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Sample records for complex british columbia

  1. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  2. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  3. Geology of the Redcap Mountain area, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Redcap Mountain area lies within the Coast Plutonic Complex about 60 km northeast of Prince Rupert, British Columbia. Detailed geologic investigations in this area provide information on the protolith of the Central Gneiss Complex, the conditions and timing of metamorphism and deformation, and the timing of plutonism. These results have significant implications for the tectonic history of this part of the Coast Plutonic Complex.

  4. Okanagan Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-01

    STS068-155-011 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- (Okanagan Lake, British Columbia) View southward down the lake; Vernon is in the foreground, Kelowna just before the bend in the lake, and Penticton at the far end of the lake. Green crops are still vigorous despite the season (early October); clear-cuts dot the forested hillsides.

  5. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia.

  6. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  7. British Columbia Transfer TIPS. Second Edition Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola, Ed.; Karlinski, Jean, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    BCTransfer TIPS is a user friendly document outlining how transfer between British Columbia (BC) post-secondary institutions works. It includes tips, student quotes, scenarios, a personal plan and checklist. Information in this document can only be reproduced with permission from the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT.)

  8. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  9. Remote mineralogic and lithologic mapping of the Ice River alkaline complex, British Columbia, Canada, using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Ice River Alkaline Complex is a late Paleozoic intrusion of mafic alkaline rocks, syenite, and carbonatite exposed in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The complex intrudes Cambrian and Ordovician shales, slates, and limestones of the Chancellor and Ottertail Formations and the McKay Group. We examined the alkaline complex and adjacent country rocks using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The data were first calibrated to relative reflectance and then used to spectrally map mineralogies in the study area by using a linear spectral unmixing program. This technique models each pixel spectrum in an AVIRIS image as a linear combination of unique endmember spectra. We selected endmember spectra from well-exposed and spectrally distinct mineralogic units, vegetation, and snow. Four of the endmembers reflect mineralogic variations within the McKay group in the study area, and may represent lateral and vertical variations of sedimentary or metamorphic facies. Otherwise, the resultant spatial distribution of endmembers shows generally close agreement with the published geologic map, although, in several places, our image-map is more accurate than the published map.

  10. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  11. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  12. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  13. Reticulate Structures Reveal the Significance of Cell Motility in the Morphogenesis of Complex Microbial Structures in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial communities are architects of incredibly complex and diverse morphological structures. Each morphology is a snapshot that reflects the complex interactions within the microbial community and between the community and its environment. Characterizing morphology as an emergent property of microbial communities is thus relevant to understanding the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in developmental systems, to the identification of biosignatures, and to furthering our understanding of modern and ancient microbial ecology. Recently discovered cyanobacterial mats in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia construct unusual complex architecture on the scale of decimeters that incorporates significant void space. Fundamental mesoscale morphological elements include terraces, arches, bridges, depressions, domes, and pillars. The mats themselves also exhibit several microscale morphologies, with reticulate structures being the dominant example. The reticulate structures exhibit a diverse spectrum of morphologies with endmembers characterized by either angular or curvilinear ridges. In laboratory studies, aggregation into reticulate structures occurs as a result of the random gliding and colliding among motile cyanobacterial filaments. Likewise, when Pavilion reticulate mats were sampled and brought to the surface, cyanobacteria invariably migrated out of the mat onto surrounding surfaces. Filaments were observed to move rapidly in clumps, preferentially following paths of previous filaments. The migrating filaments organized into new angular and ropey reticulate biofilms within hours of sampling, demonstrating that cell motility is responsible for the reticulate patterns. Because the morphogenesis of reticulate structures can be linked to motility behaviors of filamentous cyanobacteria, the Willow Point mats provide a unique natural laboratory in which to elucidate the connections between a specific microbial behavior and the construction of complex microbial

  14. Crystal fractionation of the basalt comendite series of the mount Edziza volcanic complex, British Columbia: Major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souther, J. G.; Hickson, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex in north-central British Columbia includes a group of overlapping basaltic shields, salic composite volcanoes, domes and small calderas that range in age from 7.5 Ma to less than 2000 years B.P. The volcanic assemblage is chemically bimodal, comprising voluminous alkali olivine basalt and hawaiite, a salic suite of mainly peralkaline trachyte and comendite, plus a relatively small volume of intermediate rocks (trachybasalt, tristanite, mugearite, benmoreite). The complex is the product of five cycles of magmatic activity, each of which began with alkali olivine basalt and culminated with the eruption of salic magma. The regular chemical variation shown by almost 100 major- and trace-element analyses suggests a genetic lineage between the basic and salic members of each cycle. Least-squares mathematical modelling, indicates that the salic rocks (trachyte and comendite) have formed by fractionation of observed phenocryst and cumulate nodule mineral phases from a common alkali olivine basalt parent magma. Hawaiite is thought to be a cumulate rock, formed by partial fractionation and feldspar accumulation within rising columns of primary alkali olivine basalt. Fractionation leading from alkali olivine basalt through trachybasalt and trachyte to comendite is believed to have taken place where primary basalt became trapped in large crustal reservoirs. The early removal of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, leading to a trachytic residuum, and subsequent fractionation of mainly alkali feldspar, leading to the peralkaline end members, is consistent with major- and trace-element variation and with isotopic and REE data. The chemical diversity of the complex is attributed to its location over a zone of crustal extension where mantle-derived basalt, trapped in large high-level reservoirs, underwent prolonged fractionation.

  15. Low-temperature thermochronologic record of Eocene migmatite dome emplacement and late Cenozoic landscape development, Shuswap core complex, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toraman, Erkan; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Fayon, Annia K.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Reiners, Peter W.

    2014-08-01

    Exhumed mid-to-lower crustal rocks offer an opportunity to determine the mechanisms, conditions, timing, and consequences of the ascent of hot rocks from deep to shallow crustal levels. We used results of low-T thermochronology (zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He, apatite fission track) to document the very shallow emplacement (<2 km) of high-grade metamorphic rocks and to determine the timing and rates of Cenozoic cooling, exhumation, and subsequent incision of the Thor-Odin migmatite dome of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex, British Columbia (Canada). Samples collected at high elevation in the dome (>1800 m) have preserved Eocene fission-track ages and evidence of rapid cooling (≥60°C/Myr). This Eocene cooling event corresponds to rapid exhumation by upward flow of partially molten crust and final exhumation by detachment faulting. Samples collected below 1800 m in elevation display a wide range of apatite fission track ages (43-15 Ma) and track length distributions that reflect prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone. These age-elevation relations imply that the dome rocks reached the near surface (<2 km) during initial upward flow and tectonic exhumation in the Eocene and that little erosion of the Eocene surface has occurred since that time. Thermal modeling of the lowest elevation samples (≤ ~600 m) and intrasample apatite (U-Th)/He age variations reveal enhanced erosion and relief production at the onset of continental glaciations at ~3 Ma. Our work illustrates the dynamic links between deep and shallow crustal processes and the evolution of topography in a deeply incised hot orogen.

  16. a Possible Ancient Core Complex in the Northern Cache Creek Terrane, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorevski, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Cache Creek terrane (CCT) in Canadian Cordillera comprises a belt of Mississippian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that include Tethyan carbonates and alkaline basalts that are demonstrably exotic to Laurentia. The exotic Tethyan faunas in the CCT, combined with its inboard position with respect to Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana terranes has led to a variety of tectonic hypotheses including oroclinal enclosure of CCT by Stikinia, Yukon-Tanana and Quesnellia during the Jurassic. Detailed studies have demonstrated that the northern CCT is in fact a composite terrane that includes ophiolitic rocks of both ocean island and island arc origins. The western margin of the CCT is characterized by imbricated harzburgite, island arc tholeiite, sedimentary rocks and locally significant felsic volcanic rocks of the Kutcho arc. Gabbro is volumetrically minor and sheeted dyke complexes are either very rare or not developed. The felsic arc volcanic rocks and the pyroxenite bodies that cut the harzburgite have been previously isotopically dated as Middle Triassic (ca. 245 Ma) suggesting that melt percolation through the mantle was coeval with Kutcho arc magmatism and coincided with a magmatic gap in Stikinia. In general the contact between the mantle and supracrustal rocks is faulted making it difficult to determine the original relationships between the mantle and island arc tholeiites. Locally, the contact appears to be intact and is characterized by mantle tectonites with pyroxenite veins overlain by cumulate plagioclase-orthopyroxene gabbro and fine grained diabase. Elsewhere, volcanic and sedimentary rocks sit in fault contact structurally above the mantle. The absence of voluminous gabbro and sheeted dyke complexes, presence of coeval magmas in the crust and mantle, and low angle extensional faulting in some areas suggests that the western part of the CCT may preserve an ocean core complex similar to the Godzilla Megamullion in the Parece-Vela Basin. Such a hypothesis suggests that

  17. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Large, Complex Slope Instability: Case study of Downie Slide, British Columbia, Canada. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenchuk, K. S.; Hutchinson, D.; Diederichs, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Downie Slide, one of the world's largest landslides, is a massive, active, composite, extremely slow rockslide located on the west bank of the Revelstoke Reservoir in British Columbia. It is a 1.5 billion m3 rockslide measuring 2400 m along the river valley, 3300m from toe to headscarp and up to 245 m thick. Significant contributions to the field of landslide geomechanics have been made by analyses of spatially and temporally discriminated slope deformations, and how these are controlled by complex geological and geotechnical factors. Downie Slide research demonstrates the importance of delineating massive landslides into morphological regions in order to characterize global slope behaviour and identify localized events, which may or may not influence the overall slope deformation patterns. Massive slope instabilities do not behave as monolithic masses, rather, different landslide zones can display specific landslide processes occurring at variable rates of deformation. The global deformation of Downie Slide is extremely slow moving; however localized regions of the slope incur moderate to high rates of movement. Complex deformation processes and composite failure mechanism are contributed to by topography, non-uniform shear surfaces, heterogeneous rockmass and shear zone strength and stiffness characteristics. Further, from the analysis of temporal changes in landslide behaviour it has been clearly recognized that different regions of the slope respond differently to changing hydrogeological boundary conditions. State-of-the-art methodologies have been developed for numerical simulation of large landslides; these provide important tools for investigating dynamic landslide systems which account for complex three-dimensional geometries, heterogenous shear zone strength parameters, internal shear zones, the interaction of discrete landslide zones and piezometric fluctuations. Numerical models of Downie Slide have been calibrated to reproduce observed slope behaviour

  18. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  19. Deprivatizing Private Education: The British Columbia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The experience of British Columbia in deprivatizing private schools by requiring their registration and providing financial support is reviewed. It is argued that family choice and state control have grown dialectically. Government funding has created higher enrollments and new schools, but resultant public oversight ultimately constrains choice.…

  20. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  1. British Columbia water quality guidelines, criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication contains tables summarizing approved water quality guidelines for various contaminants that may be present in British Columbia water supplies. It begins with a section in question and answer format that explains certain aspects of the guidelines. Contaminants covered by the guidelines include particulate matter, nutrients and algae, aluminium, lead, mercury, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, copper, chlorine, fluoride, hydrocarbons, pH, and silver.

  2. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  3. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  4. British Columbia Transfer TIPS: Facilitation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document is a guide for teachers, career counselors, community practitioners, and students to navigate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer TIPS (transfer information for post-secondary success), a handbook for students intending to transfer among institutions listed in the BC Transfer TIPS. Specifically, the BC Transfer TIPS is intended…

  5. Evolution of a subglacial basaltic lava flow field: Tennena volcanic center, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungerford, Jefferson D. G.; Edwards, Benjamin R.; Skilling, Ian P.; Cameron, Barry I.

    2014-02-01

    Studies of terrestrial glaciovolcanic deposits have elucidated the utility of these deposits as tools to constrain ice conditions at the time of their emplacement. Very few studies, however, have documented the emplacement of effusion-dominated, basaltic glaciovolcanic eruptions. The Tennena volcanic center (TVC), located at 57° 40‧ 57.705″ N 130° 39‧ 43.138″ W on the western flank of Mount Edziza volcanic complex (MEVC) in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, preserves a detailed record of interactions between coherent basaltic lavas and a local/regional ice sheet inferred to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Here we describe the field characteristics of five primary volcanic lithofacies and five associated glaciogenic lithofacies, and discuss their spatial distribution within the volcanic center. We find that 1) the distribution of primary hydrovolcanic clastic deposits (tuff breccias and lapilli tuffs) is confined to Tennena Cone, 2) pillow lavas are present throughout the extent of the surrounding lava field with morphologies that include distinctive structures comprising vertically-oriented, distended pillows, 3) multiple lobes of massive (non-pillowed) lavas that represent high initial magma discharge rates are confined to medial distances from the cone, and 4) associated glaciogenic facies that underlie or onlap the TVC lavas indicate a variable sediment/water ratio during subglacial meltwater drainage at the time of the eruption or shortly afterwards. Analyses of H2O/CO2 in pillow rim samples give broad constraints for emplacement pressures equivalent to 500-1400 m of overlying ice. No subaerial lava morphologies are found on the cone or in the proximal, medial and distal lithofacies, and the sequence is interpreted as documenting an eruption of basaltic lava flows beneath either the LGM Cordilleran ice sheet or a Younger Dryas expansion of the still-extant Edziza ice cap. The TVC lavas, especially medial and distal ones

  6. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  7. Magnetotactic bacteria from Pavilion Lake, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lower, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25–50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites. PMID:24391636

  8. Prospects for Adult Literacy Policy in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…

  9. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  10. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  11. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  12. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Treesearch

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  13. Integrated geoscientific exploration at Meager Creek British Columbia (1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C.C.; Leach, T.M.; Macdonald, W.J.P.

    1983-09-01

    The application of an integrated geoscientific approach to the exploration stage of the Meager Creek geothermal project in British Columbia is discussed. The approach has provided a preliminary assessment of the resource potential of the area. The work has included geological reconnaissance, geophysics, and an extensive geochemical sampling program. The surveys have indicated that a geothermal resource exists on the south side of the Meager Complex an outflows down the Meager Valley. Geophysical surveys and drilling operations failed to identify evidence of an outflow from an active high-temperature geothermal system on the north side of the Meager complex.

  14. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Mature area of new frontier Northeast British Columbia reveals new high potential in the structurally complex region of the western Canada sedimentary basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.N.; Varsek, J.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Northeast British Columbia has been extensively explored since the early fifties. Evaluated as a part of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, with a passive undeformed basement and only Laramide deformation, the basin must be considered mature. Recent work involving detailed stratigraphic analysis, extensive field observations, potential field data analysis, and deep crustal reflection seismic work lead to an exciting new view of this portion of the Western Canada basin. Situated over the middle Proterozoic continental margin, a complexly deformed and deeply truncated foreland forms a ramp against highly magnetic crystalline rocks. Dipping features within the Proterozoic intersect the Phanerozoic, producing local structure and uplift which has had a profound influence on Devonian reef paleogeography. A major contractional episode created previously unrecognized Devonian to Carboniferous folds and this discovery has led to a complete reinterpretation of the structural style and deformational history of the area. The structural complexity of the basin is increased by right lateral strike-slip faulting. This system is highlighted in the subsurface by a series of faults fanning out across the basin with displacements of up to 20 km in the Proterozoic foreland and accommodation continuing until the Cretaceous. Strike-slip deformation has generated an embayment in the Proterozoic continental margin and within the Phanerozoic shelf, indicating the occurrence of several previously unrecognized prospective shelf to basin transitions. The complex interplay of structure and paleogeography results in a series of play opportunities that could result in new giant discoveries.

  16. Hydrological processes controlling ground and surface water flow from a hypermaritime forest-peatland complex, Diana Lake Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2006-08-01

    The proposed harvesting of previously undeveloped forests in north coastal British Columbia requires an understanding of hydrological responses. Hydrometric and isotopic techniques were used to examine the hydrological linkages between meteoric inputs to the surface-groundwater system and runoff response patterns of a forest-peatland complex. Quickflow accounted for 72-91% of peak storm discharge. The runoff ratio was lowest for open peatland areas with thick organic horizons (0.02-0.05) due to low topographic gradients and many surface depressions capable of retaining surface water. Runoff ratio increased comparatively for ephemeral surface seep flows (0.06-0.40) and was greatest in steeply sloping forest communities with more permeable soils (0.33-0.69). The dominant mechanism for runoff generation was saturated shallow subsurface flow. Groundwater fluxes from the organic horizon of seeps (1.70-1.72 m3 day-1 m-1) were an important component of quickflow. The homogeneous 2H18O composition of groundwater indicated attenuation of the seasonal rainfall signal by mixing during recharge. The positive correlation (r2 = 0.64 and 0.38, α = 0.05) between slope index and δ18O values in groundwater suggests that the spatial pattern in the δ18O composition along the forest-peatland complex is influenced by topography and provides evidence that topographic indices may be used to predict groundwater residence time.

  17. Towards Diversification of Secondary Special Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)

  18. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  19. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  20. Towards Diversification of Secondary Special Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)

  1. Characteristics of Educational Programs for Autistic Children in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg; Gittins, Wyn

    1980-01-01

    The article reports on a British Columbia (Canada) survey to collect information on pupil, teacher, and program characteristics of classes for children with infantile autism, childhood schizophrenia, childhood psychoses, and severe language deficits. (Author/DLS)

  2. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  3. Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating antimicrobial resistance. PMID:15144102

  4. Transforming family practice in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Cavers, William J.R.; Tregillus, Valerie H.F.; Micco, Angela; Hollander, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe a new approach to primary care reform developed in British Columbia (BC) under the leadership of the General Practice Services Committee (GPSC). COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE The GPSC is a joint committee of the BC Ministry of Health Services, the BC Medical Association, and the Society of General Practitioners of BC. Representatives of BC’s health authorities also attend as guests. METHOD This paper is based on the 2008–2009 annual report of the GPSC. It summarizes the history and main activities of the GPSC. REPORT The GPSC is currently supporting a number of key activities to transform primary care in BC. These activities include the Full Service Family Practice Incentive Program, which provides incentive payments to promote enhanced primary care; the Practice Support Program, which provides family physicians and their medical office assistants with various practical evidence-based strategies and tools for managing practice enhancement; the Family Physicians for BC Program to develop family practices in areas of identified need; the Shared Care Committee, which supports and enables the determination of appropriate scopes of practice among GPs, specialists, and other health care professionals; the Divisions of Family Practice, which are designed to facilitate interactions among family doctors and between doctors and their respective health authorities; and the Community Healthcare and Resource Directory, a Web-based resource to help health care providers find appropriate mental health resources. CONCLUSION Early results indicate that the GPSC’s initiatives are enhancing the delivery of primary care services in BC. PMID:21156899

  5. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutonism and deformation in the Skagit Gneiss Complex, north Cascade Range, Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, R.A.; Van Der Heyden, P.; Tabor, R.W.; Stacey, J.S.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Skagit Gneiss Complex forms a more-or-less continuous terrane within the North Cascade Range. The complex comprises abundant plutons intruded at mid-crustal depths into a variety of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks of both oceanic and volcanic-arc origin. U-Pb zircon ages from gneissis plutons within and near the Skagit Gneiss Complex indicate magmatic crystallziations between 75 and 60 Ma. Deformation, recrystallization, and migmatization in part postdate intrusion of the 75-60 Ma plutons. This latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary plutonism and migmatization may reflect thermal relaxation following early Late Cretaceous orogeny. The complex was ductilely extended northwest-southeast shortly after intrusion of granite dikes at ~45 Ma, but before emplacement of the earliest (~34 Ma) plutons of the Cascade arc. -from Authors

  6. Late Holocene paleoceanographic evidence of the influence of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High on circulation in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Patterson, R. Timothy

    2009-12-01

    Foraminiferal and thecamoebian faunas from the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex (SBIC), a fjord network situated on the mainland coast of British Columbia, were studied to assess climatic cycles and trends impacting the area through the ˜ AD 850-AD 2002 interval. Ocean circulation patterns prevalent in the SBIC are strongly linked to precipitation, which is closely linked to the relative strength and position (center of action; COA) of the seasonally developed Aleutian Low (AL) and North Pacific High (NPH) atmospheric circulation gyres. Through interpretation of cluster analysis and ordination methods, a period of weak estuarine circulation was recognized to have impacted the SBIC area between ˜ AD 850 and AD 1500. During this time waters in the SBIC were dysoxic to anoxic and the sediment-water interface was comprised of a depauperate foraminiferal fauna consisting of low diversity agglutinated forms. These reduced oxygen conditions came about as a result of diminished precipitation in the SBIC catchment as the COA of the AL progressively migrated westward over time, resulting in greatly reduced estuarine circulation and only infrequent and feeble incursions of well oxygenated open ocean water into the SBIC basin. By ˜AD 1575, following a gradual transition period of ˜75 years when circulation patterns in the inlet were unstable, very strong estuarine circulation developed in the SBIC, concomitant with the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in western Canada. In the SBIC this interval was characterized by higher levels of precipitation, which greatly enhanced estuarine circulation resulting in frequent incursions of cold, well oxygenated ocean currents into the bottom waters of the SBIC and the development of a diverse calcareous foraminiferal fauna. This circulation pattern began to break down in the late 19th century AD and by ˜AD 1940 conditions similar to those that existed in the inlet prior to ˜AD 1500 had redeveloped, a process that continues at present.

  7. Stable Isotope Evidence for a Complex Fluid Evolution of the Northwestern British Columbia Coast Ranges Related to Terrane Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a

  8. Airflow and sand transport variations within a backshore parabolic dune plain complex: NE Graham Island, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Ian J.

    2006-07-01

    Onshore aeolian sand transport beyond the beach and foredune is often overlooked in the morphodynamics and sediment budgets of sandy coastal systems. This study provides detailed measurements of airflow, sand transport (via saltation and modified suspension), vegetation density, and surface elevation changes over an extensive (325 × 30 m) "swath" of a backshore foredune-parabolic dune plain complex. Near-surface (30 cm) wind speeds on the backshore ranged from 4.3 to 7.3 m s - 1 , gusting to 14.0 m s - 1 . Oblique onshore flow is steered alongshore near the incipient foredune then landward into a trough blowout where streamline compression, flow acceleration to 1.8 times the incident speed, and increasing steadiness occur. Highest saltation rates occur in steady, topographically accelerated flow within the blowout. As such, the blowout acts as a conduit to channel flow and sand through the foredune into the foredune plain. Beyond the blowout, flow expands, vegetation roughness increases, and flow decelerates. Over the foredune plain, localized flow steering and acceleration to 1.6 times the incident speed occurs followed by a drop to 40% of incident flow speed in a densely vegetated zone upwind of an active parabolic dune at 250 m from the foredune. Sediment properties reflect variations in near-surface flow and transport processes. Well-sorted, fine skewed backshore sands become more poorly sorted and coarse skewed in the blowout due to winnowing of fines. Sorting improves and sands become fine skewed over the foredune plain toward the parabolic dune due to grainfall of finer sands winnowed from the beach and foredune. During the fall-winter season, significant amounts of sand (up to 110 kg m - 2 ) are transported via modified suspension and deposited as grainfall up to 300 m landward of the foredune. No distinct trend in grainfall was found, although most fell on the depositional lobe of the blowout and at 200 m near an isolated, active parabolic dune. Grainfall

  9. British Columbia: improving retention and recruitment in smaller communities.

    PubMed

    Healey-Ogden, Marion; Wejr, Patricia; Farrow, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    This pilot project involved the application, in Canada, of the innovative 80/20 staffing model to a hospital in a small rural setting. The model provides the voluntary participants with 20% of their salaried time off from direct patient care in order to pursue various types of professional development activities. The project, overseen by a steering committee, lasted from June 2009 to February 2010 and involved 14 nurses on the pediatric unit of Royal Inland Hospital in Kamloops, British Columbia. It entailed a collaborative partnership of the British Columbia Nurses' Union, Interior Health Authority, Thompson Rivers University and the British Columbia Ministry of Health, and aimed to demonstrate how professional development opportunities can improve recruitment and retention of nurses, quality of work life and quality of patient care.

  10. Preliminary Interpretation of Processes and Products at two Basaltic Glaciovolcanic Ridges: Tsekone and Pillow Ridges, Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex (MEVC), NCVP, British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A.; Edwards, B.; Edwards, C.; Skilling, I.; Lamoreaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    We present detailed descriptions and preliminary interpretations of two basaltic, glaciovolcanic ridges, Tsekone Ridge and Pillow Ridge, that were erupted onto the northwestern side of a basaltic subaerial lava plateau at the MEVC, in northwestern British Columbia. Souther (1992) provided basic descriptions of both ridges and interpreted them as glaciovolcanic in origin. Our interpretation suggests that the two ridges formed under differing ice and meltwater drainage conditions and had very different eruptive histories, even though they are adjacent and stratigraphically related. Tsekone Ridge (TR) is a N-S elongate ridge with outcrops of pillow lava and interbedded vitric, vesicular, unpalagonitized, volcanic tuff-breccia. Our preliminary interpretation of the sequence at TR is that the ridge formed by an initially sub-ice fissure eruption that eventually became focused at four points along the fissure. During this phase of eruption, the confining pressure was sufficient to prevent magmatic fragmentation. At the central point of the ridge, the eruption continued during a period of rapid depressurization, allowing the eruption style to change from effusive to explosive. The products of this explosive eruption are dominantly vitric, highly vesicular lapilli that are not palagonitized. Pillow Ridge (PR) is a NW-S oriented, sinuous, ridge comprising alternating sequences of pillow lava and palagonitized volcanic tuff-breccia. PR preserves a much more complex stratigraphy than TR, with evidence for at least four periods of pillow lava emplacement. Visual reconnaissance combined with descriptions from Souther (1992) show the volcaniclastic rocks as opposed to pillow lavas dominate the sequence in the central part of the ridge. The clastic rocks display dominantly planar bedding, are moderately well sorted, and are cut by numerous dykes. The more complex stratigraphy of PR is consistent with its formation in a hydrologically- variable eruption environment and perhaps

  11. Constraints on the Depth of Generation and Emplacement of Magma in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, From Magmatic Epidote Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblock, J. M.; Andronicos, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    We have examined magmatic epidote-bearing plutons in the Coast Plutonic Complex to understand the depth at which they were generated and emplaced. Mt. Gamsby, located east of the Coast shear zone between Kitimat and Bella Coola, British Columbia, contains a magmatic epidote-bearing tonalite-quartz diorite pluton. This pluton had a crystallization sequence of pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, plagioclase, and biotite. The lack of garnet is consistent with trace element data, which indicate that garnet was not present in the source region and, therefore, that the magma was sourced at pressures less than ca. 1.4 GPa. Epidote inclusions in plagioclase constrain the pressure during early crystallization of the epidote to greater than 1 GPa. P-T estimates from the pluton and surrounding country rock suggest that the magma migrated to shallower levels and was emplaced at depths of ca. 0.8-1.0 GPa. Magmatic epidote also occurs in the Ecstall, Butedale, and Captain Cove plutons west of the Coast shear zone south of Prince Rupert. In the Captain Cove pluton, textures show that plagioclase crystallized before epidote, and pluton crystallization pressures are estimated to be 0.65-0.75 GPa. These data are consistent with experimental work that indicates that the crystallization of plagioclase before epidote occurs at a lower pressure than epidote before plagioclase. The magmatic epidote in the Ecstall and Butedale plutons commonly occurs as large vermicular grains intergrown with quartzofeldspathic minerals. We interpret this texture to indicate late crystallization of epidote, consistent with prior studies. Pressure estimates for the Ecstall pluton are between ca. 0.5 and 0.8 GPa and vary along strike. The pressure of emplacement of the Butedale pluton is not well constrained, but Al-in-hornblende pressures of 0.6 and 0.8 GPa have been obtained from a portion of the pluton. The pressures in the Butedale and Ecstall plutons are lower than pressures at Mt. Gamsby, which shows early

  12. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  13. The Discursive Framing of International Education Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how international education programs in British Columbia have been discursively framed by government and media sources. Over the past two decades, international education programs have expanded in number and scale in the province, a phenomenon that has been interpreted by some education researchers and media sources as…

  14. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  15. The British Columbia Literature 12 Curriculum and I: A Soliloquy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra G.

