase technique, we identified the HIC-Ag as a cytoplasmic antigen in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells; whereas, the adsorbed AS-CS did not reveal any staining. These data indicate the presence of an HIC-Ag in the sera of patients with HD and suggest that the adsorbed AS-HD might be useful for isolation and characterization of this antigen for future use as a tumour marker.

  5. Immunoblot analysis for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis using a 45/47-kilodalton antigen complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Diagbouga, S; Fumoux, F; Zoubga, A; Sanou, P T; Marchal, G

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the 45/47-kDa secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by immunoblot assay, to assess its potential value for serological diagnosis. Control subjects consisted of healthy volunteers with negative or positive tuberculin skin tests. Most (>98%) scored negative in an immunoblot test when the sera were analyzed at a 1:400 dilution. Approximately 40% of sera (diluted 1 in 400) from tuberculous patients (positive smears) recognized the antigen complex. The sensitivity of the test for patients suffering from extrapulmonary tuberculosis was similar to that for patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis but who had negative smears. The frequency of positive reactions among the patients suffering from other pulmonary diseases was similar to that among the control subjects. In tuberculous patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, the sensitivity of the immunoblot test was significantly lower. Thus, this test based on an antigen complex used in an immunoblot assay to detect the presence of IgG antibody has a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 40%. The simultaneous use of different purified antigens, selected at the same high specificity level, may improve the sensitivity of such an assay. PMID:9144373

  6. Participation of the interstitium in acute immune-complex nephritis: interstitial antigen accumulation, cellular infiltrate, and MHC class II expression

    PubMed Central

    PARRA, G; HERNÁNDEZ, S; MORENO, P; RODRÍGUEZ-ITURBE, B

    2003-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) injected into the rabbits induces acute immune complex glomerulonephritis. Since albumin is filtered and reabsorbed in the tubules, we investigated whether tubulointerstitial cells participate in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. For this purpose, we induced immune-complex nephritis in 45 rabbits with the injection of 125I-BSA and urinary BSA excretion, glomerular and tubulointerstitial BSA accumulation, lymphocyte infiltration, proliferative activity and MHC class II antigens were examined 2, 4–5 and 6–8 days after immunization. Proteinuria developed day 6–8. BSA was found in urine from day 2 (mean ± SE; 1089 ± 339 µg/24 h) and peaked on day 4 after immunization (2249 ± 1106). BSA content (cpm/g tissue) in tubulointerstitium (TI) and glomeruli were similar at day 2 (457 ± 45 and 407 ± 75, respectively), but afterward increased significantly in TI, reaching a peak level on day 5 (1026 ± 406) while remained unchanged in glomeruli (388 ± 95). At the same time, preceding the onset of proteinuria, maximal intensity of the lymphocyte infiltration, proliferative activity and MHC class II antigen expression in tubular cells, monocytes/macrophages and interstitial cells were observed. Our study shows that antigen is excreted in the urine and concentrated in TI in association with overexpression of MHC class II molecules and lymphocyte infiltration. These findings occur prior to the development of proteinuria and suggest that the tubulointerstitial cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this model. PMID:12823277

  7. Inhibitors of Vacuolar ATPase Proton Pumps Inhibit Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion and Prostate-Specific Antigen Expression and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Vera; Licon-Munoz, Yamhilette; Trujillo, Kristina; Bisoffi, Marco; Parra, Karlett J.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) comprise specialized and ubiquitously distributed pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and energize membranes. To gain new insights into the roles of V-ATPases in prostate cancer (PCa) we studied the effects of inhibiting V-ATPase pumps in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (C4-2B) cells of a human PCa progression model. Treatment with nanomolar concentrations of the V-ATPase inhibitors bafilomycin A or concanamycin A reduced the in vitro invasion in both cell types by 80%, regardless that V-ATPase was prominent at the plasma membrane of C4-2B cells and only traces were detected in the low-metastatic LNCaP parental cells. In both cell types intracellular V-ATPase was excessive and co-localized with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the Golgi compartment. V-ATPase inhibitors reversibly excluded PSA from the Golgi and led to the accumulation of largely dispersed PSA-loaded vesicles of lysosomal composition. Inhibition of acridine orange staining and transferrin receptor recycling suggested defective endosomal and lysosomal acidification. The inhibitors, additionally, interfered with the AR-PSA axis under conditions that reduced invasion. Bafilomycin A significantly reduced steady-state and R1881-induced PSA mRNA expression and secretion in the LNCaP cells which are androgen-dependent, but not in the C4-2B cells which are androgen ablation-resistant. In the C4-2B cells, an increased susceptibility to V-ATPase inhibitors was detected after longer treatments, as proliferation was reduced and reversibility of bafilomycin-induced responses impaired. These findings make V-ATPases attractive targets against early and advanced PCa tumors. PMID:22945374

  8. Interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor induce expression of major histocompatibility complex antigen on rat retinal astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    el-Asrar, A M; Maimone, D; Morse, P H; Lascola, C; Reder, A T

    1991-01-01

    Cultured rat retinal astrocytes were tested by indirect immunofluorescence staining for their ability to express class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens under basal culture conditions and after three days of stimulation with two recombinant cytokines, rat interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Under basal culture conditions low levels of class I antigens were detected on a small percentage of cells, but there was no visible class II. IFN-gamma and TNF alpha stimulation enhanced class I expression. TNF alpha had no effect on class II expression, whereas IFN-gamma induced the expression of class II in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that retinal astrocytes might play a part in immunological events occurring in the retina. Images PMID:1908315

  9. Interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor induce expression of major histocompatibility complex antigen on rat retinal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    el-Asrar, A M; Maimone, D; Morse, P H; Lascola, C; Reder, A T

    1991-08-01

    Cultured rat retinal astrocytes were tested by indirect immunofluorescence staining for their ability to express class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens under basal culture conditions and after three days of stimulation with two recombinant cytokines, rat interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Under basal culture conditions low levels of class I antigens were detected on a small percentage of cells, but there was no visible class II. IFN-gamma and TNF alpha stimulation enhanced class I expression. TNF alpha had no effect on class II expression, whereas IFN-gamma induced the expression of class II in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that retinal astrocytes might play a part in immunological events occurring in the retina.

  10. The EBV Latent Antigen 3C Inhibits Apoptosis through Targeted Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factors 4 and 8

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Lu, Jie; Cai, Qiliang; Saha, Abhik; Jha, Hem Chandra; Dzeng, Richard Kuo; Robertson, Erle S.

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to a broad spectrum of B-cell malignancies. EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an encoded latent antigen required for growth transformation of primary human B-lymphocytes. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and 8 (IRF8) are transcription factors of the IRF family that regulate diverse functions in B cell development. IRF4 is an oncoprotein with anti-apoptotic properties and IRF8 functions as a regulator of apoptosis and tumor suppressor in many hematopoietic malignancies. We now demonstrate that EBNA3C can contribute to B-cell transformation by modulating the molecular interplay between cellular IRF4 and IRF8. We show that EBNA3C physically interacts with IRF4 and IRF8 with its N-terminal domain in vitro and forms a molecular complex in cells. We identified the Spi-1/B motif of IRF4 as critical for EBNA3C interaction. We also demonstrated that EBNA3C can stabilize IRF4, which leads to downregulation of IRF8 by enhancing its proteasome-mediated degradation. Further, si-RNA mediated knock-down of endogenous IRF4 results in a substantial reduction in proliferation of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), as well as augmentation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. IRF4 knockdown also showed reduced expression of its targeted downstream signalling proteins which include CDK6, Cyclin B1 and c-Myc all critical for cell proliferation. These studies provide novel insights into the contribution of EBNA3C to EBV-mediated B-cell transformation through regulation of IRF4 and IRF8 and add another molecular link to the mechanisms by which EBV dysregulates cellular activities, increasing the potential for therapeutic intervention against EBV-associated cancers. PMID:23658517

  11. Peculiarities of latent inhibition formation in SHR rats in conditioned task of different complexity.

    PubMed

    Kostyunina, N V; Loskutova, L V

    2012-05-01

    Inhibition of attention to irrelevant stimuli was studied in SHR rats using latent inhibition test. Latent inhibition was formed in two types of conditioned tasks with different levels of complexity and stress. Passive and active avoidance conditioning was preceded by preexposure to conditioned stimulus consisting of 20 and 100 non-reinforced presentations, respectively. Control Wistar rats demonstrated successful formation of latent inhibition in both tasks. SHR rats showed different degree of disruption of latent inhibition depending on the type of behavioral task. We assume that learning defect in these animals in respect to both novel and preexposed conditioned stimuli is associated with the lack of behavioral inhibition.

  12. Nedocromil sodium inhibits antigen-induced contraction of human lung parenchymal and bronchial strips, and the release of sulphidopeptide-leukotriene and histamine from human lung fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Napier, F. E.; Shearer, M. A.; Temple, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced release of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes and histamine from passively sensitized fragments of human lung, and on antigen-induced contraction of sensitized strips of human lung parenchyma and bronchus, have been studied. 2. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited leukotriene release from fragments of human lung by 30% and 38% respectively, and histamine release by 43% for both concentrations, but 10 microM was ineffective. The lung fragments, which were passively sensitized to house dust mite, Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus, in control experiments released leukotrienes (6.58 +/- 0.12 nmol equiv. leukotriene C4 per g, n = 6) and histamine (10.3 +/- 1.8 of total tissue histamine, n = 5) when challenged with house dust mite extract. 3. Isolated strips of human lung parenchyma, passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 40% of the maximal histamine response for each strip. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited these contractions by 50% and 70% of the control response, but 10 microM had no inhibitory effect. 4. Isolated rings from human bronchus, also passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 86% of the maximal histamine response. Nedocromil sodium 1 microM, but not 0.1 or 10 microM, inhibited contractions by 48% of the control response. 5. The therapeutic effects of nedocromil sodium in allergic asthma may depend, partly, on its inhibition of antigen-induced release of leukotrienes and histamine in human lung and its consequent inhibition of antigen-induced contractions of parenchymal and bronchial tissue. PMID:1696152

  13. The unravelling of the complex pattern of tyrosinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deri, Batel; Kanteev, Margarita; Goldfeder, Mor; Lecina, Daniel; Guallar, Victor; Adir, Noam; Fishman, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinases are responsible for melanin formation in all life domains. Tyrosinase inhibitors are used for the prevention of severe skin diseases, in skin-whitening creams and to avoid fruit browning, however continued use of many such inhibitors is considered unsafe. In this study we provide conclusive evidence of the inhibition mechanism of two well studied tyrosinase inhibitors, KA (kojic acid) and HQ (hydroquinone), which are extensively used in hyperpigmentation treatment. KA is reported in the literature with contradicting inhibition mechanisms, while HQ is described as both a tyrosinase inhibitor and a substrate. By visualization of KA and HQ in the active site of TyrBm crystals, together with molecular modeling, binding constant analysis and kinetic experiments, we have elucidated their mechanisms of inhibition, which was ambiguous for both inhibitors. We confirm that while KA acts as a mixed inhibitor, HQ can act both as a TyrBm substrate and as an inhibitor. PMID:27725765

  14. Complex Consisting of β-Glucan and Antigenic Peptides with Cleavage Site for Glutathione and Aminopeptidases Induces Potent Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Morishita, Hiromi; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2017-09-20

    The efficient induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires not only promotion of the uptake of antigens and adjuvant molecules into antigen-presenting cells but also control of their intracellular behavior. We previously demonstrated that the β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG oligonucleotides with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses. In this study, we prepared various conjugates composed of antigenic peptide (OVA257-264) and dA40 and made complexes with SPG. The conjugates with a disulfide bond between OVA257-264 and dA40 were easily cleaved by glutathione. The resultant peptides with a hydrophobic amino acid at the C-terminal end was recognized by puromycin-insensitive leucine aminopeptidase (PILS-AP), which trims antigenic peptide precursors and prepares peptides of eight or nine amino acids in length, which is the optimal length for binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I. The conjugate exposed to such enzymes induced a high antigen presentation level. The antigen presentation level was almost the same before and after the complexation with SPG. Immunization with a mixture of dA-OVA257-264/SPG and CpG-dA/SPG induced high antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity at a much lower peptide dose than in previous studies. These results can be strongly ascribed to not only the cell-specific delivery by SPG but also the control of the intracellular behavior by the introduction of cleavage sites. Therefore, peptide-dA/SPG complexes could be used as potent vaccine antigens for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases.

  15. Up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression in the central nervous system of dogs with spontaneous canine distemper virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, S; Wünschmann, A; Baumgärtner, W; Voss, C; Kremmer, E

    1996-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen expression were compared by immunohistochemistry in the cerebellar white matter of ten dogs with naturally occurring canine distemper encephalitis. In addition, infiltrating mononuclear cells were characterized by employing poly- and monoclonal antibodies directed against human CD3, canine MHC II, CD5, B cell antigen and CDV-specific nucleoprotein. Positive antigen-antibody reaction was visualized by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method on frozen sections. Histologically, neuropathological changes were categorized into acute, subacute, and chronic. In control brains, MHC II expression was weak and predominantly detected on resident microglia of the white matter and on endothelial, perivascular and intravascular cells. In CDV antigen-positive brains, MHC II was mainly found on microglia and to a lesser extent on endothelial, meningeal, choroid plexus epithelial, ependymal and intravascular cells. In addition, virtually all of the perivascular cells expressed MHC II antigen. CDV antigen was demonstrated most frequently in astrocytes. Of the perivascular lymphocytes, the majority were CD3-positive cells, followed by B cells. Only a small proportion of perivascular cells expressed the CD5 antigen. In addition, B cells and CD3 and CD5 antigen-positive cells were found occasionally in subacute and frequently in chronic demyelinating plaques. In acute encephalitis, CDV antigen exhibited a multifocal or diffuse distribution, and MHC II was moderately up-regulated throughout the white matter and accentuated in CDV antigen-positive plaques. In subacute encephalitis, moderate multifocal CDV antigen and moderate to strong diffuse MHC II-specific staining, especially prominent in CDV antigen-positive lesions, were observed. In chronic encephalitis, CDV antigen expression was restricted to single astrocytes at the edge of the lesions or was absent, while MHC II expression

  16. Suggestive Evidence That the “Blocking Antibodies” of Tumor-Bearing Individuals May Be Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, H. O.; Hellström, I.; Bansal, S. C.; Hellström, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Sera from mice carrying progressively growing sarcomas induced by Moloney virus or methylcholanthrene can block the cytotoxic effect of lymphocytes immune to the tumor-specific antigens of the respective neoplasms. The blocking effect can be specifically removed by absorbing sera with the respective types of tumor cells, and it can be recovered from these cells by elution at low pH. If the low pH is maintained, it is possible to separate out a low and a high molecular weight fraction from the eluates. If the fractions are added to the target cells for 45 minutes and then removed, neither of these fractions can block lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, while a 1:1 mixture of them has a specific blocking effect. If they are admixed with the lymphocytes, incubated for 1 hr, and then allowed to incubate with the target cells and lymphocytes during the entire 2 days of the test, the low molecular weight fraction, as well as the mixture, but not the high molecular weight fraction, has a blocking activity. It is suggested that the blocking factor in sera from tumor-bearing animals, as regularly tested, is an antigen-antibody complex, capable of binding to the target cells and/or reacting with lymphocytes immune to their antigens, thus blocking the lymphocytes' reactivity; the latter reaction is postulated to be of a temporary nature. PMID:5288389

  17. Resveratrol Suppresses Cytokine Production Linked to FcεRI-MAPK Activation in IgE-Antigen Complex-Exposed Basophilic Mast Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon-Young; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A complicated interplay between resident mast cells and other recruited inflammatory cells contributes to the development and progression of allergic inflammation entailing the promotion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine responses. The current study examined whether resveratrol suppressed the production of inflammatory Th2 cytokines in cultured rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells pre-treated with resveratrol nontoxic at 1–25 μM were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP), and subsequently stimulated by dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP–HSA) antigen. Resveratrol dose-dependently diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-13 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the antigen stimulation from sensitized cells. It was found that resveratrol mitigated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK elevated in mast cells exposed to Fc epsilon receptor I (FcεRI)-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antigen complex. The FcεRI aggregation was highly enhanced on the surface of mast cells following the HSA stimulation, which was retarded by treatment with 1–25 μM resveratrol. The IgE-receptor engagement rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src-related focal adhesion protein paxillin involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement. The FcεRI-mediated rapid activation of c-Src and paxillin was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the paxillin activation entailed p38 MAPK and ERK-responsive signaling, but the JNK activation was less involved. Consistently, oral administration of resveratrol reduced the tissue level of phosphorylated paxillin in the dorsal skin of DNP–HSA-challenged mice. The other tyrosine kinase Tyk2-STAT1 signaling was activated in the dorsal epidermis of antigen-exposed mice, which was associated with allergic inflammation. These results showed that resveratrol inhibited Th2 cytokines- and paxillin-linked allergic responses dependent upon MAPK signaling. Therefore, resveratrol may possess the

  18. Influence of the electric charge of the antigen and the immune complex (IC) lattice on the IC activation of human complement

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, M A; Crott, L S P; Assis-pandochi, A I; Coimbra, T M; Teixeira, J E; Barbosa, J E

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of complement (C) activation by immune complexes (ICs), the anti-complementary effect of ICs containing cationized antigens was compared in vitro to that using ICs formed by native antigens. ICs were prepared with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal IgG antibovine serum albumin (BSA) antibody and either native BSA (isoelectric point 4.2) or BSA rendered cationic by treatment with ethylenediamine (isoelectric point 9.4). Native and cationized antigens were characterized by isoelectric focusing. ICs containing anti-BSA IgG or F(ab′)2, formed either at equivalence or in excess of native or cationized antigen, were submitted to ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient for mesh size determination. The anti-complementary effect of ICs was evaluated by kinetic determination of haemolytic activity of human serum on haemolysin-sensitized sheep red blood cells. In conditions of antigen excess, the ICs formed by cationized BSA were significantly more efficient in activating human complement than those formed by native antigen. This higher activity was dependent on cationized antigen complexed with complete antibody molecules, as non-complexed cationized BSA or ICs prepared with F(ab′)2 fragments were inactive under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, this difference did not depend on the mesh size of the immune complexes. Our results suggest that the balance between antigen, antibody and C may be of importance in vivo for the onset and course of infections and other pathological processes involving IC formation. ICs containing cationized antigens should be proven of value in experimental models for studies on the regulation of C activation. PMID:12084047

  19. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies.

  20. Structures of synthetic O-antigen fragments from serotype 2a Shigella flexneri in complex with a protective monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Vulliez-Le Normand, B.; Saul, F. A.; Phalipon, A.; Bélot, F.; Guerreiro, C.; Mulard, L. A.; Bentley, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-LPS IgG mAb F22-4, raised against Shigella flexneri serotype 2a bacteria, protects against homologous, but not heterologous, challenge in an experimental animal model. We report the crystal structures of complexes formed between Fab F22-4 and two synthetic oligosaccharides, a decasaccharide and a pentadecasaccharide that were previously shown to be both immunogenic and antigenic mimics of the S. flexneri serotype 2a O-antigen. F22-4 binds to an epitope contained within two consecutive 2a serotype pentasaccharide repeat units (RU). Six sugar residues from a contiguous nine-residue segment make direct contacts with the antibody, including the nonreducing rhamnose and both branching glucosyl residues from the two RUs. The glucosyl residue, whose position of attachment to the tetrasaccharide backbone of the RU defines the serotype 2a O-antigen, is critical for recognition by F22-4. Although the complete decasaccharide is visible in the electron density maps, the last four pentadecasaccharide residues from the reducing end, which do not contact the antibody, could not be traced. Although considerable mobility in the free oligosaccharides can thus be expected, the conformational similarity between the individual RUs, both within and between the two complexes, suggests that short-range transient ordering to a helical conformation might occur in solution. Although the observed epitope includes the terminal nonreducing residue, binding to internal epitopes within the polysaccharide chain is not precluded. Our results have implications for vaccine development because they suggest that a minimum of two RUs of synthetic serotype 2a oligosaccharide is required for optimal mimicry of O-Ag epitopes. PMID:18621718

  1. Complexity of the Rh antigen demonstrated by comparative tests using antisera of human and primate origins.

    PubMed

    Socha, W W; Rouger, P; Ruffié, J; Moor-Jankowski, J

    1987-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two antisera, one produced in chimpanzee and another of human origin, demonstrates the existence of a spectrum of antibodies directed against at least four antigenic determinants connected with Rh reactivity. Some of the determinants are shared by chimpanzee and human red cells, while others are restricted to one species only. Based on this study, it is suggested that both the human Rh(D)-positive type and its chimpanzee counterpart, the Rc-positive type, could be of common origin, while the negative types are the results of later, parallel events during evolution.

  2. Complexity of the Rh antigen demonstrated by comparative tests using antisera of human and primate origins.

    PubMed

    Socha, W W; Rouger, P; Ruffié, J; Moor-Jankowski, J

    1989-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two antisera, one produced in chimpanzee and another of human origin, demonstrates the existence of the whole spectrum of antibodies directed against at least four, and possibly five, antigenic determinants connected with the Rh reactivity. Some of the determinants are shared by chimpanzee and human red cells, while others are restricted to one species only. Based on this study, it is suggested that both the human Rh(D)-positive type and its chimpanzee counterpart, the Rc-positive type, could be of common origin, while the negative types are the results of later, parallel events during the evolution.

  3. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-06-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus.

  4. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus. PMID:21325481

  5. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  6. Structure of a Major Antigenic Site on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in Complex with Neutralizing Antibody 101F

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Chang, Jung-San; Yang, Yongping; Kim, Albert; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-11-19

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly people. Currently there is no effective vaccine against RSV, but passive prophylaxis with neutralizing antibodies reduces hospitalizations. To investigate the mechanism of antibody-mediated RSV neutralization, we undertook structure-function studies of monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds a linear epitope in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Crystal structures of the 101F antigen-binding fragment in complex with peptides from the fusion glycoprotein defined both the extent of the linear epitope and the interactions of residues that are mutated in antibody escape variants. The structure allowed for modeling of 101F in complex with trimers of the fusion glycoprotein, and the resulting models suggested that 101F may contact additional surfaces located outside the linear epitope. This hypothesis was supported by surface plasmon resonance experiments that demonstrated 101F bound the peptide epitope {approx}16,000-fold more weakly than the fusion glycoprotein. The modeling also showed no substantial clashes between 101F and the fusion glycoprotein in either the pre- or postfusion state, and cell-based assays indicated that 101F neutralization was not associated with blocking virus attachment. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for RSV neutralization by antibodies that target a major antigenic site on the fusion glycoprotein.

  7. Structure of the malaria vaccine candidate antigen CyRPA and its complex with a parasite invasion inhibitory antibody.

    PubMed

    Favuzza, Paola; Guffart, Elena; Tamborrini, Marco; Scherer, Bianca; Dreyer, Anita M; Rufer, Arne C; Erny, Johannes; Hoernschemeyer, Joerg; Thoma, Ralf; Schmid, Georg; Gsell, Bernard; Lamelas, Araceli; Benz, Joerg; Joseph, Catherine; Matile, Hugues; Pluschke, Gerd; Rudolph, Markus G

    2017-02-14

    Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodial merozoites is a composite process involving the interplay of several proteins. Among them, the Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PfCyRPA) is a crucial component of a ternary complex, including Reticulocyte binding-like Homologous protein 5 (PfRH5) and the RH5-interacting protein (PfRipr), essential for erythrocyte invasion. Here we present the crystal structure of PfCyRPA and of its complex with the antigen-binding fragment of a parasite growth inhibitory antibody. While PfCyRPA adopts a 6-bladed β-propeller structure with similarity to the classic sialidase fold, it possesses no sialidase activity, indicating that it fulfills a non-enzymatic function. Characterization of the epitope recognized by protective antibodies will facilitate design of peptidomimetics that focus vaccine responses on protective epitopes. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-PfCyRPA and anti-PfRH5 antibodies showed more potent parasite growth inhibitory activity in combination than on their own, supporting a combined delivery of PfCyRPA and PfRH5 in vaccines.

  8. Structure of the malaria vaccine candidate antigen CyRPA and its complex with a parasite invasion inhibitory antibody

    PubMed Central

    Favuzza, Paola; Guffart, Elena; Tamborrini, Marco; Scherer, Bianca; Dreyer, Anita M; Rufer, Arne C; Erny, Johannes; Hoernschemeyer, Joerg; Thoma, Ralf; Schmid, Georg; Gsell, Bernard; Lamelas, Araceli; Benz, Joerg; Joseph, Catherine; Matile, Hugues; Pluschke, Gerd; Rudolph, Markus G

    2017-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodial merozoites is a composite process involving the interplay of several proteins. Among them, the Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine-Rich Protective Antigen (PfCyRPA) is a crucial component of a ternary complex, including Reticulocyte binding-like Homologous protein 5 (PfRH5) and the RH5-interacting protein (PfRipr), essential for erythrocyte invasion. Here, we present the crystal structures of PfCyRPA and its complex with the antigen-binding fragment of a parasite growth inhibitory antibody. PfCyRPA adopts a 6-bladed β-propeller structure with similarity to the classic sialidase fold, but it has no sialidase activity and fulfills a purely non-enzymatic function. Characterization of the epitope recognized by protective antibodies may facilitate design of peptidomimetics to focus vaccine responses on protective epitopes. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-PfCyRPA and anti-PfRH5 antibodies showed more potent parasite growth inhibitory activity in combination than on their own, supporting a combined delivery of PfCyRPA and PfRH5 in vaccines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20383.001 PMID:28195038

  9. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes

    SciTech Connect

    van Endert, P.M.; Lopez, M.T.; Patel, S.D.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Monaco, J.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes.

  10. The production of lymphocyte mitogenic factor and migration–inhibition factor by antigen-stimulated lymphocytes of subjects with grass pollen allergy

    PubMed Central

    Maini, R. N.; Dumonde, D. C.; Faux, J. A.; Hargreave, F. E.; Pepys, J.

    1971-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes of twenty-three subjects with grass pollen allergy were cultured with grass pollen antigen for 3 days. After harvesting, the culture supernatants were added to fresh autologous lymphocytes which were maintained in culture for 6 days. Cellular uptake of [3H]thymidine was measured during the sixth day of culture, and revealed that the lymphocyte culture supernatants stimulated greater thymidine uptake than expected from the lymphocyte transformation response to corresponding amounts of antigen. The supernatant factor which mediated this effect was termed `lymphocyte mitogenic factor' by analogy with a similar response of lymphocytes in clinical and experimental delayed hypersensitivity. Lymphocyte culture supernatants were also tested for migration–inhibition factor by their ability to inhibit the migration of guinea-pig macrophages. The majority of `allergic' supernatants contained a lymphocyte mitogenic factor active at 1/3 dilution (14/22) and 1/12 dilution (19/21) in contrast to supernatants derived from non-allergic subjects (2/16 and 1/17 respectively). The production of lymphocyte mitogenic factor corresponded to the occurrence of antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation (allergic: 18/22; non-allergic: 1/14); but only a minority of allergic supernatants contained a migration–inhibition factor (6/20). Clinical analysis revealed that migration–inhibition factor was particularly associated with the milder forms of allergy and with a past history of desensitization by depot injection of emulsified pollen antigen. In contrast, lymphocyte transformation and the production of mitogenic factor were uniformly distributed among the various categories of allergic subjects, all of whom had immediate (reaginic) hypersensitivity, but only three of whom had delayed hypersensitivity. The demonstration of lymphocyte mitogenic factor in a clinical state dominated by immediate hypersensitivity supported the view that antigen

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the apa gene coding for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 45/47-kilodalton secreted antigen complex.

    PubMed Central

    Laqueyrerie, A; Militzer, P; Romain, F; Eiglmeier, K; Cole, S; Marchal, G

    1995-01-01

    Effective protection against a virulent challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is induced mainly by previous immunization with living attenuated mycobacteria, and it has been hypothesized that secreted proteins serve as major targets in the specific immune response. To identify and purify molecules present in culture medium filtrate which are dominant antigens during effective vaccination, a two-step selection procedure was used to select antigens able to interact with T lymphocytes and/or antibodies induced by immunization with living bacteria and to counterselect antigens interacting with the immune effectors induced by immunization with dead bacteria. A Mycobacterium bovis BCG 45/47-kDa antigen complex, present in BCG culture filtrate, has been previously identified and isolated (F. Romain, A. Laqueyrerie, P. Militzer, P. Pescher, P. Chavarot, M. Lagranderie, G. Auregan, M. Gheorghiu, and G. Marchal, Infect. Immun. 61:742-750, 1993). Since the cognate antibodies recognize the very same antigens present in M. tuberculosis culture medium filtrates, a project was undertaken to clone, express, and sequence the corresponding gene of M. tuberculosis. An M. tuberculosis shuttle cosmid library was transferred in Mycobacterium smegmatis and screened with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the clones expressing the proteins. A clone containing a 40-kb DNA insert was selected, and by means of subcloning in Escherichia coli, a 2-kb fragment that coded for the molecules was identified. An open reading frame in the 2,061-nucleotide sequence codes for a secreted protein with a consensus signal peptide of 39 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 28,779 Da. The gene was referred to as apa because of the high percentages of proline (21.7%) and alanine (19%) in the purified protein. Southern hybridization analysis of digested total genomic DNA from M. tuberculosis (reference strains H37Rv and H37Ra) indicated that the apa gene was present as a

  12. Immune Responses to Tissue-Restricted Nonmajor Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    Chronic diseases that result in end-stage organ damage cause inflammation, which can reveal sequestered self-antigens (SAgs) in that organ and trigger autoimmunity. The thymus gland deletes self-reactive T-cells against ubiquitously expressed SAgs, while regulatory mechanisms in the periphery control immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs. It is now established that T-cells reactive to SAgs present in certain organs (e.g., lungs, pancreas, and intestine) are incompletely eliminated, and the dysregulation of peripheral immuneregulation can generate immune responses to SAgs. Therefore, chronic diseases can activate self-reactive lymphocytes, inducing tissue-restricted autoimmunity. During organ transplantation, donor lymphocytes are tested against recipient serum (i.e., cross-matching) to detect antibodies (Abs) against donor human leukocyte antigens, which has been shown to reduce Ab-mediated hyperacute rejection. However, primary allograft dysfunction and rejection still occur frequently. Because donor lymphocytes do not express tissue-restricted SAgs, preexisting Abs against SAgs are undetectable during conventional cross-matching. Preexisting and de novo immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs (i.e., autoimmunity) play a major role in rejection. In this review, we discuss the evidence that supports autoimmunity as a contributor to rejection. Testing for preexisting and de novo immune responses to tissue-restricted SAgs and treatment based on immune responses after organ transplantation may improve short- and long-term outcomes after transplantation. PMID:28164137

  13. ROLES OF INHIBITION IN COMPLEX AUDITORY RESPONSES IN THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS: INHIBITED COMBINATION-SENSITIVE NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Kiran; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the functional properties and underlying neural mechanisms associated with inhibitory combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat’s inferior colliculus (IC). In these neurons, the excitatory response to best frequency tones was suppressed by lower frequency signals (usually in the range 12-30 kHz) in a time-dependant manner. Of 143 inhibitory units, the majority (71%) were type I, in which low frequency sounds evoked inhibition only. In the remainder, however, the low frequency inhibitory signal also evoked excitation. Of these, excitation preceded the inhibition in type E/I units (16%), while in type I/E units (13%) excitation followed the inhibition. Type E/I and I/E units were distinct in the tuning and threshold sensitivity of low frequency responses, while type I units overlapped the other types in these features. In 71 neurons, antagonists to receptors for glycine (strychnine, STRY) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (bicuculline, BIC) were applied micro-iontophoretically. These antagonists failed to eliminate combination-sensitive inhibition in 92% (STRY), 93% (BIC), and 87% (BIC+STRY) of the type I units tested. However, inhibition was reduced in many neurons. Results were similar for type E/I and I/E inhibitory neurons. The results indicate that there are distinct populations of combination-sensitive inhibited neurons in the IC, and that these populations are at least partly independent of glycine or GABAA receptors in the IC. We propose that these populations originate in different brainstem auditory nuclei, that they may be modified by interactions within the IC, and that they may perform different spectrotemporal analyses of vocal signals. PMID:16371455

  14. Tumor antigens as related to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Holyoke, E D; Douglass, H O

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented suggesting the presence of pancreas tumor-associated antigens. Slow progress has been made during the past few years in the identification of pancreatic tumor antigens that may be of clinical usefulness and it seems unlikely that many of the practical problems now being faced in identification and isolation of these antigens and in development of a specific, sensitive assay will be solved by conventional immunochemical approaches. The study of antigen and/or antibody purified from immune complexes in the host and the application of leukocyte adherence inhibition techniques to immunodiagnosis of pancreatic cancer are among the new approaches that may provide effective alternatives in the study of pancreatic tumor antigens.