    2004-01-01

    A critique of the prescribed Literature 12 curriculum for British Columbia teachers, this article is a life-history narrative juxtaposed against my own literary education, examining how my lived experiences were reflected and reinforced in the Literature 12 curriculum, and in the literary canons of both high school and university English teaching…

  16. Occupational Therapy: Roles and Functions in British Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Linda E.; Backman, Catherine L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 73 school districts in British Columbia (Canada) evaluated availability of occupational therapy (OT) services, the most important aspects of OT evaluation, OT treatment and services in general, additional training needed by occupational therapists, demographic information on therapists, and therapists' current roles and functions. (DB)

  17. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  18. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  19. The 1990 British Columbia Mathematics Assessment: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, David F., Ed.

    This book presents the results of the fourth British Columbia Mathematics Assessment conducted in the spring of 1990. Students in Grades 4, 7, and 10 (approximately 120,000) were asked to provide information about themselves, to express their opinions about school-related experiences, and to demonstrate their ability to do the mathematics…

  20. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  1. A Review of Special Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Linda; Ladyman, Stewart

    This report presents findings of a special team to review special education policy, its implementation, accountability, and program effectiveness in British Columbia. The team identified a set of issues to address including: inclusion/integration, parental involvement, assessment, Individual Education Plans, evaluation, transitions, employees who…

  2. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  3. Comment: The People's Law School of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprowls, David

    1980-01-01

    The People's Law School of British Columbia is a nonprofit organization informing laymen of their legal rights and responsibilities. The program features free evening courses cosponsored by community groups in 60 centers around the province. (Journal availability: Canada-United States Law Journal, 11075 East Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44106.) (MSE)

  4. A Brief History of the Transfer System in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…

  5. Educator Preparedness to Teach Health Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Sandra; Zhou, Mingming

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the preparedness of health educators in Canadian school systems. Purpose: This study assessed practicing and pre-service teachers' self-perceptions of preparedness to teach health education in British Columbia K-12 classrooms. It also investigated factors related to their…

  6. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  7. Preschools for Science: The Child Study Centre at the University of British Columbia, 1960-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Penney; Gleason, Mona; Petrina, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Child Study Centre (CSC) at University of British Columbia (UBC) provides a unique perspective on the complex and often contradictory relationship between child study and preschool education in postwar Canada. In this article, the authors detail the development and eventual closure of the CSC at UBC, focusing on the uneasy…

  8. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  9. Medicare financing and redistribution in british columbia, 1992 and 2002.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2007-05-01

    Equity in healthcare in British Columbia is defined as the provision of services based on need rather than ability to pay and a separation of contributions to financing from the use of services. Physician and hospital services in Canada are financed mainly through general tax revenues, and there is a perception that this financing is progressive. This paper uses Gini coefficients, concentration indexes and Kakwani indexes of progressivity to assess the progressivity of medicare financing in British Columbia in 1992 and 2002. It also measures the overall redistributive effect of medicare services, considering both contributions to financing and use of hospital and physician services. The conclusion is that medicare does redistribute across income groups, but this redistribution is the result solely of the positive correlation between health status and income; financing is nearly proportionate across income groups, but use is higher among lower-income groups. Informed public debate requires a better understanding of these concepts of equity.

  10. West Nile virus range expansion into British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Roth, David; Henry, Bonnie; Mak, Sunny; Fraser, Mieke; Taylor, Marsha; Li, Min; Cooper, Ken; Furnell, Allen; Wong, Quantine; Morshed, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    In 2009, an expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) into the Canadian province of British Columbia was detected. Two locally acquired cases of infection in humans and 3 cases of infection in horses were detected by ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Ten positive mosquito pools were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Most WNV activity in British Columbia in 2009 occurred in the hot and dry southern Okanagan Valley. Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer. Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. tarsalis mosquito abundance may be limiting factors for WNV transmission in this portion of the Pacific Northwest.

  11. Job Location Decisions of Pharmacy Graduates in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the factors influencing pharmacy graduates' selection of their first professional job location. Methods A survey was conducted of the 2007 graduating class of the University of British Columbia, examining hometown location, community and workplace factors, personal relationships, financial factors, and leisure activities. Responses were analyzed to determine whether community size or demographic characteristics affected the degree to which each factor influenced the job location decision. Results The majority of graduates moved from their hometowns to larger communities, mainly to the largest city in British Columbia. Most of those taking jobs in rural and remote communities grew up in or near those communities, and were more influenced by community size and anticipated working conditions, and less influenced by access to cultural and social activities, than their urban counterparts. Conclusions The admission of students from rural and remote communities is modestly effective in ensuring a supply of pharmacists for these areas. PMID:20585436

  12. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  13. Extensional duplex in the Purcell Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1990-05-01

    An extensional duplex consisting of fault-bounded blocks (horses) located between how-angle normal faults is exposed in Proterozoic strata in the Purcell Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. This is one of the first documented extensional duplexes, and it is geometrically and kinematically analogous to duplexes developed in contractional and strike-slip fault systems. The duplex formed within an extensional fault with a ramp and flat geometry when horses were sliced from the ramp and transported within the fault system.

  14. Remote sensing education at the University of British Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development, current status, and organization of the University of British Columbia's interdisciplinary graduate program in remote sensing are described. Specialized programs are tailored to meet student's needs and interest and can range from the theoretical development of technology (sensor development, modelling, and computer analysis) to specialized application of remote sensing in resource analysis such as the determination of vegetation damage, land classification, and land use. The courses and faculty members are listed.

  15. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Satellite chlorophyll off the British Columbia Coast, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jennifer M.; Thomson, Richard E.; Brown, Leslie N.; Willis, Peter G.; Borstad, Gary A.

    2015-07-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal variability of satellite-sensed sea surface chlorophyll off the west coast of North America from 1997 to 2010, with focus on coastal British Columbia. The variability in surface chlorophyll is complex. Whereas the spring bloom generates the highest phytoplankton concentration for coastal Alaska, the north and east coasts of Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Sound, the Strait of Georgia, and coastal Oregon and California, it is the fall bloom that normally generates the highest concentration for the west coast of Vancouver Island, Juan de Fuca Strait, and the west coast of Washington. The highest satellite-sensed chlorophyll concentrations occur in the Strait of Georgia, where mean values are at least 2 times higher than elsewhere in the northeast Pacific. Moreover, the annual average surface chlorophyll concentration increased significantly in the Strait of Georgia during this period, with highest concentration observed during the near neutral ENSO conditions of the spring of 2007. The next highest concentrations occur off southwest Vancouver Island but have no statistically significant trend. The lowest average peak chlorophyll concentration is observed off Southern California. The timing of the highest chlorophyll concentration is latest off the coast of Washington and earliest off the coast of Southern California. Small increasing concentration trends are observed off the Washington and California coasts.

  17. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  18. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  19. Anatomy of the Kitimat fiord system, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Stacey, Cooper D.; Wu, Yongsheng; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    2017-09-01

    The geomorphic complexity of the Kitimat fiord system, on the active margin of British Columbia, Canada, is analysed from several perspectives. Sub-glacial landforms and sediments show that grounded ice exiting the fiord system at the last glacial maximum streamed down Moresby Trough towards the Queen Charlotte trough mouth fan. After brief halts on the inner shelf, grounded ice margins cleared the fiord threshold perhaps by c. 15.5 ka cal. yrs BP, and certainly before 13 ka cal. yrs BP. Just outside the fiords, meltwater plumes deposited stratified glaciomarine sediments interbedded with submarine slides. Inside the fiords, thick glaciomarine sediments were deposited, and large transverse moraines formed during temporary halts in retreat. Several glacial outburst floods eroded the Kitkiata moraine and deposited distinctive mud deposits. Postglacial sedimentation on fiord floors has been spatially variable: drifts of mud > 90 m-thick corresponding with areas of low current velocity alternate with areas of non-deposition and erosion corresponding with areas of high velocity. The fiord system hosts more than a hundred morphologically diverse fan deltas that can be classified in the Prior and Bornhold (1989, 1990) system. Submarine mass transport was most frequent immediately following ice retreat (15.5-11.5 ka cal. yrs BP). The largest event ( 1.2 km3) involved failure of glaciomarine sediment on a submarine moraine at Squally Channel, and consequent movement of material into the adjacent deep basin. This event occurred post-13 ka cal. yrs BP. In the postglacial phase, mass transport continued on a lesser scale up to the present day, most intensively in Kitimat Arm. From the perspective of glacial landforms, postglacial sedimentation and mass transport, this Pacific active margin fiord system has some parallels with fiord systems on Canada's east coast passive margin, and with Norwegian fiords, but the intensive development of Holocene fan deltas is strongly

  20. Plio-Quaternary glacial incision of a thermal structure inherited from Eocene core complex exhumation, Thor-Odin dome, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toraman, E.; Simon-Labric, T.; Fayon, A. K.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of exogenic processes on the denudation history of mountain belts has been documented in many regions but the long-term and large scale effects of glacial erosion on denudation rates, relief development and sediment flux into basins are much debated. We use multiple low-temperature chronometers, apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He, along with thermal modeling to better constrain exhumation history of the Thor-Odin Dome in the Monashee Mountains, British Columbia. The present day topographic relief in the region reaches up to 2.5 km, with deeply incised valleys and ubiquitous glacial features such as hanging valleys, glacial lakes. In order to investigate the timing and rates of exhumation we collected samples from various altitudes across the region and along a vertical profile from Mt. Symons. AFT ages vary between 44-14 Ma, and show a strong correlation with elevation. Combined with track length distribution, AFT data indicates that the exposed crustal section experienced two episodes of cooling: a Middle Eocene cooling event related with dome exhumation by detachment tectonics, and a recent, post-Middle Miocene (< 14 Ma) event. We applied apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He chronometry to a subset of these samples, primarily collected at valley bottoms (~500-600 m). Our results show that zircon crystals record the Middle Eocene cooling event (37-45 Ma), whereas apatite grains reveal late Miocene (6-12 Ma) ages. Thermal history reconstructions of low-elevation samples using inverse modeling strongly suggest a pulse of rapid exhumation at ~3 Ma, which coincides with the onset of glaciation in Northern Hemisphere. We employed best possible T-t paths from inverse modeling into forward models of AFT-AHe age pairs. The result indicates that these samples was residing at temperatures ~50-80 °C prior to the onset of rapid cooling at ~3 Ma, which fits well with the expected paleotemperatures from observed fission track

  1. Earthquake hazard mapping for lifeline engineering Coquitlam, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gohl, W.B.; Hawson, H.H.; Dou, H.; Nyberg, N.; Lee, R.; Wong, H.

    1995-12-31

    A series of maps plotted at a 1:15,000 scale were prepared to illustrate geotechnical aspects of seismic hazard for the 475 year return period earthquake event within the City of Coquitlam located in the Vancouver Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The maps were prepared to facilitate evaluation of lifeline damage potential within the City of Coquitlam (e.g. roads, sewers, water supply lines, oil/gas pipelines, power lines, compressor/pumping stations, water reservoirs, bridges, and rail lines) and to assist in evaluation of the impact of seismic ground shaking on new infrastructure.

  2. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaske, Bart; Smith, Derald G.; Berendsen, Henk J. A.; de Boer, Arjan G.; van Nielen-Kiezebrink, Marinka F.; Locking, Tracey

    2009-10-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology — multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins — and lateral channel stability. We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River is caused by sediment (bedload) transport inefficiency, in combination with very limited potential for lateral bank erosion because of very low specific stream power (≤ 2.3 W/m 2) and cohesive silty banks. In a diagram of channel type in relation to flow energy and median grain size of the bed material, data points for the straight upper Columbia River channels cluster separately from the data points for braided and meandering channels. Measurements and calculations indicate that bedload transport in the anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River decreases downstream. Because of lateral channel stability no lateral storage capacity for bedload is created. Therefore, the surplus of bedload leads to channel bed aggradation, which outpaces levee accretion and causes avulsions because of loss of channel flow capacity. This avulsion mechanism applies only to the main channel of the system, which transports 87% of the water and > 90% of the sediment in the cross-valley transect studied. Because of very low sediment transport capacity, the morphological evolution of most secondary channels is slow. Measurements and calculations indicate that much more bedload is sequestered in the relatively steep upper anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River than in the relatively gentle lower anastomosing reach. With anastomosing morphology and related processes (e.g., crevassing) being best developed in the upper reach, this confirms the notion of upstream rather than downstream control of upper Columbia River anastomosis.

  3. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  4. Transfer in British Columbia: What Does the Research Tell Us? Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) sponsored research describing the British Columbia (BC) transfer system over the past decade are summarized. The overall assessment is that the transfer system has performed well: many students have transferred, they have done so with relative ease, and they have…

  5. Operations Research Support for Critical Infrastructure Resilience in the Province of British Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    OPERATIONS RESEARCH SUPPORT FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Lynne Genik...October 2012 - 1 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH SUPPORT FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE IN THE PROVINCE...OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Lynne Genik, MSc Operations Research Scientist DRDC Centre for Security Science 222 Nepean St, Ottawa, ON K1A0A2 1-613-943

  6. Moving from the Margins: Culturally Safe Teacher Education in Remote Northwestern British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Edward B.; Lautensach, Alexander K.; McDonald, Verna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the University of Northern British Columbia initiated a two-year elementary teacher education program at the Northwest Campus in Terrace, British Columbia. The program was designed to meet specific community needs in the North that arise from inequities in the cultural safety of Indigenous teachers and students. The authors share three…

  7. Intestinal parasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) from southwest British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, H L; Leighton, B J; Stephen, C

    2000-01-01

    This is the first extensive survey of metazoan parasites (particularly of the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis) from the intestines of raccoons in British Columbia. The sample collected in 1997-1998 consisted of 82 raccoons that had been sick or had been killed accidentally by automobiles. Fifteen parasite taxa were found: 3 nematodes, 9 digenetic trematodes, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 cestode. Ten of these parasites constitute new host records for raccoons, including 4 digenetic trematodes that have been reported in marine birds and mammals on the Pacific Coast of North America. Baylisascaris procyonis infected 61% of the raccoons with a mean intensity of 27. The high rate of infection indicates a large potential for environmental contamination and, thus, human and animal exposure to infectious eggs. Prevention of larva migrans is discussed, particularly for people in contact with raccoons in wildlife rehabilitation centers. PMID:10805249

  8. Perceived Learning Needs of Family Physicians in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    To determine family physicians' preferences for time, location, instructional format, and topics, the Division of Continuing Medical Education at the University of British Columbia conducted a survey, in which 1200 questionnaires were mailed to a stratified, proportional random sample of the 3270 general practitioners in the province, the stratifications being urban or rural and decade of graduation. A return rate of 61% yielded 648 usable questionnaires, which exceeds the sample required for analysis with no stratifications. Most popular days for involvement in continuing medical education were Fridays and Saturdays in the months of February, March, October, and November. Common skin disorders and hypertension headed the list of most relevant topics for the whole group and for the urban stratification. Hypertension was superseded by eye emergencies in the rural stratification. PMID:21234037

  9. Evaluation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line.

    PubMed

    Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.

  10. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    PubMed

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  11. Rural surgery in British Columbia: is there anybody out there?

    PubMed

    Humber, Nancy; Frecker, Temma

    2008-06-01

    To document surgical procedures performed in British Columbia between 1996 and 2001 at rural hospital sites with no resident specialist surgeons and to define the scope of practice of general practitioner (GP)-surgeons at these small-volume surgical sites. We obtained data from published information available in the medical directories for British Columbia and from the Population Utilization Rates and Referrals For Easy Comparative Tables database (versions 6.0 and 9.0) to conduct a retrospective study of all rural BC hospitals with surgical programs that had no resident specialist surgeon and relied on GP-surgeons for emergency surgical care between 1996 and 2001. We studied surgical programs at the 12 hospitals that met inclusion criteria and interviewed the physician or nurse responsible for the program. Outcomes were measured in terms of the types and volumes of surgical procedures (elective and emergency) from 1996 to 2001, including itinerant surgery. On average, 2690 surgical procedures were performed annually at the 12 hospitals included in the study. Endoscopy, hand surgery, cesarean section, herniorrhaphy, tonsillectomy and dilation and curettage (D&C) were among the top elective and emergency procedures. For each hospital, between 8 and 26 procedures of hand surgery, cesarean section, herniorrhaphy, D&C and appendectomy were performed each year. In the 12 communities studied, 19% of all surgery was emergency and 81% elective. There was significant overlap in the types of emergency and elective procedures. GP-surgeons carried out most of the emergency procedures, which nonetheless accounted for a small portion of their surgical work. GP-surgeons still perform a significant number of emergency and elective surgical procedures in rural BC hospitals. This study defines useful procedures for GP-surgeons in communities without the population base to sustain a resident specialist surgeon. This information can be used to structure training programs for GP

  12. A decade of experience: Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Karen H; Cheng, Po-Yan; Duncan, Colleen; Galanis, Eleni; Hoang, Linda; Kidd, Sarah; Lee, Min-Kuang; Lester, Sally; MacDougall, Laura; Mak, Sunny; Morshed, Muhammad; Taylor, Marsha; Kronstad, James

    2012-06-01

    It has been over a decade since Cryptococcus gattii was first recognized as the causative organism of an outbreak of cryptococcosis on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A number of novel observations have been associated with the study of this emergent pathogen. A novel genotype of C. gattii, VGIIa was described as the major genotype associated with clinical disease. Minor genotypes, VGIIb and VGI, are also responsible for disease in British Columbians, in both human and animal populations. The clinical major genotype VGIIa and minor genotype VGIIb are identical to C. gattii isolated from the environment of Vancouver Island. There is more heterogeneity in VGI, and a clear association with the environment is not apparent. Between 1999 and 2010, there have been 281 cases of C. gattii cryptococcosis. Risk factors for infection are reported to be age greater than 50 years, history of smoking, corticosteroid use, HIV infection, and history of cancer or chronic lung disease. The major C. gattii genotype VGIIa is as virulent in mice as the model Cryptococcus, H99 C. neoformans, although the outbreak strain produces a less protective inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice. The minor genotype VGIIb is significantly less virulent in mouse models. Cryptococcus gattii is found associated with native trees and soil on Vancouver Island. Transiently positive isolations have been made from air and water. An ecological niche for this organism is associated within a limited biogeoclimatic zone characterized by daily average winter temperatures above freezing.

  13. Significance of Jurassic radiolarians from the Cache Creek terrane, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordey, Fabrice; Mortimer, N.; Dewever, Patrick; Monger, J. W. H.

    1987-12-01

    The discovery of new radiolarian localities in the western belt of the Cache Creek terrane in southern British Columbia possibly changes its upper age limit from Late Triassic to Early or Middle Jurassic. It favors a Middle Jurassic, rather than a Late Triassic, age of amalgamation for the Cache Creek terrane and Quesnellia (parts of superterrane I) in southern British Columbia. The new Jurassic ages also mean that the western Cache Creek terrane could be equivalent in age to the Bridge River Hozameen terrane in British Columbia and to terranes containing the Tethyan fusulinid Yabeina in northwest Washington and the Klamath Mountains of California.

  14. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  15. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TWO CYCLOSPORIASIS OUTBREAKS IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...

  16. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TWO CYCLOSPORIASIS OUTBREAKS IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...

  17. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  18. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  19. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p≤0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  20. Expo '86, Vancouver: impact on British Columbia's Children's Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Hlady, L J; Macnab, A J; Smith, D F; Wensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    Over 22 million visitors attended the 1986 world exposition in Vancouver, and this had a significant impact on the local pediatric facility. A total of 559 children visited the emergency department of British Columbia's Children's Hospital with injuries or illnesses resulting from the fair. Of these, 193 (34%) had come directly from the site. The children's ages ranged from 1 1/2 months to 18 years, 4 months (mean 6.99 years). Of the 559 children 31% were not covered by medical insurance. Twenty-four of the children were admitted to the hospital, and one died at the Expo site. Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis. The proportion of visits for trauma was 50%, compared with the yearly average of 25%. There was a 6% increase in the workload in the emergency department during the fair; the percentage was even higher during July and August, particularly after 1800 hours. Recommendations are made to aid with the planning of medical care for similar events. PMID:3676971

  1. The University of British Columbia model of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Charles, Grant; Bainbridge, Lesley; Gilbert, John

    2010-01-01

    The College of Health Disciplines, at the University of British Columbia (UBC) has a long history of developing interprofessional learning opportunities for students and practitioners. Historically, many of the courses and programmes were developed because they intuitively made sense or because certain streams of funding were available at particular times. While each of them fit generally within our understanding of interprofessional education in the health and human service education programs, they were not systematically developed within an educational or theoretical framework. This paper discusses the model we have subsequently developed at the College for conceptualizing the various types of interprofessional experiences offered at UBC. It has been developed so that we can offer the broadest range of courses and most effective learning experiences for our students. Our model is based on the premise that there are optimal learning times for health and human services students (and practitioners) depending upon their stage of development as professionals in their respective disciplines and their readiness to learn and develop new perspectives on professional interaction.

  2. Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenagan, J. Donald

    2013-05-01

    The upland-lowland pattern in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada forms an extremely large anastomosing channel network, with the uplands representing interfluves between channels. The study area landscape is remarkably similar in form to water-produced channel systems and qualitatively resembles flood landscapes from the Channelled Scablands and the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Numerical shape analysis of the area erosional residuals gives similar results as those derived from known flood landscapes; the length-to-width ratios of the uplands (L/W = 2.38, R2 = 0.89) are similar to those reported for braid bars and erosional residuals formed by glacial outburst floods. Thus, the study area landscape records a megaflood or floods that almost completely immersed the landscape. Drumlins with, in places, ubiquitous hairpin furrows, locations downstream from steep slopes facing into the flow, and eroded into till and bedrock similarly reflect regional-scale meltwater flow that immersed the landscape. The regional flow submerged the anastomosing channels at the time of drumlin formation. Drumlins likely formed as the anastomosing network developed; divergent drumlin orientations probably reflect either late flow or separate drumlin-forming events that did not appreciably alter the anastomosing system.

  3. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs. PMID:20406489

  4. An overview of recent large landslides in northern British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geertsema, M.; Clague, J. J.; Schwab, J. W.; Evans, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the last few decades, at least twenty-four, long-runout rapid landslides, each in excess of 1 million m^3, have occurred in northern British Columbia. Fifteen of the landslides have happened within the last 10 years alone. The landslides include low- gradient rapid flowslides in cohesive sediments, rock avalanches, and complex rock slide - flowslides and rock slide - debris flows. The flowslides have occurred in a variety of sediments, including glaciolacustrine deposits, clay-rich tills, and clay-rich colluvium. The rock failures have involved weak shales overlain by sandstone, and volcanic rocks. We are cataloguing these landslides in a compendium of natural hazards for northern British Columbia. Pre- and post-landslide aerial photographs have been obtained for fifteen of the landslides, and detailed topographic maps have been generated from these photographs. In addition we have determined soil properties, including Atterberg tests for six of the flowslides. The rock avalanches occur in three types of settings: (1) dip slopes in sedimentary rocks in the Rocky Mountain foothills; (2) escarpments of flat-lying sedimentary rocks where spreading is happening; and (3) unstable cirque walls. Infrastructure and resources at risk from these types of large landslides include settlements, forest roads and highways, pipelines, fish habitat, forests, and farmland. One rock avalanche terminated within 2 km of the Alaska Highway, and a rock slide came within a few kilometres of a farm house. Most of these landslides have impounded streams or rivers, thus the hazard associated with upstream inundation and catastrophic dam failure must also be considered. There appears to be an increase in the frequency of large landslides in northern British Columbia. Is this due to climate change? Can we expect this trend to continue?

  5. Going for Gold in 2010: An Analysis of British Columbia's Literacy Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…

  6. Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selena Y; Currah, Randolph S; Stockey, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    Two fossil poroid hymenophore fragments, one from the Cretaceous Period and the other from the Eocene Epoch, are described. The permineralized specimens were obtained from marine calcareous concretions on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Size and distribution of pores in the hymenophores, as well as the hyphal anatomy of the dissepiments and some hymenial elements, were examined. In the Cretaceous specimen, Quatsinoporites cranhamii sp. nov., pores are round to elliptical, three per mm, and 130-540 μm diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate hymenial cystidia, up to 54 μm in length, are common. The Eocene specimen, Appianoporites vancouverensis sp. nov., has a pore density of six per mm and pores are 130-163 μm in diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, thin-walled hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, up to 32 μm in length, are common. The poroid hymenophore is a characteristic of a number of extant basidiomycete taxa, including the Boletales, Polyporales and Hymenochaetales. It is unlikely that the fleshy, ephemeral, terrestrial basidiomata of the Boletales would be preserved in a marine environment, and thus the specimens are interpreted as belonging to basidiomycete lineages, with persistent, leathery or corky basidiomata. The simple septate hyphae, the minute pores and presence of cystidia most closely resemble taxa of the Hymenochaetales. These fossils unequivocally push back the minimum age of homobasidiomycetes and extend their paleogeographical range.

  7. Methamphetamine use among marginalized youth in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ian; Lampinen, Thomas M; McGhee, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (MA) is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous stimulant that can cause serious health consequences including neurotoxicity, paranoia, psychosis, depression, violence, and death. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and characteristics of MA use among two marginalized populations of youth (less than 30 years of age) in British Columbia. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of Vancouver street-involved youth (SY) and Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender/Questioning (LGBTQ) centre youth in Vancouver and Victoria. Items measured include: participants' demographic characteristics; illicit substance use, including details of MA use; attempts at recovery and treatment; and potential consequences of MA use. One hundred and eighty of the 200 questionnaires distributed were completed. Sixty-seven percent of the SY and 24% of the LGBTQ youth reported ever having used MA. Of these: 43% had used within the last week; 46-57% used multiple times per day in their lifetime; they spent a maximum of 7-9 consecutive days awake; they began use in their middle to late teens; and half had sought help for a substance use disorder. SY who used MA within the last week were more likely to also use marijuana, cigarettes, heroin, ecstasy, and ketamine. Previous use of MA was associated with reports of auditory hallucinations. The current study demonstrates a high prevalence of MA use in two marginalized populations of youth. Use in sexual minorities, resulting psychopathology, and concurrent substance use all have important implications in delivery of service, prevention, and subsequent research.

  8. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  9. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  10. Web services for open meteorological data in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, J.; Anslow, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, British Columbia suffered from a dearth of publicly and easily accessible (open) meteorological data. While Environment Canada (EC) maintains approximately 250 active in situ weather stations, the remaining meteorological and climate data -- which represent the majority of observations made in the province -- have been gathered by the provincial government within several disparate, ministry-specific networks. Those observations have traditionally been either inaccessible to non-government employees or only available on a network-by-network basis by contacting network managers and requesting custom data queries. Under a collaborative agreement between several provincial ministries, private industry and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) and with support from EC, the entire province's meteorological archive has been collected into a single database at PCIC and made publicly accessible via web services and open data protocols. In this paper, we describe our web services, built on open-source software, which provide users access to the full catalogue of BC's meteorological observations through a simple user interface. Our geographic web services provide users access to station locations using Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Mapping Service and Web Feature Service protocols. We use OpenDAP to provide users download access to over a century of weather observations through a variety of open formats such as NetCDF, HDF, ASCII, and others. The goals of these web services are twofold. We primarily aim to provide planners, scientists and researchers with timely and comprehensive climate data as conveniently and efficiently as possible. A natural consequence of this is to enable the flexibility to expand the volume and types of data served and to facilitate more sophisticated analysis regarding past and future climate.

  11. Community-based stream conservation initiatives in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N

    2002-01-01

    British Columbia is a diverse province, with ecosystems ranging from semi-arid deserts to valley glaciers and vast ice fields. By world standards, BC has an abundance of fresh water in its lakes and rivers. However, rivers have been exploited for social and industrial purposes, often to the detriment of the natural values. Community groups and non-government organizations have been active in rehabilitating and restoring waterways. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC is a provincial non-government organization that has been instrumental in river conservation issues in BC. Three key initiatives have been established by the Council since its formation in 1975. BC Rivers Day has grown into the largest river celebration of its kind in North America, and there is a move to establish a national Rivers Day in Canada based on the model established in BC. Second is the annual Endangered Rivers List compiled by the Council and released each spring. The third initiative is the River Recovery Project in which dams and impoundment structures were evaluated against a set of criteria. A short list of candidates was generated by the project that will be further studied to determine what actions should be taken to alter the management of the structures to restore ecological values of the rivers and streams on which they are built. The three initiatives described rely on local community support. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC provides coordination, promotion, and publicity as well as some resource materials while local groups and communities take on stewardship roles for their local streams. This model may be useful for other jurisdictions.

  12. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-04-01

    Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children's Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur.

  13. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  14. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  15. Holocene glacier activity in the British Columbia Coast Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.

    2015-11-01

    The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.

  16. Repeated precise gravity measurements on Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragert, H.; Lambert, A.; Liard, J.

    1981-07-01

    Over the past 3 years, repeated precise gravity measurements have been made on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to test a practical field technique for precise gravimetric surveys and to monitor possible gravity changes associated with contemporary crustal deformation. In order to obtain a precision for measured gravity differences of a few microgals (1 μGal = 10 nm/s2), rigorous field survey procedures were followed and the operating characteristics and calibration nonlinearities of the LaCoste and Romberg model D gravimeters were taken into account. Instrument evaluations indicate that although the standard error of the mean of several gravity ties is 1.5-2.0 μGal for an individual instrument, the present achievable accuracy of the model D gravimeter for the measurement of temporal gravity changes is 3-4 μGal, provided the dial settings of previous surveys are recovered or both long and short wavelength nonlinearities in calibration can be specified. Semiannual surveys of the central Vancouver Island region indicate significant temporal variations over the past 3 years. Gravity changes as large as 60 μGal at sites adjacent to lake shorelines are caused by the mass effect of changing water levels and can be accounted for by simple model calculations. A gravity effect of seasonal changes in groundwater levels is not identifiable in the data, although easternmost network sites are underlain by porous sediments subject to seasonal water table fluctuations of 1 or 2 m which are expected to cause gravity variations of the order of 10μGal. A spatially coherent pattern of longer-term gravity trends is indicated in the northern network after corrections have been made for known mass changes. These trends can be interpreted in terms of relative elevation changes of the order of 2 cm/a between Buttle Lake and the area to the northwest. Alternatively, a change in density caused by secular changes of water content in fracture zones or by compression through an

  17. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot's model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia's five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer.

  18. Chiropractic in British Columbia: sociopolitical and clinical considerations for strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Eni, G

    1991-01-01

    Findings from a major study of chiropractic in British Columbia are used to illustrate the nature of limitations that should be considered in planning chiropractics future direction. Fifty chiropractors, 60 new clients of chiropractors and selected leaders of the chiropractic profession were interviewed on a variety of issues. Results indicate that sociopolitical factors limiting chiropractic include lack of access to public facilities, absence of representation in government services, lack of public funds for research and education, limits to reimbursement for services and low social valuation. Nine findings are identified as critical to future organizational plans. We suggest that a specific planning approach, such as the critical success factor (CSF) approach, be considered as a planning framework for organizational success in complex sociopolitical environments.

  19. Comparison of access to services in rural emergency departments in Quebec and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Richard; Audette, Louis-David; Marcoux, Jérémie; Villa, Julie; Archambault, Patrick; Poitras, Julien

    2014-11-01

    Although emergency departments (EDs) in Canada's rural areas serve approximately 20% of the population, a serious problem in access to health care services has emerged. The objective of this project was to compare access to support services in rural EDs between British Columbia and Quebec. Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities (using the rural and small town definition from Statistics Canada). Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. A telephone interview was administered to collect denominative user data statistics and determine the status of services. British Columbia has more rural EDs (n  =  34) than Quebec (n  =  26). EDs in Quebec have higher volumes (19,310 versus 7,793 annual visits). With respect to support services, 81% of Quebec rural EDs have a 24/7 on-call general surgeon compared to 12% for British Columbia. Nearly 75% of Quebec rural EDs have 24/7 access to computed tomography versus only 3% for British Columbia. Rural EDs in Quebec are also supported by a greater proportion of intensive care units (88% versus 15%); however, British Columbia appears to have more medevac aircraft/helicopters than Quebec. The results suggest that major differences exist in access to support services in rural EDs in British Columbia and Quebec. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue of variability in rural and remote health service delivery and its impact on interfacility transfers and patient outcomes.

  20. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  1. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  2. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125

  3. Enantiospecific Pheromone Production and Response Profiles for Populations of Pine Engraver, Ips pini (SAY) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden; K.N. Slessor

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of the enantiomeric composition of ipsdienol produced by individual male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say), from six populations in British Columbia, support the hypothesis that New York and Idaho races of this species hybridize in southeastern British Columbia. Production profiles, expressed as frequency distributions of (+):(-) ipsdienol...

  4. Comparison of gridded snow water equivalent products with in situ measurements in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2016-10-01

    Regional-scale estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) are challenging in alpine regions, particularly in areas of high accumulation and dense forest cover, suggesting efforts to improve these estimates may benefit from an evaluation of existing gridded products. Gridded SWE products comprising four reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and MERRA-Land), two land data assimilation system datasets (GLDAS1 and GLDAS2) and two observation-based products (CMC and GlobSnow) have been compared with in-situ measurements over five physiographic regions in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Time series were generated for each survey month (January through June), and median correlation, bias and mean absolute error (MAE) values were found for each product and physiographic region. The best performance in correlation and magnitude of bias and MAE was seen in areas of lowest SWE accumulation and land relief (e.g. the Interior Plains of northern BC), while poorer performance was seen in regions of high accumulation and complex topography (Columbia and Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains). Overall, the performance ranking order is ERA-Interim/Land (best), GLDAS2, MERRA, CMC, GLDAS1, MERRA-Land, GlobSnow and ERA-Interim.

  5. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  6. Recreating the University from within: Collaborative Reflections on the University of British Columbia's Engagement with Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet; Pagani, Freda; Quayle, Moura; Robinson, John; Sawada, Brenda; Spiegelman, George; Van Wynsberghe, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--In 1997, the University of British Columbia (UBC) adopted a sustainable development policy stating that the campus should adhere to sustainable practices in all of its actions and mandates and that all students who attend UBC will be educated about sustainability. The purpose of the paper is to consider how far UBC has moved in the last…

  7. Hidden Fragility: Closure among Licensed Child-Care Services in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry; Goelman, Hillel

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that stability is one component of quality child care. We investigate the understudied phenomenon of the stability of child-care facilities over time, focusing on the province of British Columbia, Canada. Although net figures show growth in the number of providers between 1997 and 2001, they obfuscate a dramatic level of closure…

  8. From Community College to University: Institutionalization and Neoliberalism in British Columbia and Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Aliyeva, Aida; Walker, Laurencia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation of higher education institutional development addresses new universities that were former community colleges in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Stemming from an original study conducted nearly two decades earlier, this investigation's data were collected from the same institutions and from similar…

  9. A Preliminary Study of Job-Related Communications Skills in British Columbia Sawmills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Forest Industries (British Columbia).

    A preliminary study of job-related communications skills in British Columbia sawmills investigated the extent of agreement between reading grade levels of written workplace materials and reading comprehension levels of employees expected to read them. In 1990, 227 employees in 8 sawmills were interviewed with a 52-item structured interview, a…

  10. Fusarium species-a British Columbia perspective in forest seedling production

    Treesearch

    Michael Peterson

    2008-01-01

    This review provides a brief biological outline of some species in the genus Fusarium and how these can be implicated as seedborne organisms leading to conifer seed and seedling losses in British Columbia. Fusarium spp. are implicated with pre- and post-emergence damping-off, seedling wilt, late damping-off, root rot, and seedling mortality after outplanting. Current...

  11. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1977/1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    The 1977-78 annual report on continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia is presented. The provision of continuing education by the university is decentralized. Several administrative units are responsible for credit and noncredit, general and professional continuing education, and professional development. The following…

  12. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Center for Continuing Education.

    Continuing education opportunities offered by the University of British Columbia (UBC) are summarized in this third comprehensive annual report for the year September 1978 to August 1979. The university administers a decentralized program encompassing several university offices, community resource centers, and individual faculty members. Evening,…

  13. The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia. Annual Report, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native Courtworker and Counseling Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.

    The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia, with objectives of providing courtworker services for Native Indians charged with offenses; supplying information on legal rights, responsibilities, and operation of the justice system; and reducing the number of Native people in conflict with the law, handled 4,860 Native…

  14. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2006-01-01

    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  15. The State of Educators' Professional Learning in British Columbia: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherri; Hales, Anne; Kuehn, Larry; Steffensen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the 2016 Annual Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Learning Forward commissioned and supported a study of professional learning across the nation of Canada entitled "The State of Educators' Professional Learning in Canada." A research team led by Carol Campbell, Associate Professor of Leadership and Educational…

  16. Perceptions of Present and Future Capability among a Sample of Rural British Columbia Youth Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapil, Meg E.; Shepard, Blythe C.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey explored 96 rural adolescents' perceptions of their rural context and how their self-concept is related to perceptions of capability regarding hopes and fears for the future. The youth surveyed, from the Kootenay Boundary region of British Columbia, indicated ambivalence about staying in their communities after leaving…

  17. Chapter 16: Inland Habitat Associations of Marbled Murrelets in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Burger

    1995-01-01

    Most Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in British Columbia nest in the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone. In this zone, detection frequencies were highest in the moister ecosections and in low elevation forests. Nests and moderately high levels of activity were also found in some forest patches in the subalpine Mountain Hemlock...

  18. The Administrative Impact of Computers on the British Columbia Public School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbens, Trevor P.

    This case study analyzes and evaluates the administrative computer systems in the British Columbia public school organization in order to investigate the costs and benefits of computers, their impact on managerial work, their influence on centralization in organizations, and the relationship between organizational objectives and the design of…

  19. The Politics of School Choice in British Columbia: Citizenship, Equity and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    This research explored the politics of educational choice through a case study of one public school testing the limits of difference in the British Columbia (Canada) school system in the 1990s. The Fine Arts elementary school was created by the school board based on pedagogical ideas from teachers. This fine arts magnet offered teachers a great…

  20. Farmer Contacts with District Agriculturists in Three Areas in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Isaac A.; Dorling, M. J.

    This study analyzed data gathered in a Canada Land Inventory project in British Columbia; the purpose was to measure the degree of communication between farmers and the agricultural extension service by analyzing the nature and extent of contacts, and the relationship of the contacts to socioeconomic characteristics. The farmers tended to be an…

  1. The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia. Annual Report, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native Courtworker and Counseling Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.

    The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia, with objectives of providing courtworker services for Native Indians charged with offenses; supplying information on legal rights, responsibilities, and operation of the justice system; and reducing the number of Native people in conflict with the law, handled 4,860 Native…

  2. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2000 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. It addresses a number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college and institute system, from the students' perspective. Twenty-one…

  3. Nonspecific Mental Retardation in British Columbia as Ascertained through a Registry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)

  4. A GENERAL SITE LOCATION STUDY FOR A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILES, FREDERIC T.; AND OTHERS

    THE FEASIBILITY AND GENERAL SITE LOCATION OF A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR TEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WAS STUDIED AND ESTABLISHED. GEOGRAPHIC CENTERS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, TRANSPORTATION, GENERAL ECONOMY AND SCHOOL POPULATIONS FOR GRADES 1-12 AND 13-14 WERE DETERMINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC, GEOGRAPHIC…

  5. Infestation of apricot by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state and British Columbia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Tephritidae), is native to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and British Columbia in Canada and is known to attack and develop in the fruit of 12 plant species in nature. Here we report that R. indifferens in nature infests yet another plant,...

  6. Leisure Education and Employment in BC [British Columbia]: An Analysis of Selected Relationships and Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Norman F. E.; And Others

    In order to assess the effect of community college programs in British Columbia aimed at training workers in urban recreation services, and to determine the need for expansion of such training programs, a comprehensive 5-month study was conducted in 1975-76. The study and research methods included: (1) the compilation and analysis of historical…

  7. Integrated management of timber and deer: coastal forests of British Columbia and Alaska.

    Treesearch

    J.B. Nyberg; R.S. McNay; M.D. [and others] Kirchhoff

    1989-01-01

    Current techniques for integrating timber and deer management in coastal British Columbia and Alaska are reviewed and evaluated. Integration can be improved by setting objectives for deer habitat and timber, improving managers' knowledge of interactions, and providing planning tools to analyze alternative programs of forest management. A handbook designed to...

  8. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  9. Do British Columbia's Recent Education Policy Changes Enhance Professionalism among Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Peter P.; D'Amico, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the Sullivan Royal Commission on Education in 1988, British Columbia (BC) teachers experienced a policy context that led to a decade of intense professional learning around innovative instructional strategies and curriculum. From 2001 on, the policy context changed considerably. There has been a flurry of changes designed to bring…

  10. Connections '96. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Sakari, Mary, Ed.; Miller, Carole S., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 19 papers presented at the second annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines, including preschool education, classroom communication, mathematics instruction, theater, attention deficit disorders, distance learning by rural home schoolers,…

  11. Tall among the Trees: Organizing against Globalist Forestry in Rural British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudham, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In January of 2001, the TimberWest Corporation permanently closed its Youbou sawmill facility near Duncan, British Columbia, Canada laying off 220 workers. On the surface, the Youbou mill closure reinforced a pervasive sense that workers and communities in the province are increasingly vulnerable to an ever more globally integrated and footloose…

  12. ADULT EDUCATION AND THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLERD, FRANK W.; VERNER, COOLIE

    THIS STUDY ANALYZED THE GENERAL BEHAVIOR OF ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS IN THIS SETTING. FIVE PERCENT SAMPLES WERE DRAWN FROM 19 DISTRICTS CONSISTING OF 2,721 ORCHARDS, AND DATA WERE GATHERED BY RESIDENT AGRICULTURISTS. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED BY STAGE IN THE ADOPTION…

  13. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  14. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2006-01-01

    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  15. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  16. Multiculturalism and Human Rights in Civic Education: The Case of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…

  17. The State of Educators' Professional Learning in British Columbia: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherri; Hales, Anne; Kuehn, Larry; Steffensen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the 2016 Annual Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Learning Forward commissioned and supported a study of professional learning across the nation of Canada entitled "The State of Educators' Professional Learning in Canada." A research team led by Carol Campbell, Associate Professor of Leadership and Educational…

  18. British Columbia Council on Admissions & Transfer Annual Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…

  19. An Evaluation of Project Learning Tree in British Columbia, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry, Robert F.; Jeroski, Sharon F.

    Evaluation of Project Learning Tree (PLT) involved a survey of PLT's utilization in British Columbia and the field experiment. The survey included participant observers' reports on PLT teacher training workshops, a mail survey of workshop participants, and telephone interviews with selected respondents. Two treatment conditions were effected at…

  20. Re-use of nest sites by marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Burger; Irene A. Manley; Michael P. Silvergieter; David B. Lank; Kevin M. Jordan; Thomas D. Bloxton; Martin G. Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) nest predominantly in the canopies of large old-growth conifers, and are listed as Threatened in Canada and three U.S. states mainly as a consequence of reductions in this habitat owing to logging. We assessed the re-use of nest sites (nest trees) by murrelets in British Columbia using three types of...

  1. The Reluctant Learner. A Research Report on Nonparticipation and Dropout in Literacy Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Audrey M.

    An exploratory study investigated the issues of nonparticipation and program attrition in adult basic education (ABE)literacy programs in the province of British Columbia (Canada). Literature was reviewed and opinions were sought from ABE professionals and other field workers. Seven literacy classes were visited, 66 persons from several different…

  2. Degree Completion for Aboriginal People in British Columbia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…

  3. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  4. Microcomputers in the Schools: New Directions for British Columbia. Discussion Paper Number 05/80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Annette

    This summary of the Instructional Use of Microcomputers Scope Document dated February 22, 1980, outlines short-term plans for the educational use of microcomputers in British Columbia, indicates long-term possibilities, and describes current project activities. The project comprises two major phases: continued field liaison and research, and…

  5. Performance Logic in Simulation Research at the University of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Marcia A.

    Advantages of the performance simulation setting are considered, along with what can be studied or developed within this setting. Experiences at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and views on future development and research opportunities in the performance simulation setting are also discussed. The benefits of simulating the clinical…

  6. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  7. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  8. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  9. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  10. Colliding Rights in the Schools: Trinity Western University v. The British Columbia College of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro; Sawatsky, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses British Columbia College of Teachers' (BCCT) denial of Trinity Western University's (TWU) teacher education programs and teacher certification due to TWU's prohibition of homosexuality. Reports that TWU filed suit, and the Supreme Court of Canada determined that BCCT's action interfered with TWU's right to religious freedom. (Contains 32…

  11. Recreating the University from within: Collaborative Reflections on the University of British Columbia's Engagement with Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet; Pagani, Freda; Quayle, Moura; Robinson, John; Sawada, Brenda; Spiegelman, George; Van Wynsberghe, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--In 1997, the University of British Columbia (UBC) adopted a sustainable development policy stating that the campus should adhere to sustainable practices in all of its actions and mandates and that all students who attend UBC will be educated about sustainability. The purpose of the paper is to consider how far UBC has moved in the last…

  12. Nonspecific Mental Retardation in British Columbia as Ascertained through a Registry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)

  13. Performance Logic in Simulation Research at the University of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Marcia A.

    Advantages of the performance simulation setting are considered, along with what can be studied or developed within this setting. Experiences at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and views on future development and research opportunities in the performance simulation setting are also discussed. The benefits of simulating the clinical…

  14. Libraries: Vital to Tomorrow's World; British Columbia Centennial Citizens' Conference on Libraries (Victoria, May 3, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Library Development Commission, Vancouver. Committee on Library Development.

    The purpose of this meeting of an invited group of concerned citizens was to focus attention on the interrelation of all types of libraries in British Columbia. It was intended to involve those who pay for library service in a discussion of its potential to meet the demands of the coming generation. This record, which is not intended to be a…

  15. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  16. Giving Voice: Autobiographical/Testimonial Literature by First Nations Women of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various definitions of the "testimonial" and characteristics that distinguish it from related literary genres. Examines autobiographical and testimonial literature by Native women of British Columbia, focusing on first-hand accounts of student experiences in Indian residential schools. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  17. The 2005 British Columbia Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign and short-term changes in smoking.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior. National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign. Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01). The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.

  18. Multiculturalism and Human Rights in Civic Education: The Case of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…

  19. Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul

    An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…

  20. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  1. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  2. Chapter 29: Marine Distribution, Abundance, and Habitats of Marbled Murrelets in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Alan E. Burger

    1995-01-01

    About 45,000-50,000 Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) breed in British Columbia, with some birds found in most parts of the inshore coastline. A review of at-sea surveys at 84 sites revealed major concentrations in summer in six areas. Murrelets tend to leave these breeding areas in winter. Many murrelets overwinter in the Strait of...

  3. Recent workforce trends and their effects on the silviculture program in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    John Betts

    2008-01-01

    British Columbia's entrepreneurial silviculture sector provides a reliable just-in-time service delivery of forestry activities from planting trees to fighting wildfires. Transient, and seeming to rely often on improvisation, contractors actually run logistically sophisticated businesses that are able to match varying field conditions to the biological and...

  4. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2007-01-01

    This overview of the development of the university, college and institute sector in British Columbia, Canada focuses on the public sector but makes passing reference to the few private institutions that provide academic education. Some contextual information about the role of government and agencies is provided, along with a listing of key…

  5. Connections '99. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (5th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity…

  6. The Implementation of DOBIS/LEUVEN at the British Columbia Institute of Technology Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Paula

    This report discusses the implementation of DOBIS, an online, integrated library system run on a shared-use mainframe computer, at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Library during 1984 and 1985. General information about BCIT, the library, and DOBIS is provided, and the project background is discussed. An overview of the…

  7. Catalogue Support Systems Study. Final Report for British Columbia Library Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, R. W.; And Others

    To determine the need for additional bibliographic resources in the libraries of British Columbia, Canada, an evaluation was undertaken which included visits to libraries and existing operational catalog support systems, and meetings with advisory committees. Recommendations included: (1) implementation of a province-wide, on-line catalog system;…

  8. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  9. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in British Columbia School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewchuk, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High profile sexual assault cases by British Columbia elementary school teachers in 2010 revealed BC school boards had "disturbingly inconsistent" child protection policies. As a result of the intense media scrutiny, the BC Ministry of Education required all school boards to reassess and update their policies on reporting suspected child…

  10. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  11. Private Funding for Elementary and Secondary Public Education in British Columbia for 1983/84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Kirk

    This study examines major issues in, and effective practices for, private funding for elementary and secondary public education in British Columbia. The sources and allocation of funds for school districts and schools were investigated, along with their funding practices. Using data on funds obtained from a representative sampling of 13 districts…

  12. Connections '97. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (3rd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling,…

  13. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  14. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  15. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia’s five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer. PMID:26078624

  16. The formation of basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, D.R.

    1982-08-01

    The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).

  17. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  18. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  19. The quick and the dead: "managing" inpatient care in British Columbia hospitals, 1969-1995/96.