  15. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  16. T-cell diversification reflects antigen selection in the blood of patients on immune checkpoint inhibition and may be exploited as liquid biopsy biomarker.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Nuray; Brandt, Anna; Stein, Alexander; Schliffke, Simon; Mährle, Thorben; Quidde, Julia; Goekkurt, Eray; Loges, Sonja; Haalck, Thomas; Thomas Ford, Christopher; Asemissen, Anne Marie; Thiele, Benjamin; Radloff, Janina; Thenhausen, Toni; Krohn-Grimberghe, Artus; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Binder, Mascha

    2016-12-07

    Cancer immunotherapy with antibodies targeting immune checkpoints, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), shows encouraging results, but reliable biomarkers predicting response to this costly and potentially toxic treatment approach are still lacking. To explore an immune signature predictive for response, we performed liquid biopsy immunoprofiling in 18 cancer patients undergoing PD-1 inhibition before and shortly after initiation of treatment by multicolor flow cytometry and next-generation T- and B-cell immunosequencing (TCRß/IGH). Findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. We found almost complete saturation of surface PD-1 on all T-cell subsets after the first dose of the antibody. Both T- and B-cell compartments quantitatively expanded during treatment. These expansions were mainly driven by an increase in the activated T-cell compartments, as well as of naïve B- and plasma cells. Deep immunosequencing revealed a clear diversification pattern of the clonal T-cell space indicative of antigenic selection in 47% of patients, while the remaining patients showed stable repertoires. 43% of the patients with a diversification pattern showed disease control in response to the PD-1 inhibitor. No disease stabilizations were observed without clonal T-cell space diversification. Our data show for the first time a clear impact of PD-1 targeting not only on circulating T-cells, but also on B-lineage cells, shedding light on the complexity of the anti-tumor immune response. Liquid biopsy T-cell next-generation immunosequencing should be prospectively evaluated as part of a composite response prediction biomarker panel in the context of clinical studies.

  17. Loss of T Cell Antigen Recognition Arising from Changes in Peptide and Major Histocompatibility Complex Protein Flexibility: Implications for Vaccine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Insaidoo, Francis K.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Hossain, Moushumi; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Baxter, Tiffany K.; Baker, Brian M.

    2012-05-08

    Modification of the primary anchor positions of antigenic peptides to improve binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is a commonly used strategy for engineering peptide-based vaccine candidates. However, such peptide modifications do not always improve antigenicity, complicating efforts to design effective vaccines for cancer and infectious disease. Here we investigated the MART-1{sub 27-35} tumor antigen, for which anchor modification (replacement of the position two alanine with leucine) dramatically reduces or ablates antigenicity with a wide range of T cell clones despite significantly improving peptide binding to MHC. We found that anchor modification in the MART-1{sub 27-35} antigen enhances the flexibility of both the peptide and the HLA-A*0201 molecule. Although the resulting entropic effects contribute to the improved binding of the peptide to MHC, they also negatively impact T cell receptor binding to the peptide {center_dot} MHC complex. These results help explain how the 'anchor-fixing' strategy fails to improve antigenicity in this case, and more generally, may be relevant for understanding the high specificity characteristic of the T cell repertoire. In addition to impacting vaccine design, modulation of peptide and MHC flexibility through changes to antigenic peptides may present an evolutionary strategy for the escape of pathogens from immune destruction.

  18. Design of high-affinity major histocompatibility complex-specific antagonist peptides that inhibit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity: implications for control of viral disease.

    PubMed

    Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1992-11-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize viral antigens presented by infected cells in the context of their major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins. The irreversible killing of virus-infected cells by virus-specific CTLs can be the cause of serious disease, particularly in the central nervous, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. Design of molecules controlling (blocking) interaction between CTLs and infected cells, and their further use to inhibit (or antagonize) T-lymphocyte activity, is an important pharmacologic goal. In this report, we describe the design of a new family of peptides which selectively inhibit activity of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which recognize endogenously processed viral epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

  19. Design of high-affinity major histocompatibility complex-specific antagonist peptides that inhibit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity: implications for control of viral disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1992-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize viral antigens presented by infected cells in the context of their major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins. The irreversible killing of virus-infected cells by virus-specific CTLs can be the cause of serious disease, particularly in the central nervous, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. Design of molecules controlling (blocking) interaction between CTLs and infected cells, and their further use to inhibit (or antagonize) T-lymphocyte activity, is an important pharmacologic goal. In this report, we describe the design of a new family of peptides which selectively inhibit activity of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which recognize endogenously processed viral epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. PMID:1383569

  20. Preparation and diagnostic utility of a hemagglutination inhibition test antigen derived from the baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene of Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Kim, Saeromi; Seul, Hee-Jung; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (rHN) protein from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with hemagglutination (HA) activity was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using a baculovirus expression system. The rHN protein extracted from infected cells was used as an antigen in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection and titration of NDV-specific antibodies present in chicken sera. The rHN antigen produced high HA titers of 2(13) per 25 μL, which were similar to those of the NDV antigen produced using chicken eggs, and it remained stable without significant loss of the HA activity for at least 12 weeks at 4°C. The rHN-based HI assay specifically detected NDV antibodies, but not the sera of other avian pathogens, with a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 98.0%, respectively, in known positive and negative chicken sera (n = 430). Compared with an NDV-based HI assay, the rHN-based HI assay had a relative sensitivity and specificity of 96.1% and 95.5%, respectively, when applied to field chicken sera. The HI titers of the rHN-based HI assay were highly correlated with those in an NDV-based HI assay (r = 0.927). Overall, these results indicate that rHN protein provides a useful alternative to NDV antigen in HI assays.

  1. Suppression of phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation by cinnamaldehyde inhibits antigen-induced extracellular calcium influx and degranulation in mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Wang, Xiaoyu; Katagiri, Tatsuo; Wang, Ping; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2011-12-16

    Antigen-IgE-mediated mucosal mast-cell activation is critical in the development of food allergies. Cinnamaldehyde, a major constituent of Cinnamomi cortex, dose-dependently inhibited the antigen-IgE-induced degranulation of mucosal-type bone-marrow derived mast cells (mBMMCs) and RBL-2H3 cells. Cinnamaldehyde also suppressed the elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) level that is induced by the extracellular Ca(2+) influx in antigen-IgE-stimulated mBMMCs. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ1, which is a crucial activation switch for the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in mast cells, was attenuated by cinnamaldehyde. Together, our results demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and the degranulation of mucosal mast cells by inhibiting the activity of the IgE receptor-PLCγ-Ca(2+) influx pathway. These findings suggest that cinnamaldehyde may have therapeutic potential in mucosal mast cell-related allergic diseases, such as food allergies.

  2. Human Articular Chondrocytes Regulate Immune Response by Affecting Directly T Cell Proliferation and Indirectly Inhibiting Monocyte Differentiation to Professional Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rui C.; Martinelli, Daniela; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara; Poggi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation is the current gold standard cell therapy for cartilage lesions. However, in some instances, the heavily compromised health of the patient can either impair or limit the recovery of the autologous chondrocytes and a satisfactory outcome of the implant. Allogeneic human articular chondrocytes (hAC) could be a good alternative, but the possible immunological incompatibility between recipient and hAC donor should be considered. Herein, we report that allogeneic hAC inhibited T lymphocyte response to antigen-dependent and -independent proliferative stimuli. This effect was maximal when T cells and hAC were in contact and it was not relieved by the addition of exogenous lymphocyte growth factor interleukin (IL)-2. More important, hAC impaired the differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes induced with granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor and IL-4 (Mo) to professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Indeed, a marked inhibition of the onset of the CD1a expression and an ineffective downregulation of CD14 antigens was observed in Mo–hAC co-cultures. Furthermore, compared to immature or mature DC, Mo from Mo–hAC co-cultures did not trigger an efficacious allo-response. The prostaglandin (PG) E2 present in the Mo–hAC co-culture conditioned media is a putative candidate of the hAC-mediated inhibition of Mo maturation. Altogether, these findings indicate that allogeneic hAC inhibit, rather than trigger, immune response and strongly suggest that an efficient chondrocyte implantation could be possible also in an allogeneic setting. PMID:27822208

  3. Graft Immunocomplex Capture Fluorescence Analysis to Detect Donor-Specific Antibodies and HLA Antigen Complexes in the Allograft.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsukasa; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Watabe, Kiyoko; Imanishi, Yui; Masuda, Koji; Matsuyama, Takehisa; Harada, Shumpei; Koshino, Katsuhiro; Iida, Taku; Nobori, Shuji; Yoshimura, Norio

    2017-04-01

    Immunocomplex capture fluorescence analysis (ICFA) is an attractive method to detect donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) and HLA antigen complexes. Currently, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) due to DSA is usually diagnosed by C4d deposition and serological DSA detection. Conversely, there is a discrepancy between these findings frequently. Thereupon, our graft ICFA technique may contribute to establish the diagnosis of AMR. Graft samples were obtained by a percutaneous needle biopsy. Then, the specimen was dissolved in PBS by the lysis buffer. Subsequently, HLA antigens were captured by anti-HLA beads. Then, DSA-HLA complexes were detected by PE-conjugated anti-human IgG antibodies, where DSA had already reacted with the allograft in vivo, analyzed by a Luminex system. A ratio (sample MFI/blank beads MFI) was calculated: ≥ 1.0 was determined as positive. We found that DSA-HLA complexes in the graft were successfully detected from only slight positive 1.03 to 79.27 in a chronic active AMR patient by graft ICFA. Next, positive graft ICFA had predicted the early phase of AMR (MFI ratio: 1.38) even in patients with no serum DSA. Finally, appropriate therapies for AMR deleted DSA deposition (MFI ratio from 0.3 to 0.7) from allografts. This novel application would detect early phase or incomplete pathological cases of AMR, which could lead to a correct diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapies. Moreover, graft ICFA might address a variety of long-standing questions in terms of DSA. AMR: Antibody-mediated rejection; DSA: Donor-specific antibodies; ICFA: Immunocomplex capture fluorescence analysis.

  4. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis causes mTOR complex dissociation and inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Garrett R.; Wang, Lifu; Raje, Vidisha; Sherwood, Samantha G.; Grande, Rebecca C.; Boroda, Salome; Eaton, James M.; Blancquaert, Sara; Roger, Pierre P.; Leitinger, Norbert; Harris, Thurl E.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic and catabolic signaling oppose one another in adipose tissue to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis, but these pathways are often dysregulated in metabolic disorders. Although it has long been established that stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptor inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, the mechanism has remained unclear. Here we report that β-adrenergic–mediated inhibition of glucose uptake requires lipolysis. We also show that lipolysis suppresses glucose uptake by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes 1 and 2 through complex dissociation. In addition, we show that products of lipolysis inhibit mTOR through complex dissociation in vitro. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized intracellular signaling mechanism whereby lipolysis blocks the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–Akt–mTOR pathway, resulting in decreased glucose uptake. This previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR regulation likely contributes to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:25422441

  5. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis causes mTOR complex dissociation and inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Garrett R; Wang, Lifu; Raje, Vidisha; Sherwood, Samantha G; Grande, Rebecca C; Boroda, Salome; Eaton, James M; Blancquaert, Sara; Roger, Pierre P; Leitinger, Norbert; Harris, Thurl E

    2014-12-09

    Anabolic and catabolic signaling oppose one another in adipose tissue to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis, but these pathways are often dysregulated in metabolic disorders. Although it has long been established that stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptor inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, the mechanism has remained unclear. Here we report that β-adrenergic-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake requires lipolysis. We also show that lipolysis suppresses glucose uptake by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes 1 and 2 through complex dissociation. In addition, we show that products of lipolysis inhibit mTOR through complex dissociation in vitro. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized intracellular signaling mechanism whereby lipolysis blocks the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, resulting in decreased glucose uptake. This previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR regulation likely contributes to the development of insulin resistance.

  6. Leukocyte procoagulant activity: enhancement of production in vitro by IgG and antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Rothberger, H; Zimmerman, T S; Spiegelberg, H L; Vaughan, J H

    1977-01-01

    In a variety of immunologic diseases, fibrin-fibrinogen and immune complexes deposit in areas of tissue damage. However, the mechanisms which initiate fibrin-fibrinogen deposition have not been clarified. We find that the procoagulant activity of human leukocytes is markedly increased after incubation with immunoglobulin and immune complexes. This procoagulant activity is evident after 4-24 h incubation in the presence of as little as 0.1 mg/ml of autologous, isologous, or heterologous IgG. At least three of the four subclasses of IgG myeloma proteins are effective. Experiments with purified rabbit and rat antibodies demonstrate that enhancement of procoagulant activity is significantly greater with soluble antigen-antibody complexes than with immunoglobulin alone. In contrast, insoluble complexes are less affective than immunoglobulin alone. Artifacts due to endotoxin contamination of the IgG preparations were excluded on the basis of the differential sensitivities of immunoglobulin and endotoxin to heat and polymyxin B. Evidence is also presented which shows that enhancement of procoagulant activity involves the production, rather than a simple release, of leukocyte procoagulant activity in vitro. PMID:190271

  7. [Isolation of viruses of antigenic complexes of California encephalitis and Bunyamwera (Bunyaviridae, Bunuavirus) from mosquitoes in northeast Asia].

    PubMed

    L'vov, S D; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Voropanov, Iu V; Andreev, V P; Skvortsova, T M

    1989-01-01

    Studies in suckling mice and by direct solid-phase enzyme immunoassay were carried out with 111,1 thousand Aedes mosquitoes collected in July, 1986, in tundra, forest-tundra, and northern taiga of Kamchatka region and Chukotka autonomous district of Magadan region (North-Pacific natural area within 69 degrees-53 degrees North and 156 degrees-177 degrees East). Eleven strains were isolated of which 7 were classified as members of the California encephalitis complex (Tahyna-like strains) and 4 as members of the Bunyamwera complex (Batai-like strains). According to electron-microscopic studies of 2 strains (one from each antigenic complex), both were classified as belonging to the family of Bunyaviridae. Strains of both complexes were isolated in all landscape zones examined--tundra, forest-tundra, northern taiga. Virus-neutralizing antibodies to them were found in human and reindeer sera also in all the landscape zones, to Tahyna virus in 11%-61%, to Batain virus in 2%-6% blood specimens. No antibody to Uukuniemi virus was found.

  8. Large, detergent-resistant complexes containing murine antigens Thy-1 and Ly-6 and protein tyrosine kinase p56lck.

    PubMed

    Bohuslav, J; Cinek, T; Horejsí, V

    1993-04-01

    A number of human and mouse leukocyte surface (glyco)proteins anchored in a membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety have been previously shown to be noncovalently associated with protein tyrosine kinases (Science 1991. 254: 1016; J. Biol. Chem. 1992. 267: 12317). Here we show that two murine antigens of this group, Thy-1 and Ly-6, implicated in the activation of the T cells, are associated with each other, with the kinase p56lck and with several of potential kinase substrates in very large, detergent-resistant complexes, the size of which is between 50 and 200 nm, as determined by ultrafiltration and gel chromatography. Experiments on simultaneous solubilization of mixed human and mouse cells rule out that the observed complexes are artifacts induced by the detergent. Complexes of similar composition and properties were obtained when either detergents Brij-58, Nonidet-P40 or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]- 1-propane-sulfonate (Chaps) were used for solubilization of the cells, while octylglucoside at least partially dissociated them. These "GPI-complexes" may be essential for the well-known signal-transducing capacity of Thy-1 and Ly-6.

  9. Recent advances in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation: Plastic MHC molecules and TAPBPR-mediated quality control

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Andy; Bailey, Alistair; Elliott, Tim

    2017-01-01

    We have known since the late 1980s that the function of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to bind peptides and display them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. Recognition by these sentinels of the immune system can lead to the destruction of the presenting cell, thus protecting the host from pathogens and cancer. Classical MHC class I molecules (MHC I hereafter) are co-dominantly expressed, polygenic, and exceptionally polymorphic and have significant sequence diversity. Thus, in most species, there are many different MHC I allotypes expressed, each with different peptide-binding specificity, which can have a dramatic effect on disease outcome. Although MHC allotypes vary in their primary sequence, they share common tertiary and quaternary structures. Here, we review the evidence that, despite this commonality, polymorphic amino acid differences between allotypes alter the ability of MHC I molecules to change shape (that is, their conformational plasticity). We discuss how the peptide loading co-factor tapasin might modify this plasticity to augment peptide loading. Lastly, we consider recent findings concerning the functions of the non-classical MHC I molecule HLA-E as well as the tapasin-related protein TAPBPR (transporter associated with antigen presentation binding protein-related), which has been shown to act as a second quality-control stage in MHC I antigen presentation. PMID:28299193

  10. A comparison of cancer stem cell markers and nonclassical major histocompatibility complex antigens in colorectal tumor and noncancerous tissues.

    PubMed

    Özgül Özdemir, Rabia Bilge; Özdemir, Alper Tunga; Oltulu, Fatih; Kurt, Kamile; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Kırmaz, Cengiz

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most fatal types of cancer in both women and men, and, unfortunately, patients are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with poor prognosis, metastasis, and recurrence, as well as chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Therefore, different treatment alternatives are needed to facilitate the elimination of CSCs. One such approach is immunotherapy; however, tumor cells can evade immune cells by alteration of the expression patterns of human leukocyte antigens (HLA). In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression patterns of CSC-specific markers CD44, CD133, Nanog, and Oct3/4, and immunosuppressive molecules HLA-G and -E in advanced CRC tumor tissues and noncancerous colon biopsies. We found significantly increased CD44, Nanog, Oct3/4, HLA-G, and HLA-E expression in the CRC tumor tissues compared with the noncancerous colon biopsies. These findings suggest that some tumor cells may be CSC-like and that the increased expression of HLA-G and HLA-E may be considered as an immune-evasive adaptation. Therefore, the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class Ib antigens HLA-G and HLA-E may be potential targets in the elimination of CRC-CSCs. However, more detailed studies are required to support our findings.

  11. Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease.

  12. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens as a strategy for the potentiation of immune recognition of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Hayashi, H; Hamada, C; Khoury, G; Jay, G

    1986-11-01

    Like many primary tumors, human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed mouse cells express greatly reduced levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens and are highly tumorigenic in immunocompetent hosts. Expression of a transfected class I gene by these cells can abrogate their tumorigenicity. Both the K and the L class I genes can suppress the malignant phenotype. Previous studies showed that interferon can induce class I gene expression in certain Ad12-transformed cells and can suppress their tumorigenic phenotype. We now demonstrate that preimmunization of mice with a nontumorigenic dose of interferon-treated Ad12-transformed tumor cells can afford protection against a subsequent challenge by a tumorigenic dose of untreated Ad12-transformed tumor cells. Similar immunity can also be induced by using cells transfected with the K gene, and the observed protection appears specific to Ad12-transformed cells. Significant protection can be achieved even if immunization is provided subsequent to the tumor challenge. Since increasing numbers of human tumors have been found to have reduced levels of MHC class I antigens, the prospect of therapy by immunization with the parental tumor cells that have been manipulated to induce class I gene expression offers an attractive experimental model.

  13. Proteasome subtypes and regulators in the processing of antigenic peptides presented by class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Nathalie; Van den Eynde, Benoît J

    2014-11-18

    The proteasome is responsible for the breakdown of cellular proteins. Proteins targeted for degradation are allowed inside the proteasome particle, where they are cleaved into small peptides and released in the cytosol to be degraded into amino acids. In vertebrates, some of these peptides escape degradation in the cytosol, are loaded onto class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and displayed at the cell surface for scrutiny by the immune system. The proteasome therefore plays a key role for the immune system: it provides a continued sampling of intracellular proteins, so that CD8-positive T-lymphocytes can kill cells expressing viral or tumoral proteins. Consequently, the repertoire of peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules at the cell surface depends on proteasome activity, which may vary according to the presence of proteasome subtypes and regulators. Besides standard proteasomes, cells may contain immunoproteasomes, intermediate proteasomes and thymoproteasomes. Cells may also contain regulators of proteasome activity, such as the 19S, PA28 and PA200 regulators. Here, we review the effects of these proteasome subtypes and regulators on the production of antigenic peptides. We also discuss an unexpected function of the proteasome discovered through the study of antigenic peptides: its ability to splice peptides.

  14. Proteasome Subtypes and Regulators in the Processing of Antigenic Peptides Presented by Class I Molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Nathalie; Van den Eynde, Benoît J.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome is responsible for the breakdown of cellular proteins. Proteins targeted for degradation are allowed inside the proteasome particle, where they are cleaved into small peptides and released in the cytosol to be degraded into amino acids. In vertebrates, some of these peptides escape degradation in the cytosol, are loaded onto class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and displayed at the cell surface for scrutiny by the immune system. The proteasome therefore plays a key role for the immune system: it provides a continued sampling of intracellular proteins, so that CD8-positive T-lymphocytes can kill cells expressing viral or tumoral proteins. Consequently, the repertoire of peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules at the cell surface depends on proteasome activity, which may vary according to the presence of proteasome subtypes and regulators. Besides standard proteasomes, cells may contain immunoproteasomes, intermediate proteasomes and thymoproteasomes. Cells may also contain regulators of proteasome activity, such as the 19S, PA28 and PA200 regulators. Here, we review the effects of these proteasome subtypes and regulators on the production of antigenic peptides. We also discuss an unexpected function of the proteasome discovered through the study of antigenic peptides: its ability to splice peptides. PMID:25412285

  15. Inhibition of dopamine receptor D3 signaling in dendritic cells increases antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T-cells favoring anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Claudio; Gálvez-Cancino, Felipe; Oyarce, Cesar; Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; Valeria, Catalina; Cruz, Sebastián; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2017-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) display the unique ability for cross-presenting antigens to CD8(+) T-cells, promoting their differentiation into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), which play a pivotal role in anti-tumor immunity. Emerging evidence points to dopamine receptor D3 (D3R) as a key regulator of immunity. Accordingly, we studied how D3R regulates DCs function in anti-tumor immunity. The results show that D3R-deficiency in DCs enhanced expansion of CTLs in vivo and induced stronger anti-tumor immunity. Co-culture experiments indicated that D3R-inhibition in DCs potentiated antigen cross-presentation and CTLs activation. Our findings suggest that D3R in DCs constitutes a new therapeutic target to strengthen anti-tumor immunity.

  16. Flunarizine and cinnarizine inhibit mitochondrial complexes I and II: possible implication for parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Veitch, K; Hue, L

    1994-01-01

    Cinnarizine and flunarizine are piperazine derivatives with calcium antagonist and anticonvulsant properties and are used widely in the treatment of vertigo and circulatory disorders. They have been implicated recently in the aggravation, or even the induction, of parkinsonism in elderly patients. Because the aetiology of parkinsonism has been suggested as having a mitochondrial component, we have investigated the effects of both compounds on mitochondrial respiration and on the activities of the individual respiratory chain complexes. In intact mitochondria from rat liver, both drugs inhibited respiration rates, with substrates entering at Complex I (glutamate/malate) and Complex II (succinate). These effects could be explained by potent inhibitions (Ki 3-10 microM) of both complexes. Complex I is inhibited at a site near the ubiquinone-binding site, which is not competitive with respect to ubiquinone, whereas the inhibition of Complex II is apparently caused by competition with ubiquinone. Furthermore, the inhibition of NADH oxidation by flunarizine in submitochondrial particles caused an NADH-dependent generation of superoxide. These inhibitory properties of both compounds could be significant factors in the aggravation or induction of parkinsonism in elderly patients, in whom mitochondrial function already may be impaired.

  17. Complex formation with nucleic acids and aptamers alters the antigenic properties of platelet factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Jaax, Miriam E.; Krauel, Krystin; Marschall, Thomas; Brandt, Sven; Gansler, Julia; Fürll, Birgitt; Appel, Bettina; Fischer, Silvia; Block, Stephan; Helm, Christiane A.; Müller, Sabine; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2013-01-01

    The tight electrostatic binding of the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) to polyanions induces heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, a prothrombotic adverse drug reaction caused by immunoglobulin G directed against PF4/polyanion complexes. This study demonstrates that nucleic acids, including aptamers, also bind to PF4 and enhance PF4 binding to platelets. Systematic assessment of RNA and DNA constructs, as well as 4 aptamers of different lengths and secondary structures, revealed that increasing length and double-stranded segments of nucleic acids augment complex formation with PF4, while single nucleotides or single-stranded polyA or polyC constructs do not. Aptamers were shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy to induce structural changes in PF4 that resemble those induced by heparin. Moreover, heparin-induced anti-human–PF4/heparin antibodies cross-reacted with human PF4/nucleic acid and PF4/aptamer complexes, as shown by an enzyme immunoassay and a functional platelet activation assay. Finally, administration of PF4/44mer–DNA protein C aptamer complexes in mice induced anti–PF4/aptamer antibodies, which cross-reacted with murine PF4/heparin complexes. These data indicate that the formation of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in postoperative patients may be augmented by PF4/nucleic acid complexes. Moreover, administration of therapeutic aptamers has the potential to induce anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies and a prothrombotic diathesis. PMID:23673861

  18. Computational and biophysical approaches to protein-protein interaction inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1/RON2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihan, Emilie; Delgadillo, Roberto F.; Tonkin, Michelle L.; Pugnière, Martine; Lebrun, Maryse; Boulanger, Martin J.; Douguet, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Invasion of the red blood cell by Plasmodium falciparum parasites requires formation of an electron dense circumferential ring called the Moving Junction (MJ). The MJ is anchored by a high affinity complex of two parasite proteins: Apical Membrane Antigen 1 ( PfAMA1) displayed on the surface of the parasite and Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 that is discharged from the parasite and imbedded in the membrane of the host cell. Structural studies of PfAMA1 revealed a conserved hydrophobic groove localized to the apical surface that coordinates RON2 and invasion inhibitory peptides. In the present work, we employed computational and biophysical methods to identify competitive P. falciparum AMA1-RON2 inhibitors with the goal of exploring the `druggability' of this attractive antimalarial target. A virtual screen followed by molecular docking with the PfAMA1 crystal structure was performed using an eight million compound collection that included commercial molecules, the ChEMBL malaria library and approved drugs. The consensus approach resulted in the selection of inhibitor candidates. We also developed a fluorescence anisotropy assay using a modified inhibitory peptide to experimentally validate the ability of the selected compounds to inhibit the AMA1-RON2 interaction. Among those, we identified one compound that displayed significant inhibition. This study offers interesting clues to improve the throughput and reliability of screening for new drug leads.

  19. Detection of functional class II-associated antigen: role of a low density endosomal compartment in antigen processing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a functional assay to identify processed antigen in subcellular fractions from antigen-presenting cells; stimulatory activity in this assay may be caused by either free peptide fragments or by complexes of peptide fragments and class II molecules present on organellar membrane sheets and vesicles. In addition, we have developed a functional assay to identify proteolytic activity in subcellular fractions capable of generating antigenic peptides from intact proteins. These techniques permit the direct identification of intracellular sites of antigen processing and class II association. Using a murine B cell line stably transfected with a phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig), we show that PC- conjugated antigens are rapidly internalized and efficiently degraded to generate processed antigen within an early low density compartment. Proteolytic activity capable of generating antigenic peptide fragments from intact proteins is found within low density endosomes and a dense compartment consistent with lysosomes. However, neither processed peptide nor peptide-class II complexes are detected in lysosomes from antigen-pulsed cells. Furthermore, blocking the intracellular transport of internalized antigen from the low density endosome to lysosomes does not inhibit the generation of processed antigen. Therefore, antigens internalized in association with membrane Ig on B cells can be efficiently processed in low density endosomal compartments without the contribution of proteases present within denser organelles. PMID:7722450

  20. Type II and III Receptors for Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Control the Presentation of Different T Cell Epitopes from Single IgG-complexed Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Amigorena, Sebastian; Lankar, Danielle; Briken, Volker; Gapin, Laurent; Viguier, Mireille; Bonnerot, Christian

    1998-01-01

    T cell receptors on CD4+ lymphocytes recognize antigen-derived peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. A very limited set of peptides among those that may potentially bind MHC class II is actually presented to T lymphocytes. We here examine the role of two receptors mediating antigen internalization by antigen presenting cells, type IIb2 and type III receptors for IgG (FcγRIIb2 and FcγRIII, respectively), in the selection of peptides for presentation to T lymphocytes. B lymphoma cells expressing recombinant FcγRIIb2 or FcγRIII were used to assess the presentation of several epitopes from two different antigens. 4 out of the 11 epitopes tested were efficiently presented after antigen internalization through FcγRIIb2 and FcγRIII. In contrast, the 7 other epitopes were efficiently presented only when antigens were internalized through FcγRIII, but not through FcγRIIb2. The capacity to present these latter epitopes was transferred to a tail-less FcγRIIb2 by addition of the FcγRIII-associated γ chain cytoplasmic tail. Mutation of a single leucine residue at position 35 of the γ chain cytoplasmic tail resulted in the selective loss of presentation of these epitopes. Therefore, the nature of the receptor that mediates internalization determines the selection of epitopes presented to T lymphocytes within single protein antigens. PMID:9463401

  1. Definition of epitopes and antigens recognized by vaccinia specific immune responses: their conservation in variola virus sequences, and use as a model system to study complex pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sette, Alessandro; Grey, Howard; Oseroff, Carla; Peters, Bjoern; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Crotty, Shane; Assarsson, Erika; Greenbaum, Jay; Kim, Yohan; Kolla, Ravi; Tscharke, David; Koelle, David; Johnson, R Paul; Blum, Janice; Head, Steven; Sidney, John

    2009-12-30

    In the last few years, a wealth of information has become available relating to the targets of vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses. Due to the large size of its genome, encoding more than 200 different proteins, VACV represents a useful model system to study immunity to complex pathogens. Our data demonstrate that both cellular and humoral responses target a large number of antigens and epitopes. This broad spectrum of targets is detected in both mice and humans. CD4(+) T cell responses target late and structural antigens, while CD8(+) T cells preferentially recognize early antigens. While both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses target different types of antigens, the antigens recognized by T(H) cells are highly correlated with those recognized by antibody responses. We further show that protein abundance and antibody recognition can be used to predict antigens recognized by CD4(+) T cell responses, while early expression at the mRNA level predicts antigens targeted by CD8(+) T cells. Finally, we find that the vast majority of VACV epitopes are conserved in variola virus (VARV), thus suggesting that the epitopes defined herein also have relevance for the efficacy of VACV as a smallpox vaccine.

  2. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1–40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1–40 peptide on the basis of their emission response. PMID:26419607

  3. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  4. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-30

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  5. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  6. Polydiacetylene/Anti-HBs Complexes for Visible and Fluorescent Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen on a Nitrocellulose Membrane.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jinkyu; Lee, Su Yeon; Park, Sangho; Ahn, Dong June

    2017-08-17

    The immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane offers several advantages. This technique is a rapid and straightforward method in contrast to other immunoassays. Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles have unique optical properties, displaying red color and red fluorescence at the same time. In this system, red-phase PDA vesicles are used as a fluorescent dye as well as a surface for immobilized hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb). PDA has a remarkable stability compared with other fluorescent dyes. In this study, the most suitable PDA/HBsAb complexes are introduced for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Then, the PDA/HBsAb complexes affixed antibody is attached to NC membrane, which has two lines to confirm detection of HBsAg. The main advantage of this system is that the detection of HBsAg can be observed in both visible and fluorescent images due to the optical properties of polydiacetylene. Detection of HBsAg is observed up to 0.1 ng mL(-1) by fluorescent analysis and confirmed by red line on the NC membrane up to 1 ng mL(-1) (HBsAg) using the naked eye. Consequently, these results show that PDA/HBsAb complexes were successfully applied to ICA for the diagnosis of hepatitis B. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Natalia P.; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Salazar, Julio; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Nunez, Marco T.

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor phosphoinositide transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Cefai, D; Debre, P; Kaczorek, M; Idziorek, T; Autran, B; Bismuth, G

    1990-01-01

    The interference of the recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 with the CD3/T cell antigen receptor (TcR)-mediated activation process has been investigated in the CD4+ diphtheria toxoid-specific human P28D T cell clone. Both glycoproteins clearly inhibit the T cell proliferation induced in an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-free system by various cross-linked monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD3 molecule or the TcR alpha chain (up to 80% inhibition). Biochemical studies further demonstrate that exposure of the T cell clone to both glycoproteins (gps) specifically inhibits the CD3/TcR phospholipase C (PLC) transduction pathway, without affecting the CD3/TcR cell surface expression. Thus, inositol phosphate production, phosphatidic acid turnover, intracellular free calcium, and intracellular pH increase induced by CD3/TcR-specific MAbs are specifically impaired in gps-treated P28D T cells. Addition of purified soluble CD4 prevents binding of gps to T cells and overcomes all observed inhibitions. Maximal inhibitions are obtained for long-term exposure of the T cell clone to gps (16 h). No early effect of gps is observed. By contrast, gp160 and gp120 fail to suppress the CD2-triggered functional and biochemical P28D T cell responses. These results demonstrate that, in addition to their postulated role in the alteration of the interaction between CD4 on T lymphocytes and MHC class II molecules on APC, soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins may directly and specifically impair the CD3/TcR-mediated activation of PLC in uninfected T cells via the CD4 molecule. PMID:1979339

  9. The Cell Wall as the Antigenic Site for Antibodies Stimulating Ingestion (MSF) and Inhibition (BIF) of Brucella in Macrophages from Normal and Immune Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Doris J.; Elberg, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    Following extraction with hot trichloracetic acid and digestion with trypsin, deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease, cell wall residues of Brucella melitensis strain Rev I contained an antigenic moiety capable of removing antibodies responsible for stimulation of ingestion, inhibition of Brucella growth by macrophages, and agglutination of Brucella. The preparation was dermonecrotic for both normal and immune rabbits and, when injected in oil, stimulated antibody production. The peptidoglycan-containing structure was degraded by egg-white lysozyme and enzymes from normal and immune macrophages with an accompanying loss of dermonecrotic and serumabsorbing capacity. PMID:5582072

  10. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

  11. In vivo neutralization of eosinophil-derived major basic protein inhibits antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitized guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, J; Nahori, M A; Ruffie, C; Vargaftig, B B; Pretolani, M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of purified rabbit antiguinea pig eosinophil-derived major basic protein (MBP) Ig on antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled acetylcholine in aerosol-sensitized guinea pigs. Ovalbumin inhalation by sensitized guinea pigs induced a rise in the numbers of eosinophils and in the levels of MBP in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which peaked at 24 h and resolved at 72 h. Antigen-challenged animals exhibited bronchial hyperreactivity to inhale acetylcholine at 72 h, but not at 6 or 24 h. The intranasal administration of 200 microliter of purified rabbit anti-guinea pig MBP Ig, at 2.5 mg/ml, but not of the control preimmune rabbit Ig, 1 h before and 5 h after ovalbumin inhalation suppressed bronchial hyperreactivity to acetylcholine at 72 h without affecting the number of eosinophils accumulating in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings indicate that antigen challenge in sensitized guinea pigs is followed by early eosinophil infiltration and activation within the airways and by late bronchial hyperreactivity. Neutralization of endogenously secreted MBP by a specific antiserum prevented antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, suggesting that eosinophil degranulation plays an important role in the alterations of bronchopulmonary function in the guinea pig. PMID:8613536

  12. Inhibition of Maize Root H+-ATPase by Fluoride and Fluoroaluminate Complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Facanha, A. R.; De Meis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Vesicles derived from maize roots retain a membrane-bound H+-ATPase that is able to pump H+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The H+ pumping and the ATPase activity of these vesicles are inhibited by lithium fluoride and by the complex formed between fluoride and aluminum. The inhibition promoted by lithium fluoride increases as the MgCl2 concentration in the medium is increased from 2 to 20 mM. The inhibitory activity of both lithium fluoride and aluminum fluoride increases as the temperature of the medium is increased from 20 to 35[deg]C. Inorganic phosphate (10-40 mM) inhibits the H+ -ATPase at pH 6.5 but not at pH 7.0, and at both pH values, it antagonizes the inhibition promoted by lithium fluoride and fluoroaluminate complexes. PMID:12228469

  13. A Reproducible Technique for Specific Labeling of Antigens Using Preformed Fluorescent Molecular IgG-F(ab’)2 Complexes From Primary Antibodies of the Same Species

    PubMed Central

    OWEN, GETHIN RH.; HÄKKINEN, LARI; WU, CHUANYUE; LARJAVA, HANNU

    2011-01-01

    Immunolabeling two different antigens using the indirect approach with antibodies from the same species is not possible as secondary antibodies can bind to either primary target antibodies. In this study, we describe how preformed complexes of primary and secondary labeled antibodies can be used in such circumstances. In this situation, the first antigen is labeled using the conventional indirect method followed by incubation with the preformed primary–secondary antibody complex against the second antigen. To prevent unbound secondary antibody from binding the indirectly-labeled antibodies, resulting in a false positive, we quenched excess secondary antibody with nonimmune murine serum from the species of the primary antibody. Before the formation of the preformed complex, the optimum dilution of both primary and secondary antibodies was determined. Once these concentrations were established, the concentration of nonimmune murine serum required to quench excess unbound secondary was determined. This step was accomplished by first incubating the sample with an antibody against an antigen known to be localized away from the antigen of interest, followed by the preformed complex. If specific staining was seen, other than that expected from the preformed complex, then the concentration of the serum was deemed insufficient for quenching, and increased accordingly. We demonstrate that this approach is successful in determining the optimum conditions for the preformation of ascites and purified monoclonal primary IgG with fluorescently conjugated F(ab’)2. Double immunolabelling of two focal adhesion antigens and two cytoskeletal proteins, with two murine primary antibodies, are presented as examples of the methodology. PMID:20025053

  14. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  15. Hyaluronidase: Purification and Inhibition by a Gold Complex and a Steroid Derivative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-11

    Ketocholesterol Oxime .... ........... .42 14 Semi-log Plot of Data From Figure 13 Against Inactivation Time by 22-Ketocholesterol Oxime. . . 43 15. Lineweaver - Burk ...Plot of the Inhibition of Hyaluronidase by 22-Ketocholesterol Oxime . . . . 44 ix ell 16. Secondary Plot Computed from the Lineweaver - Burk Curves in...to formation of the covalently bonded E-X complex (Figure 14). A Lineweaver - Burk plot of the steroid induced inhibition yielded parallel straight

  16. A COMPARISON OF THE SPECIFICITY OF INHIBITION BY PHOSPHONATE ESTERS OF THE FIRST COMPONENT OF COMPLEMENT AND THE ANTIGEN-INDUCED RELEASE OF HISTAMINE FROM GUINEA PIG LUNG

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Elmer L.; Austen, K. Frank

    1964-01-01

    The ability of a number p-nitrophenylethyl alkyl, phenyl alkyl, chloroalkyl, and aminoalkyl phosphonates to inhibit the activated first component (C'1a) of guinea pig complement, and the antigen-induced release of histamine from sliced, perfused guinea pig lung has been compared. C'1a in its reactivity with these phosphonates is distinctly more similar to trypsin than to any of the other enzymes studied previously. It is suggested that both trypsin and C'1a possess an anionic group in the active center of the respective enzyme, but the distance between the anionic and esteratic site in C'1a might be less than in trypsin. The pattern of inhibition of histamine relase by the alkyl, phenyl alkyl, and chloroalkyl phosphonates is similar to the inhibition of C'1a by these compounds, although distinct differences are apparent. The aminoalkyl phosphonates are distinctly less active inhibitors of histamine release than the corresponding alkyl phosphonates, whereas the reverse is true of the inhibition of C'1a. On the basis of these differences, it is tentatively concluded that the organophosphorus-inhibitable enzymes in the guinea pig systems studied here are similar but not identical. PMID:14212115

  17. Functional effects of the antigen glatiramer acetate are complex and tightly associated with its composition.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Tal; Kolitz, Sarah; Towfic, Fadi; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Bakshi, Shlomo; Beriozkin, Olga; Shacham-Abramson, Maya; Timan, Bracha; Fowler, Kevin D; Birnberg, Tal; Konya, Attila; Komlosh, Arthur; Ladkani, David; Hayden, Michael R; Zeskind, Benjamin; Grossman, Iris

    2016-01-15

    Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone®; GA) is a non-biological complex drug for multiple sclerosis. GA modulated thousands of genes in genome-wide expression studies conducted in THP-1 cells and mouse splenocytes. Comparing GA with differently-manufactured glatiramoid Polimunol (Synthon) in mice yielded hundreds of differentially expressed probesets, including biologically-relevant genes (e.g. Il18, adj p<9e-6) and pathways. In human monocytes, 700+ probesets differed between Polimunol and GA, enriching for 130+ pathways including response to lipopolysaccharide (adj. p<0.006). Key differences were confirmed by qRT-PCR (splenocytes) or proteomics (THP-1). These studies demonstrate the complexity of GA's mechanisms of action, and may help inform therapeutic equivalence assessment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The trimeric serine protease HtrA1 forms a cage-like inhibition complex with an anti-HtrA1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Claudio; Lipari, Michael T; Liang, Wei-Ching; Estevez, Alberto; Hang, Julie; Stawicki, Scott; Wu, Yan; Moran, Paul; Elliott, Mike; Eigenbrot, Charles; Katschke, Kenneth J; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) is a trypsin-fold serine protease implicated in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our interest in an antibody therapy to neutralize HtrA1 faces the complication that the target adopts a trimeric arrangement, with three active sites in close proximity. In the present study, we describe antibody 94, obtained from a human antibody phage display library, which forms a distinct macromolecular complex with HtrA1 and inhibits the enzymatic activity of recombinant and native HtrA1 forms. Using biochemical methods and negative-staining EM we were able to elucidate the molecular composition of the IgG94 and Fab94 complexes and the associated inhibition mechanism. The 246-kDa complex between the HtrA1 catalytic domain trimer (HtrA1_Cat) and Fab94 had a propeller-like organization with one Fab bound peripherally to each protomer. Low-resolution EM structures and epitope mapping indicated that the antibody binds to the surface-exposed loops B and C of the catalytic domain, suggesting an allosteric inhibition mechanism. The HtrA1_Cat-IgG94 complex (636 kDa) is a cage-like structure with three centrally located IgG94 molecules co-ordinating two HtrA1_Cat trimers and the six active sites pointing into the cavity of the cage. In both complexes, all antigen-recognition regions (paratopes) are found to bind one HtrA1 protomer and all protomers are bound by a paratope, consistent with the complete inhibition of enzyme activity. Therefore, in addition to its potential therapeutic usefulness, antibody 94 establishes a new paradigm of multimeric serine protease inhibition.

  19. Transcription of a subset of human class II major histocompatibility complex genes is regulated by a nucleoprotein complex that contains c-fos or an antigenically related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, S J; Bazil, V; Levi, B Z; Ozato, K; Strominger, J L

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the human major histocompatibility complex class II genes requires at least two upstream elements, the X and Y boxes, located in the -50- to -150-base-pair region of all class II promoters. The DRA and DPB promoters contain phorbol ester-responsive elements overlapping the 3' side of their X boxes. Mutation of this sequence down-regulates the efficiency of the DRA promoter, suggesting that a positive regulator(s) binds to this site. In this report, anti-sense c-fos RNA and an anti-c-fos antibody were used to show that the product of the protooncogene c-fos or an antigenically related protein is a component of a complex that binds to the X box and is required for maximal transcription from the DRA and DPB promoters. As c-fos (or its related proteins) cannot bind alone to DNA, these results suggest that it may dimerize with other members of the JUN/AP-1 family, such as hXBP1, to participate in the activation of a subset of class II major histocompatibility complex genes. Images PMID:1709740

  20. The 2.5 Å Structure of CD1c in Complex with a Mycobacterial Lipid Reveals an Open Groove Ideally Suited for Diverse Antigen Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Louise; Li, Nan-Sheng; Hawk, Andrew J.; Garzón, Diana; Zhang, Tejia; Fox, Lisa M.; Kazen, Allison R.; Shah, Sneha; Haddadian, Esmael J.; Gumperz, Jenny E.; Saghatelian, Alan; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.; Meredith, Stephen C.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Adams, Erin J.

    2011-08-24

    CD1 molecules function to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Here we present the crystal structure of CD1c at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution, in complex with the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen mannosyl-{beta}1-phosphomycoketide (MPM). CD1c accommodated MPM's methylated alkyl chain exclusively in the A pocket, aided by a unique exit portal underneath the {alpha}1 helix. Most striking was an open F pocket architecture lacking the closed cavity structure of other CD1 molecules, reminiscent of peptide binding grooves of classical major histocompatibility complex molecules. This feature, combined with tryptophan-fluorescence quenching during loading of a dodecameric lipopeptide antigen, provides a compelling model by which both the lipid and peptide moieties of the lipopeptide are involved in CD1c presentation of lipopeptides.

  1. The 2.5 Å structure of CD1c in complex with a mycobacterial lipid reveals an open groove ideally suited for diverse antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Louise; Li, Nan-Sheng; Hawk, Andrew J.; Garzón, Diana; Zhang, Tejia; Fox, Lisa M.; Kazen, Allison R.; Shah, Sneha; Haddadian, Esmael J.; Gumperz, Jenny E.; Saghatelian, Alan; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.; Meredith, Stephen C.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Adams, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary CD1 molecules function to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Here we present the crystal structure of CD1c at 2.5 Å resolution, in complex with the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen mannosyl-β1-phosphomycoketide (MPM). CD1c accommodated MPM’s methylated alkyl chain exclusively in the A′ pocket, aided by a unique exit portal underneath the α1 helix. Most striking was an open F′ pocket architecture lacking the closed cavity structure of other CD1 molecules, reminiscent of peptide binding grooves of classical Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules. This feature, combined with tryptophan-fluorescence quenching during loading of a dodecameric lipopeptide antigen, provides a compelling model by which both the lipid and peptide moieties of the lipopeptide are involved in CD1c presentation of lipopeptides. PMID:21167756

  2. Human major histocompatibility complex class I antigens: residues 61-83 of the HLA-B7 heavy chain specify an alloreactive site.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L E; Ketler, T A; Houghten, R A; Schulz, G; Chersi, A; Reisfeld, R A

    1985-01-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide (sequence in text) homologous to residues 61-83 of the HLA-B7 heavy chain, induced antibodies that specifically recognized the HLA heavy chain-beta 2-microglobulin complex and the free heavy chain of the HLA-B7 antigen. These antibodies specifically immunoprecipitated the HLA-B7 beta 2-microglobulin complex solubilized from human lymphoblastoid cells by nonionic detergents and reacted with free HLA-B7 heavy chains in blots on nitrocellulose. These observations suggest that the antigenic conformation of this region of the HLA-B7 molecule is independent of the presence of beta 2-microglobulin and that amino acid residues 61-83 mimic an alloreactive site expressed by the HLA-B7 antigen. Images PMID:3881768

  3. Targeting metabolic flexibility by simultaneously inhibiting respiratory complex I and lactate generation retards melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, Balkrishna; Malvi, Parmanand; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Mohammad, Naoshad; Meena, Avtar Singh; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a largely incurable skin malignancy owing to the underlying molecular and metabolic heterogeneity confounded by the development of resistance. Cancer cells have metabolic flexibility in choosing either oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or glycolysis for ATP generation depending upon the nutrient availability in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the involvement of respiratory complex I and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in melanoma progression. We show that inhibition of complex I by metformin promotes melanoma growth in mice via elevating lactate and VEGF levels. In contrast, it leads to the growth arrest in vitro because of enhanced extracellular acidification as a result of increased glycolysis. Inhibition of LDH or lactate generation causes decrease in glycolysis with concomitant growth arrest both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking lactate generation in metformin-treated melanoma cells results in diminished cell proliferation and tumor progression in mice. Interestingly, inhibition of either LDH or complex I alone does not induce apoptosis, whereas inhibiting both together causes depletion in cellular ATP pool resulting in metabolic catastrophe induced apoptosis. Overall, our study suggests that LDH and complex I play distinct roles in regulating glycolysis and cell proliferation. Inhibition of these two augments synthetic lethality in melanoma. PMID:26484566

  4. Coexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on hepatocyte membrane in chronic viral hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C M; Liaw, Y F

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the role of hepatocyte expression of leucocyte adhesion molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS--The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), and MHC class I and II antigens on hepatocyte membrane in relation to the histological and biochemical activities was studied in patients with chronic B hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) n = 23; chronic active hepatitis (CAH) n = 20; chronic D hepatitis (CAH) n = 6; and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis (CPH n = 4, CAM n = 6). Six of the latter were hepatitis C virus antibody positive. RESULTS--In chronic B hepatitis ICAM-1 and MHC-I were expressed significantly more in patients with CAH than in those with CPH (p < 0.001), while the expression of LFA-3 and MHC-II showed no significant difference, irrespective of serum HBeAg or hepatitis B virus DNA. Similar findings were noted in non-A, non-B hepatitis. Regardless of the viral aetiology, patients with CAH had a significantly higher degree of ICAM-1 and MHC-I expression than LFA-3 (p < 0.001 v ICAM-1 and MHC-I, respectively) and MHC-II (p < 0.001 v ICAM-1 and MHC-I, respectively) expression. Those with CPH showed little or no difference in the expression of these four molecules. Furthermore, serum ALT values positively correlated with the hepatocyte expression of ICAM-1 (p < 0.001) and MHC-I (p < 0.001), but not LFA-3 (p > 0.05) and MHC-II (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--In chronic viral hepatitis hepatocyte expression of ICAM-1 and MHC-I might be important for immunosurveillance against virally infected hepatocytes, while the expression of LFA-3 and MHC-II does not seem to have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. Images PMID:7902850

  5. Characterization of the interface of the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2-Vpu protein complex via computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinming; Zhang, Zhixin; Mi, Zeyun; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Quan; Li, Xiaoyu; Liang, Chen; Cen, Shan

    2012-02-14

    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2) inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. Various viral counter measures have been discovered, which allow viruses to escape BST-2 restriction. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes viral protein U (Vpu) that interacts with BST-2 through their transmembrane domains and causes the downregulation of cell surface BST-2. In this study, we used a computer modeling method to establish a molecular model to investigate the binding interface of the transmembrane domains of BST-2 and Vpu. The model predicts that the interface is composed of Vpu residues I6, A10, A14, A18, V25, and W22 and BST-2 residues L23, I26, V30, I34, V35, L41, I42, and T45. Introduction of mutations that have been previously reported to disrupt the Vpu-BST-2 interaction led to a calculated higher binding free energy (MMGBSA), which supports our molecular model. A pharmacophore was also generated on the basis of this model. Our results provide a precise model that predicts the detailed interaction occurring between the transmembrane domains of Vpu and BST-2 and should facilitate the design of anti-HIV agents that are able to disrupt this interaction.

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A.; Víctor, Víctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, José M.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys118, suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys118 contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  7. Complexation of chlorpropham with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and its application in potato sprout inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng; Tian, Shilong; Ge, Xia; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shouqiang; Li, Mei; Cheng, Jianxin; Zheng, Huaiwen

    2014-07-17

    The effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on the improvement of chlorpropham (CIPC) as a potato sprout inhibitor was investigated. The formation of complex was confirmed by FT-IR spectra, thermoanalysis, (1)H NMR and ROESY. The stoichiometry and stability constant were determined by Job's plot and phase solubility studies, respectively. The inclusion complex CIPC·HPβCD has exhibited different properties from CIPC. The obtained inclusion complex was found to significantly improve the water solubility, thermal stability and dissolution rate of CIPC. In addition, the complex displayed a better effect on sprout inhibition.

  8. Tetramer-guided epitope mapping: rapid identification and characterization of immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitopes from complex antigens.

    PubMed

    Novak, E J; Liu, A W; Gebe, J A; Falk, B A; Nepom, G T; Koelle, D M; Kwok, W W

    2001-06-01

    T cell responses to Ags involve recognition of selected peptide epitopes contained within the antigenic protein. In this report, we describe a new approach for direct identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes of complex Ags that uses human class II tetramers to identify reactive cells. With a panel of 60 overlapping peptides covering the entire sequence of the VP16 protein, a major Ag for HSV-2, we generated a panel of class II MHC tetramers loaded with peptide pools that were used to stain peripheral lymphocytes of an HSV-2 infected individual. With this approach, we identified four new DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401- and two DRA1*0101/DRB1*0404-restricted, VP16-specific epitopes. By using tetramers to sort individual cells, we easily obtained a large number of clones specific to these epitopes. Although DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 and DRA1*0101/DRB1*0404 are structurally very similar, nonoverlapping VP16 epitopes were identified, illustrating high selectivity of individual allele polymorphisms within common MHC variants. This rapid approach to detecting CD4+ T cell epitopes from complex Ags can be applied to any known Ag that gives a T cell response.

  9. Dectin-1 Is Essential for Reverse Transcytosis of Glycosylated SIgA-Antigen Complexes by Intestinal M Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rochereau, Nicolas; Drocourt, Daniel; Perouzel, Eric; Pavot, Vincent; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Brown, Gordon D.; Tiraby, Gerard; Roblin, Xavier; Verrier, Bernard; Genin, Christian; Corthésy, Blaise; Paul, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microfold (M) cells possess a high transcytosis capacity and are able to transport a broad range of materials including particulate antigens, soluble macromolecules, and pathogens from the intestinal lumen to inductive sites of the mucosal immune system. M cells are also the primary pathway for delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA) to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, although the consequences of SIgA uptake by M cells are now well known and described, the mechanisms whereby SIgA is selectively bound and taken up remain poorly understood. Here we first demonstrate that both the Cα1 region and glycosylation, more particularly sialic acid residues, are involved in M cell–mediated reverse transcytosis. Second, we found that SIgA is taken up by M cells via the Dectin-1 receptor, with the possible involvement of Siglec-5 acting as a co-receptor. Third, we establish that transcytosed SIgA is taken up by mucosal CX3CR1+ dendritic cells (DCs) via the DC-SIGN receptor. Fourth, we show that mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV p24-SIgA complexes administered orally is strictly dependent on the expression of Dectin-1. Having deciphered the mechanisms leading to specific targeting of SIgA-based Ag complexes paves the way to the use of such a vehicle for mucosal vaccination against various infectious diseases. PMID:24068891

  10. Immunization with antigenic peptides complexed with β-glucan induces potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in combination with CpG-ODNs.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Morishita, Hiromi; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Ishii, Ken J; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2015-12-28

    The induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires immunization with not only antigens, but also adjuvants. CpG oligonucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are well-known ligands for Toll-like receptor 9 and a potent adjuvant that induces both Th1-type humoral and cellular immune responses including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. We previously demonstrated that β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG-ODNs with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses by co-administration of antigenic proteins, namely ovalbumin (OVA). Immunization with antigenic peptides, OVA257-264, did not induce these antigen-specific immune responses even in combination with CpG-dA/SPG, indicating that peptides require a carrier to antigen presenting cells. In this study, we prepared conjugates comprising OVA257-264 and dA40, and made complexes with SPG. Immunization with OVA257-264-dA/SPG induced peptide-specific immune responses in combination with CpG-dA regardless of complexation with SPG both in vitro and in vivo. When splenocytes from immunized mice were incubated with E.G7-OVA tumor model cells presenting OVA peptides, the number of cells drastically decreased after 24h. Furthermore, mice pre-immunized with OVA257-264-dA/SPG and CpG-ODNs exhibited a long delay in tumor growth after tumor inoculation. Therefore, these peptide-dA/SPG and CpG-dA/SPG complexes could be used as a potent vaccine for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases.

  11. Cryptic antigenic determinants on the extracellular pyruvate dehydrogenase complex/mimeotope found in primary biliary cirrhosis. A probe by affinity mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yip, T T; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E; Coppel, R L; Hutchens, T W

    1996-12-20

    Affinity mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to evaluate the structural diversity of the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) in normal and diseased liver cells, including those from patients with the autoimmune disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Two different antibodies to PDC-E2, the immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen in patients with PBC, were used. AMS was performed directly on frozen liver sections and purified bile duct epithelial cells. Mass spectrometric signals associated with the molecular recognition of PBC-specific antigenic determinants were enhanced by an in situ enzyme-linked signal amplification process. Samples from patients with PBC gave strong positive signals for the antigen(s) recognized by the monoclonal antibody C355.1. Conversely, tissues from normal and disease controls showed only a minimal signal. AMS was used to identify specific antigenic determinants within the E2 component of PDC for comparison with unknown antigenic determinants observed by affinity capture with C355.1 monoclonal antibody from PBC samples. PDC components bound to C355.1 were mapped and identified by mass before dissociation from the E2 component. A similar approach was used to identify unknown antigenic determinants associated with PBC. We believe AMS may be an important new approach with wide application to the identification of molecules associated with a number of disease states.

  12. Methamphetamine-induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex II: roles of glutamate and peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey M; Quinton, Maria S; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2005-10-01

    High-dose methamphetamine (METH) is associated with long-term deficits in dopaminergic systems. Although the mechanism(s) which contributes to these deficits is not known, glutamate and peroxynitrite are likely to play a role. These factors are hypothesized to inhibit mitochondrial function, increasing the free radical burden and decreasing neuronal energy supplies. Previous studies suggest a role for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in mediating toxicity of METH. The purpose of the present studies was to determine whether METH administration selectively inhibits complex II of the ETC in rats. High-dose METH administration (10 mg/kg every 2 h x 4) rapidly (within 1 h) decreased complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) activity by approximately 20-30%. In addition, decreased activity of complex II-III, but not complex I-III, of the mitochondrial ETC was also observed 24 h after METH. This inhibition was not due to direct inhibition by METH or METH-induced hyperthermia and was specific to striatal brain regions. METH-induced decreases in complex II-III were prevented by MK-801 and the peroxynitrite scavenger 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulphonatophenyl) porphinato iron III. These findings provide the first evidence that METH administration, via glutamate receptor activation and peroxynitrite formation, selectively alters a specific site of the ETC.

  13. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  14. Enhancement and inhibition of immunological mechanisms by immunosuppressive agents. I. Dose effect on priming and generation of memory to a bacterial antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Macario, A J; De Macario, E C

    1978-01-01

    A new experimental system is described which allows the study of the effect of immunosuppressors upon the priming and generation of memory to an antigen from Escherichia coli. A single dose of bacterial beta-D-galactosidase without adjuvant injected into C57B1/6J mice primes and elicits memory but not antibodies. Thus by administering immunosuppressors near the priming injection, one can examine whether primary antibody formation is enhanced and whether priming generation of memory is enhanced or inhibited. We found that X-rays, cyclophosphamide and oxisuran (2-[(methylsulfinyl)acetyl]pyridine) either enhance or inhibit the elicitation of memory, depending on dosage, although they do not alter primary antibody unresponsiveness. The data show two main features: (a) immunosuppressors can enhance immunization; and (b) generation of memory can be improved without increasing antibody levels. The former finding draws attention to the role that immunosuppressors might play in the breaching of tolerance to self-antigens which share determinants with microbes, while the latter observation shows that antibody synthesis and elicitation of memory can follow independent pathways. PMID:417887

  15. Mechanisms of co-modified liver-targeting liposomes as gene delivery carriers based on cellular uptake and antigens inhibition effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Rong Qi, Xian; Gao, Yan; Wei, Lai; Maitani, Yoshie; Nagai, Tsuneji

    2007-02-12

    In order to deliver antisense oligonucleotides (asODN) into hepatocytes orientedly in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the liver-targeting cationic liposomes was developed as a gene carrier, which was co-modified with the ligand of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), beta-sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (sito-G) and the nonionic surfactant, Brij 35. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the asODN-encapsulating cationic liposomes exhibited high transfection efficiency and strong antigens inhibition effect in primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. With the help of several inhibitors acting on different steps during the targeting lipofection, the cellular uptake mechanisms of the co-modified liver-targeting cationic liposomes were investigated through antigens inhibition effect assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The cellular uptake with high transfection efficiency seemed to involve both endocytosis and membrane fusion. The ligand sito-G was confirmed to be able to enhance ASGPR-mediated endocytosis, the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 seemed to be able to facilitate membrane fusion, and the co-modification resulted in the most efficient transfection but no enhanced cytotoxicity. These results suggested that the co-modified liver-targeting cationic liposomes would be a specific and effective carrier to transfer asODN into hepatocytes infected with HBV orientedly.

  16. Increased responsiveness to 5-hydroxytryptamine after antigenic challenge is inhibited by nifedipine and niflumic acid in rat trachea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carlos Tiago Martins; Bezerra, Fernanda Carvalho; de Moraes, Isabelle Maciel; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Capaz, Francisco Ruy

    2005-12-01

    Antigenic challenge often induces hyperreactivity in asthmatic airway, although the precise mechanism(s) underlying this increased responsiveness is not entirely known. Tracheae obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized saline- or OVA-challenged rats were placed in 10 mL bath chambers for isometric recording of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contractions. 5-Hydroxytryptamine induced a stronger contraction compared with control in antigen-challenged trachea under normal or Ca2+-free conditions. In tracheae pretreated with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (10(-6) mol/L) or the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel blocker niflumic acid (10(-4) mol/L), this hyperresponsiveness was not developed in either normal or Ca2+-free medium. The increased contractile response to 5-HT in allergic rat isolated trachea may be related to a greater ionic (Ca2+ and Cl-) channel involvement.

  17. Citrullinated vimentin as an important antigen in immune complexes from synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients with antibodies against citrullinated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease, which results in destruction of the joint. The presence of immune complexes (IC) in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients might contribute to this articular damage through different mechanisms, such as complement activation. Therefore, identification of the antigens from these IC is important to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of RA. Since RA patients have antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) in their serum and synovial fluid (SF) and since elevated levels of citrullinated proteins are detected in the joints of RA patients, citrullinated antigens are possibly present in IC from RA patients. Methods IC from serum of healthy persons, serum of RA patients and IC from synovial fluid of RA patients and Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients were isolated by immunoprecipitation. Identification of the antigens was performed by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and immunodetection. The presence of citrullinated proteins was evaluated by anti-modified citrulline (AMC) staining. Results Circulating IC in the serum of RA patients and healthy controls contain fibrinogenβ and fibronectin, both in a non-citrullinated form. Additionally, in IC isolated from RA SF, fibrinogenγ and vimentin were identified as well. More importantly, vimentin and a minor portion of fibrinogenβ were found to be citrullinated in the isolated complexes. Moreover these citrullinated antigens were only found in ACPA+ patients. No citrullinated antigens were found in IC from SF of SpA patients. Conclusions Citrullinated fibrinogenβ and citrullinated vimentin were found in IC from SF of ACPA+ RA patients, while no citrullinated antigens were found in IC from SF of ACPA- RA patients or SpA patients or in IC from serum of RA patients or healthy volunteers. The identification of citrullinated vimentin as a prominent citrullinated antigen in IC from SF of ACPA+ RA patients strengthens the hypothesis that citrullinated vimentin

  18. Free, complexed and total serum prostate specific antigen: the establishment of appropriate reference ranges for their concentrations and ratios.