    PubMed Central

    McGrail, K M; Evans, R G; Barer, M L; Sheps, S B; Hertzman, C; Kazanjian, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in hospital use in British Columbia during a decade of capacity reductions. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data used are all separation records for British Columbia hospitals for the years 1969, 1978, 1985/86, 1993/94, and 1995/96. Separation records include acute care, rehabilitation, extended care, and surgical day care hospital encounters in British Columbia that were concluded during the years of interest. STUDY DESIGN: Analyses were based on per capita use of services for five-year age groups of the population to ages 90+; the emphasis was on looking at changes in the use of specific types of hospital services over the 26 years of study, with a particular focus on the most recent decade. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were extracted from hospital separations files owned by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and housed at the Centre for Health Services and Policy Research. All separation records for the years of interest were included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acute care use continued to fall over the last decade. The rate of decline increased during the last time period of study and affected seniors to the same degree as younger patients. At the same time, use of extended care decreased, compared to steady increases in earlier years. The result was that by 1995/96 nearly 40 percent of inpatient days were used by people who died in hospital, compared to 9 percent in 1969. These people, however, still represent a small proportion of separations. CONCLUSIONS: The "bed blocker" problem common to many hospital systems appears to have been largely alleviated in British Columbia over the decade 1985-95. The concurrent decrease in extended care use, however, makes it difficult to say where and how these people are now being cared for. Care for the dying has become a bigger issue for hospitals, but whether this is because of heroic interventions at the end of life is not clear. A "top-down," capacity

  20. Petrochemistry of Mafic Rocks Within the Northern Cache Creek Terrane, NW British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J. M.; Johnston, S. T.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    The Cache Creek terrane is a belt of oceanic rocks that extend the length of the Cordillera in British Columbia. Fossil fauna in this belt are exotic with respect to the remainder of the Canadian Cordillera, as they are of equatorial Tethyan affinity, contrasting with coeval faunas in adjacent terranes that show closer linkages with ancestral North America. Preliminary results reported here from geochemical studies of mafic rocks within the Nakina area of NW British Columbia further constrain the origin of this enigmatic terrane. The terrane is typified by tectonically imbricated slices of chert, argillite, limestone, wacke and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as mafic and ultramafic rocks. These lithologies are believed to represent two separate lithotectonic elements: Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic, subduction-related accretionary complexes, and dismembered basement assemblages emplaced during the closure of the Cache Creek ocean in the Middle Jurassic. Petrochemical analysis revealed four distinct mafic igneous assemblages that include: magmatic 'knockers' of the Nimbus serpentinite mélange, metabasalts of 'Blackcaps' Mountain, augite-phyric breccias of 'Laughing Moose' Creek, and volcanic pediments to the reef-forming carbonates of the Horsefeed Formation. Major and trace element analysis classifies the 'Laughing Moose' breccias and the carbonate-associated volcanics as alkaline in nature, whereas the rest are subalkaline. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that the alkaline rocks are of within-plate affinity, while the 'Blackcaps' basalts and 'knockers' from within the mélange typically straddle the island-arc tholeiite and the mid-ocean ridge boundaries. However, primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots indicate that these subalkaline rocks have pronounced negative Nb anomalies, a characteristic arc signature. The spatial association of alkaline volcanic rocks with extensive carbonate domains points to the existence of seamounts within the Cache

  1. An audit of pain management following pediatric day surgery at British Columbia Children’s Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Serena; Lim, Joanne; Page, Trish; Lamb, Elizabeth; Gow, Jennifer; Ansermino, J Mark; Lauder, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    A prospective audit of 225 children was conducted to evaluate current pain management strategies both in-hospital and at home following day surgery at British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia). Anesthetic, postanesthetic care unit and surgical day care unit records were collected to generate in-hospital data. A telephone questionnaire was administered 48 h postdischarge for at home data. Pain reports and scores were significantly higher (P<0.01) at home compared with in-hospital. Children undergoing certain procedures were more likely to experience significant pain. Although good pain control was commonly achieved after surgery, improvements may be possible by increasing the use of multimodal analgesia, providing standardized written discharge instructions and using surgery-specific pediatric analgesia guidelines. PMID:23061083

  2. Creating a safety culture at the Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Katrina N; Taylor, Annemarie; Northway, Tracie L; Hudson, Denise G; Van Stolk, Dori E; Shearer, Kim J; McDougall, Debbie L; Miller, Georgene

    2007-02-01

    The Children's' and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia (C&W) is the largest hospital providing specialized care to women and children across the province of British Columbia in Canada. The values of quality and safety are threaded throughout the C&W strategic plan which emphasizes that safety is vital for better health. At C&W, a multifaceted approach is used to create and sustain a culture of safety. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed tools to facilitate the development of safety cultures within hospital settings. This article describes the implementation of some of these tools, such as the Safety Briefings Model and Patient Safety Leadership Walkrounds. We will discuss how we adapted these strategies to our pediatric settings; what we learned through the implementation process-our successes and challenges; and implications for future success.

  3. 40-year trends in skin cancer in British Columbia, Canada, 1973 to 2003.

    PubMed

    McLean, David I; Phillips, Norm; Zhou, Youwen; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is common in North America. Incidence rate trends are potentially important in the assessment of the effects of measures to increase sun awareness in the population as well as measures to reduce sun damage. To determine the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a geographically defined Canadian population over a 40-year period. Data were obtained from the BC Cancer Registry for the calendar years 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003. Age-standardized incidence rates increased significantly from 1973 to 2003 for BCC, SCC, and CMM. The ethnic makeup of British Columbia has changed over time, and a novel method of accounting for the effect of this on skin cancer rates is presented. The incidence rate for skin cancers continued to rise in British Columbia, but there appears to have been a decline in the incidence of CMM and BCC in the youngest cohorts.

  4. Mercury and other trace elements in farmed and wild salmon from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Barry C; Ikonomou, Michael G; Higgs, David A; Oakes, Janice; Dubetz, Cory

    2008-06-01

    The present study reports measured levels of Hg and other trace elements in commercial salmon feed; farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110); and wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91). Metal concentrations in farmed and wild salmon from British Columbia, Canada, were relatively low and below human health consumption guidelines. Methylmercury in all salmon samples (range, 0.03-0.1 microg/g wet wt) were below the 0.5 microg/g guideline set by Health Canada. Negligible differences in metal concentrations were observed between the various species of farmed and wild salmon. Metal concentrations generally were higher in commercial salmon feed compared to farmed salmon. Mercury showed slight bioaccumulation potential in farmed salmon, with biomagnification factors (BMFs) ranging between 0.8 and 1.9. Other metals, such as Cd, Pb, and Ni, exhibited biodilution, with BMFs of much less than one. The relatively low degree of biomagnification of metals observed in farmed salmon likely resulted from the combination of low gastrointestinal absorption efficiency, negligible transfer to muscle tissue relative to other compartments, and a high degree of growth dilution in these fish. Human dietary exposure calculations indicate intakes of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, As, and Ni via farmed and wild British Columbia salmon are a relatively small percentage of total intakes (0.05-32%) compared to other Canadian foodstuffs, such as fruits, vegetables, chicken, and beef (68-99%). Although total dietary exposure of Cd, Pb, and Cu approached provisional tolerable daily intake levels, the contribution from British Columbia salmon was less than 2%. Our findings indicate farmed and wild British Columbia salmon remain a safe source of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid intake for cardioprotective and, possibly, other health benefits.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of marine anemia in seapen-reared salmon in southern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ribble, C S; Kent, M L

    1996-07-01

    Marine anemia, also known as plasmacytoid leukemia, is a recently described disease of farmed Pacific salmon in British Columbia. Most of what is known about the disease has been generated through laboratory studies or field investigations of severely affected farms. The goals of this study were to determine the range of the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally occurring marine anemia, identify potential risk factors, and provide an initial description of the impact of the disease on commercial salmon farms in British Columbia. Data were obtained from mail surveys, farm visits, and reviews of clinical and laboratory records. An attempt was made to evaluate negative, as well as mildly, moderately, and severely affected sites. The results showed marine anemia to be widely distributed throughout the major salmon farming regions in British Columbia. The disease was most commonly diagnosed in August and September, when water temperatures were at their seasonal peaks. A wide variety of lineage's and fish sources were associated with the disease. The average mortality rate attributed to marine anemia was 6% (range 2.5% to 11%). The peak occurrence of the disease was associated with a peak in the occurrence of other infectious and inflammatory diseases. The broad demographic distribution of marine anemia, coupled with its endemic nature, indicated that the disease is unlikely to be due to the recent introduction of a new pathogen and that causal factors are widespread in southern British Columbia. It is concluded that the significance of diagnosing marine anemia is not that it is predictive of an impending epidemic of mortality, but that it is an indicator of the general pattern of disease on a farm.

  6. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  7. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  8. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  9. Isolation of Sphaerophorus necrophorus from Bovine Hepatic Abscesses in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Simon, P. C.; Stovell, P. L.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predominant microflora in hepatic abscesses of cattle slaughtered in British Columbia. Samples of approximately 400 livers were examined by direct smear and culture. Sphaerophorus necrophorus was present in 97% of the 431 abscesses and in 67% it was present in pure culture. In 30% it was present in combination with other organisms such as coryne-bacterium and streptococcus. PMID:4253458

  10. View of Rocky Mountains area of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-24

    AST-19-1570 (24 July 1975) --- An oblique view of the Rocky Mountains area of British Columbia and Alberta in Canada, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. This picture was taken at an altitude of 222 kilometers (138 statute miles) with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  11. Characterization of active faulting beneath the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, J.F.; Rogers, Gary C.; Waldhauser, F.

    2000-01-01

    Southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington State are subject to megathrust earthquakes, deep intraslab events, and earthquakes in the continental crust. Of the three types of earthquakes, the most poorly understood are the crustal events. Despite a high level of seismicity, there is no obvious correlation between the historical crustal earthquakes and the mapped surface faults of the region. On 24 June 1997, a ML = 4.6 earthquake occurred 3-4 km beneath the Strait of Georgia, 30 km to the west of Vancouver, British Columbia. This well-recorded earthquake was preceded by 11 days by a felt foreshock (ML = 3.4) and was followed by numerous small aftershocks. This earthquake sequence occurred in one of the few regions of persistent shallow seismic activity in southwestern British Columbia, thus providing an ideal opportunity to attempt to characterize an active near-surface fault. We have computed focal mechanisms and utilized a waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral determination routine to obtain accurate relative hypocenters of the mainshock, foreshock, and 53 small aftershocks in an attempt to image the active fault and the extent of rupture associated with this earthquake sequence. Both P-nodal and CMT focal mechanisms show thrust faulting for the mainshock and the foreshock. The relocated hypocenters delineate a north-dipping plane at 2-4 km depth, dipping at 53??, in good agreement with the focal mechanism nodal plane dipping to the north at 47??. The rupture area is estimated to be a 1.3-km-diameter circular area, comparable to that estimated using a Brune rupture model with the estimated seismic moment of 3.17 ?? 1015 N m and the stress drop of 45 bars. The temporal sequence indicates a downdip migration of the seismicity along the fault plane. The results of this study provide the first unambiguous evidence for the orientation and sense of motion for active faulting in the Georgia Strait area of British Columbia.

  12. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  13. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  14. Competency Development to Support Safe Nurse Practitioner Prescribing of Controlled Drugs and Substances in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Alison; Klein, Tracy; Daly, Chris

    2016-08-01

    In 2012, Canada passed legislation giving nurse practitioners (NPs) authority to prescribe controlled drugs and substances. Steps toward safe implementation by the nursing regulatory body in British Columbia included development of controlled drugs and substances prescribing competencies for use in educating and authorizing NPs for this new scope. In this article, we discuss the development and refinement of the competencies, specifically their application to nursing regulation in British Columbia. Methods include incorporation of the Competency Outcome Performance Assessment Model as a guiding theoretical framework. Over two meetings in 2014, a small representative panel of health professionals completed face and content validation of 17 initial competencies using a visual Likert-type scale ranking process (1-5, unnecessary to essential) with Google Docs for real-time comparative refinement. The resulting 10 competency statements provide the foundation for outcome indicator development which will be used in NP education and the regulatory body's regulation and remediation processes. Finally, we describe the policy process applied to implement competencies for NP controlled drugs and substances prescribing and the subsequent challenges of implementation of controlled drugs and substances authority in British Columbia. The article concludes with an overview of lessons learned that may be beneficial to health professions regulatory bodies introducing or expanding prescribing scope for NPs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Going Coastal: Shared Evolutionary History between Coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Weckworth, Byron V.; Dawson, Natalie G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Flamme, Melanie J.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. PMID:21573241

  16. Qualitative assessment of take-home naloxone program participant and law enforcement interactions in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Deonarine, Andrew; Amlani, Ashraf; Ambrose, Graham; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-05-21

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted. Qualitative analysis of all transcripts was performed. Positive themes about the BCTHN program from participants included easy to understand training, correcting misperceptions in the community, and positive interactions with emergency services. Potential barriers to contacting emergency services during an overdose include concerns about being arrested for outstanding warrants or for other illegal activities (such as drug possession) and confiscation of kits. Law enforcement officials noted that warrants were complex situational issues, kits would normally not be confiscated, and admitted arrests for drug possession or other activities may not serve the public good in an overdose situation. Law enforcement officials were concerned about legal liability and jurisdictional/authorization issues if naloxone administration privileges were expanded to police. Program participants and law enforcement officials expressed differing perspectives about warrants, kit confiscation, and arrests. Facilitating communication between BCTHN program participants and other stakeholders may address some of the confusion and remove potential barriers to further improving program outcomes. Naloxone administration by law enforcement would require policies to address jurisdiction/authorization and liability issues.

  17. Geologic reservoir model for the Triassic Doig Formation, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Moslow, T.F. ); Munroe, H.D. )

    1991-03-01

    A subsurface investigation of the mid-Triassic Doig formation in northeastern British Columbia documented two main reservoir facies. Both are a product of mass movement and sediment gravity flow processes on a progradational, tectonically active continental shelf margin. Substrate instability was likely a product of sediment loading, perhaps in concert with seismic activity. Sedimentary facies and reservoir parameters were determined from analysis of approximately 150 cores and 900 well logs. Laterally discontinuous Doig sandstones are up to 60 m thick and trend northeasterly within the study area. The main reservoir facies are incised density flow deposits and laterally extensive slump deposits. Reservoir quality within these sands is extremely variable with porosity ranging from less than 5% to 15%. In core, these deposits consist of moderately well sorted, very fine grained sandstones with no vertical grain size variation. The best production to date is in the Buick Creek field with initial flows of 346 BOPD. The slump deposits are thinner and tend to be more elongate parallel to paleoshoreline. These sands were subject to some wave or current reworking. Modern analogs where similar processes and products of deposition are known to occur include the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf and the Fraser River Delta slope. Doig sandstones usually are enclosed in fine-grained shelf deposits that provide a good stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Successful development of Doig reservoirs must incorporate geologic modes that assist in understanding the complex and highly variable reservoir quality of sandstones units.

  18. The emergence of a community mapping network: coastal eelgrass mapping in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Wright, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document and theorize the emergence of a network of stewards concerned about the conservation of a marine habitat called eelgrass along the coastline of British Columbia, Canada. Today, by engaging as professional biologists, government employees, and volunteers using various mapping, outreach, and communication tools, these stewards generate knowledge on the geographic location and health of eelgrass habitat, how to educate the public, how to coordinate volunteers, and how to approach local governments--with the ultimate goal of convincing others that eelgrass is worth protecting. Our two-year ethnographic study began in the second year of a project that was designed to train twenty community coordinators how to map and monitor eelgrass habitat. The coordinators were faced with complex social, cultural, political, historical, and material landscapes--which made us wonder about how it was possible for the network to hold together while extending its reach. We provide evidence to support the claim that the network became more stable and was extended by particular performances. These performances emerged from recognition and resolution of resistances, in which the network was both resource for and object of its activity. In the process, (a) knowledge produced is made to move and do something, (b) coordinators and scientists involved acted as knowledge brokers between various communities, and (c) communication between coordinators was enabled and maintained.

  19. Upper crustal structure of southwestern British Columbia from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Zelt, C.A.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies nonlinear three-dimensional travel time tomography to refraction data recorded during the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) to derive the first large-scale, high-resolution upper crustal velocity model for southwestern British Columbia. A minimum structure P wave velocity model is constructed using 175,000 first arrival travel times picked from data recorded by 58 temporary onshore stations. The model details forearc crustal structures related to terrane accretion and subsequent basin formation to a depth of about 10 km. The Metchosin igneous complex (correlative with the Eocene Crescent-Siletz Terrane in Washington) is imaged as a laterally extensive WNW trending high-velocity anomaly underlying southernmost Vancouver Island and much of the Strait of Juan du Fuca. Northeast of the Strait of Georgia, the southwesterly dip of the contact between the Wrangellia terrane rocks of Vancouver Island and the Coast Plutonic Complex suggests Wrangellia rocks are down-faulted against the plutonic complex. At the southwestern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the 50 km long WNW trending Clallam basin has a maximum thickness of 5-6 km. Near the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Port Townsend basin has an inferred thickness of approximately 4-5 km. The southern end of the 9 km thick Georgia basin is bounded by a high-velocity basement ridge. Beneath the Strait of Georgia, clusters of well-located earthquakes have a prominent NW trend and coincide spatially with rapid lateral velocity changes. Clusters of microearthquakes there are associated with the intersection of several east trending structural highs within this NW trend. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Meager Creek Geothermal Prospect, British Columbia 1979 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stauder, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Meager Mountain Volcanic Complex, 150 km north of Vancouver, B.C. has been a target of geothermal exploration since 1974. The study has been carried out jointly by B.C. Hydro, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and co-funded by the Provincial Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Results indicate presence of two geothermal reservoirs approximately 12 km apart (South - North) within permeable fractured quartz diorite basement complex at depths between 1000-2000 m. Three diamond-drilled holes were completed in the South Reservoir area during 1979 and drilling results are compatible with earlier electrical resistivity surveys. The highest temperature recorded was 202 C at 367 m.

  1. Thermochronologic constraints on mylonite and detachment fault development, Kettle Highlands, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.R.; Snee, L.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The Kettle dome, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia, is one of several large metamorphic core complexes in the region. New Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling dates from the mylonite immediately beneath the Kettle River detachment fault at Barney's Junction, a cross-cutting mafic dike, and the youngest Eocene lavas in the Republic graben set constraints on kinematic models of the tectonic evolution of the dome and related grabens: Amphibolite--hornblende (59.0 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--muscovite (49.3 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--K-feldspar (49.2 [+-] 1); Augen gneiss--K-feldspar (48.0 [+-] 1); Mafic dike--hornblende (54.5 [+-] 0.1) and biotite (49.6 [+-] 0.1); Klondike Mt. Formation lava--feeder dike (48.8 [+-] 1). The authors interpret the dates to indicate that the tectonized amphibolite, part of a Cretaceous and older metamorphosed terrane, had formed and cooled to [approx] 500 C by Late Paleocene, the mylonite zone was being domed above the ductile zone by Early Eocene at the time of emplacement of the dike--temporally equivalent to the Keller Butte suite, Eocene Colville batholith--which crosscuts the mylonite, and incipient rifting was occurring in the Republic graben as evidenced by dike swarms. The mylonite complex reached 300 C by 49Ma coincident with the termination of Sanpoil volcanism, and then cooled rapidly to near or below 150 C by 48 Ma. At about this time, mafic Klondike Mt. lavas mark the termination of Republic graben rifting and possibly detachment faulting along the Kettle River fault.

  2. Interplay of plutonism and regional deformation in an obliquely convergent arc, southern Coast Belt, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. H.; Talbot, J. L.; McClelland, W. C.; Feltman, J. A.; Lapen, T. J.; Bennett, J. D.; Hettinga, M. A.; Troost, M. L.; Alvarez, K. M.; Calvert, A. T.

    2000-06-01

    The Coast Plutonic Complex is an extensive zone of continental growth that formed along the Mesozoic convergent margin of northwestern North America. The orogeny creating this belt involved terrane accretion and assembly, massive upward transfer and emplacement of sial in the form of batholiths constituting a magmatic arc, and transformation of broad tracts of sedimentary and volcanic rocks into crystalline continental crust, all operating in more or less the same space and time. The mechanisms and interplay of these orogenic processes are well displayed in the Harrison Lake area of the southern Coast Belt, British Columbia. Great structural relief across the area exhibits a present-day architecture defined by thin, thrust-stacked terrane sheets and early concordant pluton sheets folded on a macroscopic scale, all truncated by oblique dextral-reverse faults and overlain by later floored plutons. Construction of this complex began with terrane assembly on orogen-normal thrusts during a lull in plutonism in the Early Cretaceous. Low-grade metamorphism during this event indicates only modest crustal thickening. Subsequent plutons intruded into the assembled terranes appear to be composites of sheets. Early pluton sheets are now steeply dipping due to folding but were likely intruded as horizontal bodies. Large ovoid post folding plutons are mostly subhorizontal floored bodies, at least in part sheeted. These plutons are underlain by Barrovian mineralogic aureoles that indicate downward vertical displacement of 10 km or more during plutonism, suggesting pluton emplacement by vertical inflation. Magmatic fabrics in these bodies, and the discordant relation of plutons to regional structures, preclude emplacement in active fault zones. Penetrative strain aureoles flanking plutons are mostly limited to zones a few hundred meters wide, and regional tectonic structures are widely preserved. Tectonic deformation of the arc is characterized by contraction and strike-slip, not

  3. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 offshore British Columbia-southeastern Alaska and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Ooms, Jonathan G.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The tectonics of the Pacific margin of North America between Vancouver Island and south-central Alaska are dominated by the northwest motion of the Pacific plate with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of approximately 50 mm/yr. In the south of this mapped region, convergence between the northern extent of the Juan de Fuca plate (also known as the Explorer microplate) and North America plate dominate. North from the Explorer, Pacific, and North America plate triple junction, Pacific:North America motion is accommodated along the ~650-km-long Queen Charlotte fault system. Offshore of Haida Gwaii and to the southwest, the obliquity of the Pacific:North America plate motion vector creates a transpressional regime, and a complex mixture of strike-slip and convergent (underthrusting) tectonics. North of the Haida Gwaii islands, plate motion is roughly parallel to the plate boundary, resulting in almost pure dextral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte fault. To the north, the Queen Charlotte fault splits into multiple structures, continuing offshore of southwestern Alaska as the Fairweather fault, and branching east into the Chatham Strait and Denali faults through the interior of Alaska. The plate boundary north and west of the Fairweather fault ultimately continues as the Alaska-Aleutians subduction zone, where Pacific plate lithosphere subducts beneath the North America plate at the Aleutians Trench. The transition is complex, and involves intraplate structures such as the Transition fault. The Pacific margin offshore British Columbia is one of the most active seismic zones in North America and has hosted a number of large earthquakes historically.

  4. The rainbow range, British Columbia: A miocene peralkaline shield volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevier, Mary Lou

    1981-12-01

    The Rainbow Range is a Late Miocene shield volcano (30 km diameter, 370 km 3) whose stratiform flanks surround a complex central zone. Over a 2-m.y. interval, extrusion of low viscosity, silicic peralkaline lavas and minor basaltic lavas built up the gently sloping (5-8°) flanks, forming a shield volcano rather than a composite cone. Comenditic trachytes are the lowest flows exposed on the north flank of the volcano. Thin mugearite flows rest unconformably on the comenditic trachytes. Comendites unconformably overlie the mugearites and account for at least 75% of the volume of flows within the flank zone. These lavas are distinguished from the comenditic trachytes by lower Al 2O 3 (13%), higher total iron as Fe 2O 3, (7%), and extremely depleted Sr (1-10 ppm) and Ba (10-100 ppm). Strontium isotopic studies combined with petrologic data suggest that Rainbow Range lavas originated from alkali basalt magma trapped in an intracrustal magma chamber and tapped at several intervals after it underwent crystal fractionation. A best-fit mathematical model for the origin of the suite involves step-wise derivation of the lavas in the order hawaiite → mugeartite → comenditic trachyte → comendite, with the major phases precipitating in the order: olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, iron-titanium oxides, and alkali feldspar.

  5. Debris flow hazards and risks on Cheekye Fan, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazard and risk assessments hinge fundamentally on a detailed understanding of the relationship between frequency and magnitude of the hazardous process under investigation. When information is sought from the deep past (i.e. several thousand years), continuous event records do not exist and the researcher has to rely on proxy data to develop the F-M model. Such work is often prohibitively expensive and few well researched examples for mass movement are available worldwide. Cheekye fan is a desirable location for land development and has a depth and breadth of previous research unprecedented on any debris flow fan in Canada. We pursued two principal strains of research to formulate a reliable frequency-magnitude relationship. The first focuses on stratigraphic analyses combined with radiometric dating and dendrochronology to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of Holocene debris flow activity. The second approach examines hydrological limitations of rock avalanche evolution into debris flows through either entrainment of saturated sediments or by failure of a landslide-generated dam and upstream impoundment. We thus hypothesize that debris flows from Cheekye River can be separated into two quasi homogenous populations: those that are typically triggered by relatively small debris avalanches, slumps or rock falls or simply by progressive bulking of in-stream erodible sediments; and those that are thought to result from transformation of rock avalanches. Our work suggests that debris flows exceeding some 3 million cubic metres in volume are unlikely to reach Cheekye fan due to limited water available to fully fluidize a rock avalanche. This analysis has also demonstrated that in order to arrive at reasonable estimates for the frequency and magnitude of debris flows on a complex alluvial fan, significant multidisciplinary efforts are required. As a second step in the analysis, we model the design debris flow using a two-dimensional debris flow runout model

  6. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  7. Understanding Extreme Precipitation Behaviour in British Columbia's Lower Mainland Using Historical and Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, Christina

    In British Columbia, Pineapple Express storms can lead to flooding, slope failures and negative impacts to water quality. Mitigating the impacts of extreme weather events in a changing climate requires an understanding of how local climate responds to regional-toglobal climate forcing patterns. In this study, I use historical and proxy data to identify the distinguishing characteristics of Pineapple Express storms and to develop a tree ring oxygen isotope record (1960--1995) of local climate conditions in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. I found that high magnitude Pineapple Express storms have significantly higher precipitation and streamflow than other storms types, which result in relatively high contributions of Pineapple Express storms to the annual water budget. As well, Pineapple Express precipitation is characterized by an enriched delta18O isotopic signature when compared to precipitation originating from the North Pacific Ocean. However, differences in source water do not appear to be driving the variability in tree ring delta18O ratios. Instead, tree ring isotopic values exhibit a regional climate pattern that is strongly driven by latitudinal temperature gradients and the Rayleigh distillation effect. Therefore, future warmer conditions may decrease the temperature gradient between the equator and the poles, which can be recorded in the tree ring isotope record. The results also suggest that warmer temperatures due to climate change could result in more active Pineapple Express storm seasons, with multiple PE storms happening over a short period of time. Concurrent storms significantly increase the risk to society because the resulting antecedent saturated soil conditions can trigger precipitationinduced natural hazards. Keywords: extreme weather; stable isotopes; Pineapple Express; British Columbia; climate change; tree rings.

  8. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are largely preventable and can be successfully treated when diagnosed at an early stage. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their knowledge and opinions about oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia. A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%) only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Most dentists correctly identified tobacco use (99.4%) and alcohol use (90.4%) as risk factors, but fewer correctly identified factors such as the use of spicy foods (57.0%) and poor oral hygiene (46.3%) as not being risk factors. Only 42.5% identified both erythroplakia and leukoplakia, in that order, as the conditions most likely associated with oral cancer. Indices of risk and diagnostic knowledge were constructed by summing the number of correct responses to items in each domain. On 16 risk factors the mean correct score was 9.2, and on 14 diagnostic procedures the mean correct score was 10.0. Only 38.5% of dentists had consistent levels of knowledge on both indices. Differences between the provinces were statistically significant (p < 0.01) for only 2 knowledge items. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of risk and diagnostic factors for oral cancer.