    PubMed

    Oesterling, J E; Jacobsen, S J; Klee, G G; Pettersson, K; Piironen, T; Abrahamsson, P A; Stenman, U H; Dowell, B; Lövgren, T; Lilja, H

    1995-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) exists in the serum in several molecular forms that can be measured by immunodetectable assays: free PSA, PSA complexed to alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (complexed PSA) and total PSA, which represents the sum of the free and complexed forms. We determined the normal distribution of values and established the appropriate reference ranges for these 3 molecular forms of PSA and their ratios (free-to-total, complexed-to-total and free-to-complexed PSA). Knowing the amount and ratio of these molecular forms appears to be useful in enhancing the ability of PSA to distinguish potentially curable prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia and in decreasing the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A total of 422 healthy men 40 to 79 years old was randomly chosen from the male population of Olmsted County, Minnesota and underwent a detailed clinical examination that included digital rectal examination, serum PSA determination and transrectal ultrasound to exclude the presence of prostate cancer. Using newly developed, monoclonal-monoclonal immunofluorometric assays for each molecular form, the free, complexed and total PSA, and the ratios of these 3 forms were determined for each study participant. All 3 molecular forms correlated directly with patient age (r = 0.45, r = 0.43 and r = 0.45, respectively). Using the 95th percentile, the recommended age-specific reference ranges for the free, complexed and total PSA forms, respectively, are 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ng./ml. for men 40 to 49 years old; 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0 ng./ml. for men 50 to 59 years old; 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ng./ml. for men 60 to 69 years old, and 1.2, 3.0 and 5.5 ng./ml. for men 70 to 79 years old. With regard to each of the ratios (free-to-total, complexed-to-total and free-to-complexed PSA) none correlated with patient age. As a result, the appropriate upper limit of normal (95th percentile) for all 3 ratios is constant for men of all ages. These reference ranges are greater than 0

  19. Structural analysis of inter-genus complexes of V-antigen and its regulator and their stabilization by divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhishek; Das, Atanu; Mondal, Abhisek; Datta, Saumen

    2016-03-01

    Gram-negative bacteria like Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas need type III secretion system (T3SS) for their pathogenicity. V-antigen and its regulator are essential for functioning of T3SS. There is significant functional conservation amongst V-antigen and its regulator belonging to the Ysc family. In this study, we have structurally characterized the inter-genus complexes of V-antigen and its regulator. ConSurf analysis demonstrates that V-antigens belonging to the Ysc family show high structural identity predominantly confined to the two long helical regions. The regulator of V-antigen shows high conservation in its first intramolecular coiled-coil domain, responsible for interaction with V-antigen. ∆LcrG(1-70) localizes within the groove formed by long helices of LcrV, as observed in PcrV-∆PcrG(13-72) interaction. Inter-genus complexes of LcrV-PcrG and PcrV-LcrG exhibited elongated conformation and 1:1 heterodimeric state like the native complex of PcrV-PcrG and LcrV-LcrG. Both native and inter-genus complexes showed rigid tertiary structure, solvent-exposed hydrophobic patches, and cooperative melting behavior with high melting temperature. LcrV-PcrG and PcrV-LcrG showed nanomolar affinity of interaction, identical to PcrV-PcrG interaction, but stronger than LcrV-LcrG interaction. Calcium (a secretion blocker of T3SS) propels all the complexes towards a highly monodisperse form. Calcium and magnesium increase the helicity of the native and inter-genus complexes, and causes helix-helix stabilization. Stabilization of helices leads to a slight increase in the melting temperature by 1.5-2.0 °C. However, calcium does not alter the affinity of interaction of V-antigen and its regulator, emphasizing the effect of divalent of cations at the structural level without any regulatory implications. Therefore, the structural conservation of these inter-genus complexes could be the basis for their functional complementation.

  20. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice: a possible mechanism underlying neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Zhang, Steven F; Jordán, Joaquín; Starkov, Anatoly A; Aguirre, Norberto

    2010-05-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that such neurotoxicity is due to oxidative stress but the source of free radicals remains unknown. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes by MDMA was assessed as a possible source. Activities of mitochondrial complexes after MDMA were evaluated spectrophotometrically. In situ visualization of superoxide production in the striatum was assessed by ethidium fluorescence and striatal dopamine levels were determined by HPLC as an index of dopaminergic toxicity. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of mice, an effect accompanied by an increased production of superoxide radicals and the inhibition of endogenous aconitase. alpha-Lipoic acid prevented superoxide generation and long-term toxicity independent of any effect on complex I inhibition. These effects of alpha-lipoic acid were also associated with a significant increase of striatal glutathione levels. The relevance of glutathione was supported by reducing striatal glutathione content with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, which exacerbated MDMA-induced dopamine deficits, effects suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, partially prevented MDMA-induced dopamine depletions, an effect reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Finally, a direct relationship between mitochondrial complex I inhibition and long-term dopamine depletions was found in animals treated with MDMA in combination with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I following MDMA could be the source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the consequent neurotoxicity of this drug in mice.

  1. Physical mapping of the human T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) {beta}-chain gene complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yashim, Y.; So, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic variation of the TCR loci and their contribution to autoimmune diseases is poorly defined, in direct contrast to the clear examples of disease association with the Class I and II alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. We have therefore started to determine the gene organization and polymorphism of the TCR {beta} locus. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were used to construct a physical map of the germline human TCR {beta}-chain gene complex. Variable gene (V{beta}) sequences for the 25 known V{beta} subfamilies were amplified by PCR and were used as probes to screen a YAC library. Five positive YACs were identified. YACs designated B3, E11 and H11 of sizes 820, 400 and 600 kbp, respectively, were analyzed for their V{beta} content by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). YAC B3 was found to contain all 25 V{beta} subfamilies, E11 for 14 and H11 for 7. B3 was also positive for the constant region genes. Restriction enzyme mapping of B3 located V{beta} and C{beta} gene regions to four Sfi I fragments of 280, 110, 90 and 125 kbp, and was in accordance with published data. The data thus showed that YAC B3 encoded a complete and unrearranged TCR {beta}-gene locus. The map was further resolved by locating restriction sites for Sal I and Bssll II on B3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes localized B3 to chromosome 7q35. However, two additional signals were obtained: one attributable to V{beta} orphon cluster on chromosome 9q21; the second to the long arm of chromosome 2. PCR amplification of a chromosome 2 somatic cell hybrid using primers for all 25 V{beta} gene families revealed the signal was not attributable to a second orphon cluster. It is suggested that B3 is a chimeric YAC with an intact TCR {beta} locus flanked by chromosome 2 sequences. The determination of the TCR genomic organization will help extend studies of the role T-cells play in autoimmune diseases.

  2. Barbiturates directly inhibit the calmodulin/calcineurin complex: a novel mechanism of inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Humar, Matjaz; Pischke, Soeren E; Loop, Torsten; Hoetzel, Alexander; Schmidt, Rene; Klaas, Christoph; Pahl, Heike L; Geiger, Klaus K; Pannen, Benedikt H J

    2004-02-01

    Barbiturates are frequently used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension after brain injury but their application is associated with a profound increase in the infection rate. The mechanism of barbiturate-induced failure of protective immunity is still unknown. We provide evidence that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), an essential transcription factor in T cell activation, is a target of barbiturate-mediated immunosuppression in human T lymphocytes. Treatment of primary CD3+ lymphocytes with barbiturates inhibited the PMA and ionomycin induced increase in DNA binding of NFAT, whereas the activity of other transcription factors, such as Oct-1, SP-1, or the cAMP response element-binding protein, remained unaffected. Moreover, barbiturates suppressed the expression of a luciferase reporter gene under control of NFAT (stably transfected Jurkat T cells), and of the cytokine genes interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma that contain functional binding motifs for NFAT within their regulatory promotor domains (human peripheral blood CD3+ lymphocytes). Neither GABA receptor-initiated signaling nor direct interactions of barbiturates with nuclear proteins affected the activity of NFAT. In contrast, barbiturates suppressed the calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT in intact T cells and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of calcineurin in a cell-free system, excluding upstream regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of direct inhibition of the calcineurin/calmodulin complex that may explain some of the known immunosuppressive effects associated with barbiturate treatment.

  3. Long-term stability of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin complexed form of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Brawer, M K; Ferreri, L F; Bankson, D D

    2000-11-01

    PSA complexed with alpha-1-anti-chymotrypsin (cPSA trade mark ) is the moiety in greatest proportion in the serum of men with prostate cancer (CAP). The performance of this analyte has been established primarily in retrospective archival serum. Studies indicate cPSA trade mark provides the specificity enhancement of the free-to-total PSA ratio, yet obviates the need to measure two markers. In the present investigation we sought to establish the stability of cPSA trade mark with long-term storage. Serum from men undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy was utilized. Serum was assayed soon after collection and 18 months later. All serum was initially aliquotted and stored at -80 degrees C. There was no freeze-thaw. cPSA trade mark was measured utilizing the Bayer Immuno 1 method according to manufacturer's recommendations. The mean (s.d.) PSA was 5.5 (3.8) and 5.6 (3.9) ng/ml at the initial and subsequent testing, respectively. The medians were 4.3 and 4.4 ng/ml, respectively. No significant differences exist between the two determinants (r(2)=1.0, slope=1.01, t-test P=0.9194). These data establish for the first time the long-term stability of cPSA trade mark. Retrospective studies performed on archival material should give meaningful results. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 191-194

  4. The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation JE Royland, SH Warren, S Jeffay, MR Hoopes, HP Nichols, ES Hunter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC The importance of mitochondrial funct...

  5. Eliminating Inhibition of Return by Changing Salient Nonspatial Attributes in a Complex Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Frank K.; Samuel, Arthur G.; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) occurs when a target is preceded by an irrelevant stimulus (cue) at the same location: Target detection is slowed, relative to uncued locations. In the present study, we used relatively complex displays to examine the effect of repetition of nonspatial attributes. For both color and shape, attribute repetition produced a…

  6. The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation JE Royland, SH Warren, S Jeffay, MR Hoopes, HP Nichols, ES Hunter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC The importance of mitochondrial funct...

  7. Eliminating Inhibition of Return by Changing Salient Nonspatial Attributes in a Complex Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Frank K.; Samuel, Arthur G.; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) occurs when a target is preceded by an irrelevant stimulus (cue) at the same location: Target detection is slowed, relative to uncued locations. In the present study, we used relatively complex displays to examine the effect of repetition of nonspatial attributes. For both color and shape, attribute repetition produced a…

  8. Organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Yongdong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Wu, Kui; Sadler, Peter J; Xiong, Shaoxiang

    2013-11-01

    The organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1), biphenyl (2) or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3); en = ethylenediamine), exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. In the present work, we show that they inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) with IC50 values of 59.4 ± 1.3, 63.2 ± 0.4 and 37.2 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Mass spectrometry revealed that complex 1 binds to the S-donors of Cys15, Cys48 within the G-site and Cys102 at the interface of the GSTπ dimer, while complex 2 binds to Cys48 and Met92 at the dimer interface and complex 3 to Cys15, Cys48 and Met92. Moreover, the binding of complex 1 to Cys15 and Cys102, complex 2 to Cys48 and complex 3 to Cys15 induces the irreversible oxidation of the coordinated thiolates to sulfenates. Molecular modeling studies indicate that the coordination of the {(arene)Ru(en)}(2+) fragment to Cys48 blocks the hydrophilic G-site sterically, perhaps preventing substrate from proper positioning and accounting for the reduction in enzymatic activity of ruthenated GSTπ. The binding of the ruthenium arene complexes to Cys102 or Met92 disrupts the dimer interface which is an essential structural feature for the proper functioning of GSTπ, perhaps also contributing to the inhibition of GSTπ. © 2013.

  9. Antibody-producing cell responses to an isolated outer membrane protein and to complexes of this antigen with lipopolysaccharide or with vesicles of phospholipids from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Karch, H; Nixdorff, K

    1981-01-01

    Antibody-producing cell responses of mice to a protein isolated from the outer membrane of Proteus mirabilis were typical of the responses to a thymus-dependent antigen. The immunoglobulin G antibody-producing cell responses to the protein were increased after administration of the antigen complexed with either lipopolysaccharide or with vesicles of phospholipids extracted from P. mirabilis. The protein in turn significantly increased the immune response to lipopolysaccharide and also converted this response from predominantly immunoglobulin M to predominantly immunoglobulin G. PMID:6164651

  10. Zafirlukast Inhibits Complexation of Lsr2 with DNA and Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pinault, Lucile; Han, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Choong-Min; Franco, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    The mycobacterial nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2 is a DNA-bridging protein that plays a role in condensation and structural organization of the genome and acts as a global repressor of gene transcription. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that zafirlukast inhibits the complexation between Lsr2 and DNA in vitro. Zafirlukast is shown to inhibit growth in two different species of mycobacteria tested but exhibits no growth inhibition of Escherichia coli. The Lsr2 inhibitory activity is reflected in vivo as determined by monitoring of transcription levels in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These data suggest that zafirlukast inhibits Lsr2 function in vivo, promoting dysregulation of the expression of an array of genes typically bound by Lsr2 and hindering growth. Since zafirlukast likely operates by a mechanism distinct from current M. tuberculosis drugs and is currently used as a prophylactic treatment for asthma, it offers an intriguing lead for development of new treatments for tuberculosis. PMID:23439641

  11. Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ming-Hung; Liu, Kai-Lun; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Tarocystatin (CeCPI) from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaohsiung no. 1), a group-2 phytocystatin, shares a conserved N-terminal cystatin domain (NtD) with other phytocystatins but contains a C-terminal cystatin-like extension (CtE). The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined. We resolved the crystal structure of the phytocystatin-papain complex at resolution 2.03 Å. Surprisingly, the structure of the NtD-papain complex in a stoichiometry of 1:1 could be built, with no CtE observed. Only two remnant residues of CtE could be built in the structure of the CtE-papain complex. Therefore, CtE is easily digested by papain. To further characterize the interaction between NtD and CtE, three segments of tarocystatin, including the full-length (FL), NtD and CtE, were used to analyze the domain-domain interaction and the inhibition ability. The results from glutaraldehyde cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid assay indicated the existence of an intrinsic flexibility in the region linking NtD and CtE for most tarocystatin molecules. In the inhibition activity assay, the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused FL showed the highest inhibition ability without residual peptidase activity, and GST-NtD and FL showed almost the same inhibition ability, which was higher than with NtD alone. On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain.

  12. Mechanisms of cell death pathway activation following drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Naoki; Kwang Lee, Kang; Zhang, Carmen; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory complex I inhibition by drugs and other chemicals has been implicated as a frequent mode of mitochondria-mediated cell injury. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the activation of cell death pathways are incompletely understood. This study was designed to explore the relative contributions to cell injury of three distinct consequences of complex I inhibition, i.e., impairment of ATP biosynthesis, increased formation of superoxide and, hence, peroxynitrite, and inhibition of the mitochondrial protein deacetylase, Sirt3, due to imbalance of the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We used the antiviral drug efavirenz (EFV) to model drug-induced complex I inhibition. Exposure of cultured mouse hepatocytes to EFV resulted in a rapid onset of cell injury, featuring a no-effect level at 30 µM EFV and submaximal effects at 50 µM EFV. EFV caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, EFV resulted in increased formation of peroxynitrite and oxidation of mitochondrial protein thiols, including cyclophilin D (CypD). This was prevented by the superoxide scavenger, Fe-TCP, or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, Fe-TMPyP. Both ferroporphyrins completely protected from EFV-induced cell injury, suggesting that peroxynitrite contributed to the cell injury. Finally, EFV increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio, inhibited Sirt3 activity, and led to hyperacetylated lysine residues, including those in CypD. However, hepatocytes isolated from Sirt3-null mice were protected against 40 µM EFV as compared to their wild-type controls. In conclusion, these data are compatible with the concept that chemical inhibition of complex I activates multiple pathways leading to cell injury; among these, peroxynitrite formation may be the most critical. PMID:25625582

  13. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity through interaction with RanBPM and its associated CTLH complex.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Louisa M; Maitland, Matthew E R; Yefet, Eyal R; Schild-Poulter, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase that promotes many cellular processes that lead to cell transformation and tumour development. We previously documented an interaction between Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM) and HDAC6 and found that RanBPM expression inhibits HDAC6 activity. RanBPM is part of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, termed the C-terminal to LisH (CTLH) complex. Here, we investigated the involvement of the CTLH complex on HDAC6 inhibition and assessed the outcome of this regulation on the cellular motility induced by HDAC6. Cell lines (Hela, HEK293 and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts) stably or transiently downregulated for several components of the CTLH complex were employed for the assays used in this study. Interactions of HDAC6, RanBPM and muskelin were assessed by co-immunoprecipitations. Quantifications of western blot analyses were employed to evaluate acetylated α-tubulin levels. Confocal microscopy analyses were used to determine microtubule association of HDAC6 and CTLH complex members. Cell migration was evaluated using wound healing assays. We demonstrate that RanBPM-mediated inhibition of HDAC6 is dependent on its association with HDAC6. We show that, while HDAC6 does not require RanBPM to associate with microtubules, RanBPM association with microtubules requires HDAC6. Additionally, we show that Twa1 (Two-hybrid-associated protein 1 with RanBPM) and MAEA (Macrophage Erythroblast Attacher), two CTLH complex members, also associate with α-tubulin and that muskelin, another component of the CTLH complex, is able to associate with HDAC6. Downregulation of CTLH complex members muskelin and Rmnd5A (Required for meiotic nuclear division homolog A) resulted in decreased acetylation of HDAC6 substrate α-tubulin. Finally, we demonstrate that the increased cell migration resulting from downregulation of RanBPM is due to the relief in inhibition of HDAC6 α-tubulin deacetylase activity. Our work shows

  14. Structural Basis of Arp2/3 Complex Inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Olga S; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L

    2017-01-20

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single-particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: glia maturation factor (GMF), Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an "open" nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with the two suggested binding sites for GMF. Furthermore, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Furthermore, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural basis of Arp2/3 complex inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga S.; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: GMF, Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an ‘open’ nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with two suggested binding sites for GMF. Further, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Further, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. PMID:27939292

  16. Antigen 85 complex as a powerful Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogene: Biology, immune-pathogenicity, applications in diagnosis, and vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Mohsen; Soleimanpour, Saman; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-09-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection. Due to their importance, A85 molecules are being utilized as tools in diagnostic methods and in the construction of new vaccines, such as recombinant attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines. This paper represents a comprehensive review of studies on Mtb molecules examining pathogenicity, biochemistry, immunology, and the role of Mtb in therapeutic or vaccine research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Enzyme inhibition, radical scavenging, and spectroscopic studies of vanadium(IV)-hydrazide complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mahroof-Tahir, Mohammad; Maqsood, Zahida T; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Omer, Iman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic, enzyme-inhibition, and free-radical scavenging properties of a series of hydrazide ligands and their vanadium(IV) complexes have been investigated. Analytical and spectral data indicate the presence of a dimeric unit with two oxovanadium(IV) ions (VO(2+)) coordinated with two hydrazide ligands along with two water molecules. All complexes are stable in the solid state, but exhibit varying degrees of stability in solution. Binding of the coordinating solvent such as DMSO is indicated at the 6th position of vanadium in the dimeric unit followed by conversion to a monomeric intermediate species, [VOL(DMSO)3]1+ (L = hydrazide ligand). The free hydrazide ligands are inactive against snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVPD), whereas oxovanadium(IV) complexes of these ligands show varying degrees of inhibition and are found to be non-competitive inhibitors. The superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging properties have been determined. Hydrazide ligands are inactive against these free radicals, whereas their V(IV) complexes show varying degrees of inhibition. Structure-activity relationship studies indicate that the electronic and/or steric factors that change the geometry of the complexes play an important role in their inhibitory potential against SVPD and free radicals.

  18. Potent inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by copper complexes with multi-benzimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Wang, Qingming; Yuan, Caixia; Xing, Shu; Fu, Xueqi; Mei, Yuhua

    2011-12-01

    A series of copper complexes with multi-benzimidazole derivatives, including mono- and di-nuclear, were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The speciation of Cu/NTB in aqueous solution was investigated by potentiometric pH titrations. Their inhibitory effects against human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), megakaryocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (PTP-MEG2), srchomology phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and srchomology phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) were evaluated in vitro. The five copper complexes exhibit potent inhibition against PTP1B, TCPTP and PTP-MEG2 with almost same inhibitory effects with IC(50) at submicro molar level and about tenfold weaker inhibition versus SHP-1, but almost no inhibition against SHP-2. Kinetic analysis indicates that they are reversible competitive inhibitors of PTP1B. Fluorescence study on the interaction between PTP1B and complex 2 or 4 suggests that the complexes bind to PTP1B with the formation of a 1:1 complex. The binding constant are about 1.14 × 10(6) and 1.87 × 10(6) M(-1) at 310 K for 2 and 4, respectively.

  19. Anti-apical-membrane-antigen-1 antibody is more effective than anti-42-kilodalton-merozoite-surface-protein-1 antibody in inhibiting plasmodium falciparum growth, as determined by the in vitro growth inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazutoyo; Zhou, Hong; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; Fay, Michael P; Miller, Louis H; Martin, Laura B; Pierce, Mark A; Ellis, Ruth D; Mullen, Gregory E D; Long, Carole A

    2009-07-01

    Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(42)) are leading malaria vaccine candidates. Several preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted, and an in vitro parasite growth inhibition assay has been used to evaluate the biological activities of the resulting antibodies. In a U.S. phase 1 trial with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909, the vaccination elicited anti-AMA1 immunoglobulin G (IgG) which showed up to 96% inhibition. However, antibodies induced by MSP1(42)-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909 vaccine showed less than 32% inhibition in vitro. To determine whether anti-MSP1(42) IgG had less growth-inhibitory activity than anti-AMA1 IgG in vitro, the amounts of IgG that produced 50% inhibition of parasite growth (Ab(50)) were compared for rabbit and human antibodies. The Ab(50)s of rabbit and human anti-MSP1(42) IgGs were significantly higher (0.21 and 0.62 mg/ml, respectively) than those of anti-AMA1 IgGs (0.07 and 0.10 mg/ml, respectively) against 3D7 parasites. Ab(50) data against FVO parasites also demonstrated significant differences. We further investigated the Ab(50)s of mouse and monkey anti-AMA1 IgGs and showed that there were significant differences between the species (mouse, 0.28 mg/ml, and monkey, 0.14 mg/ml, against 3D7 parasites). Although it is unknown whether growth-inhibitory activity in vitro reflects protective immunity in vivo, this study showed that the Ab(50) varies with both antigen and species. Our data provide a benchmark for antibody levels for future AMA1- or MSP1(42)-based vaccine development efforts in preclinical and clinical trials.

  20. Loss of cohesin complex components STAG2 or STAG3 confers resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Che-Hung; Kim, Sun Hye; Trousil, Sebastian; Frederick, Dennie T.; Piris, Adriano; Yuan, Ping; Cai, Li; Gu, Lei; Li, Man; Lee, Jung Hyun; Mitra, Devarati; Fisher, David E.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Zheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase V-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) is an oncogenic driver and therapeutic target in melanoma. Inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) have shown high response rates and extended survival in melanoma patients bearing tumors that express BRAF Val600 mutations, but a vast majority of these patients develop drug resistance. Here we show that loss of Stromal antigen 2 or 3 (STAG2 or STAG3), which encode subunits of the cohesin complex, in melanoma cells results in resistance to BRAFi. We identified loss-of-function mutations in STAG2 as well as decreased expression of STAG2 or STAG3 proteins in several tumor samples from patients with acquired resistance to BRAFi and in BRAFi-resistant melanoma cell lines. Knockdown of STAG2 or STAG3 decreased sensitivity of Val600Glu BRAF-mutant melanoma cells and xenograft tumors to BRAFi. Loss of STAG2 inhibited CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-mediated expression of dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), leading to reactivation of ERK signaling. Our studies unveil a previously unknown genetic mechanism of BRAFi resistance and provide new insights into the tumor suppressor function of STAG2 and STAG3. PMID:27500726

  1. Bovine leukocyte antigen major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3*2703 and DRB3*1501 alleles are associated with variation in levels of protection against Theileria parva challenge following immunization with the sporozoite p67 antigen.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Luyai, Anthony; Rowlands, G John; Sales, Jill; Musoke, Anthony J; Morzaria, Subash P; McKeever, Declan J

    2004-05-01

    Initial laboratory trials of an experimental subunit vaccine against Theileria parva based on the 67-kDa major sporozoite surface antigen revealed a range of responses to challenge. We have analyzed convergence in seven sets of monozygotic twins which suggests that genetic factors may have an influence in determining the degree of protection provided by p67 immunization. In addition, we have examined whether allelic diversity at major histocompatibility complex class II loci influences protection. Analysis of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 diversity in 201 animals identified significant associations with vaccine success (DRB3*2703; P = 0.027) and vaccine failure (DRB3*1501; P = 0.013). Furthermore, DRB3*2703 was associated with the likelihood of immunized animals showing little to no clinical signs of disease following challenge. We discuss the acquired and innate immune mechanisms that may be behind the associations described here.

  2. Liposome-Antigen-Nucleic Acid Complexes Protect Mice from Lethal Challenge with Western and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Aaron T.; Schountz, Tony; Toth, Ann M.; Rico, Amber B.; Jarvis, Donald L.; Powers, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause significant disease in animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), two New World alphaviruses, can cause fatal encephalitis, and EEEV is a select agent of concern in biodefense. However, we have no antiviral therapies against alphaviral disease, and current vaccine strategies target only a single alphavirus species. In an effort to develop new tools for a broader response to outbreaks, we designed and tested a novel alphavirus vaccine comprised of cationic lipid nucleic acid complexes (CLNCs) and the ectodomain of WEEV E1 protein (E1ecto). Interestingly, we found that the CLNC component, alone, had therapeutic efficacy, as it increased survival of CD-1 mice following lethal WEEV infection. Immunization with the CLNC-WEEV E1ecto mixture (lipid-antigen-nucleic acid complexes [LANACs]) using a prime-boost regimen provided 100% protection in mice challenged with WEEV subcutaneously, intranasally, or via mosquito. Mice immunized with LANACs mounted a strong humoral immune response but did not produce neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of serum from LANAC E1ecto-immunized mice to nonimmune CD-1 mice conferred protection against WEEV challenge, indicating that antibody is sufficient for protection. In addition, the LANAC E1ecto immunization protocol significantly increased survival of mice following intranasal or subcutaneous challenge with EEEV. In summary, our LANAC formulation has therapeutic potential and is an effective vaccine strategy that offers protection against two distinct species of alphavirus irrespective of the route of infection. We discuss plausible mechanisms as well the potential utility of our LANAC formulation as a pan-alphavirus vaccine. PMID:24257615

  3. Synthesis, characterization and xanthine oxidase inhibition of Cu(II)-chrysin complex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suyun; Zeng, Li; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Gong, Deming

    2017-05-05

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme catalyzing hypoxanthine to xanthine and then uric acid causing hyperuricemia. A Cu(II) complex of chrysin was synthesized and characterized by UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and mass spectroscopy studies. The interaction of Cu(II)-complex with XO was investigated by spectroscopic methods and molecular simulation. The Cu(II)-chrysin complex exhibited a better inhibitory ability (IC50=0.82±0.034μM) against XO than its corresponding ligands chrysin and Cu(2+) in a mix-competitive manner. The binding affinity of Cu(II)-chrysin complex with XO was much higher than that of chrysin. The hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played main roles in the binding. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra indicated that the complex induced the conformational change of XO. The molecular simulation found that the Cu(II)-chrysin complex inserted into the active cavity of XO with Cu acting as a bridge, occupying the catalytic center of the enzyme to avoid entry of the substrate xanthine, leading to the inhibition of XO. This study may provide new insights into the inhibition mechanism of the Cu(II)-chrysin complex as a promising XO inhibitor and its potential application for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and xanthine oxidase inhibition of Cu(II)-chrysin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Suyun; Zeng, Li; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Gong, Deming

    2017-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme catalyzing hypoxanthine to xanthine and then uric acid causing hyperuricemia. A Cu(II) complex of chrysin was synthesized and characterized by UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and mass spectroscopy studies. The interaction of Cu(II)-complex with XO was investigated by spectroscopic methods and molecular simulation. The Cu(II)-chrysin complex exhibited a better inhibitory ability (IC50 = 0.82 ± 0.034 μM) against XO than its corresponding ligands chrysin and Cu2 + in a mix-competitive manner. The binding affinity of Cu(II)-chrysin complex with XO was much higher than that of chrysin. The hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played main roles in the binding. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra indicated that the complex induced the conformational change of XO. The molecular simulation found that the Cu(II)-chrysin complex inserted into the active cavity of XO with Cu acting as a bridge, occupying the catalytic center of the enzyme to avoid entry of the substrate xanthine, leading to the inhibition of XO. This study may provide new insights into the inhibition mechanism of the Cu(II)-chrysin complex as a promising XO inhibitor and its potential application for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  5. Detection of cytomegalovirus antigens in phagocytosed serum complexes from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, cutaneous ulceration, and digital gangrene.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, J N; Wojtacha, D; Edmond, E

    1992-01-01

    A patient with rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, cutaneous ulceration, and digital gangrene was studied. Circulating immune complexes were detected by C1q binding although serum complement levels were within the normal range. Immunofluorescent staining of buffy coat cells with specific antisera showed the presence of IgG and IgM in phagocytosed inclusions but complement C3 was not detected. A monoclonal antibody specific for cytomegalovirus detected antigens in phagocytosed inclusions on one occasion. These results may suggest that cytomegalovirus antigens are a hitherto unidentified component of serum complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the vasculitic complications of rheumatoid arthritis by participating in immune complex formation. Images PMID:1316744

  6. The influence of different cucumariosides on immunogenicity of OmpF porin from Yersinia pseudotuberulosis as a model protein antigen of tubular immunostimulating complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanina, N. M.; Chopenko, N. S.; Davydova, L. A.; Mazeika, A. N.; Portnyagina, O. Yu.; Kim, N. Yu.; Golotin, V. A.; Kostetsky, E. Y.; Shnyrov, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    Nanoparticulate tubular immunostimulating complex (TI-complex) is a novel promising adjuvant carrier of antigens allowing to create safe and effective vaccines of new generation. The adjuvant activity of TI-complexes based on monogalactosyldyacylglycerol (MGDG) from the sea alga Ulva lactuca and different triterpene glycosides cucumariosides (CDs) from marine invertebrate Cucumaria japonica and their fractions was studied to assess effects of different CDs on the immunogenicity of porin OmpF from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YOmpF). TI-complexes with cucumarioside A2-2 (CDA2-2) maximally stimulated anti-porin antibody production. Studies of protein intrinsic fluorescence showed that all CDs had a relaxing effect on the conformation of YOmpF, loosening peripheral region of protein and promoting exposure of the protein antigenic determinants to the water environment. The greatest immunostimulating effect of TI-complexes comprising CDA2-2 was accompanied by mild effect of this CD on the tertiary structure of protein antigen YOmpF, whereas cucumarioside E (CDE) and cucumarioside A2-4 (CDA2-4) caused especially sharp redistribution of spectral form of the YOmpF corresponding to the emission of an intrinsic protein fluorophore tryptophan.

  7. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R

    2012-06-22

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  8. A proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) C-terminal domain antibody antigen-binding fragment inhibits PCSK9 internalization and restores low density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan G; Condra, Jon H; Orsatti, Laura; Shen, Xun; Di Marco, Stefania; Pandit, Shilpa; Bottomley, Matthew J; Ruggeri, Lionello; Cummings, Richard T; Cubbon, Rose M; Santoro, Joseph C; Ehrhardt, Anka; Lewis, Dale; Fisher, Timothy S; Ha, Sookhee; Njimoluh, Leila; Wood, Dana D; Hammond, Holly A; Wisniewski, Douglas; Volpari, Cinzia; Noto, Alessia; Lo Surdo, Paola; Hubbard, Brian; Carfí, Andrea; Sitlani, Ayesha

    2010-04-23

    PCSK9 binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and leads to LDLR degradation and inhibition of plasma LDL cholesterol clearance. Consequently, the role of PCSK9 in modulating circulating LDL makes it a promising therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 is not involved in LDLR binding, the location of several naturally occurring mutations within this region suggests that it has an important role for PCSK9 function. Using a phage display library, we identified an anti-PCSK9 Fab (fragment antigen binding), 1G08, with subnanomolar affinity for PCSK9. In an assay measuring LDL uptake in HEK293 and HepG2 cells, 1G08 Fab reduced 50% the PCSK9-dependent inhibitory effects on LDL uptake. Importantly, we found that 1G08 did not affect the PCSK9-LDLR interaction but inhibited the internalization of PCSK9 in these cells. Furthermore, proteolysis and site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that 1G08 Fab binds a region of beta-strands encompassing Arg-549, Arg-580, Arg-582, Glu-607, Lys-609, and Glu-612 in the PCSK9 C-terminal domain. Consistent with these results, 1G08 fails to bind PCSK9DeltaC, a truncated form of PCSK9 lacking the C-terminal domain. Additional studies revealed that lack of the C-terminal domain compromised the ability of PCSK9 to internalize into cells, and to inhibit LDL uptake. Together, the present study demonstrate that the PCSK9 C-terminal domain contribute to its inhibition of LDLR function mainly through its role in the cellular uptake of PCSK9 and LDLR complex. 1G08 Fab represents a useful new tool for delineating the mechanism of PCSK9 uptake and LDLR degradation.

  9. The C-terminal region of p21SDI1/WAF1/CIP1 is involved in proliferating cell nuclear antigen binding but does not appear to be required for growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, M; Robetorye, R S; Pereira-Smith, O M; Smith, J R

    1995-07-21

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21SDI1/WAF1/CIP1 has been found to be involved in cell senescence, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation. p21SDI1 inhibits the activity of several Cdks, in contrast to other inhibitors such as p15INK4B and p16INK4A, which act on specific cyclin-Cdk complexes. Of interest were reports that p21SDI1 also bound proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta, and inhibited DNA replication but not DNA repair in vitro. To better understand the function of this interaction in vivo, we first determined the region of p21SDI1 that was needed for PCNA binding. Analysis of deletion mutants of p21SDI1, which covered the majority of the protein, revealed that deletion of either amino acids 142-147 or 149-154 resulted in loss of ability to bind a glutathione S-transferase-PCNA fusion protein. Site-directed mutagenesis in this region led to the identification of the PCNA binding motif RQXXMTXFYXXXR and demonstrated that mutation of either amino acid Met-147 or Phe-150 resulted in almost complete ablation of PCNA binding. Interestingly, when we determined DNA synthesis inhibitory activity of deletion mutants or point mutants that were unable to bind Cdk2 and/or PCNA, we found that loss of binding to PCNA did not affect inhibitory activity, whereas lack of Cdk2 binding greatly reduced the same. This result suggests that the primary mechanism for inhibition of DNA synthesis by p21SDI1 occurs via inhibition of Cdk activity.

  10. Differential inhibition/inactivation of mitochondrial complex I implicates its alteration in malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bera, S; Ghosal, S; Ray, S; Basu, A; Ray, M

    2011-09-01

    Methylglyoxal strongly inhibited mitochondrial respiration of a wide variety of malignant tissues including sarcoma of mice, whereas no such significant effect was noted on mitochondrial respiration of normal tissues with the exception of cardiac cells. This inhibition by methylglyoxal was found to be at the level of mitochondrial complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the electron transport chain. L-Lactaldehyde, which is structurally and metabolically related to methylglyoxal, could protect against this inhibition. NADH dehydrogenase of submitochondrial particles of malignant and cardiac cells was inhibited by methylglyoxal. This enzyme of these cells was also inactivated by methylglyoxal. The possible involvement of lysine residue(s) for the activity of NADH dehydrogenase was also investigated by using lysine-specific reagents trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PP). Inactivation of NADH dehydrogenase by both TNBS and PP convincingly demonstrated the involvement of lysine residue(s) for the activity of the sarcoma and cardiac enzymes, whereas both TNBS and PP failed to inactivate the enzymes of skeletal muscle and liver. Together these studies demonstrate a specific effect of methylglyoxal on mitochondrial complex I of malignant cells and importantly some distinct alteration of this complex in cancer cells.

  11. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  12. Inhibition of replicon initiation in human cells following stabilization of topoisomerase-DNA cleavable complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, W K; Boyer, J C; Estabrooks, L L; Wilson, S J

    1991-01-01

    Diploid human fibroblast strains were treated for 10 min with inhibitors of type I and type II DNA topoisomerases, and after removal of the inhibitors, the rate of initiation of DNA synthesis at replicon origins was determined. By alkaline elution chromatography, 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (amsacrine), an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, was shown to produce DNA strand breaks. These strand breaks are thought to reflect drug-induced stabilization of topoisomerase-DNA cleavable complexes. Removal of the drug led to a rapid resealing of the strand breaks by dissociation of the complexes. Velocity sedimentation analysis was used to quantify the effects of amsacrine treatment on DNA replication. It was demonstrated that transient exposure to low concentrations of amsacrine inhibited replicon initiation but did not substantially affect DNA chainelongation within operating replicons. Maximal inhibition of replicon initiation occurred 20 to 30 min after drug treatment, and the initiation rate recovered 30 to 90 min later. Ataxia telangiectasia cells displayed normal levels of amsacrine-induced DNA strand breaks during stabilization of cleavable complexes but failed to downregulate replicon initiation after exposure to the topoisomerase inhibitor. Thus, inhibition of replicon initiation in response to DNA damage appears to be an active process which requires a gene product which is defective or missing in ataxia telangiectasia cells. In normal human fibroblasts, the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I by camptothecin produced reversible DNA strand breaks. Transient exposure to this drug also inhibited replicon initiation. These results suggest that the cellular response pathway which downregulates replicon initiation following genotoxic damage may respond to perturbations of chromatin structure which accompany stabilization of topoisomerase-DNA cleavable complexes. PMID:1646393

  13. Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments

    PubMed Central

    Keine, Christian; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition plays a crucial role in neural signal processing, shaping and limiting responses. In the auditory system, inhibition already modulates second order neurons in the cochlear nucleus, e.g. spherical bushy cells (SBCs). While the physiological basis of inhibition and excitation is well described, their functional interaction in signal processing remains elusive. Using a combination of in vivo loose-patch recordings, iontophoretic drug application, and detailed signal analysis in the Mongolian Gerbil, we demonstrate that inhibition is widely co-tuned with excitation, and leads only to minor sharpening of the spectral response properties. Combinations of complex stimuli and neuronal input-output analysis based on spectrotemporal receptive fields revealed inhibition to render the neuronal output temporally sparser and more reproducible than the input. Overall, inhibition plays a central role in improving the temporal response fidelity of SBCs across a wide range of input intensities and thereby provides the basis for high-fidelity signal processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19295.001 PMID:27855778

  14. A Role For Mitochondria In Antigen Processing And Presentation.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Lc; Cervantes-Silva, Mp; Ontiveros-Dotor, E; López-Villegas, Eo; Sánchez-García, Fj

    2014-09-23

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signaling process. However, the role of mitochondria in antigen presenting cells during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing, and -presentation process. Here we show that HEL-loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APCs, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1-2 h following antigen exposure thus suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analyzed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC-peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes that endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48-62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taking together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APCs mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC-T immune synapse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. On the attribution of binding energy in antigen-antibody complexes McPC 603, D1.3, and HyHEL-5.

    PubMed

    Novotny, J; Bruccoleri, R E; Saul, F A

    1989-05-30

    Using X-ray coordinates of antigen-antibody complexes McPC 603, D1.3, and HyHEL-5, we made semiquantitative estimates of Gibbs free energy changes (delta G) accompanying noncovalent complex formation of the McPC 603 Fv fragment with phosphocholine and the D1.3 or HyHEL-5 Fv fragments with hen egg white lysozyme. Our empirical delta G function, which implicitly incorporates solvent effects, has the following components: hydrophobic force, solvent-modified electrostatics, changes in side-chain conformational entropy, translational/overall rotational entropy changes, and the dilutional (cratic) entropy term. The calculated delta G ranges matched the experimentally determined delta G of McPC 603 and D1.3 complexes and overestimated it (i.e., gave a more negative value) in the case of HyHEL-5. Relative delta G contributions of selected antibody residues, calculated for HyHEL-5 complexes, agreed with those determined independently in site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Analysis of delta G attribution in all three complexes indicated that only a small number of amino acids probably contribute actively to binding energetics. These form a subset of the total antigen-antibody contact surface. In the antibodies, the bottom part of the antigen binding cavity dominated the energetics of binding whereas in lysozyme, the energetically most important residues defined small (2.5-3 nm2) "energetic" epitopes. Thus, a concept of protein antigenicity emerges that involves the active, attractive contributions mediated by the energetic antigenic epitopes and the passive surface complementarity contributed by the surrounding contact area. The D1.3 energetic epitope of lysozyme involved Gly 22, Gly 117, and Gln 121; the HyHEL-5 epitope consisted of Arg 45 and Arg 68. These are also the essential antigenic residues determined experimentally. The above positions belong to the most protruding parts of the lysozyme surface, and their backbones are not exceptionally flexible. Least

  16. Inhibition of antigen- and lectin-induced proliferation of rat spleen cells by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Leid, R W; Suquet, C M; Perryman, L E

    1984-01-01

    Rat splenic lymphocytes, cultured in vitro for 3 days in the presence of a larval cestode proteinase inhibitor, exhibited a marked suppression of proliferation when stimulated with Con A, PHA, PWM and ovalbumin. Reduced responsiveness was observed over a full range of concentrations of Con A (16-fold), PHA (50-fold), PWM (four-fold) and ovalbumin (16-fold). These results indicated that the inhibitory action could not be overcome by increasing the mitogen or antigen doses beyond optimal levels. This suppressive effect disappeared when the Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor was added 20 h after the initiation of culture, suggesting that the inhibitor affects lymphocyte blastogenesis during the early stages of lymphocyte activation. PMID:6744668

  17. Antigen genes for molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis: polymorphism of cysteine proteinase B and surface metalloprotease glycoprotein 63 in the Leishmania donovani complex.

    PubMed

    Quispe Tintaya, Kelly Wilber; Ying, Xu; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Rijal, Suman; De Bolle, Xavier; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2004-03-15

    Efficient monitoring of endemic and resurgent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) requires discriminatory molecular tools that allow direct characterization of etiological agents (i.e., the Leishmania donovani complex) in host tissues. This characterization is possible through restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified sequences (PCR-RFLP). We present 2 new PCR-RFLP assays that target the gene locus of cysteine proteinase B (cpb), an important Leishmania antigen. The assays were applied to the characterization of 15 reference strains of the L. donovani complex, and their discriminatory power was compared with that of PCR-RFLP analysis of the gp63 gene, another Leishmania antigen, and with that of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), which is the reference standard for parasite typing. Restriction patterns of the cpb locus were polymorphic, but less so than gp63 patterns. When data for both loci were combined, differences between PCR-RFLP and MLEE results were encountered. Antigen gene analysis was more discriminatory and supported a different classification of parasites, one that fitted with their geographic origin. PCR-RFLP analysis of cpb also allowed direct genotyping of parasites in bone marrow aspirate and venous blood samples obtained from patients with VL. Antigen genes constitute valid targets for PCR-based Leishmania typing without the need for isolation of parasites.

  18. The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, E K; Dasgupta, J D; Schlossman, S F; Trevillyan, J M; Rudd, C E

    1989-01-01

    Many mammalian receptors have been found to regulate cell growth by virtue of a protein-tyrosine kinase domain in their cytoplasmic tail. We recently described an association of the CD4 antigen with a T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck; formerly termed pp58lck; EC 2.7.1.112). This interaction represents a potential mechanism by which T-cell growth may be regulated and offers a model by which other members of the src family (products of c-src, c-yes, c-fgr, etc.) may interact with mammalian growth factor receptors. As in the case of the CD4 antigen, the CD8 antigen appears to serve as a receptor for nonpolymorphic regions of products of the major histocompatibility complex and has been implicated in the regulation of T-cell growth. In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). The associated p56lck kinase was detected by use of both in vitro and in vivo labeling regimes using an antiserum to the C terminus of p56lck. Two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH-gradient gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the similarity of p56lck to the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the CD4 antigen. The catalytic activity of p56lck was revealed by the autophosphorylation of the 55- to 60-kDa kinase and the occasional labeling of a 35-kDa protein. Last, we demonstrate directly that members of the CD3 complex, including the gamma, delta, and epsilon chains, as well as a putative zeta subunit, can be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by the CD4/CD8.p56lck complex. Images PMID:2470098

  19. MAGE-A Cancer/Testis Antigens Inhibit MDM2 Ubiquitylation Function and Promote Increased Levels of MDM4

    PubMed Central

    Marcar, Lynnette; Ihrig, Bianca; Hourihan, John; Bray, Susan E.; Quinlan, Philip R.; Jordan, Lee B.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Hupp, Ted R.; Meek, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) proteins comprise a structurally and biochemically similar sub-family of Cancer/Testis antigens that are expressed in many cancer types and are thought to contribute actively to malignancy. MAGE-A proteins are established regulators of certain cancer-associated transcription factors, including p53, and are activators of several RING finger-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here, we show that MAGE-A2 associates with MDM2, a ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitylation of more than 20 substrates including mainly p53, MDM2 itself, and MDM4, a potent p53 inhibitor and MDM2 partner that is structurally related to MDM2. We find that MAGE-A2 interacts with MDM2 via the N-terminal p53-binding pocket and the RING finger domain of MDM2 that is required for homo/hetero-dimerization and for E2 ligase interaction. Consistent with these data, we show that MAGE-A2 is a potent inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2, yet it does not have any significant effect on p53 turnover mediated by MDM2. Strikingly, however, increased MAGE-A2 expression leads to reduced ubiquitylation and increased levels of MDM4. Similarly, silencing of endogenous MAGE-A expression diminishes MDM4 levels in a manner that can be rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor, bortezomid, and permits increased MDM2/MDM4 association. These data suggest that MAGE-A proteins can: (i) uncouple the ubiquitin ligase and degradation functions of MDM2; (ii) act as potent inhibitors of E3 ligase function; and (iii) regulate the turnover of MDM4. We also find an association between the presence of MAGE-A and increased MDM4 levels in primary breast cancer, suggesting that MAGE-A-dependent control of MDM4 levels has relevance to cancer clinically. PMID:26001071

  20. Inhibition of antigen-specific T cell proliferation and cytokine production by protein kinase A type I.

    PubMed

    Aandahl, Einar Martin; Moretto, Walter J; Haslett, Patrick A; Vang, Torkel; Bryn, Tone; Tasken, Kjetil; Nixon, Douglas F

    2002-07-15

    cAMP inhibits biochemical events leading to T cell activation by triggering of an inhibitory protein kinase A (PKA)-C-terminal Src kinase pathway assembled in lipid rafts. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of PKA type I by Sp-8-bromo-cAMPS (a cAMP agonist) has profound inhibitory effects on Ag-specific immune responses in peripheral effector T cells. Activation of PKA type I inhibits both cytokine production and proliferative responses in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The observed effects of cAMP appeared to occur endogenously in T cells and were not dependent on APC. The inhibition of responses was not due to apoptosis of specific T cells and was reversible by a PKA type I-selective cAMP antagonist. This supports the notion of PKA type I as a key enzyme in the negative regulation of immune responses and a potential target for inhibiting autoreactive T cells.

  1. Inhibition of Cellulase-Catalyzed Lignocellulosic Hydrolysis by Iron and Oxidative Metal Ions and Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tejirian, Ani; Xu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis plays a key role in microbially driven carbon cycling and energy conversion and holds promise for bio-based energy and chemical industries. Cellulases (key lignocellulose-active enzymes) are prone to interference from various noncellulosic substances (e.g., metal ions). During natural cellulolysis, these substances may arise from other microbial activities or abiotic events, and during industrial cellulolysis, they may be derived from biomass feedstocks or upstream treatments. Knowledge about cellulolysis-inhibiting reactions is of importance for the microbiology of natural biomass degradation and the development of biomass conversion technology. Different metal ions, including those native to microbial activity or employed for biomass pretreatments, are often tested for enzymatic cellulolysis. Only a few metal ions act as inhibitors of cellulases, which include ferrous and ferric ions as well as cupric ion. In this study, we showed inhibition by ferrous/ferric ions as part of a more general effect from oxidative (or redox-active) metal ions and their complexes. The correlation between inhibition and oxidation potential indicated the oxidative nature of the inhibition, and the dependence on air established the catalytic role that iron ions played in mediating the dioxygen inhibition of cellulolysis. Individual cellulases showed different susceptibilities to inhibition. It is likely that the inhibition exerted its effect more on cellulose than on cellulase. Strong iron ion chelators and polyethylene glycols could mitigate the inhibition. Potential microbiological and industrial implications of the observed effect of redox-active metal ions on enzymatic cellulolysis, as well as the prevention and mitigation of this effect in industrial biomass conversion, are discussed. PMID:20889796

  2. Geminin Inhibits a Late Step in the Formation of Human Pre-replicative Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Lu, Wenyan; Santos, Ruth E.; Frattini, Mark G.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The initial step in initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves the assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In metazoans initiation is inhibited by the regulatory factor Geminin. We have purified the human pre-RC proteins, studied their interactions in vitro with each other and with origin DNA, and analyzed the effects of HsGeminin on formation of DNA-protein complexes. The formation of an initial complex containing the human origin recognition complex (HsORC), HsCdt1, HsCdc6, and origin DNA is cooperative, involving all possible binary interactions among the components. Maximal association of HsMCM2–7, a component of the replicative helicase, requires HsORC, HsCdc6, HsCdt1, and ATP, and is driven by interactions of HsCdt1 and HsCdc6 with multiple HsMCM2–7 subunits. Formation of stable complexes, resistant to high salt, requires ATP hydrolysis. In the absence of HsMCM proteins, HsGeminin inhibits the association of HsCdt1 with DNA or with HsORC-HsCdc6-DNA complexes. However, HsGeminin does not inhibit recruitment of HsMCM2–7 to DNA to form complexes containing all of the pre-RC proteins. In fact, HsGeminin itself is a component of such complexes, and interacts directly with the HsMcm3 and HsMcm5 subunits of HsMCM2–7, as well as with HsCdt1. Although HsGeminin does not prevent the initial formation of DNA-protein complexes containing the pre-RC proteins, it strongly inhibits the formation of stable pre-RCs that are resistant to high salt. We suggest that bound HsGeminin prevents transition of the pre-RC to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication. PMID:25231993

  3. MLL-ENL inhibits polycomb repressive complex 1 to achieve efficient transformation of hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Maethner, Emanuel; Garcia-Cuellar, Maria-Paz; Breitinger, Constanze; Takacova, Sylvia; Divoky, Vladimir; Hess, Jay L; Slany, Robert K

    2013-05-30

    Stimulation of transcriptional elongation is a key activity of leukemogenic MLL fusion proteins. Here, we provide evidence that MLL-ENL also inhibits Polycomb-mediated silencing as a prerequisite for efficient transformation. Biochemical studies identified ENL as a scaffold that contacted the elongation machinery as well as the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) component CBX8. These interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro, corresponding to an antagonistic behavior of MLL-ENL and CBX8 in vivo. CBX8 inhibited elongation in a specific reporter assay, and this effect was neutralized by direct association with ENL. Correspondingly, CBX8-binding-defective MLL-ENL could not fully activate gene loci necessary for transformation. Finally, we demonstrate dimerization of MLL-ENL as a neomorphic activity that may augment Polycomb inhibition and transformation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MLL-ENL inhibits polycomb repressive complex 1 to achieve efficient transformation of hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Maethner, Emanuel; Garcia-Cuellar, Maria-Paz; Breitinger, Constanze; Takacova, Sylvia; Divoky, Vladimir; Hess, Jay L.; Slany, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stimulation of transcriptional elongation is a key activity of leukemogenic MLL fusion proteins. Here we provide evidence that MLL-ENL also inhibits polycomb-mediated silencing as a prerequisite for efficient transformation. Biochemical studies identified ENL as scaffold that contacted the elongation machinery as well as the PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) component CBX8. These interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro corresponding to an antagonistic behavior of MLL-ENL and CBX8 in vivo. CBX8 inhibited elongation in a specific reporter assay and this effect was neutralized by direct association with ENL. Correspondingly MLL-ENL defective in CBX8 binding could not fully activate gene loci necessary for transformation. Finally, we demonstrate dimerization of MLL-ENL as neomorphic activity that may augment polycomb inhibition and transformation. PMID:23623499

  5. Statin-Induced Myopathy Is Associated with Mitochondrial Complex III Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Schirris, Tom J J; Renkema, G Herma; Ritschel, Tina; Voermans, Nicol C; Bilos, Albert; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Brandt, Ulrich; Koopman, Werner J H; Beyrath, Julien D; Rodenburg, Richard J; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Russel, Frans G M

    2015-09-01

    Cholesterol-lowering statins effectively reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. Myopathy is the most important adverse effect, but its underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. In C2C12 myoblasts, several statin lactones reduced respiratory capacity and appeared to be strong inhibitors of mitochondrial complex III (CIII) activity, up to 84% inhibition. The lactones were in general three times more potent inducers of cytotoxicity than their corresponding acid forms. The Qo binding site of CIII was identified as off-target of the statin lactones. These findings could be confirmed in muscle tissue of patients suffering from statin-induced myopathies, in which CIII enzyme activity was reduced by 18%. Respiratory inhibition in C2C12 myoblasts could be attenuated by convergent electron flow into CIII, restoring respiration up to 89% of control. In conclusion, CIII inhibition was identified as a potential off-target mechanism associated with statin-induced myopathies.

  6. Transformation with Oncogenic Ras and the Simian Virus 40 T Antigens Induces Caspase-Dependent Sensitivity to Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihao; Spencer, Cody M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncogenesis is frequently accompanied by the activation of specific metabolic pathways. One such pathway is fatty acid biosynthesis, whose induction is observed upon transformation of a wide variety of cell types. Here, we explored how defined oncogenic alleles, specifically the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigens and oncogenic Ras12V, affect fatty acid metabolism. Our results indicate that SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation of fibroblasts induces fatty acid biosynthesis in the absence of significant changes in the concentration of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. This oncogene-induced activation of fatty acid biosynthesis was found to be mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent, as it was attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation induced sensitivity to treatment with fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitors. Pharmaceutical inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), a key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme, induced caspase-dependent cell death in oncogene-transduced cells. In contrast, isogenic nontransformed cells were resistant to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. This oncogene-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the cells' growth rates and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Both the activation of fatty acid biosynthesis and the sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition could be conveyed to nontransformed breast epithelial cells through transduction with oncogenic Ras12V. Similar to what was observed in the transformed fibroblasts, the Ras12V-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the proliferative status and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Combined, our results indicate that specific oncogenic alleles can directly confer sensitivity to inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE Viral oncoproteins and cellular mutations

  7. Increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells through the enrichment of oligomeric T cell receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Ferez, María; Swamy, Mahima; Arechaga, Ignacio; Rejas, María Teresa; Valpuesta, Jose M; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; van Santen, Hisse M

    2011-09-23

    Although memory T cells respond more vigorously to stimulation and they are more sensitive to low doses of antigen than naive T cells, the molecular basis of this increased sensitivity remains unclear. We have previously shown that the T cell receptor (TCR) exists as different-sized oligomers on the surface of resting T cells and that large oligomers are preferentially activated in response to low antigen doses. Through biochemistry and electron microscopy, we now showed that previously stimulated and memory T cells have more and larger TCR oligomers at the cell surface than their naive counterparts. Reconstitution of cells and mice with a point mutant of the CD3ζ subunit, which impairs TCR oligomer formation, demonstrated that the increased size of TCR oligomers was directly responsible for the increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells. Thus, we propose that an "avidity maturation" mechanism underlies T cell antigenic memory.

  8. PLK1 (polo like kinase 1) inhibits MTOR complex 1 and promotes autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Stefanie; Heberle, Alexander Martin; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Gelino, Sara; Wilkinson, Deepti; Gerbeth, Carolin; Schwarz, Jennifer Jasmin; Holzwarth, Birgit; Warscheid, Bettina; Meisinger, Chris; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Baumeister, Ralf; Hansen, Malene; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) and polo like kinase 1 (PLK1) are major drivers of cancer cell growth and proliferation, and inhibitors of both protein kinases are currently being investigated in clinical studies. To date, MTORC1′s and PLK1′s functions are mostly studied separately, and reports on their mutual crosstalk are scarce. Here, we identify PLK1 as a physical MTORC1 interactor in human cancer cells. PLK1 inhibition enhances MTORC1 activity under nutrient sufficiency and in starved cells, and PLK1 directly phosphorylates the MTORC1 component RPTOR/RAPTOR in vitro. PLK1 and MTORC1 reside together at lysosomes, the subcellular site where MTORC1 is active. Consistent with an inhibitory role of PLK1 toward MTORC1, PLK1 overexpression inhibits lysosomal association of the PLK1-MTORC1 complex, whereas PLK1 inhibition promotes lysosomal localization of MTOR. PLK1-MTORC1 binding is enhanced by amino acid starvation, a condition known to increase autophagy. MTORC1 inhibition is an important step in autophagy activation. Consistently, PLK1 inhibition mitigates autophagy in cancer cells both under nutrient starvation and sufficiency, and a role of PLK1 in autophagy is also observed in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. In summary, PLK1 inhibits MTORC1 and thereby positively contributes to autophagy. Since autophagy is increasingly recognized to contribute to tumor cell survival and growth, we propose that cautious monitoring of MTORC1 and autophagy readouts in clinical trials with PLK1 inhibitors is needed to develop strategies for optimized (combinatorial) cancer therapies targeting MTORC1, PLK1, and autophagy. PMID:28102733

  9. Formoterol synergy with des-ciclesonide inhibits IL-4 expression in IgE/antigen-induced mast cells by inhibiting JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-hong; Ge, Ling-tian; Jiang, Jun-xia; Shen, Hui-juan; Jia, Yong-liang; Dong, Xin-wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-min

    2015-08-15

    Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy in combination with long-acting β-adrenergic agonists (LABA) is the most important treatment for allergic asthma, although the mechanism still remains unclear. However, mast cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we explored the sole or synergetic effects of des-ciclesonide (ICS) and formoterol (LABA) on the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and on histamine release from mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells). We found that des-ciclesonide (0.1, 1 and 10nM) and formoterol (0.1, 1 and 10μM) alone attenuated DNP-BSA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 production, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner in DNP-IgE-sensitized mast cells. Des-ciclesonide (0.2nM) and formoterol (1μM) alone also reduced histamine production. However, the combination of des-ciclesonide (0.2nM) and formoterol (1μM) had a synergistic inhibition effect on IL-4 mRNA expression and protein production but not IL-13 and histamine release. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10μM) inhibited antigen-induced mRNA expression and protein production of IL-4. Des-ciclesonide and formoterol alone inhibited the activation of JNK in a concentration-dependent manner, and the combination of des-ciclesonide (0.2nM) and formoterol (1μM) exhibited greater inhibition effect compared with des-ciclesonide (0.2nM) or formoterol (1μM) alone. Taken together, these synergistic effects on mast cells might provide the rationale for the development of the most recent ICS/LABA combination approved for asthma therapy.

  10. Inhibition of Antigen-Specific and Nonspecific Stimulation of Bovine T and B Cells by Lymphostatin from Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Bell, Charlotte R.; Elshina, Elizaveta; Hope, Jayne C.; Stevens, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally encoded 365-kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonization of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111, and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill defined. Using purified recombinant protein, we demonstrated that lymphostatin inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of bovine T cells and, to a lesser extent, proliferation of cytokine-stimulated B cells, but not NK cells. It broadly affected the T cell compartment, inhibiting all cell subsets (CD4, CD8, WC-1, and γδ T cell receptor [γδ-TCR]) and cytokines examined (interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and rendered T cells refractory to mitogen for a least 18 h after transient exposure. Lymphostatin was also able to inhibit proliferation of T cells stimulated by IL-2 and by antigen presentation using a Theileria-transformed cell line and autologous T cells from Theileria-infected cattle. We conclude that lymphostatin is likely to act early in T cell activation, as stimulation of T cells with concanavalin A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate combined with ionomycin, was inhibited. Finally, a homologue of lymphostatin from E. coli O157:H7 (ToxB; L7095) was also found to possess comparable inhibitory activity against T cells, indicating a potentially conserved strategy for interference in adaptive responses by attaching and effacing E. coli. PMID:27920212

  11. Inhibition of Antigen-Specific and Nonspecific Stimulation of Bovine T and B Cells by Lymphostatin from Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cassady-Cain, Robin L; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Bell, Charlotte R; Elshina, Elizaveta; Hope, Jayne C; Stevens, Mark P

    2017-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally encoded 365-kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonization of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111, and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill defined. Using purified recombinant protein, we demonstrated that lymphostatin inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of bovine T cells and, to a lesser extent, proliferation of cytokine-stimulated B cells, but not NK cells. It broadly affected the T cell compartment, inhibiting all cell subsets (CD4, CD8, WC-1, and γδ T cell receptor [γδ-TCR]) and cytokines examined (interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and rendered T cells refractory to mitogen for a least 18 h after transient exposure. Lymphostatin was also able to inhibit proliferation of T cells stimulated by IL-2 and by antigen presentation using a Theileria-transformed cell line and autologous T cells from Theileria-infected cattle. We conclude that lymphostatin is likely to act early in T cell activation, as stimulation of T cells with concanavalin A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate combined with ionomycin, was inhibited. Finally, a homologue of lymphostatin from E. coli O157:H7 (ToxB; L7095) was also found to possess comparable inhibitory activity against T cells, indicating a potentially conserved strategy for interference in adaptive responses by attaching and effacing E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Cassady-Cain et al.