  9. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: practices and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are associated with high mortality rates, a situation usually attributed to late-stage diagnosis. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their practices and opinions related to oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested, 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia (n = 817) and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia (N = 423). A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%), only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Of 8 health history items, dentists assessed 5 on average, with most (88.0%) asking about the patients' current use of tobacco. A total of 72.7% of the responding dentists performed an oral cancer examination for all edentulous patients at every appointment, but 10.9% never did so. Similarly, 70.7% of the dentists always provided an oral cancer examination at the initial appointment for patients 40 years of age and older, but 9.8% never did so. Undergraduate training related to oral cancer examination was reported as good by only 52.2% of the dentists. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses on this subject. Differences between the 2 provinces were not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of health history assessment, examination for oral and pharyngeal cancers, and risk reduction strategies, such as counselling about tobacco cessation.

  10. Assessing the health care needs of women in rural British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Meghan; Norman, Wendy V.; Malhotra, Unjali

    2013-01-01

    Objective To design reliable survey instruments to evaluate needs and expectations for provision of women's health services in rural communities in British Columbia (BC). These tools will aim to plan programming for, and evaluate effectiveness of, a women's health enhanced skills residency program at the University of British Columbia. Design A qualitative design that included administration of written surveys and on-site interviews in several rural communities. Setting Three communities participated in initial questionnaire and interview administration. A fourth community participated in the second interview iteration. Participating communities did not have obstetrician-gynecologists but did have hospitals capable of supporting outpatient specialized women's health procedural care. Participants Community physicians, leaders of community groups serving women, and allied health providers, in Vancouver Island, Southeast Interior BC, and Northern BC. Methods Two preliminary questionnaires were developed to assess local specialized women's health services based on the curriculum of the enhanced skills training program; one was designed for physicians and the other for women's community group leaders and aboriginal health and community group leaders. Interview questions were designed to ensure the survey could be understood and to identify important areas of women's health not included on the initial questionnaires. Results were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, and a second draft of the questionnaires was developed for a second iteration of interviews. Main findings Clarity and comprehension of questionnaires were good; however, nonphysician participants answered that they were unsure on many questions pertaining to specific services. Topics identified as important and missing from questionnaires included violence and mental health. A second version of the questionnaires was shown to have addressed these concerns. Conclusion Through iterations of

  11. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R.; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007– July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013–May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (P<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3–6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. Neospora caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  12. Magnitude and frequency of landslides triggered by a storm event, Loughborough Inlet, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Evans, S. G.

    2004-08-01

    One hundred and one landslides were documented across 370km2 following a rainstorm that swept the British Columbia coastline on 18 November 2001. Despite the regional nature of the storm, the landslides were spaced close together, even within the study area. Landslide clustering is attributed to high intensity storm cells too small to be recorded by the general hydrometric network. The evidence nicely corroborates previous historical studies that reached similar conclusions, but against which there was no modern analog analyzed for coastal British Columbia. Magnitude-cumulative frequency data plotted well on a power law curve for landslides greater than 10000m2, however, below that size several curves would fit. The rollover effect, a point where the data is no longer represented by the power law, therefore occurs at about 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than the smallest landslide. Additional work on Vancouver Island has provided evidence for rollovers at similar values. We propose that the rollover is a manifestation of the physical conditions of landslide occurrence and process uniformity. The data was fit to a double Pareto distribution and P-P plots were generated for several data sets to examine the fit of that model. The double Pareto model describes the bulk of the data well, however, less well at the tails. For small landslides (<650m2) this may still be a product of censoring. Landscape denudation from the storm was averaged over the study area and equal to 2mm of erosion. This is more than an order of magnitude larger than the annual rate of denudation reported by other authors for coastal British Columbia, but substantially less than New Zealand. The number is somewhat affected by the rather arbitrary choice of a study area boundary.

  13. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Impacts of Mountain Pine Beetle on Peak Flow in the Fraser Basin in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K.; Weiler, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing winter temperature in combination with forest management practices are the main drivers for the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia (BC). The infestation of MPB has now turned into a major threat to the natural habitat of the province. The Fraser basin, the largest watershed in BC, is the most affected watershed with an infested forest area of 7.7 million hectares (88% of the watershed) [Redding and Pike 2007]. Forest cover is a key modifier of the watershed's peak flow regime. The peak flow generally increases when forest cover is reduced. Major parts of the Fraser basin have only a limited number of gauging stations (or are even ungauged). The goal of the project was to develop a hydrological model that can predict peak flow increases but does not rely on complex data inputs for its validation and calibration procedures. The model consists of two major components: climate input and runoff. The climate input component determines the mean annual snowmelt as well as the maximum rainfall based on long term climatic averages. This information is then used to determine the time and the capacity of the peak flow for every 3rd order watershed. The runoff component delineates hydrologic processes such as Hortonain Overland Flow, Saturation Overland Flow and Shallow Surface Flow. The model combines the two components and computes a map of peak flow contribution. A peak flow analysis has been carried out to validate the model results using available gauging stations in subcatchments. The validated model has been then applied to the entire watershed to analyze the impacts of MPB on peak flow in the Fraser basin. The presentation will show the conceptual presentation of the hydrological model. It will highlight the results of the peak flow analysis and show initial results of the application of the model. Cited Literature: Redding, T. and Pike, R (2007). Mountain Pine Beetle and Watershed Hydrology Workshop Summary, Streamline Watershed

  15. Subtidal circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles G.; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Dosso, Stan

    2017-05-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in the fjord system that connects the town of Kitimat to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. A 200 m depth sill divides Douglas Channel into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected at three moorings deployed during 2013-2015. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from May/June to early September. A dense bottom layer with a thickness of 100 m that cascades through the system at the speed of 0.1-0.2 m s-1, which is consistent with gravity currents. Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill depth, and the observed landward net volume flux suggests that it is necessary to include the entire complex channel network to fully understand the estuarine circulation in the system. The influence of the wind forcing on the subtidal circulation is not only at the surface, but also at middepth. The along-channel wind dominates the surface current velocity fluctuations and the sea level response to the wind produces a velocity signal at 100-120 m in the counter-wind direction. Overall, the circulation in the seasonal and the meteorological bands is a mix of estuarine flow, direct wind-driven flow, and the barotropic and baroclinic responses to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind stress.

  16. Middle Jurassic terrane accretion along the western edge of the Intermontane superterrane, southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, Margaret E.; Potter, Christopher J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.

    1988-10-01

    Two small lower Mesozoic terranes, the Bridge River and Cadwallader, lie along the southwestern margin of the Intermontane superterrane and represent fragments of a volcanic arc and marginal basin that bordered North America in the early Mesozoic. During Middle Jurassic time, these terranes were juxtaposed and deformed. This event was synchronous with deformation in northern and central British Columbia, and it probably records accretion of the Cadwallader and Stikine volcanic arcs against Quesnellia during closure of the Bridge River-Cache Creek ocean basin.

  17. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  18. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  19. Sincere but naive: methodological queries concerning the British Columbia polygamy reference trial.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Sean Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Academics frequently serve as expert witnesses in legal cases, yet their role as transmitters of social scientific knowledge remains under-examined. The present study analyzes the deployment of social science within British Columbia's polygamy reference trial where research is used to support the assertion that polygamy is inherently harmful to society. Within the trial record and the written decision, the protection of monogamy as an institution is performed in part through the marginalization of qualitative methodology and the concurrent privileging of quantitative studies that purportedly demonstrate widespread social harms associated with the practice of polygyny.

  20. Detecting Near-Field Tsunamis off the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, Tania Lado; Moran, Kate

    2014-09-01

    Geological and historical records of the coast of British Columbia (BC) and orally transmitted legends from the First Nations in the area indicate the recurrence of tsunamis in this region. Recent studies show a 40% to 80% probability of a local earthquake occurring in the next 50 years over the Cascadia subduction zone, generating a tsunami run-up higher than 1.5 meters. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories off the west coast of BC. Smart Oceans BC is a new multifaceted program to support coastal communities and decision makers by leveraging the unique capabilities of ONC's advanced cabled ocean observatories to inform public safety, marine safety, and environmental monitoring.

  1. Medicinal plants used in British Columbia, Canada for reproductive health in pets.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.

  2. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    PubMed Central

    Austin, William C.; Ott, Bruce S.; Reiswig, Henry M.; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581

  3. A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John J.; Evans, Stephen G.

    2000-12-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores or interstitial ice. In addition, the lakes commonly are bordered by steep slopes that are prone to snow and ice avalanches and rockfalls. Moraine dams generally fail by overtopping and incision. The triggering event may be a heavy rainstorm, or an avalanche or rockfall that generates waves that overtop the dam. The dam can also be overtopped by an influx of water caused by sudden drainage of an upstream ice-dammed lake (jökulhlaup). Melting of moraine ice cores and piping are other possible failure mechanisms. Failures of moraine dams in British Columbia produce destructive floods orders of magnitude larger than normal streamflows. Most outburst floods are characterized by an exponential increase in discharge, followed by an abrupt drop to background levels when the water supply is exhausted. Peak discharges are controlled by dam characteristics, the volume of water in the reservoir, failure mechanisms, and downstream topography and sediment availability. For the same potential energy at the dam site, floods from moraine-dammed lakes have higher peak discharges than floods from glacier-dammed lakes. The floodwaters may mobilize large amounts of sediment as they travel down steep valleys, producing highly mobile debris flows. Such flows have larger discharges and greater destructive impact than the floods from which they form. Moraine dam failures in British Columbia and elsewhere are most frequent following extended periods of cool climate when large lateral and end moraines are built. A period of protracted warming is required to trap lakes behind moraines and

  4. Taxonomic synopsis of invasive and native Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Oregon), including the first report of Spartina ×townsendii for British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the grass genus Spartina are invading salt marshes along the Pacific coast of North America, of which three have been documented in British Columbia, Canada, in only the last decade. A taxonomic synopsis of the two native (Spartina gracilis, Spartina pectinata) and five introduced Spartina taxa (Spartina anglica, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina patens, Spartina ×townsendii) in the Pacific Northwest is presented to facilitate their identification, including nomenclature, a new taxonomic key, new descriptions for a subset of taxa, and representative specimens. Spartina ×townsendii is newly reported for the flora of British Columbia. The non-coastal species Spartina pectinata is reported from an urban site in British Columbia, the first confirmed report of the taxon for the province. Lectotypes are newly designated for Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb., Spartina maritima subvar. fallax St.-Yves, and Spartina cynosuroides f. major St.-Yves. PMID:22461730

  5. The effects of changing demographics on the distribution of marine anemia in farmed salmon in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, R C; Ribble, C S

    1995-09-01

    The changing geographic distribution of marine anemia (plasmacytoid leukemia) was compared with the evolving demographics of the chinook farming industry in British Columbia to explore the hypothesis that the disease had spread throughout the province between 1987 and 1992. Through retrospective and prospective methods, it was shown that the apparent spread of the disease was likely an artifact, resulting from changes in the distribution of fish farms throughout the province and corresponding changes in the intensity of regional disease surveillance. When viewed over a 5-year period, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the disease amongst fish sampled from each of the major salmon farming regions of British Columbia. By increasing the intensity of surveillance for the disease in apparently negative regions or chinook farms, one could routinely find cases of the disease. The results suggest that marine anemia is an endemic problem for farmed chinook salmon in British Columbia and is not a spreading epidemic.

  6. Supply and distribution of primary healthcare registered nurses in british columbia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sabrina T; Watson, Diane E; Young, Ella; Mooney, Dawn

    2009-11-01

    WHAT DID WE DO?: This study uses an existing data source to (a) describe the population and geographic distribution of registered nurses (RNs) working in primary healthcare (PHC) in British Columbia, (b) compare this workforce to PHC physicians and (c) assess the distribution of PHC-RNs relative to population health status. WHAT DID WE LEARN?: Of the 27,570 practising RNs in British Columbia in 2000, there were 3,179 (12%) in the PHC workforce. This translates into 147 people per practising RN and 1,277 people per PHC-RN. In 2000, there were 990 people per PHC physician. PHC-RNs represented 43% of the combined PHC workforce of physicians and RNs. A large proportion (47%) of PHC-RNs worked in community health centres, whereas less than 2% worked in physicians' offices. Geographic distribution of PHC-RNs is similar to the distribution of PHC physicians and is not associated with population health status. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS?: There seem to be sufficient PHC-RNs to implement policy objectives in support of interdisciplinary PHC teams, but physicians and nurses will increasingly need to practice in the same location or have access to electronic information systems to support coordination, continuity and comprehensiveness of PHC. The PHC workforce could be better deployed to align with population health status.

  7. Piscine reovirus in wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, Canada: 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Morrison, D B; Bidulka, J; Joseph, T; Siah, A

    2015-08-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) was common among wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, western Canada, from 1987 to 2013. Salmonid tissues tested for PRV by real-time rRT-PCR included sections from archived paraffin blocks from 1974 to 2008 (n = 363) and fresh-frozen hearts from 2013 (n = 916). The earliest PRV-positive sample was from a wild-source steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from 1977. By histopathology (n = 404), no fish had lesions diagnostic for heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In some groups, lymphohistiocytic endocarditis affected a greater proportion of fish with PRV than fish without PRV, but the range of Ct values among affected fish was within the range of Ct values among unaffected fish. Also, fish with the lowest PRV Ct values (18.4-21.7) lacked endocarditis or any other consistent lesion. From 1987 to 1994, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (44% of 48), and wild-source salmonids (31% of 45). In 2013, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between wild coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), sampled from British Columbia (5.0% of 60) or the reference region, Alaska, USA (10% of 58). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  9. Hydrocarbon concentrations and patterns in free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Nichol, Linda M; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    With oil pollution recognized as a major threat to British Columbia's recovering sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population, it is important to distinguish acute from chronic exposures to oil constituent groups in this marine mammal. Concentrations and patterns of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in blood samples from 29 live-captured sea otters in two coastal areas of British Columbia, as well as in representative samples of their invertebrate prey. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sea otters were similar between areas and among age and sex classes, suggesting that metabolism dominates the fate of these compounds in sea otters. Biomagnification factors derived from PAH ratios in otter:prey supported this notion. Although some higher alkylated three- and four-ring PAHs appeared to biomagnify, the majority of PAHs did not. The apparent retention of alkyl PAHs was reflected in the composition of estimated sea otter body burdens, which provided an alternative way of evaluating hydrocarbon exposure. Alkyl PAHs made up 86 ± 9% of estimated body burdens (4,340 ± 2,950 µg), with no differences between males and females (p = 0.18). The importance of measuring both parent and alkyl PAHs is underscored by their divergent dynamics in sea otters, with ready depuration of parent PAHs (metabolized or excreted) by sea otters on the one hand and biomagnification of alkyl PAHs on the other. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Lourenco, Grant; Georges, Karla

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC). A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy. PMID:16893454

  11. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  12. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in pacific oysters from british columbia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cindy Xin; Cao, Jiguo; Bendell, Leah

    2011-09-01

    Oysters from the Pacific Northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, contain high levels of cadmium, in some cases exceeding some international food safety guidelines. A primary goal of this article is the investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations for oysters sampled from coastal British Columbia. Such information is important so that recommendations can be made as to where and when oysters can be cultured such that accumulation of cadmium within these oysters is minimized. Some modern statistical methods are applied to achieve this goal, including monotone spline smoothing, functional principal component analysis, and semi-parametric additive modeling. Oyster growth rates are estimated as the first derivatives of the monotone smoothing growth curves. Some important patterns in cadmium accumulation by oysters are observed. For example, most inland regions tend to have a higher level of cadmium concentration than most coastal regions, so more caution needs to be taken for shellfish aquaculture practices occurring in the inland regions. The semi-parametric additive modeling shows that oyster cadmium concentration decreases with oyster length, and oysters sampled at 7 m have higher average cadmium concentration than those sampled at 1 m.

  13. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition.

    PubMed

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-09-01

    To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.

  14. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami off the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2015-03-01

    A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.

  15. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  16. Does Sex Matter? Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Cougar-Human Conflict in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Teichman, Kristine J.; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978–2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998–2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312

  17. Sink or Night Float: University of British Columbia Radiology Residents' Experience With Overnight Call.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Strovski, Evgeny; Forster, Bruce B; Mar, Colin; Chang, Silvia D

    2015-05-01

    In July 2012, in response to residents' concerns regarding the impact of the traditional 24-hour call system on their personal well-being and educational experience, the University of British Columbia Radiology residency program adopted a 12-hour night float system. This shift takes place in the context of increasing concerns, both across Canada and internationally, about resident well-being and the impact of prolonged duty hours on patient care. An anonymous survey was distributed to all 25 postgraduate years 2-5 University of British Columbia radiology residents 12 months after the introduction of night float. This study sought to solicit residents' feedback about these changes and to identify potential future changes to optimize the call system. The response rate was 100%; 96% of residents were in favor of continuing with night float rather than the traditional call system; 72% of residents reported that their judgement was affected secondary to being on night float. Although most residents described varying degrees of impairment, the rate of acute discrepancies between resident preliminary and attending radiologist final reports decreased by more than half, from 2% to less than 1%. The vast majority of our residents were in favor of maintaining the night float call system. Night float had a beneficial effect on the resident educational experience: by eliminating the pre-call morning and post-call day off rotation, residents gained an additional 24 days per year on other clinical rotations. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition

    PubMed Central

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Methods: Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. Results: As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. Conclusion: It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws. PMID:12958385

  19. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  20. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ruth R.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Montoya, Vincent; Crisan, Anamaria; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Martin, Irene; Patrick, David M.; Romney, Marc; Tyrrell, Gregory; Jones, Steven J. M.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tang, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST) 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome. PMID:27366170

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns of observed bark beetle-caused tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States.

    PubMed

    Meddens, Arjan J H; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Ferguson, Charles A

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting timber production, wildlife habitat, wildfire, forest composition and structure, biogeochemical cycling, and biogeophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the United States and British Columbia conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here we combined aerial surveys from British Columbia (2001 2010) and the western conterminous United States (1997-2010), produced 1-km2 grids of the area of crown mortality from bark beetle attack, and analyzed spatial and temporal patterns. We converted aerial-survey polygon data for each combination of host type and bark beetle species available in the western United States, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. We converted affected area (which includes live and killed trees) to mortality area (crown area of killed trees) using species-specific crown diameters and the number (U.S.) or percentage (British Columbia) of killed trees. In the United States we also produced an upper estimate of mortality area by forcing the mortality area to match that from high-resolution imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico. Resulting adjustment factors of 3.7-20.9 illustrate the underestimate of mortality by the U.S. aerial surveys. The upper estimate, which we suggest is more realistic, better matched the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. Cumulative mortality area from all bark beetles was 5.46 Mha in British Columbia in 2001-2010 and 0.47-5.37 Mha (lower and upper estimate) in the western conterminous United States during 1997-2010. We note that we report year of detection here; studies that consider year of tree mortality should shift the time series back one year. We conclude by discussing uses and limitations of these data in ecological studies, including uncertainties associated with assumptions in the methods, lack of complete coverage

  2. Mixed-severity fire history at a forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jill E; Smith, Dan J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2017-09-01

    This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses. Widespread fires occurred during warm, dry years and were preceded by multiple anomalously dry, warm years. Localized fires that affected only grassland-proximal forests were more frequent than widespread fires. These localized fires showed a lagged, positive relationship with wetter conditions. The landscape pattern of forest structure provided further evidence of complex fire activity with multiple plots shown to have experienced low-, mixed-, and/or high-severity fires over the last four centuries. We concluded that this forest-grassland ecotone was characterized by fires of mixed severity, dominated by frequent, low-severity fires punctuated by widespread fires of moderate to high severity. This landscape-level variability in fire-climate relationships and patterns in forest structure has important implications for fire and grassland management in west central British Columbia and similar environments elsewhere. Forest restoration techniques such as prescribed fire and thinning are oftentimes applied at the forest-grassland ecotone on the basis that historically high frequency, low-severity fires defined the character of past fire activity. This study provides forest managers and policy makers with important information on mixed-severity fire activity at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone, a crucial prerequisite for the effective

  3. Response to ‘Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada”’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenagan, J. Donald

    2014-03-01

    A response is given to 'Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada”'. Emphasis is made that the main purpose of the paper under discussion is to present the recognition of a distinctive landscape pattern in central British Columbia that appears to be an immense anastomosing channel network. A channel network of the magnitude described requires a large magnitude of flowing water to form it. Thus, that recognizable landscape pattern and associated upland landform shapes can be explained as products of water erosion. Such landscape patterns are observed being formed by water today.

  4. Observing tilts in mid-crustal rocks by paleomagnetism, examples from southeast British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Guy; Irving, E.

    1990-10-01

    Metamorphic core complexes that originated in the middle crust have been exposed by uplift and extension. Indicators of paleohorizontal planes are few or absent, thus it is difficult to determine the degree of tilting that might have accompanied this process. However, if aberrant paleomagnetic directions (paleodirections) are observed in core complexes or their associated intrusive rocks, and if large-scale rotation and translation can be excluded, then these paleodirections can be used to calculate the sense and magnitude of tilting. We describe paleodirections from mid-crustal rocks in southeastern British Columbia, where uplift and extension occurred in Eocene time about a central culmination aligned north-south. Several large extensional faults dip both to the west and to the east of this central culmination. The Eocene Granby pluton (49.3°N, 118.5°W), situated to the west of the main culmination, has a mean direction of magnetization (D°, I°) 309°, 41° (α63° = 7° the standard error) and paleopole at 44°N, 138°E (A63° = 7°). To the east of the main culmination, a 20 km long section of altered Eocene Syringa dikes and associated metadiorite (49.3°N, 117.7°W) has a mean direction of 56°, 47° (α63° = 3°) and paleopole at 56°N, 319°E (A63° = 3°). The paleopoles are very different from one another, and from those calculated from contemporaneous (53 to 49 Ma) rocks of the North American craton to the east. They also differ from those observed from coeval bedded volcanic rocks to the west of the sampling area. Hence, these large aberrancies cannot be caused by translations. We suggest that they are caused by tilting which occurred during the extension process. The tilts are in opposite senses on either side of the central culmination. They are estimated to be down 38°±8° at 99°E for the Granby Pluton, and down 41°±4° at 270°W for the dikes and metadiorite. These tilts are consistent with the Wernicke model for simple extensional shear.

  5. Articulation Committee Handbook: A Guide to the Mandate and Operations of Provincial Post-Secondary Articulation Committees in British Columbia. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This handbook, created by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT), serves as a guide to individuals who serve on postsecondary articulation committees in British Columbia. The handbook is divided into four parts. Part A includes a chart detailing the major activities of BCCAT and a description of the membership, purpose,…

  6. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report Submitted to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2006-March 31, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  7. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  8. Transfer Credit Assessment for B.C. College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia in the 1997/98 Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reh-Bosch, Susan; Atkins, Lorraine

    This report assesses the transfer credit process for British Columbia (BC) college transfer applicants to the University of British Columbia (UBC). Results indicate that students are earning on average 49.7 credits from the BC college attended and are being granted an average of 42.2 credits when transferring to UBC. This translated into 84.9% of…

  9. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2008-March 31, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  10. Description and Analysis of School District Consultation Processes during Phase 1 of the British Columbia Year-Round School Study Project: A Study Conducted for the British Columbia Ministry of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Linda; Shields, Carolyn

    In July 1994, the British Columbia Ministry of Education invited proposals from school districts interested in studying the feasibility of year-round schools (YRS). This paper presents findings of a study of six partner school districts, each of which implemented its project independently of others while engaging in cross-district collaboration.…

  11. A Risk-Based Characterization of Sediment Contamination by Legacy and Emergent Contaminants of Concern in Coastal British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Sediments have long been used to help describe pollution sources, contaminated sites, trends over time, and habitat quality for marine life. We collected surficial sediments from 12 sites at an average seawater depth of 25 m in three near-urban areas of the Salish Sea (British Columbia, Canada) to investigate habitat quality for marine life, including heavily contaminated killer whales. Samples were analyzed using high-resolution instrumentation for a wide variety of congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The top six contaminant classes detected in sediments were ∑PCB > ∑PBDE > ∑PCDD/F > DDT > ∑HBCDD > ∑PCN. Near-urban harbor sediments had up to three orders of magnitude higher concentrations of contaminants than more remote sites. With limited tools available to characterize biological risks associated with complex mixtures in the real world, we applied several available approaches to prioritize the pollutant found in our study: (1) sediment quality guidelines from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment where available; (2) US NOAA effects range low and other international guidelines; (3) total TEQ for dioxin-like PCBs for the protection of mammals; and (4) the calculation of risk quotients. Our findings provide an indication of the state of contamination of coastal environments in British Columbia and guidance for chemical regulations and priority setting, as well as management actions including best-practices, dredging, disposal at sea, and source control. In this regard, the legacy PCB and the emergent PBDEs should command continued priority monitoring.

  12. To the Application of LiDAR to Detect the Geological Structures in Sulphurets Property, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.

  13. Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Keith Richard

    Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected

  14. Age, Geochemical, and Fluid Characteristics of the MAX Porphyry Mo Deposit, Southeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, C. J.; Richards, J. P.; Anderson, R. G.; Creaser, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    MAX is a porphyry-style Mo deposit located 5 km southwest of Trout Lake village in southeastern British Columbia. Molybdenum mineralization is hosted within several steeply-plunging granodiorite dykes and a well developed quartz-vein stockwork. Major and trace element data indicate that MAX is typical of the low-F porphyry Mo deposit classification. Crosscutting relationships between the four intrusive phases and mineralized quartz veins reveal a temporally complex history of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. Mineralized quartz veins have been subdivided into paragenetic assemblages based on vein style and crosscutting relationships. Sheeted quartz ± feldspar ± molybdenite veins crosscut irregular molybdenite stringers within granodiorite, and are in turn crosscut by variably oriented quartz ± molybdenite ± feldspar veins within the stockwork. These Mo veins are cut by post-magmatic quartz-carbonate veins containing sphalerite, argentiferous galena, and rare molybdenite. Three molybdenite samples were collected from early and late Mo-stage veins for Re-Os dating to constrain the first and last Mo mineralizing events within this paragenetic sequence. All three dates overlap within analytical error, and yield a weighted average age of 80.3 ± 0.4 Ma. Samples from each of the paragenetic vein sets were collected for fluid inclusion study. Saline aqueous and more dilute aqueous-carbonic inclusions are the two most common inclusion types at MAX. Both types are present in all veins; however, a progression towards increasingly carbonic fluids is evident from the Mo- to Ag- Pb-Zn-bearing veins. Fluid inclusions from Mo-bearing veins have homogenization temperatures (Th) ranging from 160°C to 350°C (mode at 310°C), and salinities ranging from 1 to 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. with two modes at 4 and 9 wt.% NaCl equiv. Fluids with these temperatures and salinity ranges are typical of the low-F porphyry Mo deposit type. Peripheral Ag-Pb-Zn veins are dominated by aqueous

  15. Influence of hydrometeorological controls on debris flows near Chilliwack, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, L.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Cooper, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of mountainous terrain, coastal weather systems, and orographic precipitation leaves communities in southwestern British Columbia susceptible to human and economic losses caused by precipitation driven debris flows. Between 1980 and 2007 the region around Chilliwack, BC was struck by 30 reported debris flows which closed highways, stopped rail service, and caused many residents to evacuate their homes. All of these debris flow occurred during storms with greater than 50 mm of rain. Understanding which hydrometeorological conditions are associated with debris flow occurrence in the past may provide information for planners responsible for decision making in the face of climate change. Throughout the next century, climate change is expected to influence precipitation patterns, including frequency and intensity, which in turn may affect the occurrence of future debris flows. This study aims to identify hydrometeorological variables which have initiated past debris flows in order to gain insight about conditions that could inform emergency planning. A database of 185 storms from 1980 to 2007 and their hydrometeorological characteristics, including storm total rainfall and duration, intense rainfall total and duration, and 1 to 4 week cumulative antecedent rainfall were compiled. Storms were classified as debris flow initiating or non-debris flow initiating based on a historical record of reported debris flows. Logistic regression was used to determine the probability of a storm's classification as debris flow or non-debris flow initiating based on significant hydrometeorological variables. The outcome of this statistical analysis revealed three main findings. First, the analysis suggests that the total amount of consecutive days of intense rainfall above 25 mm/24 hours is the most significant hydrometeorological variable contributing to debris flows near Chilliwack. Second, although intense rainfall total was significant, it does not fully differentiate

  16. Annual bed-elevation regime in the alluvial channel of Squamish River, southwestern British Columbia Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the annual regime of channel scour and fill by monitoring bed-elevation changes in a reach of Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Sonar surveys of 13 river cross-sections in a sandy gravel-bed single-channel study reach were repeated biweekly over a full hydrologic year (1995/6). The survey results show that bedload movement occurs as waves or pulses forming bedwaves that appear to maintain an overall coherence with movement downstream. These bedwaves propagate downstream by a mode here termed pulse scour and pulse fill, a process distinguished from the conventional mode of scour and fill commonly associated with flood events (here termed local scour and local fill). Bedwave celerity was estimated to be about 15.5 m d-1 corresponding to a bedwave residence time in the study reach of almost one hydrologic year. The total amount of local bed-elevation change ranged between 0.22 m and 2.41 m during the period of study. Analysis of the bed-elevation and flow data reveals that, because of the bedware phenomenon, there is no simple relation between the mean bed-elevation and discharge nor any strong linear correlation among cross-sectional behaviour. The bed-elevation data also suggest that complex changes to the bed within a cross-section are masked when the bed is viewed in one dimension, although no definitive trends in bed behaviour were found in the two-dimensional analysis. Although a weak seasonal effect is evident in this study, the bed-elevation regime is dominated by sediment supply-driven fluctuations in bedload transport occurring at timescales shorter than the seasonal fluctuation in discharge. The study also indicates that bed-elevation monitoring on Squamish River, and others like it, for purposes of detecting and measuring aggradation/degradation must take into account very considerable and normal channel-bed variability operating at timescales from hours to months. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and

  17. Pioneering a Profession in Canada. Graduate Study in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia 1961-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Faculty of Education.

    The five chapters in this publication relate to the development of the program of graduate study in adult education at the University of British Columbia. Chapter I, The Origin and Form of Graduate Study, by Coolie Verner and Alberta Johnston, discusses: The Nature of Adult Education (The Field, The Discipline, The Profession), The Graduate…

  18. Habitat selection of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus brooksi) on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Michael Gill; Richard J. Cannings

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Saw-whet Owl of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia is recognized as a distinct subspecies Aegolius acadicus brooksi. Little is known of the biology of this subspecies, and no nests have ever been found. We surveyed for Northern Saw-whet Owls on the Queen Charlotte Islands between 4 May and 28 May, 1996 establishing 10 survey...

  19. Evaluation of the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP) for Senior Elementary and Alternative School Students in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.; Meehan, George

    This study evaluated the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP), a 13-hour curriculum for senior elementary school and secondary school alternative program at-risk students in British Columbia, Canada. The program provides students with information about automobile crime and its costs, consequences, and prevention. It promotes positive…

  20. Education Funding. A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services from the British Columbia Teacher's Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation and a number of its locals annually present to the Select Standing Committee. They do so because they think it is important to inform the committee and the public about the difference between the education funding decisions made by government and the reality of the needs in the schools. In reading through…

  1. Connecting to the Art Market from Home: An Exploration of First Nations Artists in Alert Bay, British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Margaret R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…

  2. Bending the Bars of the Identity Cage: Amy Brown and the Development of Teacher Identity in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, Amy (Brown) Dauphinee took up her first teaching appointment at Tate Creek, British Columbia where 518 refugees had recently settled after fleeing Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Amy--an avowed Social Democrat and member of the Young Socialist League--quickly embraced the refugees who were largely trade union activists and Social…

  3. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal (https://assays.cancer.gov).

  4. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  5. Influence of Survey Length and Radius Size on Grassland Bird Surveys by Point Counts at Williams Lake, British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Jean-Pierre L. Savard; Tracey D. Hooper

    1995-01-01

    We examine the effect of survey length and radius on the results of point count surveys for grassland birds at Williams Lake, British Columbia. Four- and 8-minute counts detected on average 68 percent and 85 percent of the number of birds detected during 12-minute counts. The most efficient sampling duration was 4 minutes, as long as travel time between points was...

  6. Adult Basic Education in British Columbia's Public Post-Secondary Institutions. An Articulation Handbook. 2007-2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This is the twenty-second edition of the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Articulation Handbook for British Columbia's public postsecondary institutions. The purpose of ABE articulation is to ensure learners have access to quality courses, receive appropriate credits and are able to transfer easily among publicly-funded colleges, university colleges,…

  7. Preschooler Study: The Medical, Social and Economic Correlates of Poverty in Preschool Children of British Columbia. A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Roger S.; And Others

    Over 200 families from lower and middle income areas of British Columbia, including a group representing the Indian communities, were studied in this effort to examine poverty as it relates to families, especially to young children. A wide variety of health, social, and economic variables were examined in the hope of developing output criteria for…

  8. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  9. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  10. Directory of Environmental Organizations for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and the Province of British Columbia, February 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    Organizations dedicated to protecting the environment through on-going, active programs are listed in this directory. Prepared by Region 10 of the Environmental Protection Agency to serve Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and the Province of British Columbia, the volume is an update of a 1972 edition. Generally included are: the name of the…

  11. Updated Graduation Requirements Review. A Brief to the Ministry of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) is a union of professionals that represents the 41,000 teachers in BC's public-education system. The BCTF is committed to success for every student in a strong and stable public-education system. In reviewing the current BC graduation requirements and plans for the draft curriculum in the fall of…

  12. Agencies and Organizations. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This report describes agencies (established by government) and organizations (established by others) that dealt exclusively with postsecondary education in British Columbia, Canada and which had at least one professional employee and/or were separate legal entities. Of the fifty groups described since 1960, about two dozen existed in 2012. The…

  13. The importance of floristics to sagebrush breeding birds of the south Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, British Columbia

    Treesearch

    Susan Paczek; Pam Krannitz

    2005-01-01

    Habitat associations were determined for five species of songbirds breeding in sagebrush habitat of the South Okanagan and Similkameen valleys, British Columbia. We examined the relative importance of plant species versus “total forbs” and “total grasses” at a local level (<100 m) with point counts and vegetation survey...

  14. The Emerging Fourth Tier in K-12 Education Finance in British Columbia, Canada: Increasing Privatisation and Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…

  15. Education Funding: A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Students in British Columbia are being shortchanged in comparison to students elsewhere in Canada. The teachers of BC are urgently appealing to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services to recommend to government sufficient increases in education funding to reverse this situation and provide more educational services to BC…

  16. A Follow-Up Study of Non-Transfer, Academic Students from the British Columbia Community Colleges: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gordon; And Others

    In Fall 1979, a survey was conducted to determine the attitudes and goals of a selected sample of students who had enrolled in academic transfer programs at 13 British Columbia community colleges, but who had not transferred to a four-year institution. The 24-item questionnaire asked students to provide information on: (1) full/part-time status…

  17. Connecting to the Art Market from Home: An Exploration of First Nations Artists in Alert Bay, British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Margaret R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…

  18. Private Career Colleges. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…

  19. Post-Baccalaureate Programs. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes programs that require a bachelor's degree, not necessarily in the same field, for entry to the program. They are equivalent to at least one semester of full-time study, with at least some of the instruction delivered face-to-face in British Columbia, Canada. Graduate programs, professional programs such as law and medicine,…

  20. MCOL, frontalin, and ethanol: A potential operational trap lure for Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    B. Staffan Lingren; Daniel R. Miller; J.P. LaFontaine

    2012-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dedroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of Douglas-fire, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) in British Columbia (Humphreys 1995). An operational trap lure for D. pseudotsugae could be useful in an integrated pest management program to minimize mortality of Douglas-...

  1. Notions of Literacy in the K-12 School System in British Columbia Education since 2002: A Contested Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Developing literacy competencies has become a central component of educational policy in British Columbia (BC), with policies calling for province-wide assessment and school accountability. Based on the critical policy analysis (Blaikie & Soussan, 2000) of provincial and school district documents, complemented by semi-structured interviews of…

  2. Bending the Bars of the Identity Cage: Amy Brown and the Development of Teacher Identity in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, Amy (Brown) Dauphinee took up her first teaching appointment at Tate Creek, British Columbia where 518 refugees had recently settled after fleeing Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Amy--an avowed Social Democrat and member of the Young Socialist League--quickly embraced the refugees who were largely trade union activists and Social…

  3. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  4. Instruction, Assessment, and Learning: From Standardization to a Focus on Students. A Position Paper from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental goal of teachers in public schools in British Columbia (BC) is to ensure all students of every age, through the principle of continuous learning, have an equal opportunity to develop their full capacity for artistic, cultural, emotional, intellectual, and physical growth. BC public school teachers believe that the primary purpose of…

  5. The Public-Private Partnership That Built a "Traditional" School: A Case Study from British Columbia. SAEE Research Series #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel

    This study examines the management and outcome of the public-private partnerships (P3s) school construction project used in the Auguston housing development in Abbotsford, British Columbia to build a traditionally-designed elementary school. The study explored the relationship between the project's major players, the fiscal incentives that drove…

  6. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  7. Missing XX Chromosomes or Gender In/equity in Design and Technology Education? The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braundy, Marcia; O'Riley, Pat; Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen; Paxton, Anabelle

    2000-01-01

    Presents data demonstrating the disproportionately low numbers of female technology teachers, teacher educators, and students in British Columbia. Discusses recruiting inequities, history of gendering in industrial technology classrooms, and resistance to gender-specific interventions. Outlines a technology education curriculum for all students.…

  8. "A Nice Little Wife to Make Things Pleasant": Portrayals of Women in Canadian History Textbooks Approved in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Penney

    2005-01-01

    This study examined 20th Century Canadian history textbooks authorized in British Columbia, for their portrayals of women. The texts do not adequately reflect feminist scholarship nor societal changes. The nation building narrative of the textbooks precludes the inclusion of women in important ways. In the interwar years, the women who appear in…

  9. Building a System of Autonomous Institutions: Coordination and Collaboration in British Columbia's Community College, University College, and Institute System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron A.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the historical development of British Columbia's community college, university college, and institute system with the focus on voluntary collaboration in relation to provincial coordination and on swings between centralization and decentralization. Study examines development in BC's post secondary system in light of broader global…

  10. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  11. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals. PMID:15646845

  12. The Emerging Fourth Tier in K-12 Education Finance in British Columbia, Canada: Increasing Privatisation and Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…

  13. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  14. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  15. The Seeds of Growth and the Winds of Change. Part II: Change and Stability: Classroom Life in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Riecken, Ted

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the anticipation of educational change in British Columbia associated with the Year 2000 document. The perspective on change involves positive and negative aspects dependent on values and beliefs embedded in the culture. The study of four teachers and their classrooms shows that the seeds of change have been planted. (KS)

  16. Local-scale controls of a low-severity fire regime (1750-1950), southern British Columbia, Canada

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Stephen Karpuk

    2007-01-01

    Historical low-severity fire regimes are well characterized in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests at many sites in the western United States, but not in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. We reconstructed a history of low-severity fires (1750-1950) near the northern limit of ponderosa pine and demonstrated that local-scale spatial variation in...

  17. Decomposition of carrion in the marine environment in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G S; Hobischak, N R

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition of carrion in the marine environment is not well understood. This research involved the decomposition of pig carcasses in Howe Sound in British Columbia. Freshly killed pigs were submerged at two depths, 7.6 m and 15.2 m. The carcasses were tethered so that they could float or sink, but not drift away. Observations were made from May until October. Decomposition was more greatly influenced by sediment type of the sea floor and whether the carcass remained floating, than by depth. Decomposition stages were modified in the marine environment from that seen on land, or in freshwater and were similar to those reported in human death investigations in the marine environment.

  18. Seniors' prescription drug cost inflation and cost containment: evidence from British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Agnew, Jonathan D; Barer, Morris L

    2004-06-01

    We develop an analytic framework to map out the nature and relative importance of different cost-driving trends in the prescription drug market. This is used to measure prescription drug cost-drivers for the population of seniors in British Columbia during a period when they received comprehensive public drug coverage. Between 1991 and 2001, expenditures on prescription drugs for BC seniors increased from dollar 149 to 320 million. Increases in the population of seniors, and the rate at which they utilized therapies contributed under half of the total cost increase over the period. Changes in the mix of therapies and the type of product selected explained over half of the observed drug expenditure inflation. Increased generic substitution significantly reduced the price of products selected over the period.

  19. Thickness of unconsolidated deposits of the Puget Sound aquifer system, Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Puget-Willamette Lowland is located in western Washington, western Oregon, and a small part of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. The Puget-Willamette Lowland study area is composed of two distinct subareas, the Puget Sound Lowland and the Willamette Lowland. This report presents the results of mapping the thickness of the unconsolidated deposits in the Puget Sound Lowland. The thickness of the unconsolidated deposits ranges from a discontinuous veneer in areas of bedrock outcrop to more than 3,600 feet. Available information shows that the unconsolidated deposits are thickest in the Fraser-Whatcom, Everett, Seattle, and Tacoma Basins. The mapped thickness of the unconsolidated deposits in the Tacoma Basin is probably underestimated because of the scarcity of wells penetrating the full thickness of the unconsolidated deposits and the lack of sufficient marine-seismic data.

  20. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of Cryptococcus gattii cases: Lessons learned from British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Eleni; Hoang, Linda; Kibsey, Pamela; Morshed, Muhammad; Phillips, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fungus Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), in 1999. By the end of 2006, it led to 176 cases and eight deaths – one of the highest burdens of C gattii disease worldwide. The present paper describes three cases, and the BC experience in the diagnosis and management of this infection. All three cases presented with pulmonary findings, including cryptococcomas and infiltrates. One also presented with brain cryptococcomas. Cases were diagnosed by chest and brain imaging, and laboratory evidence including serum or cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen detection and culture of respiratory or cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Genotyping of fungal isolates confirmed infection with C gattii VGIIa. Pulmonary cases were treated with fluconazole. One patient with central nervous system disease was treated with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole. Although this infection remains rare, clinicians should be aware of it in patients with a compatible clinical presentation who are either living in or returning from a trip to BC. PMID:20190892

  1. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  2. A model simulation of biogeochemical conditions along the British Columbia Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Angelica; Fine, Isaac; Masson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The British Columbia shelf is at the northern end of the California Current System and is influenced by summer coastal upwelling, mesoscale eddies, and freshwater inputs. A regional coupled circulation-biogeochemical (ROMS) model of this region has been developed to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of climate variability and change on lower trophic levels and the biogeochemistry of the region. A first step to address the impacts of climate variability on marine ecosystem is to develop biophysical models that simulate the present ecosystem state in relation to the climate record and can be used to examine the influence of different forcing acting, at different scales, on ecological processes. This talk will will evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce observations and to respond to main episodic events (seasonal cycle and El Niño events).

  3. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system.

  4. Blood levels of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in children in a British Columbia community.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K S; Meranger, J C

    1983-09-01

    The levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were measured in duplicate whole blood samples of 946 apparently normal children ranging in age from 2 years to 12 years and living in Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. The metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry: graphite furnace AAS for Cd and Pb, and flame AAS for Cu and Zn. The median and extreme values expressed as milligram of metal per litre of whole blood for the total population were: Cd less than or equal to 0.0005, Cu 1.11 (0.69-1.78), Pb 0.112 (0.020-0.400), and Zn 4.30 (2.10-6.53). No significant variations were noted in the median metal values either with age or with sex. The median Cu, Pb and Zn values were within the normal range.

  5. Guidelines for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at minesites in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Price, W.A.; Errington, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    The primary objectives of this document are to describe generic requirements and outline common errors, omissions, and constraints with regard to prevention or reduction of metal leaching and acid mine drainage (ML/ARD) at British Columbia mine sites. It begins with background on ML/ARD and guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. This is followed by guidance on ML/ARD prediction, measures to prevent or reduce ML/ARD, general considerations and information and design requirements for specific measures (underwater storage, blending of acid-generating wastes with materials having excess neutralization potential, covering the waste, drainage collection and treatment, and mitigation of specific mine components), and geotechnical and hydrological considerations. Finally, ML/ARD aspects of mine regulation and current ML/ARD research programs are reviewed.

  6. Evidence for underthrusting beneath the Queen Charlotte Margin, British Columbia, from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, A. M. M.; Hyndman, R. D.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific Plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ~20 mm yr-1 of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided by a detailed teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and four temporary seismic stations within the Queen Charlotte Islands. The modelling reveals a ~10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is located beneath a thin (28 km) eastward thickening (10°) continental crust.

  7. The importance of policy in emissions inventory accuracy--a lesson from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Judi

    2009-04-01

    Actual atmospheric emissions in northeast British Columbia, Canada, are much higher than reported emissions. The addition of upstream oil and gas sector sources not included in the year-2000 emissions inventory of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) increases annual totals of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compound emissions by 115.1, 89.9, and 109.5%, respectively. These emissions arise from numerous small and unregulated point sources (N = 10,129). CAC summaries are given by source type and source sector. An analysis of uncertainty and reporting policy suggests that inventory omissions are not limited to the study area and that Canadian pollutant emissions are systematically underestimated. The omissions suggest that major changes in reporting procedures are needed in Canada if true estimates of annual pollutant emissions are to be documented.

  8. Ultrasound as visual feedback in speech habilitation: exploring consultative use in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, May B; Bacsfalvi, Penelope; Adler-Bock, Marcy; Shimizu, Reiko; Cheney, Audrey; Giesbrecht, Nathan; O'connell, Maureen; Sirianni, Jason; Radanov, Bosko

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasound has shown promise as a visual feedback tool in speech therapy. Rural clients, however, often have minimal access to new technologies. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate consultative treatment using ultrasound in rural communities. Two speech-language pathologists (SLPs) trained in ultrasound use provided consultation with ultrasound in rural British Columbia to 13 school-aged children with residual speech impairments. Local SLPs provided treatment without ultrasound before and after the consultation. Speech samples were transcribed phonetically by independent trained listeners. Eleven children showed greater gains in production of the principal target /[image omitted]/ after the ultrasound consultation. Four of the seven participants who received more consultation time with ultrasound showed greatest improvement. Individual client factors also affected outcomes. The current study was a quasi-experimental clinic-based study. Larger, controlled experimental studies are needed to provide ultimate evaluation of the consultative use of ultrasound in speech therapy.

  9. Freshwater Microbialites of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada: A Limnological Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.

  10. Assessing the breast cancer risk distribution for women undergoing screening in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Weisstock, Christina R; Rajapakshe, Rasika; Bitgood, Christabelle; McAvoy, Steven; Gordon, Paula B; Coldman, Andrew J; Parker, Brent A; Wilson, Christine

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer risk estimations are both informative and useful at the population level, with many screening programs relying on these assessments to allocate resources such as breast MRI. This cross-sectional multicenter study attempts to quantify the breast cancer risk distribution for women between the ages of 40 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The proportion of women at high breast cancer risk was estimated by surveying women enrolled in the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) for known breast cancer risk factors. Each respondent's 10-year risk was computed with both the Tyrer-Cuzick and Gail risk assessment models. The resulting risk distributions were evaluated using the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (United Kingdom). Of the 4,266 women surveyed, 3.5% of women between the ages of 40 to 79 years were found to have a high 10-year risk of developing breast cancer using the Tyrer-Cuzick model (1.1% using the Gail model). When extrapolated to the screening population, it was estimated that 19,414 women in the SMPBC are considered to be at high breast cancer risk. These women may benefit from additional MRI screening; preliminary analysis suggests that 4 to 5 additional MRI machines would be required to screen these high-risk women. However, the use of different models and guidelines will modify the number of women qualifying for additional screening interventions, thus impacting the MRI resources required. The results of this project can now be used to inform decision-making groups about resource allocation for breast cancer screening in BC.

  11. Observations of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami on the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) of 11 March 2011 generated highly catastrophic tsunami waves that reached runup heights of up to 40 m along the coast of Japan and were recorded by numerous coastal tide gauges and bottom pressure stations throughout the Pacific Ocean. Near the coast of British Columbia (BC), the tsunami was measured by 15 permanent tide gauges, including gauges located well inside the Strait of Georgia and at Patricia Bay in Saanich Inlet (the site of the Institute of Ocean Sciences, IOS). Tsunami waves were also recorded by 5 temporary tide gauges within Victoria Harbour waterways (Gorge and Portage inlets), by 4 NEPTUNE-Canada bottom cable observatories on the Vancouver Island shelf and by 3 VENUS bottom pressure recorders within Saanich Inlet. Maximum tsunami wave heights observed on the outer BC coast were 1.0-1.5 m, while those within the sheltered basins of the inner coast were about ten times lower. The tsunami wave signal was also observed in the temperature, salinity and current velocity records of CTDs and an ADCP installed in an anoxic Canadian fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island. The collected data enabled us to examine the statistical and spectral properties of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on the coast of British Columbia and to estimate the relative tsunami risk for this coast from distant earthquakes. The tsunami record from the deepest NEPTUNE (CORK) station was used as the input function for the IOS regional tsunami forecast model. The computed and observed tsunami wave forms for this event were in good agreement.

  12. Costs of Planned Home vs. Hospital Birth in British Columbia Attended by Registered Midwives and Physicians.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patricia A; Mitton, Craig; Aghajanian, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Home birth is available to women in Canada who meet eligibility requirements for low risk status after assessment by regulated midwives. While UK researchers have reported lower costs associated with planned home birth, there have been no published studies of the costs of home versus hospital birth in Canada. Costs for all women planning home birth with a regulated midwife in British Columbia, Canada were compared with those of all women who met eligibility requirements for home birth and were planning to deliver in hospital with a registered midwife, and with a sample of women of similar low risk status planning birth in the hospital with a physician. We calculated costs of physician service billings, midwifery fees, hospital in-patient costs, pharmaceuticals, home birth supplies, and transport. We compared costs among study groups using the Kruskall Wallis test for independent groups. In the first 28 days postpartum, we report a $2,338 average savings per birth among women planning home birth compared to hospital birth with a midwife and $2,541 compared to hospital birth planned with a physician. In longer term outcomes, similar reductions were observed, with cost savings per birth at $1,683 compared to the planned hospital birth with a midwife, and $1,100 compared to the physician group during the first eight weeks postpartum. During the first year of life, costs for infants of mothers planning home birth were reduced overall. Cost savings compared to planned hospital births with a midwife were $810 and with a physician $1,146. Costs were similarly reduced when findings were stratified by parity. Planned home birth in British Columbia with a registered midwife compared to planned hospital birth is less expensive for our health care system up to 8 weeks postpartum and to one year of age for the infant.

  13. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  14. Modeling the Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia, Canada with 3D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinonez, S. M.; Olaya, J. C.; Miller, K. C.; Romero, R.; Velasco, A. A.; Harder, S. H.; Cerda, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Coast Mountains Batholith on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada comprises a series of granitic to tonalitic plutons; where felsic continental crust is generated from the subduction of mafic oceanic crust by partial melting and fractionation, leaving ultra-mafic roots. In July of 2009, a large controlled-source experiment was conducted along a 400km east - west transect from Bella Bella into central British Columbia. Student volunteers from multiple universities deployed 1,800 one-component and 200 three-component geophones plus 2400 Texan data recorders with 200-m spacing intervals and shot spacing at 30-km. The 18-point sources ranged from 160 to 1,000 kg of high explosive. The geoscience component of the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE project at UTEP focuses on fusing models developed from different data sets to develop 3-D Earth models. Created in 2007, the Cyber-ShARE Center brings together experts in computer science, computational mathematics, education, earth science, and environmental science. We leverage the Cyber-ShARE work to implement an enhanced 3-D finite difference tomography approach for P-wave delays times (Hole, 1992) with a graphical user interface and visualization framework. In particular, to account for model sensitivity to picked P-wave arrival times, we use a model fusion approach (Ochoa et al., 2010) to generate a model with the lowest RMS residual that a combination of a set of Monte Carlo sample models. In order to make the seismic tomography process more interactive at many points, visualizations of model perturbation at each iteration will help to troubleshoot when a model is not converging to highlight where the RMS residual values are the highest to pinpoint where changes need to be made to achieve model convergence. Finally, a model of the upper mantle using 3-D P-wave tomography will be made to determine the location of these ultra-mafic roots.