  12. The SCFSlimb E3 ligase complex regulates asymmetric division to inhibit neuroblast overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Wang, Cheng; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Aw, Sherry S Y; Koe, Chwee T; Wong, Jack J L; Yu, Fengwei; Ang, Beng T; Tang, Carol; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila larval brain neuroblasts divide asymmetrically to balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the SCFSlimb E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is composed of Cul1, SkpA, Roc1a and the F-box protein Supernumerary limbs (Slimb), inhibits ectopic neuroblast formation and regulates asymmetric division of neuroblasts. Hyperactivation of Akt leads to similar neuroblast overgrowth and defects in asymmetric division. Slimb associates with Akt in a protein complex, and SCFSlimb acts through SAK and Akt to inhibit neuroblast overgrowth. Moreover, Beta-transducin repeat containing, the human ortholog of Slimb, is frequently deleted in highly aggressive gliomas, suggesting a conserved tumor suppressor-like function. PMID:24413555

  13. Inhibition of carrageenin paw edema by pyridinalalkylimine rhodium(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sava, G; Pacor, S; Ceschia, V; Zassinovich, G; Mestroni, G

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a series of pyridinalalkyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene Rhodium(I) complexes were studied on the carrageenin paw edema model, using Sprague-Dawley rats. The series of compounds used were administered at 35, 70 and 140 mumol/kg i.p. 1hr before carrageenin application, and the effect was measured 4hr after carrageenin. The 1,5-cyclooctadienepyridinalaldoxime Rhodium(I) complex proved to be the most active compound, effective also when administered 1hr after carrageenin induction of paw swelling. However, the effects of this complex are not superior to those reported for the methyl derivative, and the overall antiinflammatory activity is inferior to that of this latter compound, particularly when the number of dosages causing at least 80% inhibition are compared. These data are consistent with those obtained in a previous investigation indicating that Rhodium(I) complexes have potential antiinflammatory properties, susceptible of further investigations extended also to other models of inflammatory disease.

  14. Mechanism of antigen presentation after hypertonic loading of soluble antigens

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Georg A

    2002-01-01

    Hypertonic loading of proteins into cells has been used to introduce soluble proteins into the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway of antigen presentation followed by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) induction. The precise mechanism for this pathway is not completely understood. The antigen is either processed and presented by/on the same cell or by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) after taking up the antigen from damaged or apoptotic cells. After loading labelled ovalbumin (OVA), it could be co-precipitated with the proteasome complex, supporting the role of this pathway for antigen processing. The processing speed however, appeared to be slow since intact OVA could be detected inside the cells even after 18 hr. This corresponded well with the processing of OVA by isolated proteasomes. On the other hand, enough peptides for recognition of target cells by CTLs were generated in this reaction. One reason for the low level of processing might be that hypertonic loading may damage the cells and inhibit direct processing. In fact, at least 50% of the cells became positive for Annexin V binding after hypertonic loading which indicates severe membrane alterations usually associated with the progress of apoptosis. Annexin V binds to phosphatidylserine residues which also serve as ligand for CD36 expressed on monocytes and some immature dendritic cells. This may direct the phagocytic pathway to hypertonically loaded cells and thus enable professional APCs to present OVA-peptides. Therefore, in addition to the direct processing of OVA, CTLs can be primed by professional APC after uptake of apoptotic, OVA-loaded cells. PMID:12153514

  15. Metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I of cancer cells to reduce tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, William W; Weinberg, Samuel E; Hamanaka, Robert B; Soberanes, Saul; Sullivan, Lucas B; Anso, Elena; Glasauer, Andrea; Dufour, Eric; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Budigner, GR Scott; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological and laboratory-based studies suggest that the anti-diabetic drug metformin prevents cancer progression. How metformin diminishes tumor growth is not fully understood. In this study, we report that in human cancer cells, metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) activity and cellular respiration. Metformin inhibited cellular proliferation in the presence of glucose, but induced cell death upon glucose deprivation, indicating that cancer cells rely exclusively on glycolysis for survival in the presence of metformin. Metformin also reduced hypoxic activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). All of these effects of metformin were reversed when the metformin-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH dehydrogenase NDI1 was overexpressed. In vivo, the administration of metformin to mice inhibited the growth of control human cancer cells but not those expressing NDI1. Thus, we have demonstrated that metformin's inhibitory effects on cancer progression are cancer cell autonomous and depend on its ability to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02242.001 PMID:24843020

  16. Evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Stallknecht, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Highlands J virus (HJV), and Fort Morgan virus (FMV) are the sole representatives of the WEE antigenic complex of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, that are endemic to North America. All three viruses have their ancestry in a recombination event involving eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and a Sindbis (SIN)-like virus that gave rise to a chimeric alphavirus that subsequently diversified into the present-day WEEV, HJV, and FMV. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary relationships among these recombinant-origin viruses, including the description of a nsP4 polymerase mutation in FMV that allows it to circumvent the host range barrier to Asian tiger mosquito cells, a vector species that is normally refractory to infection. Notably, we also provide evidence that the recombination event that gave rise to these three WEEV antigenic complex viruses may have occurred in North America. PMID:25463613

  17. Evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Highlands J virus (HJV), and Fort Morgan virus (FMV) are the sole representatives of the WEE antigenic complex of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, that are endemic to North America. All three viruses have their ancestry in a recombination event involving eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and a Sindbis (SIN)-like virus that gave rise to a chimeric alphavirus that subsequently diversified into the present-day WEEV, HJV, and FMV. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary relationships among these recombinant-origin viruses, including the description of a nsP4 polymerase mutation in FMV that allows it to circumvent the host range barrier to Asian tiger mosquito cells, a vector species that is normally refractory to infection. Notably, we also provide evidence that the recombination event that gave rise to these three WEEV antigenic complex viruses may have occurred in North America.

  18. An Iridium(III) Complex Inhibits JMJD2 Activities and Acts as a Potential Epigenetic Modulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Juan; Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; He, Bingyong; Kwong, Daniel W J; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-08-27

    A novel iridium(III) complex was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to target JMJD2 enzymatic activity. The iridium(III) complex 1 can inhibit JMJD2 activity and was selective for JMJD2 activity over JARID, JMJD3, and HDAC activities. Moreover, 1 suppressed the trimethylation of the p21 promoter on H3K9me3 and interrupted the JMJD2D-H3K9me3 interactions in human cells, suggesting that it could act as an epigenetic modulator. To our knowledge, 1 represents the first metal-based JMJD2 inhibitor reported in the literature.

  19. Cirsium maritimum Makino Inhibits the Antigen/Immunoglobulin-E-Mediated Allergic Response In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Suzuki, Masanobu; Takei, Yuichiro; Okamoto, Takeaki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether Cirsium maritimum Makino can inhibit immunoglobulin-E-mediated allergic response in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in BALB/c mice. In vitro, the ethyl acetate extract of C. maritimum Makino (ECMM) significantly inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and decreased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, ECMM leaves more strongly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase than ECMM flowers. ECMM leaves also significantly suppressed the PCA reaction in the murine model. High-performance liquid chromatography and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that cirsimaritin, a flavonoid, was concentrated in active fractions of the extract. Our findings suggest that ECMM leaves have a potential regulatory effect on allergic reactions that may be mediated by mast cells. Furthermore, cirsimaritin may be the active anti-allergic component in C. maritimum Makino.

  20. Complex I inhibition in the visual pathway induces disorganization of the node of Ranvier

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Mathieu; Patki, Gaurav; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial defects can have significant consequences on many aspects of neuronal physiology. In particular, deficiencies in the first enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex I) are considered to be involved in a number of human neurodegenerative diseases. The current work highlights a tight correlation between the inhibition of complex I and the state of axonal myelination of the optic nerve. Exposing the visual pathway of rats to rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, resulted in disorganization of the node of Ranvier. The structure and function of the node depends on specific cell adhesion molecules, among others, CASPR (contactin associated protein) and contactin. CASPR and contactin are both on the axonal surface and need to be associated to be able to anchor their myelin counter part. Here we show that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone in rats induces reactive oxygen species, disrupts the interaction of CASPR and contactin couple, and thus damages the organization and function of the node of Ranvier. Demyelination of the optic nerve occurs as a consequence which is accompanied by a loss of vision. The physiological impairment could be reversed by introducing an alternative NADH dehydrogenase to the mitochondria of the visual system. The restoration of the nodal structure was specifically correlated with visual recovery in the treated animal. PMID:23816754

  1. Structural, theoretical and corrosion inhibition studies on some transition metal complexes derived from heterocyclic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shraddha Rani; Mourya, Punita; Singh, M. M.; Singh, Vinod P.

    2017-06-01

    A Schiff base, (E)-N‧-((1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-aminobenzohydrazide (Iabh) and its Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized. These compounds have been characterized by different physico-chemical and spectroscopic tools (UV-Vis, IR, NMR and ESI-Mass). The molecular structure of Iabh is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The ligand Iabh displays E-configuration about the >Cdbnd N- bond. The structure of ligand is stabilized by intra-molecular H-bonding. In all the metal complexes the ligand coordinates through azomethine-N and carbonyl-O resulting a distorted octahedral geometry for Mn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes in which chloride ions occupy axial positions. Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes, however, form 4-coordinate distorted square planer and tetrahedral geometry around metal ion, respectively. The structures of the complexes have been satisfactorily modeled by calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent-DFT (TD-DFT). The corrosion inhibition study of the compounds have been performed against mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at 298 K by using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). They show appreciable corrosion inhibition property.

  2. Inhibition of acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatases by novel vanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, Craig C; Hooker, Jaqueline D; Jones, Marjorie A; Dymon, Zaneta; Backhus, Emily A; Greiner, Bradley A; Dorner, Nicole A; Youkhana, Mary A; Manus, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    In the course of our investigations of vanadium-containing complexes for use as insulin-enhancing agents, we have generated a series of novel vanadium coordination complexes with bidentate ligands. Specifically we have focused on two ligands: anthranilate (anc(-)), a natural metabolite of tryptophan, and imidizole-4-carboxylate (imc(-)), meant to mimic naturally occurring N-donor ligands. For each ligand, we have generated a series of complexes containing the V(III), V(IV), and V(V) oxidation states. Each complex was investigated using phosphatase inhibition studies of three different phosphatases (acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatase) as prima facia evidence for potential use as an insulin-enhancing agent. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an artificial phosphatase substrate, the levels of inhibition were determined by measuring the absorbance of the product at 405nm using UV/vis spectroscopy. Under our experimental conditions, for instance, V(imc)(3) appears to be as potent an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase as sodium orthovanadate when comparing the K(cat)/K(m) term. VO(anc)(2) is as potent an inhibitor of acid phosphatase and tyrosine phosphatase as the Na(3)VO(4). Thus, use of these complexes can increase our mechanistic understanding of the effects of vanadium in vivo.

  3. The Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Herbimycin A, but not Genistein, Specifically Inhibits Signal Transduction by the T Cell Antigen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; 2b. DECLASSIFICATIONIDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE distribution is unl imited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S...Unclassified 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Phyllis -.Bunl.-. Librarian. (301) 295-2188 1,MRL...inhibited protein synthesis in both Jurkat cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. Herbimycin A was not cytotoxic. These findings confirm the role of a

  4. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice: a possible mechanism underlying neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Zhang, Steven F; Jordán, Joaquín; Starkov, Anatoly A; Aguirre, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that such neurotoxicity is due to oxidative stress but the source of free radicals remains unknown. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes by MDMA was assessed as a possible source. Experimental approach: Activities of mitochondrial complexes after MDMA were evaluated spectrophotometrically. In situ visualization of superoxide production in the striatum was assessed by ethidium fluorescence and striatal dopamine levels were determined by HPLC as an index of dopaminergic toxicity. Key results: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of mice, an effect accompanied by an increased production of superoxide radicals and the inhibition of endogenous aconitase. α-Lipoic acid prevented superoxide generation and long-term toxicity independent of any effect on complex I inhibition. These effects of α-lipoic acid were also associated with a significant increase of striatal glutathione levels. The relevance of glutathione was supported by reducing striatal glutathione content with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, which exacerbated MDMA-induced dopamine deficits, effects suppressed by α-lipoic acid. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine, partially prevented MDMA-induced dopamine depletions, an effect reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Finally, a direct relationship between mitochondrial complex I inhibition and long-term dopamine depletions was found in animals treated with MDMA in combination with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I following MDMA could be the source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the consequent neurotoxicity of this drug in mice. This article is commented on by Moncada, pp. 217

  5. siRNA associated with immunonanoparticles directed against cd99 antigen improves gene expression inhibition in vivo in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ramon, A L; Bertrand, J R; de Martimprey, H; Bernard, G; Ponchel, G; Malvy, C; Vauthier, C

    2013-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare, mostly pediatric bone cancer that presents a chromosome abnormality called EWS/Fli-1, responsible for the development of the tumor. In vivo, tumor growth can be inhibited specifically by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) associated with nanoparticles. The aim of the work was to design targeted nanoparticles against the cell membrane glycoprotein cd99, which is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma cells to improve siRNA delivery to tumor cells. Biotinylated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were conceived as a platform to design targeted nanoparticles with biotinylated ligands and using the biotin-streptavidin coupling method. The targeted nanoparticles were validated in vivo for the targeted delivery of siRNA after systemic administration to mice bearing a tumor model of the Ewing's sarcoma. The expression of the gene responsible of Ewing's sarcoma was inhibited at 78% ± 6% by associating the siRNA with the cd99-targeted nanoparticles compared with an inhibition of only 41% ± 9% achieved with the nontargeted nanoparticles.

  6. Insulin activates Erk1/2 signaling in the dorsal vagal complex to inhibit glucose production.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Beatrice M; Yang, Clair S; Tang, Christine; Lam, Tony K T

    2012-10-03

    Insulin activates PI3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT to regulate glucose homeostasis in the peripheral tissues and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of rodents. We report that insulin infusion into the MBH or dorsal vagal complex (DVC) activated insulin receptors. The same dose of insulin that activated MBH PI3K/AKT did not in the DVC. DVC insulin instead activated Erk1/2 and lowered glucose production in rats and mice. Molecular and chemical inhibition of DVC Erk1/2 negated, while activation of DVC Erk1/2 recapitulated, the effects of DVC insulin. Circulating insulin failed to inhibit glucose production when DVC Erk1/2 was inhibited in normal rodents, while DVC insulin action was disrupted in high-fat-fed rodents. Activation of DVC ATP-sensitive potassium channels was necessary for insulin-Erk1/2 and sufficient to inhibit glucose production in normal and high-fat-fed rodents. DVC is a site of insulin action where insulin triggers Erk1/2 signaling to inhibit glucose production and of insulin resistance in high-fat feeding.

  7. Membrane Ia expression and antigen-presenting accessory cell function of L cells transfected with class II major histocompatibility complex genes

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    To study the relationship between the structure and function of Ia antigens, as well as the physiologic requirements for antigen presentation to major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cells, class II A alpha and A beta genes from the k and d haplotypes were transfected into Ltk- fibroblasts using the calcium phosphate coprecipitation technique. Individually transfected genes were actively transcribed in the L cells without covalent linkage to, or cotransformation with, viral enhancer sequences. However, cell surface expression of detectable I-A required the presence of transfected A alpha dA beta d or A alpha kA beta k pairs in a single cell. The level of I-A expression under these conditions was 1/5-1/10 that of Ia+ B lymphoma cells, or B lymphoma cells expressing transfected class II genes. These I-A-expressing transfectants were tested for accessory cell function and shown to present polypeptide and complex protein antigens to T cell clones and hybridomas in the context of the transfected gene products. One T cell clone, restricted to I-Ak plus GAT (L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10), had a profound cytotoxic effect on I-Ak- but not I-Ad-expressing transfectants in the presence of specific antigen. Assays of unprimed T cells showed that both Ia+ and Ia- L cells could serve as accessory cells for concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses. These data indicate that L cells can transcribe, translate, and express transfected class II genes and that such I-A-bearing L cells possess the necessary metabolic mechanisms for presenting these antigens to T lymphocytes in the context of their I-A molecules. PMID:6436430

  8. Antigenic, functional, and molecular genetic studies of human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Lanier, L L; Le, A M; Cwirla, S; Federspiel, N; Phillips, J H

    1986-11-01

    Cytotoxicity not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is mediated by two distinct types of lymphocyte: natural killer (NK) cells and non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). These two types of cytotoxic lymphocytes can be distinguished by antigenic phenotype, function, and molecular genetic studies. In human peripheral blood, NK cells are identified by expression of the Leu-19 and/or CD16 cell surface antigens, and lack of CD3/T cell antigen receptor (Ti) complex expression (i.e., CD3-,Leu-19+). Peripheral blood non-MHC-restricted CTL express both CD3 and Leu-19 (i.e., CD3+, Leu-19+, referred to as Leu-19+ T cells). Both Leu-19+ T cells and NK cells lyse "NK-sensitive" hematopoietic tumor cell targets, such as K562, without deliberate immunization of the host. However, most "NK activity" in peripheral blood is mediated by NK cells, because they are usually more abundant and more efficient cytotoxic effectors than Leu-19+ T cells. The cytolytic activity of both NK cells and Leu-19+ T cells against hematopoietic targets was enhanced by recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2). NK cells, but not peripheral blood Leu-19+ T cells, were also capable of lysing solid tumor cell targets after short-term culture in rIL 2. Southern blot analysis of NK cells revealed that both the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain genes and the T cell-associated gamma genes were not rearranged, but were in germ-line configuration. These findings indicate that NK cells are distinct in lineage from T lymphocytes and do not use the T cell antigen receptor genes for target recognition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Boron inhibits the proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, molybdenum containing proteins and ameliorates oxidative stress in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hina; Ali, Shakir

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and the main cause of mortality in patients with chronic liver diseases. This study reports the inhibitory effect of boron on HCC induced in rats by administering thioacetamide (TAA) (0.03%) in drinking water for 400days. Boron (4mg/kg body weight) was administered orally after induction of carcinoma. Treatment was continued for 122days, and cell proliferation, histology and biochemistry of treated and control group of rats were studied. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, which increased in rats exposed to carcinogen, significantly decreased after boron treatment. PCNA index decreased from 80 in HCC rats to 32 after boron treatment. In the control group, it was 20. Boron caused a dose-dependent decrease in carcinogen-induced [(3)H]-thymidine uptake by the rat hepatocyte. It could partially reverse the activity of selected biochemical indicators of hepatic damage, oxidative stress, selenium and serum retinol, which are depleted in liver cancer, and improved overall health of animal. The study implicates the elevated levels of mammalian molybdenum Fe-S containing flavin hydroxylases, which increase the free radical production and oxidative stress, consequently causing increased hepatic cell proliferation in HCC, and reports boron to ameliorate these changes in liver cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen 1 Promotes Caspase-8-Mediated Apoptosis in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress While Inhibiting Necrosis Induced by Lysosomal Injury▿

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Erica; Pan, Ji-An; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family of proteins, whose target proteases include the cathepsins. Initially identified as a serological marker for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix, SCCA1 has also been found to be associated with other cancer types of epithelial or endodermal origins such as lung cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. While the biological function of SCCA1 remains largely unclear, it is believed to limit cellular damage resulting from lysosomal cathepsin release. Here, we show that SCCA1 acts as a molecular switch that inhibits cell death induced by lysosomal injury resulting from DNA alkylating agents and hypotonic shock, whereas it promotes a caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In response to ER stress, SCCA1 blocks both lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation pathways and enhances the interaction between sequestosome 1/p62 and caspase-8, which leads to the aggregation of intracellular caspase-8 and its subsequent cleavage and activation. Hence, on one hand, SCCA1 inhibits cell death induced by lysosomal injury while, on the other hand, it sensitizes cells to ER stress by activating caspase-8 independently of the death receptor apoptotic pathway. PMID:21576355

  11. Role of the Brucella suis Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen in Phagosomal Genesis and in Inhibition of Phagosome-Lysosome Fusion in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Porte, Françoise; Naroeni, Aroem; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Brucella species are gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. These organisms can survive and replicate within a membrane-bound compartment inside professional and nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion has been proposed as a mechanism for intracellular survival in both cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms and the microbial factors involved are poorly understood. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella has been reported to be an important virulence factor, although its precise role in pathogenesis is not yet clear. In this study, we show that the LPS O side chain is involved in inhibition of the early fusion between Brucella suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes in murine macrophages. In contrast, the phagosomes containing rough mutants, which fail to express the O antigen, rapidly fuse with lysosomes. In addition, we show that rough mutants do not enter host cells by using lipid rafts, contrary to smooth strains. Thus, we propose that the LPS O chain might be a major factor that governs the early behavior of bacteria inside macrophages. PMID:12595466

  12. Small Molecule Inhibition of Epstein - Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 DNA Binding Activity Interferes with Replication and Persistence of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ka-Won; Joo, Eun Hye; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24486954

  13. Stat6-Dependent Inhibition of Mincle Expression in Mouse and Human Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Th2 Cytokine IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Hupfer, Thomas; Schick, Judith; Jozefowski, Katrin; Voehringer, David; Ostrop, Jenny; Lang, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Mincle, Mcl, and Dectin-2 bind mycobacterial and fungal cell wall glycolipids and carbohydrates. Recently, we described that expression of these CLR is downregulated during differentiation of human monocytes to dendritic cells (DC) in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. Here, we demonstrate that the Th2 cytokine IL-4 specifically inhibits expression of Mincle, Mcl, and Dectin-2 in human antigen-presenting cells (APC). This inhibitory effect of IL-4 was observed across species, as murine macrophages and DC treated with IL-4 also downregulated these receptors. IL-4 blocked upregulation of Mincle and Mcl mRNA expression and cell surface protein by murine macrophages in response to the Mincle ligand Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB), whereas the TLR4 ligand LPS overcame inhibition by IL-4. Functionally, downregulation of Mincle expression by IL-4 was accompanied by reduced cytokine production upon stimulation with TDB. These inhibitory effects of IL-4 were dependent on the transcription factor Stat6. Together, our results show that the key Th2 cytokine IL-4 exerts a negative effect on the expression of Mincle and other Dectin-2 cluster CLR in mouse and human macrophages and DC, which may render these sentinel cells less vigilant for sensing mycobacterial and fungal ligands. PMID:27790218

  14. Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Synthetic TF Antigen Mimic/Galectin-3 Inhibitor Lactulose-l-Leucine1

    PubMed Central

    Glinskii, Olga V; Sud, Sudha; Mossine, Valeri V; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2012-01-01

    Currently incurable, prostate cancer metastasis has a remarkable ability to spread to the skeleton. Previous studies demonstrated that interactions mediated by the cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen (TF-Ag) and the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 play an important role in several rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis such as metastatic cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, and clonogenic survival and growth. This study investigated the ability of a synthetic small-molecular-weight nontoxic carbohydrate-based TF-Ag mimic lactulose-l-leucine (Lac-l-Leu) to inhibit these processes in vitro and, ultimately, prostate cancer bone metastasis in vivo. Using an in vivo mouse model, based on intracardiac injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells stably expressing luciferase, we investigated the ability of Lac-l-Leu to impede the establishment and growth of bone metastasis. Parallel-flow chamber assay, homotypic aggregation assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and clonogenic growth assay were used to assess the effects of Lac-l-Leu on tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic survival and growth, respectively. We report that daily intraperitoneal administration of Lac-l-Leu resulted in a three-fold (P < .05) decrease in metastatic tumor burden compared with the untreated control. Mechanistically, the effect of Lac-l-Leu, which binds and inhibits galectins by mimicking essential structural features of the TF-Ag, was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic growth. We conclude that small-molecular-weight carbohydrate-based compounds targeting β-galactoside-mediated interactions could provide valuable means for controlling and preventing metastatic prostate cancer spread to the skeleton. PMID:22355275

  15. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway blocks a subset of B cell responses to antigen.

    PubMed

    Richards, J D; Davé, S H; Chou, C H; Mamchak, A A; DeFranco, A L

    2001-03-15

    Signal transduction initiated by B cell Ag receptor (BCR) cross-linking plays an important role in the development and activation of B cells. Therefore, considerable effort has gone into determining the biochemical signaling events initiated by the BCR and delineating which events participate in specific biological responses to Ag. We used two inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) 1 and MEK2, PD98059, and U0126, to assess the role the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays in several BCR-induced responses. PD98059 or U0126 treatment substantially inhibited the BCR-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) forms of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the immature B cell line WEHI-231, in immature splenic B cells, and in mature splenic B cells. However, MEK-ERK inhibition did not block BCR-induced growth arrest or apoptosis of WEHI-231 cells or apoptosis of immature splenic B cells, indicating that the MEK-ERK pathway is not required for these events. In contrast, PD98059 and U0126 treatment did inhibit the up-regulation of specific BCR-induced proteins, including the transcription factor Egr-1 in WEHI-231 and mature splenic B cells, and the CD44 adhesion molecule and CD69 activation marker in mature splenic B cells. Moreover, both inhibitors suppressed BCR-induced proliferation of mature splenic B cells, in the absence and in the presence of IL-4. Therefore, activation of the MEK-ERK pathway is necessary for a subset of B cell responses to Ag.

  16. Gene Therapy-Induced Antigen-Specific Tregs Inhibit Neuro-inflammation and Reverse Disease in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Geoffrey D; Kumar, Sandeep; Palaschak, Brett; Silverberg, Emily L; Markusic, David M; Jones, Noah T; Hoffman, Brad E

    2017-09-19

    The devastating neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) could substantially benefit from an adeno-associated virus (AAV) immunotherapy designed to restore a robust and durable antigen-specific tolerance. However, developing a sufficiently potent and lasting immune-regulatory therapy that can intervene in ongoing disease is a major challenge and has thus been elusive. We addressed this problem by developing a highly effective and robust tolerance-inducing in vivo gene therapy. Using a pre-clinical animal model, we designed a liver-targeting gene transfer vector that expresses full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in hepatocytes. We show that by harnessing the tolerogenic nature of the liver, this powerful gene immunotherapy restores immune tolerance by inducing functional MOG-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo, independent of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restrictions. We demonstrate that mice treated prophylactically are protected from developing disease and neurological deficits. More importantly, we demonstrate that when given to mice with preexisting disease, ranging from mild neurological deficits to severe paralysis, the gene immunotherapy abrogated CNS inflammation and significantly reversed clinical symptoms of disease. This specialized approach for inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance has significant therapeutic potential for treating MS and other autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a novel major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted tumor antigen resulting from a chromosomal rearrangement recognized by CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, R F; Wang, X; Rosenberg, S A

    1999-05-17

    CD4(+) T cells play an important role in antitumor immune responses and autoimmune and infectious diseases. Although many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted tumor antigens have been identified in the last few years, little is known about MHC class II- restricted human tumor antigens recognized by CD4(+) T cells. Here, we describe the identification of a novel melanoma antigen recognized by an human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1-restricted CD4(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)1363 using a genetic cloning approach. DNA sequencing analysis indicated that this was a fusion gene generated by a low density lipid receptor (LDLR) gene in the 5' end fused to a GDP-L-fucose:beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase (FUT) in an antisense orientation in the 3' end. The fusion gene encoded the first five ligand binding repeats of LDLR in the NH2 terminus followed by a new polypeptide translated in frame with LDLR from the FUT gene in an antisense direction. Southern blot analysis showed that chromosomal DNA rearrangements occurred in the 1363mel cell line. Northern blot analysis detected two fusion RNA transcripts present only in the autologous 1363mel, but not in other cell lines or normal tissues tested. Two minimal peptides were identified from the COOH terminus of the fusion protein. This represents the first demonstration that a fusion protein resulting from a chromosomal rearrangement in tumor cells serves as an immune target recognized by CD4(+) T cells.

  18. Inhibition of cerebral vascular inflammation by brain endothelium-targeted oligodeoxynucleotide complex.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Al-Waili, Daniah; Hassan, Aishlin; Fan, Guo-Chang; Xin, Mei; Hao, Jiukuan

    2016-08-04

    The present study generated a novel DNA complex to specifically target endothelial NF-κB to inhibit cerebral vascular inflammation. This DNA complex (GS24-NFκB) contains a DNA decoy which inhibits NF-κB activity, and a DNA aptamer (GS-24), a ligand of transferrin receptor (TfR), which allows for targeted delivery of the DNA decoy into cells. The results indicate that GS24-NFκB was successfully delivered into a murine brain-derived endothelial cell line, bEND5, and inhibited inflammatory responses induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) via down-regulation of the nuclear NF-κB subunit, p65, as well as its downstream inflammatory cytokines, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1). The inhibitory effect of the GS24-NFκB was demonstrated by a significant reduction in TNF-α or OGD/R induced monocyte adhesion to the bEND5 cells after GS24-NFκB treatment. Intravenous (i.v.) injection of GS24-'NFκB (15mg/kg) was able to inhibit the levels of phoseph-p65 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells in a mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model in vivo. In conclusion, our approach using DNA nanotechnology for DNA decoy delivery could potentially be utilized for inhibition of inflammation in ischemic stroke and other neuro-inflammatory diseases affecting cerebral vasculature. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for mitochondria in antigen processing and presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz, Laura C; Cervantes-Silva, Mariana P; Ontiveros-Dotor, Elizabeth; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Sánchez-García, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T-lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signalling process. However, the role of mitochondria in APCs during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing and -presentation process. Here we show that hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) -loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APC, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1–2 hr following antigen exposure, suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analysed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC–peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes, which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes, which endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48–62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taken together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APC mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC–T immune synapse. PMID:25251370

  20. Myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentrates inhibit the expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells

    PubMed Central

    STRONCEK, DAVID F.; REN, JIAQIANG; LEE, DANIEL W.; TRAN, MINH; FRODIGH, SUE ELLEN; SABATINO, MARIANNA; KHUU, HANH; MERCHANT, MELINDA S.; MACKALL, CRYSTAL L.

    2016-01-01

    Background aims Autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have shown promising clinical outcomes, but T-cell yields have been variable. CD19- and GD2-CAR T-cell manufacturing records were reviewed to identify sources of variability. Methods CD19-CAR T cells were used to treat 43 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphoma and GD2-CAR T cells to treat eight patients with osteosarcoma and three with neuroblastoma. Both types of CAR T cells were manufactured using autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concentrates and anti-CD3/CD28 beads for T-cell enrichment and simulation. Results A comparison of the first 6 GD2- and the first 22 CD19-CAR T-cell products manufactured revealed that GD2-CAR T-cell products contained fewer transduced cells than CD19-CAR T-cell products (147 ± 102 × 106 vs 1502 ± 1066 × 106; P = 0.0059), and their PBMC concentrates contained more monocytes (31.4 ± 12.4% vs 18.5 ± 13.7%; P = 0.019). Among the first 28 CD19-CAR T-cell products manufactured, four had poor expansion yielding less than 1 × 106 transduced T cells per kilogram. When PBMC concentrates from these four patients were compared with the 24 others, PBMC concentrates of poorly expanding products contained greater quantities of monocytes (39.8 ± 12.9% vs. 15.3 ± 10.8%, P = 0.0014). Among the patients whose CD19-CAR T cells expanded poorly, manufacturing for two patients was repeated using cryopreserved PBMC concentrates but incorporating a monocyte depleting plastic adherence step, and an adequate dose of CAR T cells was produced for both patients. Conclusions Variability in CAR T-cell expansion is due, at least in part, to the contamination of the starting PBMC concentrates with monocytes. PMID:27210719

  1. Chronic systemic complex I inhibition induces a hypokinetic multisystem degeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Féger, Jean; Prigent, Annick; Michel, Patrick P; Parain, Karine; Champy, Pierre; Ruberg, Merle; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hirsch, Etienne C

    2003-02-01

    In Parkinson's disease, nigral dopaminergic neurones degenerate, whereas post-synaptic striatal target neurones are spared. In some atypical parkinsonian syndromes, both nigral and striatal neurones degenerate. Reduced activity of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has been implicated in both conditions, but it remains unclear if this affects the whole organism or only the degenerating brain structures. We therefore investigated the differential vulnerability of various brain structures to generalized complex I inhibition. Male Lewis rats infused with rotenone, a lipophilic complex I inhibitor [2.5 mg/kg/day intraveneously (i.v.) for 28 days], were compared with vehicle-infused controls. They showed reduced locomotor activity and loss of striatal dopaminergic fibres (54%), nigral dopaminergic neurones (28.5%), striatal serotoninergic fibres (34%), striatal DARPP-32-positive projection neurones (26.5%), striatal cholinergic interneurones (22.1%), cholinergic neurones in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (23.7%) and noradrenergic neurones in the locus ceruleus (26.4%). Silver impregnation revealed pronounced degeneration in basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei, whereas the hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex were less affected. These data suggest that a generalized mitochondrial failure may be implicated in atypical parkinsonian syndromes but do not support the hypothesis that a generalized complex I inhibition results in the rather selective nigral lesion observed in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Inhibition Mechanism of Uranyl Reduction Induced by Calcium-Carbonato Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. E.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Uranium mobility in the subsurface is controlled by the redox state and chemical speciation, generally as minimally soluble U(IV) or soluble U(VI) species. In the presence of even low carbonate concentrations the uranyl-carbonato complex quickly becomes the dominant aqueous species; they are, in fact, the primary aqueous species in most groundwaters. Calcium in groundwater leads to ternary calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes that limit the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction. This decrease in reduction rate has been attributed to surface processes, thermodynamic limitations, and kinetic factors. Here we present a new mechanism for the inhibition of ferrous iron reduction of uranyl-carbonato species in the presence of calcium. A series of experiments under variable Ca conditions were preformed to determine the role of Ca in the inhibition of U reduction by ferrous iron. Calcium ions in the Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex sterically prevent the interaction of Fe(II) with U(VI), in turn preventing the Fe(II)-U(VI) distance required for electron transfer. The mechanism described here helps to predict U redox transformations in suboxic environments and clarifies the role of Ca in the fate and mobility of U. Electrochemical measurements further show the decrease of the U(VI) to U(V) redox potential of the uranyl-carbonato complex with decreasing pH suggesting the first electron transfer is critical determining the rate and extent of uranium reduction.