  15. Diatom Records of Holocene Environmental and Climatic Change in Southeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, K. S.; Gavin, D. G.; Fritz, S. C.; Hu, F.; Roschen, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    The sediments of three lakes, spanning a latitudinal gradient and situated within the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone of southeast British Columbia, have been analyzed for independent records of Holocene climate and vegetation history in order to evaluate the role of climate as a control on range expansion of western hemlock and western redcedar. Holocene climate reconstructions are based on multiple proxies, including the diatom and biogenic silica stratigraphies presented here. To our knowledge, these sites provide the first continuous Holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic records from the region between the Interior Plateau and the Rocky Mountains. Stratigraphic variability in the diatom sedimentary records reflects lake response to changes in water balance, catchment development, and atmospheric inputs of silica (i.e. volcanic ash). At Eleanor Lake, the diatom record shows significant assemblage shifts at ˜7500, 6300, and 3700 cal yr BP. Increased abundance of planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatoms and an increase in the abundance of chrysophyte cysts relative to diatoms at 6300 cal yr BP is consistent with an increase in effective moisture at this time. At Mirror Lake, in the south, an assemblage dominated by small benthic species is replaced by a predominantly planktonic assemblage at 6900 cal yr BP, suggesting an earlier increase in lake level. After 6000 cal yr BP, planktonic diatoms further increase in dominance. These dates are consistent with reconstructions of Holocene climate in south-central British Columbia, which suggest a shift to moister conditions ca. 7000 to 6000 cal yr BP. The pollen record indicates the expansion of western hemlock and western redcedar near Mirror Lake at 3550 cal yr BP and 3250 cal yr BP respectively. At Eleanor Lake, hemlock expansion is dated at 4350 cal yr BP. The data indicate a difference of 1950 to > 3000 years between the lacustrine record of increased effective moisture and the vegetation response and

  16. Local government policies toward environmentally sensitive areas in British Columbia, Canada; Washington and Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

    1989-07-01

    While there has been sustained debate on the issue of provincial and state versus local government environmental planning, maintaining privately owned natural resources in the public interest is increasingly viewed as beyond the scope of local governments alone. This paper describes and compares province- and state-level mandates and options for local governments (i.e., city, county, or district) to regulate land uses of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) in British Columbia in Canada and in Washington and Oregon in the United States. We define ESAs as landscape elements or places that are vital to the long-term maintenance of biological diversity, soil, water, and other natural resources, especially as they relate to human health, safety, and welfare, both on-site and in a regional context. Underlying similarities are that all three jurisdictions legally express the need for land-use planning by local governments in managing ESAs. Although all three jurisdictions exhibit similar problems in their attempt to accomplish this, ESA planning by local governments is an optional process in British Columbia and Washington but mandatory in Oregon. Furthermore, actual processes prescribed by each of the three jurisdictions are quite different. The information base upon which local regulation of privately held ESAs depends is variable, both within and between the province- and statelevel jurisdictions. Other than for some specific water-related resources, standard definitions and inventory methods for ESAs are lacking, as is coordination among local governments or among the province- and state-level governments. This study concludes that there is a need for a regional environmental information system in the Pacific Northwest based upon an integrated and scientific approach toward ESA structures and functions.

  17. The impact of cost sharing on antidepressant use among older adults in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Philip S; Patrick, Amanda R; Dormuth, Colin R; Avorn, Jerry; Maclure, Malcolm; Canning, Claire F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    Antidepressant therapies are underused among older adults and could be further curtailed by patient cost-sharing requirements. The authors studied the effects of two sequential cost-sharing policies in a large, stable population of all British Columbia seniors: change from full prescription coverage to 10-25 dollars copayments (copay) in January 2002 and replacement with income-based deductibles and 25% coinsurance in May 2003. PharmaNet data were used to calculate monthly dispensing of antidepressants (in imipramine-equivalent milligrams) among all British Columbia residents age 65 and older beginning January 1997 through December 2005. Monthly rates of starting and stopping antidepressants were calculated. Population-level patterns over time were plotted, and the effects of implementing cost-sharing policies on antidepressant use, initiation, and stopping were examined in segmented linear regression models. Implementation of the copay policy was not associated with significant changes in level of antidepressant dispensing or the rate of dispensing growth. Subsequent implementation of the income-based deductible policy also did not lead to a significant change in dispensing level but led to a significant (p=.02) decrease in the rate of growth of antidepressant dispensing. The copay policy was associated with a significant (p=.01) drop in the frequency of antidepressant initiation among persons with depression. Income-based deductibles reduced the rate of increase in antidepressant initiation over time. Implementation of the copay and income-based deductible policies did not have significant effects on stopping rates. Introducing new forms of medication cost sharing appears to have the potential to reduce some use and initiation of antidepressant therapy by seniors. The clinical consequences of such reduced use need to be clarified.

  18. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  19. Ecological risk of pesticide residues in the British Columbia environment: 1973-2012.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    An updated ecological risk assessment was conducted to re-evaluate and review the overall risk of pesticide residues to certain aquatic life. The focus was the impact on offsite non-target, freshwater organisms of pesticide operational sprays in British Columbia from 1973 until 2012. The values of risk quotients for pesticides of selected indicator organisms were determined to measure the effect. When compared with organophosphorus, carbamate, and other miscellaneous pesticides, this risk assessment analysis suggests that the historical use of persistent and highly toxic organochlorine pesticides posed, and continue to pose, a deleterious ecological risk. The risk is both short-term acute and long-term sub-acute, chronic toxicity to offsite, non-target aquatic invertebrates and juvenile salmonid fish. Data indicated that these organisms were, and remain, subjected to harmful effects of pesticide residues to varying degrees. Most vulnerable were, and also are, benthic organisms inhabiting bottom sediments. This substrate is the natural sink for persistent pesticide residues, predominantly organochlorine pesticides from historical use, as well as dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood preservatives, and other sources. Environment Canada's main aquatic protection strategy was a 10 metre no-treatment buffer zone, augmented with an additional appropriate setback along shorelines of fishery and wildlife resource-sensitive water bodies. This study discusses why this guideline was necessary, useful and effective, but was only partially successful. The physical-chemical properties of pesticide residues, from either an individual compound or different compounds in combination, also influence the nature of biological impacts on non-target, aquatic organisms. Few studies have been conducted in British Columbia aquatic environments to investigate the significance of this aspect.

  20. The sex factor: epidemiology and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Camp, Pat G; Chaudhry, Munaza; Platt, Howard; Roch, Michael; Road, Jeremy; Sin, Donald; Levy, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women have been predicted to overtake that of men within the next decade. These predictions are based in part on data from surveys using self-reports of a COPD diagnosis. Whether these predictions have been realized is unknown. The prevalence and mortality of men and women in British Columbia were compared from fiscal years 1992/1993 to 2003/2004 using administrative health services data. Case definitions for COPD were developed using International Classification of Diseases ninth and 10th revision (ICD-9/10) codes applied to medical and hospital data. Individuals 45 years and older, who had at least two physician visits or one hospitalization for specified COPD ICD-9/10 codes within a 365-day window, were considered to be cases. Cases were ascertained from 1992 to 2004. In 2003/2004, men had a greater prevalence (4.7% versus 4.0% in women) and a higher all-cause mortality rate (5.4% versus 4.1% in women) than women. Both men and women with COPD had low COPD medication use (45%) and low referral for lung function testing (55%). Including the ICD-9 code for 'bronchitis, not specified as acute or chronic' (ICD-9 490) in the case definition resulted in a greater prevalence of COPD in women than in men overall, and in the 45 to 64 year age group. Prevalence and mortality measured with administrative health data do not show evidence of relative increase in the prevalence of COPD for women in British Columbia. However, further analysis of ICD-9 490 may identify an early 'at-risk' group, specifically in women.

  1. Radiation Dose Survey for Common Computed Tomography Exams: 2013 British Columbia Results.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Yogesh; Bjarnason, Thorarin A; Baxter, Patricia; Griffith, Mitch; Eaton, Kirk

    2016-02-01

    In 2013 Health Canada conducted a national survey of computed tomography (CT) radiation usage. We analysed contributions from all 7 public health authorities in the province of British Columbia, which covered scanner age, number of slices, and common adult protocols (≥ 19 years: 70 ± 20 kg, head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and trunk). Patient doses were recorded for common protocols. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) was calculated using scanner data with >10 patient doses recorded for each protocol. Data was analysed based on image reconstruction (filtered backprojection vs iterative reconstruction [IR] vs IR available but not in use). Provincial response was 92%, with 59 of 64 CT data used for analysis. The average scanner age was 5.5 years old, with 39% of scanners installed between 2008-2013; 78.5% of scanners were multislice (>64 slices), and 44% of scanners had IR available. Overall British Columbia DRLs were: head = 1305, chest = 529, abdomen/pelvis = 819, and trunk = 1225. DRLs were consistent with Health Canada recommendations and other Canadian published values, but above international standards. For sites with IR available, less than 50% used this technology routinely for head, chest and trunk exams. Overall, use of IR reduced radiation usage between 11%-32% compared to filtered backprojection, while sites using IR vs IR available used 30%/43% less radiation for head/chest exams (P < .05). No significant difference was observed for abdomen/pelvis exams (P = .385). With the fast pace of CT technical advancement, DRLs should reflect the technology used, instead of just globally applied to anatomical regions. Federal guidelines should be updated at a higher frequency to reflect new technology. In addition, new technologies must be utilised to optimize image quality vs radiation usage. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial analysis of mass wasting and topography in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y.; Sjogren, D.

    2003-04-01

    The large inventory of mass wasting data collected by Gimbarzevsky (1988) for the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia is an exceptional data base. The archipelago is located approximately 80 km off the coast of British Columbia and is seismically active, having the potential for earthquakes of large magnitude. The climate is mild, wet (1300 to 3600 mm/yr) and very windy. These factors together contribute to a high frequency of landsliding. The inventory consists of 8328 debris slides, debris avalanches, debris flows and debris torrents. Identification and characterization of events were based on 1:50 000 panchromatic aerial photographs and 1:50 000 map sheets. UTM grid cells of area 1 km^2 were used to classify landslide attributes, such as gradient and aspect. Since the original analysis was undertaken, significant advances have been made in the availability of topographic data and techniques to assess the spatial distribution of mass wasting events and associated landscape attributes. The mass wasting events, originally plotted on 1:50 000 NTS map sheets, are digitized and transferred to the 25-m DEM available for the Queen Charlotte Islands. This format allows for improved analysis of the original data base and, in particular, landscape attributes which may affect mass wasting frequency. Sensitivity analysis is undertaken to explore the effects of improved topographic resolution on results. In addition, the GIS format allows us to extend the original analysis using the sophisticated analytical techniques now available. Gimbarzevsky, P. (1988) Mass Wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: A Regional Inventory, BC Ministry of Forests and Lands, Land Management Report, 29, 96 pp.

  3. Mental health, job satisfaction, and intention to relocate. Opinions of physicians in rural British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Thommasen, H. V.; Lavanchy, M.; Connelly, I.; Berkowitz, J.; Grzybowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of depression and burnout among family physicians working in British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance communities. Current level of satisfaction with work and intention to move were also investigated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mailed survey. SETTING: Family practices in rural communities eligible for British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of family physicians practising in rural BC communities. Initial response rate was 66% (131/198 surveys returned); excluding physicians on leave and in temporary situations and those who received duplicate mailings gave a corrected response rate of 92% (131/142 surveys returned). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographics; self-reported depression and burnout; Beck Depression Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scores; job satisfaction; and intention to leave. RESULTS: Self-reported depression rate was 29%; the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 31% of physicians suffered from mild to severe depression. About 13% of physicians reported taking antidepressants in the past 5 years. Self-reported burnout rate was 55%; the Maslach Burnout Inventory showed that 80% of physicians suffered from moderate-to-severe emotional exhaustion, 61% suffered from moderate-to-severe depersonalization, and 44% had moderate-to-low feelings of personal accomplishment. Depression scores correlated with emotional exhaustion scores. More than half the respondents were considering relocation. CONCLUSION: Physicians working in these communities suffer from high levels of depression and very high levels of burnout and are dissatisfied with their current jobs. More than half are considering relocating. Intention to move is strongly associated with poor mental health. PMID:11340754

  4. Antiretroviral drug costs and prescription patterns in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Montaner, Julio S G; Yip, Benita; Lima, Viviane D; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Treatment options and therapeutic guidelines have evolved substantially since highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) became the standard of HIV care in 1996. We conducted the present population-based analysis to characterize the determinants of direct costs of HAART over time in British Columbia, Canada. We considered individuals ever receiving HAART in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. Linear mixed-effects regression models were constructed to determine the effects of demographic indicators, clinical stage, and treatment characteristics on quarterly costs of HAART (in 2010$CDN) among individuals initiating in different temporal periods. The least-square mean values were estimated by CD4 category and over time for each temporal cohort. Longitudinal data on HAART recipients (N = 9601, 17.6% female, mean age at initiation = 40.5) were analyzed. Multiple regression analyses identified demographics, treatment adherence, and pharmacological class to be independently associated with quarterly HAART costs. Higher CD4 cell counts were associated with modestly lower costs among pre-HAART initiators [least-square means (95% confidence interval), CD4 > 500: 4674 (4632-4716); CD4: 350-499: 4765 (4721-4809) CD4: 200-349: 4826 (4780-4871); CD4 <200: 4809 (4759-4859)]; however these differences were not significant among post-2003 HAART initiators. Population-level mean costs increased through 2006 and stabilized post-2003 HAART initiators incurred quarterly costs up to 23% lower than pre-2000 HAART initiators in 2010. Our results highlight the magnitude of the temporal changes in HAART costs, and disparities between recent and pre-HAART initiators. This methodology can improve the precision of economic modeling efforts by using detailed cost functions for annual, population-level medication costs according to the distribution of clients by clinical stage and era of treatment initiation.

  5. Interannual climate variability drives regional fires in west central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Jill E.; Smith, Dan J.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the influence of climate variability on forest fire occurrence at eight sites in west central British Columbia, Canada. Forty-six local fire years affecting a single site and 16 moderate fire years affecting two or more sites were identified (1600-1900 A.D.). Existing fire history data were incorporated to identify 17 regionally synchronous fire years (fires that affected ≥3 sites). Interannual and multidecadal relationships between fire occurrence and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern were examined, in addition to the effects of additive positive phases of ENSO and PDO. We examined multiple reconstructions of ENSO, PDO, and PNA and utilized three methodological approaches to characterize climate-fire relationships. We found that the influence of interannual climate, expressed as PDSI, increasingly synchronized the occurrence of fires when examined from local to regional scales. An association between local fires and positive antecedent moisture conditions suggests moisture-driven fine fuel development and the proximity of some sites to grasslands likely function as key determinants of local-scale fire activity. The relationships between regional fires and ENSO, PDO, and PNA suggest that large-scale patterns of climate variability exert a weak and/or inconsistent influence over fire activity in west central British Columbia between 1700 and 1900 A.D. Although inconsistent among reconstructions of climate patterns, we identified a significant relationship between regional fires and large-scale climate patterns when ENSO and PDO were both in positive phases.

  6. Microbiological survey of locally grown lettuce sold at farmers' markets in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jayde L; Chen, Jessica C; Friesen, Elsie; Delaquis, Pascal; Allen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for fresh leafy produce has been paralleled by an increase in outbreaks and illness associated with these foods. Presently, data on the microbiological quality and safety of produce harvested in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia is lacking. Therefore, fresh green, red, and romaine lettuce samples (n = 68) were obtained from five regional farmers' markets in late summer of 2012 and subsequently analyzed to determine total numbers of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Additionally, enrichment procedures were used to detect low concentrations of E. coli. Obtained E. coli isolates were subjected to multiplex PCRs to determine phylogenetic groupings and the presence of virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, stx1, and stx2). All E. coli were tested for resistance to 15 antibiotics using a disk diffusion assay. Lettuce samples yielded mean aerobic colony counts of 6.3 log CFU/g. Coliforms were detected in 72% of samples, with a median concentration of 1.9 log CFU/g. Of samples, 13% were found to harbor E. coli, with a median level of 0.7 log CFU/g. Antibiogram typing of all E. coli (n = 33) revealed that 97% possessed resistance to one or more antimicrobials, with resistance to amikacin (58%), trimethoprim (48%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (45%) being the most common. Phylogroup typing showed that 79% of these isolates belonged to group B1, with the remaining assigned to groups A (9%) or D (12%); no virulence genes were detected. Considering that phylogroup indicators suggestive of fecal contamination (groups A and D E. coli) were recovered in lettuce samples presented at retail, further work is required to explore at what point along the food chain contamination occurs. Also, this study shows the presence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in fresh vegetables. Summed, these data provide important information on the microbiological quality of leafy vegetables grown in British Columbia through the detection and characterization of

  7. Beyond Consultation: First Nations and the Governance of Shale Gas in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvie, Kathryn Henderson

    As the province of British Columbia seeks to rapidly develop an extensive natural gas industry, it faces a number of challenges. One of these is that of ensuring that development does not disproportionately impact some of the province's most marginalized communities: the First Nations on whose land extraction will take place. This is particularly crucial given that environmental problems are often caused by unjust and inequitable social conditions that must be rectified before sustainable development can be advanced. This research investigates how the BC Oil and Gas Commission's consultation process addresses, and could be improved to better address Treaty 8 First Nations' concerns regarding shale gas development within their traditional territories. Interviews were conducted with four Treaty 8 First Nations, the Treaty 8 Tribal Association, and provincial government and industry staff. Additionally, participant observation was conducted with the Fort Nelson First Nation Lands and Resources Department. Findings indicate that like many other resource consultation processes in British Columbia, the oil and gas consultation process is unable to meaningfully address First Nations' concerns and values due to fundamental procedural problems, including the permit-by-permit approach and the exclusion of First Nations from the point of decision-making. Considering the government's failure to regulate the shale gas industry in a way that protects ecological, social and cultural resilience, we argue that new governance mechanisms are needed that reallocate authority to First Nations and incorporate proposals for early engagement, long-term planning and cumulative impact assessment and monitoring. Additionally, considering the exceptional power differential between government, industry and First Nations, we argue that challenging industry's social license to operate is an important strategy for First Nations working to gain greater influence over development within their

  8. Trends in AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia between 1981 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane D.; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. Findings The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. Interpretation We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. Funding The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for

  9. AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia, Canada, between 1981 and 2013: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Viviane D; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S G

    2015-03-01

    Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) can substantially decrease the risk of progression to AIDS and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterise the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada, where ART has been fully subsidised since 1996. We included data on HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from four administrative databases in British Columbia: the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St Paul's Hospital, the British Columbia Vital Statistics Agency, the British Columbia Cancer Agency. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time by use of a negative binomial model, and we investigated trends in the proportion of all deaths associated with AIDS by use of generalised additive models. Data were available for 3550 people with HIV. 6205 ADIs were recorded. In 2013, 84 ADIs occurred, the lowest number since 1990. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in the region happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs reported (42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (1 per 100 person-years; p<0·0001 for trend in number of ADIs). We have also shown that of 22 ADIs included, only Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remained prominent (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). 2828 deaths were from AIDS-related causes, peaking in 1996 with 241 (96%) of 252 deaths in people with HIV and declining to 44 (20%) of 218 in 2013. Our results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programmes that facilitate testing and deliver treatment and care can be eff ective in decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that control of and eventually an end to AIDS are possible.

  10. Quantifying Components of Drug Expenditure Inflation: The British Columbia Seniors' Drug Benefit Plan

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To quantify the relative and absolute importance of different factors contributing to increases in per capita prescription drug costs for a population of Canadian seniors. Data Sources/Study Setting Data consist of every prescription claim from 1985 to 1999 for the British Columbia Pharmacare Plan A, a tax-financed public drug plan covering all community-dwelling British Columbians aged 65 and older. Study Design Changes in per capita prescription drug expenditures are attributed to changes to four components of expenditure inflation: (1) the pattern of exposure to drugs across therapeutic categories; (2) the mix of drugs used within therapeutic categories; (3) the rate of generic drug product selection; and (4) the prices of unchanged products. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted from administrative claims files housed at the UBC Centre for Health Services and Policy Research. Principal Findings Changes in drug prices, the pattern of exposure to drugs across therapeutic categories, and the mix of drugs used within therapeutic categories all caused spending per capita to increase. Incentives for generic substitution and therapeutic reference pricing policies temporarily slowed the cost-increasing influence of changes in product selection by encouraging the use of generic drug products and/or cost-effective brand-name products within therapeutic categories. Conclusions The results suggest that drug plans (and patients) would benefit from more concerted efforts to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of competing products within therapeutic categories of drugs. PMID:12479495

  11. High-Cost Users of Prescription Drugs: A Population-Based Analysis from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Deirdre; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Morgan, Steven G

    2017-04-01

    To examine variation in pharmaceutical spending and patient characteristics across prescription drug user groups. British Columbia's population-based linked administrative health and sociodemographic databases (N = 3,460,763). We classified individuals into empirically derived prescription drug user groups based on pharmaceutical spending patterns outside hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We examined variation in patient characteristics, mortality, and health services usage and applied hierarchical clustering to determine patterns of concurrent drug use identifying high-cost patients. Approximately 1 in 20 British Columbians had persistently high prescription costs for 5 consecutive years, accounting for 42 percent of 2011 province-wide pharmaceutical spending. Less than 1 percent of the population experienced discrete episodes of high prescription costs; an additional 2.8 percent transitioned to or from high-cost episodes of unknown duration. Persistent high-cost users were more likely to concurrently use multiple chronic medications; episodic and transitory users spent more on specialized medicines, including outpatient cancer drugs. Cluster analyses revealed heterogeneity in concurrent medicine use within high-cost groups. Whether low, moderate, or high, costs of prescription drugs for most individuals are persistent over time. Policies controlling high-cost use should focus on reducing polypharmacy and encouraging price competition in drug classes used by ordinary and high-cost users alike. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia, and at Columbia Falls, Montana, water years, 1975-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Observed Bark Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality in Western United States and British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Ferguson, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting wildlife habitat, wildfire risk, forest recovery, biogeochemical cycling, and biophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the US and British Columbia are concerned about monitoring outbreaks and so conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here, we describe a gridded product of bark beetle disturbances for the western conterminous United States (1997-2009) and British Columbia (2001-2009). We converted aerial survey polygon data into 1-km2 grids for each combination of host type (e.g., lodgepole pine) and bark beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle) available in the US, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. Polygon data are considered "affected area" because the polygons include live and killed trees. We converted affected area to mortality area within each grid cell for each year. We compared the number of killed trees from the US data set with high-resolution classified imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico, finding that the number of trees reported by the aerial surveys in these locations was substantially underestimated. We adjusted mortality area for the US and found better matches with the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. As a result, we produced US grids for lower (from the original aerial survey) and upper (with adjustment) estimates. Bark beetle mortality occurred across the entire study domain and temporal and spatial patterns differed among bark beetle species. The calculated mortality area from all bark beetles combined was 0.42 million ha for the lower estimate and 5.04 million ha for the upper estimate in the western conterminous US from 1997 to 2009, and 5.07 million ha in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009. The analyses suggest that mortality area caused by bark beetles in the western conterminous US exceeded the British Columbia mortality

  14. The hospital costs of treating work-related sawmill injuries in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Demers, Paul A

    2007-05-01

    This study estimates the hospital costs of treating work-related injury among a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia. Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of 5,876 actively employed sawmill workers. Injury cases were identified as work-related from these records using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes that indicate place of occurrence and the responsibility of payment schedule that identifies workers' compensation as being responsible for payment. The hospitals in British Columbia have a standard ward rate chart prepared annually by the provincial Ministry of Health to bill and collect payment from agency like workers' compensation agency. Costs were calculated from the hospital perspective using this billing chart. All costs were expressed in 1995 Canadian dollars. The workers' compensation claim records for this study population were extracted and matched with the hospitalised work-related injury records. Costs were also calculated for work-related hospitalisations that the hospital did not appear to be reimbursed for by the workers' compensation system. There were 173 injuries requiring hospitalisation during the 10-year followup period. The median stay in hospitals was 3 days and the median hospital costs were $847. The most costly cause of injury categories were fire, flame, natural and environmental and struck against with median costs of $10,575 and $1,206, respectively, while the least costly category was cutting and piercing with median costs of $296. The most costly nature of injury categories were burns and fracture of lower limb with median costs of $10,575 and $1,800, respectively, while the least costly category was dislocation, sprains and strains with median costs of $437. The total hospital costs for all the work-related injuries were $434,990. Out of a total hospital cost of $434,990 for the 173 work-related injuries, the provincial compensation agency apparently did not compensate $50,663 (12

  15. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  16. The Bowser and Sustut Basins, Northern British Columbia, Canada: Insights From Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J.; Lowe, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Bowser and Sustut basins occupy an area of more than 60,000 km2 in northern British Columbia, Canada. They comprise three, dominantly sedimentary, stratigraphic successions, in part overlapping in age: the Bowser Lake Group, the Skeena Group, and the Sustut Group. These three successions overlie arc volcanic and volcaniclastic strata of Stikinia, an allochtonous island arc terrane that accreted to the western margin of North America in the Early Jurassic to early Middle Jurassic. All three basin successions and underlying Stikinia were deformed during development of a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt (the Skeena Fold and Thrust Belt) in Cretaceous and possibly into earliest Tertiary time. Recently, the basins have been the focus of intense geological studies which have resulted in major revisions to the stratigraphic and structural framework of the basins and demonstrated that they have significantly higher petroleum potential than had been previously recognized. To advance these new findings further requires better imaging of the three-dimensional geometry and architecture of the basins. In this study we harness existing magnetic anomaly data to provide the first quantitative estimates of sedimentary thickness across the entire extents of both basins. Our results, which are in general in accord with geological interpretations, indicate that basin-fill is relatively thin and fairly uniform in the Sustut Basin (2.5-3 km), but highly variable in the Bowser Basin, ranging from less than 2 km to more than 6 km. Overall, sedimentary fill is thicker in the northern half of Bowser Basin compared to the south and is typically less than 2 km near the basins northern, western and southern margins. In addition, we demonstrate how a large, buried intrusion beneath the northeast part of Bowser Basin can account for an observed magnetic anomaly and explain the high coalification gradients and localized high maturation levels of the overlying sedimentary rocks. Neither of

  17. The British Columbia Positive Women's Survey: a detailed profile of 110 HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, C M; Lobb, D J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about HIV testing, health status and medical treatment, use of health care services, degree of satisfaction with medical care and psychosocial stressors. RESULTS: Most of the women surveyed were aged 25 to 39 years (70.0%), were Canadian born (76.4%) and were white (80.9%). Over one-third did not complete high school, and half had an annual household income of less than $20,000. Of the 110 women 51.8% had children, who were HIV-positive in 12.3% of cases. The most frequently reported risk factor for HIV infection was sex with a man (49.1%); 19.1% reported both sex with a man and injection drug use, and 12.7% reported injection drug use only. Seventy-five women indicated that they had become infected through sex with a man, with or without injection drug use. Of these, 65 indicated whether or not this was the result of sexual assault or rape; 8 (12.3%) answered affirmatively. Of the 81 women who responded to the question regarding prior sexual assault or abuse, 43 (53.1%) reported being sexually assaulted as an adult, 35 (43.2%) reported being sexually abused as a child, and 22 (27.2%) reported being sexually abused or assaulted both as a child and as an adult. Women who were sexually abused as a child were more likely than those who were not abused as a child to have injection drug use as a risk factor (54.3% v. 7.5%). Menstrual cycle changes were reported by 70.1% of the respondents. Most women stated that they had not received adequate pre- or post-test counselling, and 47.0% were

  18. U-Pb Dating of Unabraded Detrital Zircon Metamorphic Rims in the Nanaimo Basin, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, M. P.; Guest, B.; Matthews, W.