  3. Effect of inhibition of the bc1 complex on gene expression profile in yeast.

    PubMed

    Bourges, Ingrid; Horan, Susannah; Meunier, Brigitte

    2005-08-19

    Because the respiratory chain is the major site of oxidation of the reduced equivalents and of energy production in aerobic cells, its inhibition has severe impact on the cells. Communication pathways from the respiratory chain are required to allow the cell to sense the defect and respond to it. In this work, we studied changes in gene expression induced by the treatment of yeast cells with myxothiazol, an inhibitor of the bc(1) complex, an enzyme of the respiratory chain. The pattern and time-course expression of the genes resemble those of the environmental stress response, a common gene expression program induced by sudden changes in the environment. In addition, the changes were, for most of the genes, mediated through the transcription factors Msn2/4, which play a central role in the cellular response to these stresses. By using a mutant with a myxothiazol-resistant bc(1) complex, we showed that the changes of expression of the majority of the genes was caused by the inhibition of the bc(1) complex but that other stresses might be involved. The expression pattern of CTT1, coding for a cytoplasmic catalase, was further studied. The expression of this gene was largely dependent on Msn2/4 and the inhibition of the cytochrome bc(1). Addition of oxidants of NADH was found to decrease the expression of CTT1 induced by myxothiazol treatment, suggesting that the accumulation of NADH caused by the inhibition of the respiratory chain may be involved in the signaling pathway from the mitochondria to the transcription factor.

  4. A defined peptide that inhibits the formation of the glycoprotein IIb and IIIa complex.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Thomas M; Zhu, Jiaqian

    2005-01-01

    Collagen-platelet interaction plays an important role in hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. The proposed mechanism of the interaction was the activation of platelets-->releasing of contents from granules-->aggregation. The common end point is the platelets and fibrin aggregates. Platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin) complexes serve as a receptor for the binding of fibrinogen to form firmed aggregates. Blockading of GP IIb/IIIa has been proposed to prevent platelet aggregation independent of the substance(s) responsible for activating the platelets. The development of various forms of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor has resulted in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, although studies of alphaIIbbeta3 receptor function and various GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors have demonstrated the potential for these agents to produce effects on other aspects of platelet function as well as having nonplatelet effects. This study investigated platelet inhibition provided by blocking the GP IIb/IIIa complex formation by using a peptide derived from the GP IIIa molecule. The peptide inhibits both types I and III collagen-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The defined peptide interferes with the formation of the GP IIb/IIIa complex by inhibiting the binding of FITC-PAC-1 onto ADP-, type I collagen-, and type III collagen-activated platelets. However, P-selectin secretion is not affected by the peptide. In addition, the peptide is not interfering with the binding of FITC-PAC-1 to platelets that were preincubated with indomethacin. Results from this study may suggest that the defined peptide is an effective agent to block the interaction of types I and III collagen with platelets.

  5. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi

    2015-08-07

    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules.

  6. Differential susceptibility of mitochondrial complex II to inhibition by oxaloacetate in brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Anna; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Valsecchi, Federica; Manfredi, Giovanni; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial Complex II is a key mitochondrial enzyme connecting the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the electron transport chain. Studies of complex II are clinically important since new roles for this enzyme have recently emerged in cell signalling, cancer biology, immune response and neurodegeneration. Oxaloacetate (OAA) is an intermediate of the TCA cycle and at the same time is an inhibitor of complex II with high affinity (Kd~10(-8)M). Whether or not OAA inhibition of complex II is a physiologically relevant process is a significant, but still controversial topic. We found that complex II from mouse heart and brain tissue has similar affinity to OAA and that only a fraction of the enzyme in isolated mitochondrial membranes (30.2±6.0% and 56.4±5.6% in the heart and brain, respectively) is in the free, active form. Since OAA could bind to complex II during isolation, we established a novel approach to deplete OAA in the homogenates at the early stages of isolation. In heart, this treatment significantly increased the fraction of free enzyme, indicating that OAA binds to complex II during isolation. In brain the OAA-depleting system did not significantly change the amount of free enzyme, indicating that a large fraction of complex II is already in the OAA-bound inactive form. Furthermore, short-term ischemia resulted in a dramatic decline of OAA in tissues, but it did not change the amount of free complex II. Our data show that in brain OAA is an endogenous effector of complex II, potentially capable of modulating the activity of the enzyme.

  7. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  8. The Small Tellurium Compound AS101 Ameliorates Rat Crescentic Glomerulonephritis: Association with Inhibition of Macrophage Caspase-1 Activity via Very Late Antigen-4 Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hachmo, Yafit; Kalechman, Yona; Skornick, Itai; Gafter, Uzi; Caspi, Rachel R.; Sredni, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is the most aggressive form of GN and, if untreated, patients can progress to end-stage renal failure within weeks of presentation. The α4β1 integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) is an adhesion molecule of fundamental importance to the recruitment of leukocytes in inflammation. We addressed the role of VLA-4 in mediating progressive renal injury in a rat model of CGN using a small tellurium compound. AS101 [ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-o,o′)tellurate]. This compound has been previously shown to uniquely inhibit VLA-4 activity by redox inactivation of adjacent thiols in the exofacial domain of VLA-4. The study shows that administration of AS101 either before or after glomerular basement membrane anti-serum injection ameliorates crescent formation or preserves renal function. This was associated with profound inhibition of critical inflammatory mediators, accompanied by decreased glomerular infiltration of macrophages. Mechanistic studies demonstrated vla-4 inactivation on glomerular macrophages both in vitro and in vivo as well as inhibition of caspase-1 activity. Importantly, this cysteine protease activity modification was dependent on VLA-4 inactivation and was associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of AS101. We propose that inactivation of macrophage VLA-4 by AS101 in vivo results in a decrease of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines produced in the glomeruli of diseased rats, resulting in decreased further macrophage recruitment and decreased extracellular matrix expansion. Thus, AS101, which is currently in clinical trials for other indications, might be beneficial for treatment of CGN. PMID:28326083

  9. Single domain antibody against carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Murad, Yanal M; Chang, Chia-Ching; Yang, Ming-Chi; Baral, Toya Nath; Cowan, Aaron; Tseng, Shin-Hua; Wong, Andrew; Mackenzie, Roger; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Zhang, Jianbing

    2014-03-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, and it is associated with the progression of pancreatic cancer. We tested a single domain antibody (sdAb) targeting CEACAM6, 2A3, which was isolated previously from a llama immune library, and an Fc conjugated version of this sdAb, to determine how they affect the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3. We also compared the effects of the antibodies to gemcitabine. Gemcitabine and 2A3 slowed down cancer cell proliferation. However, only 2A3 retarded cancer cell invasion, angiogenesis within the cancer mass and BxPC3 cell MMP-9 activity, three features important for tumour growth and metastasis. The IC50s for 2A3, 2A3-Fc and gemcitabine were determined as 6.5μM, 8μM and 12nM, respectively. While the 2A3 antibody inhibited MMP-9 activity by 33% compared to non-treated control cells, gemcitabine failed to inhibit MMP-9 activity. Moreover, 2A3 and 2A3-Fc inhibited invasion of BxPC3 by 73% compared to non-treated cells. When conditioned media that were produced using 2A3- or 2A3-Fc-treated BxPC3 cells were used in a capillary formation assay, the capillary length was reduced by 21% and 49%, respectively. Therefore 2A3 is an ideal candidate for treating tumours that over-express CEACAM6. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TWEAK inhibits TRAF2-mediated CD40 signaling by destabilization of CD40 signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Steffen; Lang, Isabell; Rosenthal, Alevtina; Schäfer, Viktoria; Weisenberger, Daniela; Carmona Arana, José Antonio; Trebing, Johannes; Siegmund, Daniela; Neumann, Manfred; Wajant, Harald

    2013-09-01

    We found recently that TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14) by virtue of their strong capability to reduce the freely available cytoplasmic pool of TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2 and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (cIAPs) antagonize the functions of these molecules in TNFR1 signaling, resulting in sensitization for apoptosis and inhibition of classical NF-κB signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that priming of cells with TWEAK also interferes with activation of the classical NF-κB pathway by CD40. Likewise, there was strong inhibition of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-induced activation of MAPKs in TWEAK-primed cells. FACS analysis and CD40L binding studies revealed unchanged CD40 expression and normal CD40L-CD40 interaction in TWEAK-primed cells. CD40L immunoprecipitates, however, showed severely reduced amounts of CD40 and CD40-associated proteins, indicating impaired formation or reduced stability of CD40L-CD40 signaling complexes. The previously described inhibitory effect of TWEAK on TNFR1 signaling has been traced back to reduced activity of the TNFR1-associated TRAF2-cIAP1/2 ubiquitinase complex and did not affect the stability of the immunoprecipitable TNFR1 receptor complex. Thus, the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on CD40 signaling must be based at least partly on other mechanisms. In line with this, signaling by the CD40-related TRAF2-interacting receptor TNFR2 was also attenuated but still immunoprecipitable in TWEAK-primed cells. Collectively, we show that Fn14 activation by soluble TWEAK impairs CD40L-CD40 signaling complex formation and inhibits CD40 signaling and thus identify the Fn14-TWEAK system as a potential novel regulator of CD40-related cellular functions.

  11. Identification of SNARE complex modulators that inhibit exocytosis from an alpha-helix-constrained combinatorial library.

    PubMed Central

    Blanes-Mira, Clara; Pastor, Maria T; Valera, Elvira; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Merino, Jaime M; Gutierrez, Luis M; Perez-Payá, Enrique; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic peptides patterned after the proteins involved in vesicle fusion [the so-called SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) proteins] are potent inhibitors of SNARE complex assembly and neuronal exocytosis. It is noteworthy that the identification of peptide sequences not related to the SNARE proteins has not been accomplished yet; this is due, in part, to the structural constraints and the specificity of the protein interactions that govern the formation of the SNARE complex. Here we have addressed this question and used a combinatorial approach to identify peptides that modulate the assembly of the SNARE core complex and inhibit neuronal exocytosis. An alpha-helix-constrained, mixture-based, 17-mer combinatorial peptide library composed of 137180 sequences was synthesized in a positional scanning format. Peptide mixtures were assayed for their ability to prevent the formation of the in vitro -reconstituted SDS-resistant SNARE core complex. Library deconvolution identified eight peptides that inhibited the assembly of the SNARE core complex. Notably, the most potent 17-mer peptide (acetyl-SAAEAFAKLYAEAFAKG-NH2) abolished both Ca2+-evoked catecholamine secretion from detergent-permeabilized chromaffin cells and L-glutamate release from intact hippocampal primary cultures. Collectively, these findings indicate that amino acid sequences that prevent SNARE complex formation are not restricted to those that mimic domains of SNARE proteins, thus expanding the diversity of molecules that target neuronal exocytosis. Because of the implication of neurosecretion in the aetiology of several human neurological disorders, these newly identified peptides may be considered hits for the development of novel anti-spasmodic drugs. PMID:12852787

  12. Eliminating Inhibition of Return by Changing Salient Non-spatial Attributes in a Complex Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank K; Samuel, Arthur G.; Chan, Agnes S.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of Return (IOR) occurs when a target is preceded by an irrelevant stimulus (cue) at the same location: Target detection is slowed, relative to uncued locations. In the present study, we used relatively complex displays to examine the effect of repetition of nonspatial attributes. For both color and shape, attribute repetition produced a robust inhibitory effect that followed a time course similar to that for location-based IOR. However, the effect only occurred when the target shared both the feature (i.e., color or shape) and location with the cue; this constraint implicates a primary role for location. The data are consistent with the idea that the system integrates consecutive stimuli into a single object file when attributes repeat, hindering detection of the second stimulus. The results are also consistent with an interpretation of IOR as a form of habituation, with greater habituation occurring with increasing featural overlap of a repeated stimulus. Critically, both of these interpretations bring the IOR effect within more general approaches to attention and perception, rather than requiring a specialized process with a limited function. In this view, there is no process specifically designed to inhibit return, suggesting that “IOR” may be the wrong framing of inhibitory repetition effects. Instead, we suggest that repetition of stimulus properties can interfere with the ability to focus attention on the aspects of a complex display that are needed to detect the occurrence of the target stimulus; this is a failure of activation, not an inhibition of processing. PMID:21171801

  13. Inhibition of bactericidal activity of anticapsular antibody by nonspecific antibodies reactive with surface-exposed antigenic determinants on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Udeze, F A; Kadis, S

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanism of serum resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, in the present study we examined various interactions among the bacterial surface constituents, serum antibodies, and complement. Analysis of swine sera revealed the presence of anticapsular antibodies in convalescent-phase sera but not in preimmune sera. Both types of sera contained antibodies which reacted with each of 14 polypeptides present in saline extracts of the bacteria. Absorption of the preimmune sera with intact bacteria depleted antibodies to two of the polypeptides (27 and 32 kDa) and high-molecular-weight (greater than 97.4,000) components which did not stain with Coomassie blue. Data derived from complement consumption and C3-binding experiments indicated that the organism was capable of initiating complement activation and binding C3 during incubation in preimmune and immune sera. Experiments designed to evaluate the bactericidal effectiveness of anticapsular antibody revealed that the purified antibody was bactericidal only when preimmune sera absorbed with intact bacteria were used as a source of complement. The bactericidal effects of anticapsular antibody and absorbed preimmune sera were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by heat-inactivated preimmune sera and immunoglobulin G derived from the sera. The inhibitory activity of the preimmune sera was neutralized by preincubating the sera with column fractions of the saline extract which contained either the 27- or the 32-kDa polypeptide. These results indicate that serum resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 could be related to inhibition of the bactericidal action of anticapsular antibody by nonspecific antibodies which recognize surface-exposed epitopes on the polypeptides. Images PMID:1379990

  14. Myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentrates inhibit the expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Stroncek, David F; Ren, Jiaqiang; Lee, Daniel W; Tran, Minh; Frodigh, Sue Ellen; Sabatino, Marianna; Khuu, Hanh; Merchant, Melinda S; Mackall, Crystal L

    2016-07-01

    Autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have shown promising clinical outcomes, but T-cell yields have been variable. CD19- and GD2-CAR T-cell manufacturing records were reviewed to identify sources of variability. CD19-CAR T cells were used to treat 43 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphoma and GD2-CAR T cells to treat eight patients with osteosarcoma and three with neuroblastoma. Both types of CAR T cells were manufactured using autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concentrates and anti-CD3/CD28 beads for T-cell enrichment and simulation. A comparison of the first 6 GD2- and the first 22 CD19-CAR T-cell products manufactured revealed that GD2-CAR T-cell products contained fewer transduced cells than CD19-CAR T-cell products (147 ± 102 × 10(6) vs 1502 ± 1066 × 10(6); P = 0.0059), and their PBMC concentrates contained more monocytes (31.4 ± 12.4% vs 18.5 ± 13.7%; P = 0.019). Among the first 28 CD19-CAR T-cell products manufactured, four had poor expansion yielding less than 1 × 10(6) transduced T cells per kilogram. When PBMC concentrates from these four patients were compared with the 24 others, PBMC concentrates of poorly expanding products contained greater quantities of monocytes (39.8 ± 12.9% vs. 15.3 ± 10.8%, P = 0.0014). Among the patients whose CD19-CAR T cells expanded poorly, manufacturing for two patients was repeated using cryopreserved PBMC concentrates but incorporating a monocyte depleting plastic adherence step, and an adequate dose of CAR T cells was produced for both patients. Variability in CAR T-cell expansion is due, at least in part, to the contamination of the starting PBMC concentrates with monocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Structure of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 Antigenic Site 412 to 423 in Complex with Antibody AP33

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Robbins, Justin B.; Deller, Marc C.; Stanfield, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of the broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) AP33, bound to a peptide corresponding to hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein antigenic site 412 to 423. Comparison with bnAb HCV1 bound to the same epitope reveals a different angle of approach to the antigen by bnAb AP33 and slight variation in its β-hairpin conformation of the epitope. These structures establish two different modes of binding to E2 that antibodies adopt to neutralize diverse HCV. PMID:22973046

  16. Cost effective and time efficient measurement of CD4, CD8, major histocompatibility complex Class II, and macrophage antigen expression in the lungs of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Tan, Xun; Cortes, Lucia; Gimeno, Isabel

    2012-05-15

    Cells expressing CD4, CD8, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II, and macrophage biomarkers in lungs of chickens were quantified by measuring total area of antigen expressed using imageJ, a software program developed at the National Institutes of Health and available at no cost. The procedures reported here were rapid, and reproducible. Total area of antigen expressed had positive correlation with manual counts of cells expressing CD4 and CD8 biomarkers after inoculation with serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccines. Visual inspection and overlays prepared from outlines of cells counted by imageJ confirmed agreement between antigen expression and area measured. Total area measured was not dependent on time of image acquisition from randomly selected fields from the same slides. Total area values were not computer specific, but acquisition of the original images required standardization of microscope used and camera setup. All steps in the process from sample collection through sectioning, staining, and image acquisition must be standardized as much as possible. Chickens infected with a very virulent+ (vv(+)) isolate of MDV (648A) had increased CD4, CD8, MHC Class II, and macrophage biomarker expression compared to noninfected control chickens at 10 days post infection, but variable responses depending on the specific biomarker measured at 3 and 5 days post infection. The procedure described here is faster and more reproducible than manual counting in cases (CD4 and CD8) where the number of positive cells is low enough for manual counts. Manual counting is not possible with MHC Class II and macrophage antigens nor when CD4(+) cells are present in large numbers following proliferation to tumors, thus subjective systems are used for scoring in these conditions. Using imageJ as described eliminates the need for subjective and less reproducible methods for measuring expression of these antigens.

  17. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  18. A novel dRYBP-SCF complex functions to inhibit apoptosis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Sol; Simón, Rocío; Busturia, Ana

    2013-12-01

    A balanced response to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals is crucial to support homeostatic development and animal survival. Regulation of activation and inhibition of apoptotic pathways involves diverse mechanisms including protein ubiquitylation to control expression levels of apoptotic factors. Here we report that drosophila Ring and YY1 Binding Protein (dRYBP) protein interacts both genetically and biochemically with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SKPA, dCULLIN, F-box (SCF) complex to synergistically inhibit apoptosis in Drosophila. Further, we show that the loss of skpA function activates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and down-regulates the levels of expression of the anti-apoptotic DIAP1 protein. Accordingly, the apoptosis induced by inactivation of skpA and dRYBP is rescued by loss of function of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper and overexpression of DIAP1. Of interest, we also find that high levels of SKPA protein rescue the wing phenotype induced by overexpression of Reaper protein. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of SKPA inhibits both developmental and radiation-induced apoptosis. We propose that the function of the dRYBP-SCF complex in the inhibition of apoptosis might possibly be to control the levels of the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins most likely by promoting their ubiquitylation and consequently, proteasomal degradation. Given the evolutionary conservation of the dRYBP and the SCF proteins, our results suggest that their mammalian homologs may function in balancing cell survival versus cell death during normal and pathological development.

  19. Selective Ru(II)/lawsone complexes inhibiting tumor cell growth by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia M; Liany, Luna-Dulcey; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Deflon, Victor M; Cominetti, Marcia R; Batista, Alzir A

    2017-11-01

    New Ru(II) complexes with lawsone (law) characterized as trans-[Ru(law)(PPh3)2(N-N)]PF6, where PPh3 means triphenylphosphine and N-N is 2,2'-bipyridine (1), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (2), 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine (3), 1,10-phenanthroline (4) or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5), induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity of the complexes against the tumor cell lines DU-145 (prostate cancer cells), MCF-7 (breast cancer cells), A549 (lung cancer cells) and lung non-tumor cell line MRC-5 demonstrated promising IC50 values, lower than those found for the cisplatin, a drug used as a reference. Due to the high cytotoxic activity and selectivity against A549 cells line, complex (5) was selected for detailed assays. The complex (5) inhibits cells migration in concentrations in a nanomolar range, inducing tumor cell death by apoptosis, as confirmed by flow cytometry experiments. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of complex (5) on A549 tumor cells is attributed to a cell cycle arrest at the Sub G1 phase, followed by a decrease in the number of cells at the S phase. In addition, the interaction of the complexes (1-5) with CT-DNA was evaluated by circular dichroism, in which no changes in the secondary structure of DNA were observed, suggesting a weak interaction of the complexes with the biomolecule. On the other hand, complexes (1-5) showed a higher interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) by non-covalent van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding, resulting in static quenching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral Vaccination With Vaccinia Virus Expressing the Tick Antigen Subolesin Inhibits Tick Feeding and Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bensaci, Mekki; Bhattacharya, Debaditya; Clark, Roger; Hu, Linden T.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with the Ixodes scapularis protein, subolesin, has previously been shown to protect hosts against tick infestation and to decrease acquisition of Anaplsma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Here we report the efficacy of subolesin expressed from Vaccinia virus for use as an orally delivered reservoir–targeted vaccine for prevention of tick infestation and acquisition/transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to its tick and mouse hosts. We cloned subolesin into Vaccinia virus and showed that it is expressed from mammalian cells infected with the recombinant virus in vitro. We then vaccinated mice by oral gavage. A single dose of the vaccine was sufficient for mice to generate antibody response to subolesin. Vaccination with the subolesin expressing Vaccinia virus inhibited tick infestation by 52% compared to control vaccination with Vaccinia virus and reduced uptake of B. burgdorferi among the surviving ticks that fed to repletion by 34%. There was a reduction in transmission of B. burgdorferi to uninfected vaccinated mice of 40% compared to controls. These results suggest that subolesin has potential as a component of a reservoir targeted vaccine to decrease B. burgdorferi, Babesia and Anaplasma species infections in their natural hosts. PMID:22864146

  1. Antigen-Induced Oligomerization of the B Cell Receptor Is an Early Target of FcγRIIB Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanli; Sohn, Hae Won; Tolar, Pavel; Meckel, Tobias; Pierce, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    The FcγRIIB is a potent inhibitory coreceptor that blocks BCR signaling in response to immune complexes and, as such, plays a decisive role in regulating Ab responses. The recent application of high-resolution live cell imaging to B cell studies is providing new molecular details of the earliest events in the initiation BCR signaling that follow within seconds of Ag binding. In this study, we report that when colligated to the BCR through immune complexes, the FcγRIIB colocalizes with the BCR in microscopic clusters and blocks the earliest events that initiate BCR signaling, including the oligomerization of the BCR within these clusters, the active recruitment of BCRs to these clusters, and the resulting spreading and contraction response. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses indicate that blocking these early events may not require molecular proximity of the cytoplasmic domains of the BCR and FcγRIIB, but relies on the rapid and sustained association of FcγRIIB with raft lipids in the membrane. These results may provide novel early targets for therapies aimed at regulating the FcγRIIB to control Ab responses in autoimmune disease. PMID:20083655

  2. Characterization of immune response to Eimeria tenella antigens in a natural immunity model with hosts which differ serologically at the B locus of the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Brake, D A; Fedor, C H; Werner, B W; Miller, T J; Taylor, R L; Clare, R A

    1997-04-01

    A model to simulate natural immunity to Eimeria tenella was developed in three chicken lines which differ at the B locus of the major histocompatibility complex. Homozygous, 1-day-old chicks of the B19B19, B24B24, or B30B30 genotype were trickle immunized by being orally fed a small infectious dose of E. tenella oocysts for 5 consecutive days. These naturally exposed birds were then challenged at different times between 5 and 24 days after the final dose, and the level of protection was assessed 6 days after challenge, using body weight gain and intestinal lesion scores. The duration of immunity in naturally exposed birds differed among the major histocompatibility complex lines. Trickle immunization of the B19B19 haplotype afforded the longest and strongest level of protection compared to the other two haplotypes tested. In addition, in vitro splenic and peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferative responses in trickle-immunized birds were measured against sporozoite, merozoite, and tissue culture-derived E. tenella parasite antigens isolated from the recently described SB-CEV-1/F7 established cell line. The lymphocytes obtained from B19B19 birds trickle immunized responded in vitro to the E. tenella-infected SB-CEV-1/F7 tissue culture-derived parasite antigen. Furthermore, antigen-specific immune responses appeared earlier in immune, challenged B19B19 birds than in their naive, challenged counterparts. The development of a model simulating natural immunization will serve as a foundation to further characterize both humoral and cell-mediated responses to E. tenella tissue culture-derived parasite antigens and to better understand host protective immune responses to avian coccidiosis.

  3. The diabetes medication Canagliflozin reduces cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting mitochondrial complex-I supported respiration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Linda A; Smith, Brennan K; Marcinko, Katarina; Ford, Rebecca J; Broadfield, Lindsay A; Green, Alex E; Houde, Vanessa P; Muti, Paola; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    The sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors Canagliflozin and Dapagliflozin are recently approved medications for type 2 diabetes. Recent studies indicate that SGLT2 inhibitors may inhibit the growth of some cancer cells but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival were used to assess the sensitivity of prostate and lung cancer cell growth to the SGLT2 inhibitors. Oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification rate, cellular ATP, glucose uptake, lipogenesis, and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the p70S6 kinase were assessed. Overexpression of a protein that maintains complex-I supported mitochondrial respiration (NDI1) was used to establish the importance of this pathway for mediating the anti-proliferative effects of Canagliflozin. Clinically achievable concentrations of Canagliflozin, but not Dapagliflozin, inhibit cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells alone and in combination with ionizing radiation and the chemotherapy Docetaxel. Canagliflozin reduced glucose uptake, mitochondrial complex-I supported respiration, ATP, and lipogenesis while increasing the activating phosphorylation of AMPK. The overexpression of NDI1 blocked the anti-proliferative effects of Canagliflozin indicating reductions in mitochondrial respiration are critical for anti-proliferative actions. These data indicate that like the biguanide metformin, Canagliflozin not only lowers blood glucose but also inhibits complex-I supported respiration and cellular proliferation in prostate and lung cancer cells. These observations support the initiation of studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of Canagliflozin on limiting tumorigenesis in pre-clinical animal models as well epidemiological studies on cancer incidence relative to other glucose lowering therapies in clinical populations.

  4. [Evaluation of penicillin expandase mutants and complex substrate inhibition characteristics at high concentrations of penicillin G].

    PubMed

    Wu, Linjun; Fan, Keqiang; Ji, Junjie; Yang, Keqian

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin expandase, also known as deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS), is an essential enzyme involved in cephalosporin C biosynthesis. To evaluate the catalytic behaviors of penicillin expandase under high penicillin G concentration and to identify mutants suitable for industrial applications, the specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and several mutants with increased activities toward penicillin G were determined by HPLC under high penicillin G concentrations. Their specific activity profiles were compared with theoretical predictions by different catalytic dynamics models. We evaluated the specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and previous reported high-activity mutants H4, H5, H6 and H7 at concentrations ranging from 5.6 to 500 mmol/L penicillin G. The specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and mutant H4 increased as penicillin G concentration increased, but decreased when concentrations of substrate go above 200 mmol/L. Other mutants H5, H6 and H7 showed more complex behaviors under high concentration of penicillin G. Among all tested enzymes, mutant H6 showed the highest activity when concentration of penicillin G is above 100 mmol/L. Our results revealed that the substrate inhibition to wild-type DAOCS' by penicillin G is noncompetitive. Other DAOCS mutants showed more complex trends in their specific activities at high concentration of penicillin G (>100 mmol/L), indicating more complex substrate inhibition mechanism might exist. The substrate inhibition and activity of DAOCS mutants at high penicillin G concentration provide important insight to help select proper mutants for industrial application.

  5. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition is not required for dopaminergic neuron death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kruse, Shane E.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Xia, Zhengui

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is one of the leading hypotheses for dopaminergic neuron death associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test this hypothesis genetically, we used a mouse strain lacking functional Ndufs4, a gene encoding a subunit required for complete assembly and function of complex I. Deletion of the Ndufs4 gene abolished complex I activity in midbrain mesencephalic neurons cultured from embryonic day (E) 14 mice, but did not affect the survival of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive than other neurons in these cultures to cell death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat treatments, the absence of complex I activity did not protect the dopaminergic neurons, as would be expected if these compounds act by inhibiting complex 1. In fact, the dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive to rotenone. These data suggest that dopaminergic neuron death induced by treatment with rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat is independent of complex I inhibition. PMID:18812510

  6. Cells involved in the immune response. XXXVI. The thymic antigen-specific suppressor cell in the immunized rabbit is a T cell with receptors for FcG and the antigen and it acts, via a secreted suppressor factor, directly on the immune splenic AFC B cell to inhibit antibody secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Talor, E; Jodouin, C A; Richter, M

    1988-01-01

    Following i.v. immunization of the normal outbred rabbit with sheep (SRBC) or horse (HRBC) erythrocytes, antigen-specific suppressor cells are generated in the thymus capable of inhibiting the generation of haemolytic plaques by the autologous or allogeneic splenic antibody-forming cells (AFC) in the plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. These suppressor cells secrete an antigen-specific suppressor factor in short-term (4-24 hr) culture in vitro. The suppressor cells are not detected in the thymus prior to Day 4, exhibit peak activity between Days 5 and 11 post-immunization, and decline slowly thereafter. Suppressor cells can no longer be detected in the thymus by Day 60 postimmunization. Suppressor cells are not detected in any of the other lymphoid organs of the immunized rabbit nor in any lymphoid organ in the unimmunized rabbit. The thymic suppressor cell is a T cell with surface receptors for the antigen (SRBC or HRBC) and for FcG. On the other hand, the AFC B cells generated in the spleen of the immunized rabbit possess cell-surface receptors for only the antigen and not for FcG. Both the suppressor cells and the secreted suppressor factor act directly on the AFC B lymphocytes to inhibit the generation of antigen-specific haemolytic plaques in the PFC assay. PMID:2455684

  7. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA) Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Harnett, William

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA) and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62) from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs. PMID:26808476

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antigen with antibody to 38 kDa antigen versus Ziehl Neelsen staining in tissue granulomas of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Madhu Mati; Budhwar, Puja

    2007-01-01

    Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis often presents a diagnostic challenge because of its diverse clinical manifestations and low yield of acid fast bacilli in tissue sections. The aim of the present study is immuno-histochemical localization of tuberculous bacilli or their components that persist in the granulomas but have lost the property of staining with acid fast stains and to assess the advantage of immuno-staining over conventional Ziehl Neelsen staining. Immuno-histochemical staining using species-specific monoclonal anti-body to 38 kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was done on 69; 36 cases of confirmed extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and 33 non-tuberculous cases, in archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections OBERVATIONS: AFB positivity was observed in only 36.1% of tuberculous granulomas while immuno-histochemical staining was positive in 100% of tuberculous granulomata with zero false positivity and negativity. The immuno-hiostochemical localization of tuberculous bacilli and their components in tissue sections may be an efficient diagnostic adjunct to conventional ZN staining for the diagnosis of granulomas of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The technique is simple, sensitive and specific. It can be standardized and performed by trained technicians in routine laboratory. This will also help in clinical decision-making and in reducing the usual practice of prescribing empirical anti-tubercular treatment based on clinical suspicion alone in the absence of demonstrable evidence of tuberculous infection.

  9. Berberine inhibits the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yaqian; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao; Liu, Limei; Sun, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy derived from the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx cavity, and is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In addition to NPC, EBV causes various human malignancies, such as gastric cancer, hematological tumors and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) encoded by EBV is indispensable for replication, partition, transcription and maintenance of viral genomes. Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, shows anti-inflammatory, anticholinergic, antioxidative, and anticancer activities. In the present study, the antitumor effect of berberine was studied. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were performed to demonstrate whether the proliferation of EBV-positive NPC cells was inhibited by berberine. Flow cytometric results revealed that berberine induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Quantitative-PCR and western blotting results indicated that berberine decreased the expression of EBNA1 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the EBV-positive NPC cells. The function of EBNA1 promoter Qp which is to drive EBNA1 transcription in type Ⅱ latent infection was strongly suppressed by berberine. Overexpression of EBNA1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Berberine also suppressed the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 which is a new therapeutic target in a series of malignancies, including NPC. Viral titer experiments demonstrated that berberine decreased the production of virions in HONE1 and HK1-EBV cells. In a mouse xenograft model of NPC induced by HONE1 cells, berberine significantly inhibited tumor formation. Altogether, these results indicate that berberine decreases the expression of EBNA1 and exhibits an antitumor effect against NPC both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Selenite Treatment Inhibits LAPC-4 Tumor Growth and Prostate-Specific Antigen Secretion in a Xenograft Model of Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Rumi S.; Husbeck, Bryan; Feldman, David; Knox, Susan J.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Selenium compounds have known chemopreventive effects on prostate cancer. However selenite, an inorganic form of selenium, has not been extensively studied as a treatment option for prostate cancer. Our previous studies have demonstrated the inhibition of androgen receptor expression and androgen stimulated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression by selenite in human prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of selenite as a therapy to treat mice with established LAPC-4 tumors. Methods and Materials: Male mice harboring androgen-dependent LAPC-4 xenograft tumors were treated with selenite (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally three times per week) or vehicle for 42 days. In addition, androgen-independent LAPC-4 xenograft tumors were generated in female mice over 4 to 6 months. Once established, androgen-independent LAPC-4 tumor fragments were passaged into female mice and were treated with selenite or vehicle for 42 days. Changes in tumor volume and serum PSA levels were assessed. Results: Selenite significantly decreased androgen-dependent LAPC-4 tumor growth in male mice over 42 days (p < 0.001). Relative tumor volume was decreased by 41% in selenite-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals. The inhibition of LAPC-4 tumor growth corresponded to a marked decrease in serum PSA levels (p < 0.01). In the androgen-independent LAPC-4 tumors in female mice, selenite treatment decreased tumor volume by 58% after 42 days of treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that selenite may have potential as a novel therapeutic agent to treat both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  11. Human platelet antigen (HPA)-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia can inhibit the binding of HPA-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Matthew; Lucas, Geoff; Calvert, Anthony; Bendukidze, Nina; Green, Frances; Kotecha, Krishna; Poles, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    A term baby with unexplained thrombocytopenia and a platelet (PLT) count of 14 × 10(9) /L (maternal PLT count was 200 × 10(9) /L) was investigated for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Serologic investigations were performed using the PLT immunofluorescence test (PIFT), monoclonal antibody immobilization of PLT antigens (MAIPA), and a bead-based assay (BBA) with maternal sera taken up to 56 days postdelivery. One serum sample was also separated into "immunoglobulin (Ig)M-rich" and "IgM-depleted" fractions and tested for PLT-specific antibodies. The family was genotyped for HPA. HPA-3a-specific IgM antibodies were detected in the PIFT and confirmed in the BBA. PLT-specific IgG HPA-3a antibodies were not detected in the MAIPA assay and BBA in the initial sample but were detected in both techniques in subsequent serum samples. Testing of IgM-rich and IgM-depleted fractions in the MAIPA assay revealed that IgG antibody binding of the IgM-depleted fraction was inhibited by approximately 50% when it was reconstituted with the IgM-rich fraction suggesting that the IgM antibodies blocked the binding of the IgG antibodies. This effect was not observed when the IgM-depleted fraction or untreated serum was diluted with elution buffer. Incompatibility for HPA-3 was identified between the mother and the infant. The infant received one HPA-1a, -5b negative neonatal PLT transfusion, and one random PLT transfusion, with satisfactory outcomes. Both units were later found to be HPA-3b3b. HPA-3a IgM antibodies can inhibit PLT-specific HPA-3a IgG antibodies in the MAIPA assay. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Gold (I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex inhibits mouse melanoma growth by p53 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer treatment using gold (I) complexes is becoming popular. In this study, a gold (I) N-heterocyclic complex designated as complex 3 was synthesized, its cytotoxicity was examined, and its anti-melanoma activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Methods Viability of cancer cells was determined by MTT assay upon treatment with various concentrations of a gold (I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (complex 3) in a dose and time dependent manner. Mouse melanoma cells B16F10 were selected for further apoptotic studies, including flowcytometric analysis of annexin binding, cell cycle arrest, intracellular ROS generation and loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential. ELISA based assays were done for caspase activities and western blots for determining the expression of various survival and apoptotic proteins. Immunocytology was performed to visualize the translocation of p53 to the nucleus. B16F10 cells were inoculated into mice and post tumor formation, complex 3 was administered. Immunohistology was performed to determine the expressions of p53, p21, NF-κB (p65 and p50), MMP-9 and VEGF. Student’s t test was used for determining statistical significance. The survival rate data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results Complex 3 markedly inhibited the growth of HCT 116, HepG2, and A549, and induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells with nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, externalization of phosphatidylserine, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, PARP cleavage, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c elevation, ROS generation, and mitochondrial membrane potential loss indicating the involvement of an intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway. Further, upregulation of p53, p-p53 (ser 15) and p21 indicated the role of p53 in complex 3 mediated apoptosis. The complex reduced tumor size, and caused upregulation of p53 and p21 along with downregulation of NF-κB (p65 and p50), VEGF and MMP-9. These results suggest that it induced

  13. Analysis of Anti-Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Antibodies in Children, Adults, and the Elderly by ELISA and Enzyme Inhibition: Evidence for Original Antigenic Sin

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Madhusudan; Ermler, Megan E.; Bunduc, Paul; Amanat, Fatima; Izikson, Ruvim; Cox, Manon; Palese, Peter; Eichelberger, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody responses to influenza virus hemagglutinin provide protection against infection and are well studied. Less is known about the human antibody responses to the second surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase. Here, we assessed human antibody reactivity to a panel of N1, N2, and influenza B virus neuraminidases in different age groups, including children, adults, and the elderly. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we determined the breadth, magnitude, and isotype distribution of neuraminidase antibody responses to historic, current, and avian strains, as well as to recent isolates to which these individuals have not been exposed. It appears that antibody levels against N1 neuraminidases were lower than those against N2 or B neuraminidases. The anti-neuraminidase antibody levels increased with age and were, in general, highest against strains that circulated during the childhood of the tested individuals, providing evidence for “original antigenic sin.” Titers measured by ELISA correlated well with titers measured by the neuraminidase inhibition assays. However, in the case of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, we found evidence of interference from antibodies binding to the conserved stalk domain of the hemagglutinin. In conclusion, we found that antibodies against the neuraminidase differ in magnitude and breadth between subtypes and age groups in the human population. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00336453, NCT00539981, and NCT00395174.) PMID:28325769

  14. Antibody Against Integrin Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen 1 Inhibits HIV Type 1 Infection in Primary Cells Through Caspase-8-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Tiffany N.; Cimakasky, Lisa M.; Coleman, Ebony M.; Madison, M. Nia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 infection induces formation of a virological synapse wherein CD4, chemokine receptors, and cell-adhesion molecules such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) form localized domains on the cell surface. Studies show that LFA-1 on the surface of HIV-1 particles retains its adhesion function and enhances virus attachment to susceptible cells by binding its counterreceptor intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). This virus–cell interaction augments virus infectivity by facilitating binding and entry events. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction by a monoclonal antibody leads to decreased virus production and spread in association with increased apoptosis of HIV-infected primary T cells. The data indicate that the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may limit apoptosis in HIV-1-infected T cells. This phenomenon appears similar to anoikis wherein epithelial cells are protected from apoptosis conferred by ligand-bound integrins. These results have implications for further understanding HIV pathogenesis and replication in peripheral compartments and lymphoid organs. PMID:22697794

  15. Deviating the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Trypanosoma brucei elicits distinct mechanisms for inhibiting proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Valenciano, Ana L; Ramsey, Aaron C; Mackey, Zachary B

    2015-01-01

    The DNA replication machinery is spatially and temporally coordinated in all cells to reproduce a single exact copy of the genome per division, but its regulation in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is not well characterized. We characterized the effects of altering the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a key component of the DNA replication machinery, in bloodstream form T. brucei. This study demonstrated that tight regulation of TbPCNA levels was critical for normal proliferation and DNA replication in the parasite. Depleting TbPCNA mRNA reduced proliferation, severely diminished DNA replication, arrested the synthesis of new DNA and caused the parasites to accumulated in G2/M. Attenuating the parasite by downregulating TbPCNA caused it to become hypersensitive to hydroxyurea. Overexpressing TbPCNA in T. brucei arrested proliferation, inhibited DNA replication and prevented the parasite from exiting G2/M. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms of cell cycle arrest are associated with upregulating or downregulating TbPCNA. The findings of this study validate deregulating intra-parasite levels of TbPCNA as a potential strategy for therapeutically exploiting this target in bloodstream form T. brucei.

  16. Antibody against integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 inhibits HIV type 1 infection in primary cells through caspase-8-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tiffany N; Cimakasky, Lisa M; Coleman, Ebony M; Madison, M Nia; Hildreth, James E K

    2013-02-01

    HIV-1 infection induces formation of a virological synapse wherein CD4, chemokine receptors, and cell-adhesion molecules such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) form localized domains on the cell surface. Studies show that LFA-1 on the surface of HIV-1 particles retains its adhesion function and enhances virus attachment to susceptible cells by binding its counterreceptor intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). This virus-cell interaction augments virus infectivity by facilitating binding and entry events. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction by a monoclonal antibody leads to decreased virus production and spread in association with increased apoptosis of HIV-infected primary T cells. The data indicate that the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may limit apoptosis in HIV-1-infected T cells. This phenomenon appears similar to anoikis wherein epithelial cells are protected from apoptosis conferred by ligand-bound integrins. These results have implications for further understanding HIV pathogenesis and replication in peripheral compartments and lymphoid organs.

  17. Suppression of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by RNA interference inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei; Murai, Yoshihiro; Kutsuna, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Chun-Mei; Ishizawa, Shin; Zhao, Qing-Li; Ogawa, Ryohei; Harmon, Brian V; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Takano, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the development of several lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma. The EBV latent protein, EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1), is detectable in almost all types of EBV-associated tumors and is essential for replication and maintenance of the latent episome of EBV. We here examined whether the RNA interference (RNAi) technique could be employed to suppress expression of EBNA1 in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells. A Raji cell line expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against EBNA1 was established and EBNA1 mRNA level was determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. We investigated the effects of EBNA1 silence on lymphoma cell growth and cell cycle progression. Transfection of an EBNA1 RNAi plasmid resulted in substantial loss of EBNA1 mRNA and significantly inhibited proliferation of Raji cells relative to the control plasmid case. Suppression of EBNA1 was also associated with downregulation of EBV oncogene EBNA2, a decreased PCNA labeling index and increased G0/G1 fraction in cell cycle analysis. These findings point to potential therapeutic applications for vector-mediated siRNA delivery to control EBV-associated malignant disorders.

  18. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  19. Sestrin2 inhibits mTORC1 through modulation of GATOR complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong Sig; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Myungjin; Park, Hwan-Woo; Semple, Ian A.; Park, Haeli; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Wang, Wei; Guan, Kun-Liang; Karin, Michael; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-03-30

    Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators that suppress a wide range of age- and obesity-associated pathologies, many of which are due to mTORC1 overactivation. Upon various stresses, the Sestrins inhibit mTORC1 activity through an indirect mechanism that is still unclear. GATORs are recently identified protein complexes that regulate the activity of RagB, a small GTPase essential for mTORC1 activation. GATOR1 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for RagB whereas GATOR2 functions as an inhibitor of GATOR1. However, how the GATORs are physiologically regulated is unknown. Here we show that Sestrin2 binds to GATOR2, and liberates GATOR1 from GATOR2-mediated inhibition. Released GATOR1 subsequently binds to and inactivates RagB, ultimately resulting in mTORC1 suppression. Consistent with this biochemical mechanism, genetic ablation of GATOR1 nullifies the mTORC1-inhibiting effect of Sestrin2 in both cell culture and Drosophila models. Collectively, we elucidate a new signaling cascade composed of Sestrin2-GATOR2-GATOR1-RagB that mediates stress-dependent suppression of mTORC1 activity.

  20. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  1. Sestrin2 inhibits mTORC1 through modulation of GATOR complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Sig; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Myungjin; Park, Hwan-Woo; Semple, Ian A.; Park, Haeli; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Wang, Wei; Guan, Kun-Liang; Karin, Michael; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators that suppress a wide range of age- and obesity-associated pathologies, many of which are due to mTORC1 overactivation. Upon various stresses, the Sestrins inhibit mTORC1 activity through an indirect mechanism that is still unclear. GATORs are recently identified protein complexes that regulate the activity of RagB, a small GTPase essential for mTORC1 activation. GATOR1 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for RagB whereas GATOR2 functions as an inhibitor of GATOR1. However, how the GATORs are physiologically regulated is unknown. Here we show that Sestrin2 binds to GATOR2, and liberates GATOR1 from GATOR2-mediated inhibition. Released GATOR1 subsequently binds to and inactivates RagB, ultimately resulting in mTORC1 suppression. Consistent with this biochemical mechanism, genetic ablation of GATOR1 nullifies the mTORC1-inhibiting effect of Sestrin2 in both cell culture and Drosophila models. Collectively, we elucidate a new signaling cascade composed of Sestrin2-GATOR2-GATOR1-RagB that mediates stress-dependent suppression of mTORC1 activity. PMID:25819761

  2. Inferring the role of inhibition in auditory processing of complex natural stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Schinkel-Bielefeld, Nadja; David, Stephen V.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular studies have revealed the importance of cotuned excitatory and inhibitory inputs to neurons in auditory cortex, but typical spectrotemporal receptive field models of neuronal processing cannot account for this overlapping tuning. Here, we apply a new nonlinear modeling framework to extracellular data recorded from primary auditory cortex (A1) that enables us to explore how the interplay of excitation and inhibition contributes to the processing of complex natural sounds. The resulting description produces more accurate predictions of observed spike trains than the linear spectrotemporal model, and the properties of excitation and inhibition inferred by the model are furthermore consistent with previous intracellular observations. It can also describe several nonlinear properties of A1 that are not captured by linear models, including intensity tuning and selectivity to sound onsets and offsets. These results thus offer a broader picture of the computational role of excitation and inhibition in A1 and support the hypothesis that their interactions play an important role in the processing of natural auditory stimuli. PMID:22457454

  3. Lymph node stromal cells acquire peptide–MHCII complexes from dendritic cells and induce antigen-specific CD4+ T cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Dubrot, Juan; Duraes, Fernanda V.; Potin, Lambert; Capotosti, Francesca; Brighouse, Dale; Suter, Tobias; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; Garbi, Natalio; Reith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), and more recently lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs), have been described to tolerize self-reactive CD8+ T cells in LNs. Although LNSCs express MHCII, it is unknown whether they can also impact CD4+ T cell functions. We show that the promoter IV (pIV) of class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of MHCII expression, controls endogenous MHCII expression by LNSCs. Unexpectedly, LNSCs also acquire peptide–MHCII complexes from DCs and induce CD4+ T cell dysfunction by presenting transferred complexes to naive CD4+ T cells and preventing their proliferation and survival. Our data reveals a novel, alternative mechanism where LN-resident stromal cells tolerize CD4+ T cells through the presentation of self-antigens via transferred peptide–MHCII complexes of DC origin. PMID:24842370

  4. MLN4924 suppresses the BRCA1 complex and synergizes with PARP inhibition in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zong-Pei; Hu, Ying-Chun; Xie, Yu; Jin, Feng; Song, Zhi-Quan; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2017-01-29

    Like ubiquitination, several studies have demonstrated that neddylation is implicated to be involved in the double strand break repair. BRCA1 is one of the key repair factors in the homologous recombination repair and may play a downstream role of the neddylation. BRCA1 is also a frequently mutated gene in cancers, which serve as the targets for PARP inhibitors. Here we further investigated the correlation between neddylation and BRCA1 complex using neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. MLN4924 efficiently inhibited the recruitment of components of BRCA1 complex to DNA damage sites. Thus MLN4924 may collaborate with PARP inhibitor to suppress tumor. Our results showed that combination MLN4924 and PARP inhibitor Olaparib impaired the DNA repair process in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, MLN4924 and Olaparib significantly inhibited the cancer cell growth. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis from lung cancer patients showed that high expression of NEDD8, BRCA1 and PARPs correlate with worse overall survival. Thus the combination of MLN4924 and PARP inhibitor may serve as a new strategy for NSCLC treatment.

  5. Molecular Modeling Analysis of the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome BC1 Complex Activity by Tocol Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awantika; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Compadre, Cesar M.; Kumar, K. Sree

    2011-06-01

    The biological functions of vitamin E related compounds have been of interest in biomedical research for several decades. Among those compounds, α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherols and their oxidation products, α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherylquinone and their analogs α-TQo, γ-TQo, TMC20 and TMC40 were recently shown to inhibit the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. In this investigation the effects of the structural variation on the inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex were analyzed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). CoMFA performed using steric and electrostatic molecular fields produced a very good correlation. The best CoMFA models were obtained using the manual alignment of 12 compounds with 5 components (q2 = 0.589, SPRESS = 0.515, r2 = 0.992, s = 0.068 and F value = 156.520). The resulting contour maps produced by the best CoMFA model were helpful in identifying the structural features required for the biological activity of compounds under study. These results would be helpful for predicting the activity of new compounds, and they could be used for guiding the design, synthesis and development of new and more effective agents.

  6. Protection from mitochondrial complex II inhibition in vitro and in vivo by Nrf2-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Jakel, Rebekah J; Johnson, Delinda A; Chan, Kaimin; Kan, Yuet Wai; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-04

    Complex II inhibitors 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and malonate cause striatal damage reminiscent of Huntington's disease and have been shown to involve oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Because nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent transcriptional activation by means of the antioxidant response element is known to coordinate the up-regulation of cytoprotective genes involved in combating oxidative stress, we investigated the significance of Nrf2 in complex II-induced toxicity. We found that Nrf2-deficient cells and Nrf2 knockout mice are significantly more vulnerable to malonate and 3NP and demonstrate increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated transcription mediated by astrocytes. Furthermore, ARE preactivation by means of intrastriatal transplantation of Nrf2-overexpressing astrocytes before lesioning conferred dramatic protection against complex II inhibition. These observations implicate Nrf2 as an essential inducible factor in the protection against complex II inhibitor-mediated neurotoxicity. These data also introduce Nrf2-mediated ARE transcription as a potential target of preventative therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease.

  7. Structural analysis of urate oxidase in complex with its natural substrate inhibited by cyanide: Mechanistic implications

    PubMed Central

    Gabison, Laure; Prangé, Thierry; Colloc'h, Nathalie; El Hajji, Mohamed; Castro, Bertrand; Chiadmi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Background Urate oxidase (EC 1.7.3.3 or UOX) catalyzes the conversion of uric acid and gaseous molecular oxygen to 5-hydroxyisourate and hydrogen peroxide, in the absence of cofactor or particular metal cation. The functional enzyme is a homo-tetramer with four active sites located at dimeric interfaces. Results The catalytic mechanism was investigated through a ternary complex formed between the enzyme, uric acid, and cyanide that stabilizes an intermediate state of the reaction. When uric acid is replaced by a competitive inhibitor, no complex with cyanide is formed. Conclusion The X-ray structure of this compulsory ternary complex led to a number of mechanistic evidences that support a sequential mechanism in which the two reagents, dioxygen and a water molecule, process through a common site located 3.3 Å above the mean plane of the ligand. This site is built by the side chains of Asn 254, and Thr 57, two conserved residues belonging to two different subunits of the homo-tetramer. The absence of a ternary complex between the enzyme, a competitive inhibitor, and cyanide suggests that cyanide inhibits the hydroxylation step of the reaction, after the initial formation of a hydroperoxyde type intermediate. PMID:18638417

  8. Localization of the rabies virus antigen in Merkel cells in the follicle-sinus complexes of muzzle skins of rabid dogs.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Taichi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shiwa, Nozomi; Manalo, Daria L; Perez, Rodolfo C; Dilig, Joselito E; Yamada, Kentaro; Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho

    2016-11-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) on fresh brain tissues is the gold standard for rabies virus antigen detection in dogs. However, this method is laborious and holds a high risk of virus exposure for the experimenter. Skin biopsies are useful for the diagnosis of humans and animals. In mammals, the tactile hair, known as the follicle-sinus complex (FSC), is a specialized touch organ that is abundant in the muzzle skin. Each tactile hair is equipped with more than 2,000 sensory nerve endings. Therefore, this organ is expected to serve as an alternative postmortem diagnostic material. However, the target cells and localization of rabies virus antigen in the FSCs remain to be defined. In the present study, muzzle skins were obtained from 60 rabid dogs diagnosed with rabies by dFAT at the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Philippines. In all dogs, virus antigen was clearly detected in a part of the outer root sheath at the level of the ring sinus of the FSCs, and the majority of cells were positive for the Merkel cell (MC) markers cytokeratin 20 and CAM5.2. Our results suggest that MCs in the FSCs of the muzzle skin are a target for virus replication and could serve as a useful alternative specimen source for diagnosis of rabies.

  9. Evidence that transporters associated with antigen processing translocate a major histocompatibility complex class I-binding peptide into the endoplasmic reticulum in an ATP-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Androlewicz, M J; Anderson, K S; Cresswell, P

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the putative peptide transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) by using a permeabilized-cell system. The main objective was to determine whether these molecules, which bear homology to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters, translocate antigenic peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for assembly with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and beta 2-microglobulin light chain. The pore-forming toxin streptolysin O was used to generate permeabilized cells, and peptide translocation was determined by measuring the amount of added radiolabeled peptide bound to endogenous class I molecules. No radiolabeled peptide was associated with MHC class I glycoproteins from unpermeabilized cells. We found that efficient peptide binding to MHC class I molecules in permeabilized cells is both transporter dependent and ATP dependent. In antigen-processing mutant cells lacking a functional transporter, uptake occurs only through a less-efficient transporter and ATP-independent pathway. In addition, short peptides (8-10 amino acids) known to bind MHC class I molecules compete efficiently with a radiolabeled peptide for TAP-dependent translocation, whereas longer peptides and a peptide derived from an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence do not compete efficiently. This result indicates that the optimal substrates for TAP possess the characteristics of MHC-binding peptides. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8415666

  10. Techniques to improve the direct ex vivo detection of low frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I tetramers

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Melenhorst, J. Joseph; Ladell, Kristin; Gostick, Emma; Scheinberg, Philip; Barrett, A. John; Wooldridge, Linda; Roederer, Mario; Sewell, Andrew K.; Price, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to quantify and characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells irrespective of functional readouts using fluorochrome-conjugated tetrameric peptide-MHC class I (pMHCI) complexes in conjunction with flow cytometry has transformed our understanding of cellular immune responses over the past decade. In the case of prevalent CD8+ T cell populations that engage cognate pMHCI tetramers with high avidities, direct ex vivo identification and subsequent data interpretation is relatively straightforward. However, the accurate identification of low frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T cell populations can be complicated, especially in situations where TCR-mediated tetramer binding occurs at low avidities. Here, we highlight a few simple techniques that can be employed to improve the visual resolution, and hence the accurate quantification, of tetramer-binding CD8+ T cell populations by flow cytometry. These methodological modifications enhance signal intensity, especially in the case of specific CD8+ T cell populations that bind cognate antigen with low avidity, minimize background noise and enable improved discrimination of true pMHCI tetramer binding events from nonspecific uptake. PMID:18836993

  11. Techniques to improve the direct ex vivo detection of low frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I tetramers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pratip K; Melenhorst, J Joseph; Ladell, Kristin; Gostick, Emma; Scheinberg, Phillip; Barrett, A John; Wooldridge, Linda; Roederer, Mario; Sewell, Andrew K; Price, David A

    2008-11-01

    The ability to quantify and characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells irrespective of functional readouts using fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHCI) tetramers in conjunction with flow cytometry has transformed our understanding of cellular immune responses over the past decade. In the case of prevalent CD8+ T cell populations that engage cognate pMHCI tetramers with high avidities, direct ex vivo identification and subsequent data interpretation is relatively straightforward. However, the accurate identification of low frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T cell populations can be complicated, especially in situations where T cell receptor-mediated tetramer binding occurs at low avidities. Here, we highlight a few simple techniques that can be employed to improve the visual resolution, and hence the accurate quantification, of tetramer binding CD8+ T cell populations by flow cytometry. These methodological modifications enhance signal intensity, especially in the case of specific CD8+ T cell populations that bind cognate antigen with low avidities, minimize background noise, and enable improved discrimination of true pMHCI tetramer binding events from nonspecific uptake.

  12. Inhibition of Phosphate Uptake in Corn Roots by Aluminum-Fluoride Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Okorokova-Façanha, Anna L.

    2002-01-01

    F forms stable complexes with Al at conditions found in the soil. Fluoroaluminate complexes (AlFx) have been widely described as effective analogs of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Pi-binding sites of several proteins. In this work, we explored the possibility that the phytotoxicity of AlFx reflects their activity as Pi analogs. For this purpose, 32P-labeled phosphate uptake by excised roots and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity were investigated in an Al-tolerant variety of maize (Zea mays L. var. dwarf hybrid), either treated or not with AlFx. In vitro, AlFx competitively inhibited the rate of root phosphate uptake as well as the H+-ATPase activity. Conversely, pretreatment of seedlings with AlFx in vivo promoted no effect on the H+-ATPase activity, whereas a biphasic effect on Pi uptake by roots was observed. Although the initial rate of phosphate uptake by roots was inhibited by AlFx pretreatment, this situation changed over the following minutes as the rate of uptake increased and a pronounced stimulation in subsequent 32Pi uptake was observed. This kinetic behavior suggests a reversible and competitive inhibition of the phosphate transporter by fluoroaluminates. The stimulation of root 32Pi uptake induced by AlFx pretreatment was tentatively interpreted as a phosphate starvation response. This report places AlF3 and AlF4− among Al-phytotoxic species and suggests a mechanism of action where the accumulation of Pi-mimicking fluoroaluminates in the soil may affect the phosphate absorption by plants. The biochemical, physiological, and environmental significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:12177489

  13. Inhibition of phosphate uptake in corn roots by aluminum-fluoride complexes.

    PubMed

    Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Okorokova-Façanha, Anna L

    2002-08-01

    F forms stable complexes with Al at conditions found in the soil. Fluoroaluminate complexes (AlF(x)) have been widely described as effective analogs of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in Pi-binding sites of several proteins. In this work, we explored the possibility that the phytotoxicity of AlF(x) reflects their activity as Pi analogs. For this purpose, (32)P-labeled phosphate uptake by excised roots and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity were investigated in an Al-tolerant variety of maize (Zea mays L. var. dwarf hybrid), either treated or not with AlF(x). In vitro, AlF(x) competitively inhibited the rate of root phosphate uptake as well as the H(+)-ATPase activity. Conversely, pretreatment of seedlings with AlF(x) in vivo promoted no effect on the H(+)-ATPase activity, whereas a biphasic effect on Pi uptake by roots was observed. Although the initial rate of phosphate uptake by roots was inhibited by AlF(x) pretreatment, this situation changed over the following minutes as the rate of uptake increased and a pronounced stimulation in subsequent (32)Pi uptake was observed. This kinetic behavior suggests a reversible and competitive inhibition of the phosphate transporter by fluoroaluminates. The stimulation of root (32)Pi uptake induced by AlF(x) pretreatment was tentatively interpreted as a phosphate starvation response. This report places AlF(3) and AlF(4)(-) among Al-phytotoxic species and suggests a mechanism of action where the accumulation of Pi-mimicking fluoroaluminates in the soil may affect the phosphate absorption by plants. The biochemical, physiological, and environmental significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Synergizes with ATP To Induce Release of Microvesicles and Exosomes Containing Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules Capable of Antigen Presentation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Lakshmi; Qu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Lewis, Colleen J.; Cobb, Brian A.; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Boom, W. Henry; Dubyak, George R.; Harding, Clifford V.

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are released by murine macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and ATP signaling through the P2X7 receptor. These studies show that infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis strain BCG enhances MHC-II release in synergy with ATP. Shed MHC-II was contained in two distinct organelles, exosomes and plasma membrane-derived microvesicles, which were both able to present exogenous antigenic peptide to T hybridoma cells. Furthermore, microvesicles from mycobacterium-infected macrophages were able to directly present M. tuberculosis antigen (Ag) 85B(241-256)-I-Ab complexes that were generated by the processing of M. tuberculosis Ag 85B in infected cells to both M. tuberculosis-specific T hybridoma cells and naïve P25 M. tuberculosis T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic T cells. In the presence of prefixed macrophages, exosomes from mycobacterium-infected macrophages provided weak stimulation to M. tuberculosis-specific T hybridoma cells but not naïve P25 T cells. Thus, infection with M. tuberculosis primes macrophages for the increased release of exosomes and microvesicles bearing M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes that may generate antimicrobial T-cell responses. PMID:20837713

  15. Vanadyl complexes with dansyl-labelled di-picolinic acid ligands: synthesis, phosphatase inhibition activity and cellular uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Collins, Juliet; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Fedorova, Marina; Whyte, Gillian; Mak, Lok Hang; Guterman, Inna; Leatherbarrow, Robin; Woscholski, Rudiger; Vilar, Ramon

    2016-04-28

    Vanadium complexes have been previously utilised as potent inhibitors of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs). Herein, we present the synthesis and characterisation of two new fluorescently labelled vanadyl complexes (14 and 15) with bridged di-picolinic acid ligands. These compounds differ significantly from previous vanadyl complexes with phosphatase inhibition properties in that the metal-chelating part is a single tetradentate unit, which should afford greater stability and scope for synthetic elaboration than the earlier complexes. These new complexes inhibit a selection of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs) in the nM range with some selectivity. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies (including fluorescence anisotropy) were carried out to demonstrate that the complexes are not simply acting as vanadyl delivery vehicles but they interact with the proteins. Finally, we present preliminary fluorescence microscopy studies to demonstrate that the complexes are cell permeable and localise throughout the cytoplasm of NIH3T3 cells.