    2016-12-01

    Thin metamorphic rims on detrital zircons from the Nanaimo Basin in SW British Columbia offer a unique opportunity to further constrain the source of these zircons, helping to resolve the long standing Baja BC controversy. Here we present an analytical approach for dating thin zircon rims and use it to show that zircons from the Nanaimo Basin are most likely derived from metamorphic rocks in southern California. Conventional in-situ laser ablation sample preparation typically requires mounting and polishing zircon grains to expose their core. However, in order to date these thin metamorphic zircon rims a depth-profiling approach on unabraded grains was employed. Zircon grains from the Upper Cretaceous Geoffrey, Spray, and Gabriola formations of the Nanaimo Group exposed on Denman and Hornby Islands (British Columbia) were sorted into five groups based on morphology. The zircons were then mounted on tape along with several grains of a well-characterised zircon reference material to validate the uncertainty of the method. The zircons were then imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer in order to correct for grain-to-grain variations in elevation relative to mounting medium and ensure consistent laser focus. Backscatter electron images (BSE) were used to further characterised the grains and optimize the location of laser ablation targets. Zircons were ablated using a Resonetics 193 nm excimer laser and uranium and lead isotopic ratios were measured using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole mass spectrometer. A low frequency laser repetition rate extended the data collection period on relatively thin zircon rims. Our results show that metamorphic zircon growth occurred in two main phases at 100 Ma and 77 Ma suggesting two sources of detrital zircons with differing metamorphic histories were present in the catchment area. The timing of metamorphism of the source area for the Nanaimo basin is inconsistent with derivation from sources in the Rocky Mountains (Lemhi sub

  19. Stemflow amount, intensity and timing in a mature forest in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena

    2013-04-01

    Stemflow is the portion of precipitation that falls on the forest canopy and flows along tree branches and stems to the soil at the base of the tree. Previous studies have shown the importance of stemflow for nutrient cycling, groundwater recharge, plant water uptake and soil moisture dynamics; however little is known about stemflow in mature coastal British Columbia forests. Furthermore, most studies focus on the amount of stemflow; few studies have looked at the timing or intensity of stemflow relative to precipitation intensity. We therefore measured stemflow from 18 trees of four different species within a ~1 ha mature western hemlock-western redcedar stand within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in British Columbia, Canada, using water collecting containers and tipping bucket rain gauges. Measurements between February and November 2010 showed that stemflow amount was highly variable between the different trees. It did not vary much between species but instead varied mainly with tree size. Trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter contributed relatively more stemflow than larger trees; they represented 24% of the total basal area but contributed ~72% of total stemflow at this site. Funneling ratios were larger than one for the trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter and increased with event size up to 50 mm. Funneling ratios for larger trees were less than one and did not vary much with event size. Stemflow started on average after 3 mm of precipitation. Peak stemflow intensities were much larger than peak precipitation intensity for some events and did not always occur at the same time as peak precipitation intensity; peak stemflow intensities tended to increase for consecutive precipitation bursts and occurred approximately 15 minutes after the corresponding peak precipitation intensity. Peak stemflow intensities were not related to tree species or tree size. Even though stemflow accounted for only ~1% of precipitation, high peak stemflow intensities could

  20. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Giesbrecht, Ian; Korver, Maartje C.; Floyd, William C.; Sanborn, Paul; Bulmer, Chuck; Lertzman, Ken P.

    2017-08-01

    The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM) composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km-2 yr-1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km-2 yr-1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September-April). Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the British Columbia coast, suggesting that

  1. Discriminant Analysis of a Spatially Extensive Landsliding Inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogren, D.; Martin, Y. E.; Jagielko, L.

    2010-12-01

    Gimbarzevsky (1988) collected an exceptional landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia (formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands). This data base includes more than 8 000 landsliding vectors, with an areal coverage of about 10 000 km2. Unfortunately, this landsliding inventory was never published in the referred literature, despite its regional significance. The data collection occurred prior to widespread use of GIS technologies in landsliding analysis, thus restricting the types of analyses that were undertaken at the time relative to what is possible today. Gimbarzevsky identified the landsliding events from 1:50 000 aerial photographs, and then transferred the landslide vectors to NTS map sheets. In this study, we digitized the landslide vectors from these original map sheets and connected each vector to a digital elevation model. Lengths of landslide vectors were then compared to results of Rood (1984), whose landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii relied on larger-scale aerial photographs (~ 1:13 000). A comparison of the two data bases shows that Rood’s inventory contains a more complete record of smaller landslides, whereas Gimbarzevsky’s inventory provides a much better statistical representation of less frequently occurring, medium to large landslide events. We then apply discriminant analysis to the Gimbarzevsky data base to assess which of a set of ten predictor variables, selected on the basis of mechanical theory, best predict failed vs. unfailed locations in the landscape (referred to as the grouping variable in discriminant analysis). Certain predictor variables may be cross-correlated, and any one particular variable may be related to several aspects of mechanical theory (for example, a particular variable may affect various components of shear stress and/or shear strength); it is important to recognize that the significance of particular groupings may reflect this information. Eight of the original variables were found

  2. Second malignancies in patients with hairy cell leukemia in british columbia: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Au, W Y; Klasa, R J; Gallagher, R; Le, N; Gascoyne, R D; Connors, J M

    1998-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of second malignancies in a cohort of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) against the normal population. Potential effects of type of treatment and duration of follow-up and the site distribution of cancer were also examined. Between 1976 and 1996, 117 patients were diagnosed with HCL in British Columbia who were referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) for treatment. All additional malignancies were traced using a provincial population-based cancer registry and follow-up records from the BCCA. There were 90 men and 27 women. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. The median follow-up time was 68 months. Twenty-three patients underwent primary splenectomy, 65 received interferon alpha, 24 deoxycoformycin, and 67 cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine). Thirty-six patients had an additional malignancy (30.7%) with a total of 44 tumors. Six patients (5.1%) had two or more malignancies. Twenty-five patients had malignancies diagnosed after HCL (21.3%), three concurrent with HCL (2.6%), and 12 preceding HCL (10.2%). Second tumors (n = 28 tumors) occurred at a median of 40 months after HCL (range, 3 to 167). The relative rate (RR) of second malignancy among men and women was 2.91 (P < .001) and 1.65 (P = .23), respectively, compared with age and secular trend-matched controls. There were eight prostate cancers, nine nonmelanoma skin cancers, two lung cancers, and four gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. The RR (90% confidence interval [CI]) in the various treatment groups were: splenectomy (RR = 0.21 to 3.81), purine analogues (RR = 0.60 to 5.69), interferon then purine analogues (RR = 1.60 to 4.31), interferon alone (RR = 1. 57 to 8.40). Cancer risk peaked at 2 years after HCL (RR = 4.13) and fell steadily afterwards, reaching a RR of 1.82 at 6 years. Twenty patients died, six due to HCL, 10 due to second malignancies, and four of unrelated causes. HCL patients appear to be inherently prone to

  3. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.

    2014-12-01

    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  4. Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Nosyk, Bohdan; Kerr, Thomas; Fischer, Benedikt; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2012-11-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users. The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion). Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The cascade of HIV care in British Columbia, Canada, 1996–2011: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Montaner, Julio S G; Colley, Guillaume; Lima, Viviane D; Chan, Keith; Heath, Katherine; Yip, Benita; Samji, Hasina; Gilbert, Mark; Barrios, Rolando; Gustafson, Réka; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The cascade of HIV care has become a focal point for implementation efforts to maximise the individual and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to characterise longitudinal changes in engagement with the cascade of HIV care in British Columbia, Canada, from 1996 to 2011. Methods We used estimates of provincial HIV prevalence from the Public Health Agency of Canada and linked provincial population-level data to define, longitudinally, the numbers of individuals in each of the eight stages of the cascade of HIV care (HIV infected, diagnosed, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) indicated, on HAART, adherent to HAART, and virologically suppressed) in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. We used sensitivity analyses to determine the sensitivity of cascade-stage counts to variations in their definitions. Findings 13 140 people were classified as diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia during the study period. We noted substantial improvements over time in the proportions of individuals at each stage of the cascade of care. Based on prevalence estimates, the proportion of unidentified HIV-positive individuals decreased from 49·0% (estimated range 36·2–57·5%) in 1996 to 29·0% (11·6–40·7%) in 2011, and the proportion of HIV-positive people with viral suppression reached 34·6% (29·0–43·1%) in 2011. Interpretation Careful mapping of the cascade of care is crucial to understanding what further efforts are needed to maximise the beneficial effects of available interventions and so inform efforts to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS. Funding British Columbia Ministry of Health, US National Institute on Drug Abuse (National Institutes of Health). PMID:24076277

  6. Reduction in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women in British Columbia after introduction of the HPV vaccine: An ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Naus, Monika; Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon R; Miller, Dianne; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Coldman, Andrew J

    2015-10-15

    We report on the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women aged 15-22 years of age in British Columbia before and after the introduction of an HPV vaccine program. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ for each age stratum (15-22) in the calendar years 2004-2012 for the province of British Columbia were obtained from the BC Cancer Agency's population-based cervical cancer program. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CIN2+ were described and compared before and after HPV vaccine program introduction in cohorts born in vaccine eligible years, and in non-vaccine eligible years using piece-wise Poisson regression analysis, and adjusted for age. Between 2004 and 2012, rates of CIN2 and CIN2+ in young women aged 15-22 years in the province of British Columbia have decreased overall. After the introduction of the HPV vaccine program, the age adjusted IRR for CIN2+ for young women aged 15-17 years decreased significantly from 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.98 p < 0.01) to 0.36 (95% CI: 0.18-0.73 p < 0.01). During the same time period, no similar reduction was found in young women 18-22 years. After introduction of HPV vaccine program, IRR for CIN2+ in young women 15-17 was significantly reduced for CIN2+ (0.14; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.47; p < 0.01) and CIN2 (0.1; 95% CI: 0.02-0.54; p < 0.01). This ecological analysis shows a significant reduction in CIN2+ lesions in young women aged 15-17 years in British Columbia after the introduction of the HPV vaccine in young women despite vaccine uptake levels below 70%.

  7. STI service delivery in British Columbia, Canada; providers' views of their services to youth.

    PubMed

    Masaro, Cindy L; Johnson, Joy; Chabot, Cathy; Shoveller, Jean

    2012-08-06

    Little is known about service providers' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences in relation to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and how they influence the delivery of services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of STI care providers and the ways they approached their practice. We used a qualitative approach drawing on methods used in thematic analysis. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 service providers delivering STI services in youth clinics, STI clinics, reproductive health clinics, and community public health units in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Service providers' descriptions of their activities and roles were shaped by a number of themes including specialization, scarcity, and maintaining the status quo. The analysis suggests that service providers perceive, at times, the delivery of STI care to be inefficient and inadequate. Findings from this study identify deficits in the delivery of STI services in BC. To understand these deficits, more research is needed to examine the larger health care structure within which service providers work, and how this structure not only informs and influences the delivery of services, but also how particular structural barriers impinge on and/or restrict practice.

  8. Evaluation of the Do Bugs Need Drugs? program in British Columbia: Can we curb antibiotic prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Rachel M; Vrbova, Linda; Fuertes, Elaine; Chong, Mei; David, Samara; Dreher, Kim; Purych, Dale; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Henry, Bonnie; Marra, Fawziah; Kendall, Perry RW; Patrick, David M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic resistance is accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics. Do Bugs Need Drugs? is an educational program adapted in British Columbia to target both the public and health care professionals, with the aim of reducing unnecessary prescribing. The current article presents a descriptive evaluation of the impact of the program over the first four years. METHOD: Program implementation was measured by the amount of educational material distributed and the level of participation in educational sessions. The impact of the program was assessed by measuring changes in knowledge and prescribing habits of participating physicians, and by investigating provincial trends in antibiotic use. RESULTS: A total of 51,367 children, assisted-living residents and health care professionals have participated in the program since its inception in the fall of 2005. Pre- and postcourse assessments of participating physicians indicated significant improvements in clinical knowledge and appropriate antibiotic treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. Overall rates of antibiotic use in the province have stabilized since 2006. The rates of consumption of fluoroquinolones and macrolides have levelled off since 2005. Utilization rates for acute bronchitis are at the same level as when the program was first implemented, but rates for other acute upper respiratory tract infections of interest have declined. CONCLUSIONS: The Do Bugs Need Drugs? program significantly improves physician antibiotic prescription decisions and is ecologically associated with desirable change in population antibiotic consumption patterns. PMID:22379484

  9. A new family of leafy liverworts from the middle Eocene of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Steenbock, Christopher M; Stockey, Ruth A; Beard, Graham; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2011-06-01

    Morphology is a reflection of evolution, and as the majority of biodiversity that has lived on Earth is now extinct, the study of the fossil record provides a more complete picture of evolution. This study investigates anatomically preserved bryophyte fossils from the Eocene Oyster Bay Formation of Vancouver Island. While the bryophyte fossil record is limited in general, anatomically preserved bryophytes are even more infrequent; thus, the Oyster Bay bryophytes are a particularly significant addition to the bryophyte fossil record. Fossils occur in two marine carbonate nodules collected from the Appian Way locality on the eastern shore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and were prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. The fossils exhibit a novel combination of characters unknown among extinct and extant liverworts: (1) three-ranked helical phyllotaxis with underleaves larger than the lateral leaves; (2) fascicled rhizoids associated with the leaves of all three ranks; (3) Anomoclada-type endogenous branching. A new liverwort family, Appianacae fam. nov., is established based upon the novel combination of characters. Appiana gen. nov. broadens the known diversity of bryophytes and adds a hepatic component to one of the richest and best characterized Eocene floras.

  10. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  12. Neoglaciation, glacier-dammed lakes, and vegetation change in northwestern British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, J.J. |; Mathewes, R.W.

    1996-02-01

    An integrated geomorphic, stratigraphic, paleoecological, and geochronological study of a system of linked valley glaciers and ice-dammed lakes has provided insights into the Neoglacial history and climate of the northern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Cores collected from a small lake in the glacier foreland of Berendon Glacier and pits dug in a nearby fen record Little Ice Age and earlier Neoglacial advances. AMS and conventional radiocarbon dating of fossil plant material from these sites, supplemented by dendrochronological data, indicate that the Little Ice Age began more than 500 yr ago and peaked in the early 17th century. A middle Neoglacial advance of comparable extent occurred about 2200 to 2800 yr ago. The chronology of Neoglacial advances is generally similar to that at other sites in western Canada, although the Little Ice Age may have peaked as much as 100 yr earlier in our study area than elsewhere. The Little Ice Age advances are also broadly synchronous with those in other parts of the world, suggesting that they were caused by global changes in climate.

  13. Population genetics of the white-phased "Spirit" black bear of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-02-01

    The Spirit (or Kermode) bear is a white-phased black bear found on the northwest coast of British Columbia, and is one of the most striking color polymorphisms found in mammals. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (mc1r) locus is the cause of this recessive w variant. Recently, evidence suggests that the white color provides a selective advantage during salmon hunting. Here we examine the effects of favorable selection, gene flow, genetic drift, and positive-assortative mating in an effort to understand the establishment and maintenance of this polymorphism and the observed heterozygote deficiency for mc1r but not for microsatellite loci. It appears that genetic drift was important in the establishment of the w allele and that the selective advantage was important to counteract immigration from populations without the w allele. Positive-assortative mating can result in a deficiency of heterozygotes but needs to be quite high to result in the large deficiency of heterozygotes observed, suggesting that other factors must also be contributing. Examination of population genetic factors, singly and jointly, provides insight into the establishment and maintenance of this unusual polymorphism. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Bond cycles recorded in terrestrial Pleistocene sediments of southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicock, Stephen R.; Lian, Olav B.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    1999-08-01

    Recent data from exposures of terrestrial Pleistocene sediments in the Fraser Lowland of southwestern British Columbia reveal at least two Bond cycles within Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. The maximum of the Coquitlam Stade coincides with the timing of Heinrich event H2, the Port Moody Interstade with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) interstade 2, the maximum of the Vashon Stade with H1, and the Fort Langley interval with D-O interstade 1. The Sumas Stade apparently preceded H0 (Younger Dryas) but could have been in response to the same climatic signal. The timing of Sumas advances may be explained by a combination of glacio-isostatic rebound, destabilisation of the ice margin, and rapid movement over a short distance on soft muddy beds of a rising sea floor, thereby leading the timing of North Atlantic events by hundreds of years. In contrast, Coquitlam and Vashon advances were mainly over permeable glaciofluvial sediments and because of this their maxima probably did not precede the timing of H2 and H1. The Port Moody Interstade coincided with the global Last Glacial Maximum, due in part to the moderating effect of moist summer storms in a southward-shifted jet stream that influenced the Fraser Lowland at that time.

  15. Satellite-derived aerosol radiative forcing from the 2004 British Columbia wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Song; Leighton, H.

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia wildfires of 2004 was one of the largest wildfire events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and wildfire aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in regional climate models to assess the effect of wildfire aerosols.

  16. Measurement of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from vegetation in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewitt, G. B.; Curren, K.; Steyn, D. G.; Gillespie, T. J.; Niki, H.

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) participate in many chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in some cases, adversely affect air quality through increased production of photochemical ozone near urban sources of nitrogen oxides. In order to implement an effective control strategy, the relative role of these biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in producing ground-level ozone must be known. During the summers of 1995 and 1996, a field study was undertaken to determine fluxes of biogenic VOCs from both natural and agricultural surfaces in the Lower Fraser Valley located in southwestern British Columbia. Emissions from agricultural surfaces were measured using a flux gradient approach while emissions from the dominant tree species in the region were measured with a branch enclosure system. Results show very little biogenic VOC production from many agricultural crops such as pasture, Potatoes or Blueberries. Cranberries showed very high emissions during the summer of 1994 but failed to show similar results during the summer of 1995. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from native tree species such as Western Red Cedar, Douglas Fir and Coastal Hemlock were quite low. Cottonwood trees on the other hand had fairly low emissions of monoterpenes but extremely high emissions of isoprene. Measurements provided here will be useful for improving our database of hydrocarbon emissions rates from vegetation for future emission inventories and model testing.

  17. Increased health costs from mandated Therapeutic Substitution of proton pump inhibitors in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B J; Gray, J R; Attara, G P

    2009-04-15

    In 2003, British Columbia's PharmaCare programme implemented a drug reimbursement policy called Therapeutic Substitution, which required patients with acid-related diseases, primarily gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), to make a medically unnecessary switch from their prescribed proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to the cheapest available brand name PPI (Pariet, rabeprazole sodium), comprising a different (nongeneric) chemical. To evaluate the independent effects of PPI Therapeutic Substitution on individual healthcare utilization among those complying with the policy. We used the BC Ministry of Health Services' individual-level linked data, allowing isolation of healthcare utilization for the entire population of PPI consumers from 2002 to 2005. After controlling for individual case variation in age, gender and a proxy for pre-existing health status, regression analysis revealed statistically significant greater overall use of PPIs, physician services and hospital services independently associated with patients who complied with Therapeutic Substitution. Over the 3-year period 2003-2005, this represented net healthcare expenditures totalling approximately C$43.51 million (C$9.11 million in total PPI drug expenditures, C$24.65 million for physician services and C$9.75 million for hospital services). Medically unnecessary drug switching caused by compliance with Therapeutic Substitution policy appears to be independently associated with higher overall healthcare utilization.

  18. Exploring Public Health's roles and limitations in advancing food security in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Seed, Barbara A; Lang, Tim M; Caraher, Martin J; Ostry, Aleck S

    2014-07-22

    This research analyzes the roles and limitations of Public Health in British Columbia in advancing food security through the integration of food security initiatives into its policies and programs. It asks the question, can Public Health advance food security? If so, how, and what are its limitations? This policy analysis merges findings from 38 key informant interviews conducted with government and civil society stakeholders involved in the development of food security initiatives, along with an examination of relevant documents. The Population Health Template is used to delineate and analyze Public Health roles in food security. Public Health was able to advance food security in some ways, such as the adoption of food security as a core public health program. Public Health's leadership role in food security is constrained by a restricted mandate, limited ability to collaborate across a wide range of sectors and levels, as well as internal conflict within Public Health between Food Security and Food Protection programs. Public Health has a role in advancing food security, but it also faces limitations. As the limitations are primarily systemic and institutional, recommendations to overcome them are not simple but, rather, require movement toward embracing the determinants of health and regulatory pluralism. The results also suggest that the historic role of Public Health in food security remains salient today.

  19. Feruvite from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; McDonald, A.M.; Slack, J.F.; Leitch, C.H.B.

    1996-01-01

    Feruvite, an uncommon Ca- and Fe2+-rich tourmaline species, has been discovered in the footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia) near gabbro sills and dikes. Its chemical composition varies according to occurrence: feruvite from the shallow footwall has lower Ca, higher Al, and higher X-site vacancies than that from the deep footwall. The major chemical substitution involved in the feruvite is the exchange vector CaMgO???-1Al-1(OH)-1. The most important factor controlling feruvite formation at Sullivan is likely the reaction of Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids with Ca-rich minerals in gabbro and host rocks. This reaction led to the breakdown of Ca-rich minerals (plagioclase and hornblende), with release of Ca to solution and its incorporation into feruvite. This process probably postdated the main stages of formation of fine-grained, intermediate schorl-dravite in the tourmalinite pipe in the footwall, and is attributed to postore intrusion of gabbro and associated albite-chlorite-pyrite alteration.

  20. Climate change mitigation in British Columbia's forest sector: biophysical impacts and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, C.; Xu, Z.; Lempriere, T.; Rampley, G.; Kurz, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    Managing forests to increase carbon sequestration or reduce carbon emissions, and using wood products and bioenergy to substitute for other carbon-intensive products and fossil fuels, have been shown to be effective ways to tackle climate change in many countries and regions. We examined several mitigation strategies and portfolios related to forest management and wood product uses, at the level of 92 forest management units in the 55 Mha of forest in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A systems approach was used to track changes in greenhouse gas emissions and removals in forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and through the substitution of carbon-intensive products and fossil fuels with wood products and bioenergy. In addition to the biophysical potential, we calculated mitigation costs and developed cost curves to assess the economic potential. Improving the harvest utilization, shifting the commodity mix to longer-lived wood products, and using harvest residues for bioenergy were among the most promising strategies, and generated the mitigation portfolio with the largest greenhouse gas emission reductions. If the strategies that maximize mitigation in the province were chosen in each management unit and implemented very soon, then forest-related mitigation actions could contribute 35% of the province's 2050 emission reduction target (i.e., about 18 MtCO2e), at a cost of less than $100/tCO­2e.

  1. Preliminary identification of fullerenes in the lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Haggart, James W.; Ward, Peter D.

    2004-02-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (~200 mya) event is one of the most severe in geologic history. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Few geologic sections containing the TJ boundary interval have been identified globally, and most of those are poorly preserved; the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies of this interval. Recently, fullerene molecules (C60 to C200) have been shown to be present in the mass extinction boundary intervals of the Permian-Triassic (PT) event (~251.4 mya), as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) (~65 mya). The presence of fullerenes in both these extinction intervals has been used to invoke an extraterrestrial impact cause for the extinctions. Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected samples from the Kennecott Point TJ boundary section, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, suggest that fullerenes (C60 to ~C200) are present in the section, stratigraphically above the extinction interval (as defined by paleontological and isotopic data), but not actually within the interval itself. The presence of fullerenes may not be diagnostic of an impact event.

  2. Alteration of basaltic glasses from north-central British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Jercinovic, M.J. ); Keil, K. ); Smith, M.R.; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence of palagonitization is seen on all glasses studied from three Pleistocene subglacial volcanoes in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Samples from foreset breccias of Tuya Butte are more highly palagonitized than those from the tephra cones of Ash Mountain and Southern Tuya. Extensive palagonitization is generally associated with authigenic mineralization (clays, zeolites). Palagonite composition varies widely relative to glass composition, and palagonite can be broadly categorized as either high-Al or low-Al, depending on whether Al was retained or lost to aqueous solutions during palagonitization. Loss of Al during palagonitization is related to closed-system alteration, including precipitation of aluminosilicate authigenic cements. Microenvironment appears to be more influential than macroenvironment in determining the composition of palagonite. Palagonite rinds are compositionally zoned, generally becoming progressively higher in Al and Ca, and lower in Fe and Mg, towards the innermost (later-formed) portions of the rinds. Phillipsite is the first zeolite formed, followed by chabazite. Analcime and calcite occur in the most highly palagonitized samples. Mass balance considerations indicate higher mass loss where palagonitization has not proceeded to the point where zeolite solubility limits were attained in the local solution. Zeolites occur in closed-system conditions (low flow rates), where little net system mass loss or gain has occurred. The colloidal nature of palagonite allows the effective adsorption of Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, and REEs.

  3. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice PY; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-02-01

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P < 0.05). Influenza peaked at low temperature or high temperature with high RH. Temperature and VP are important weather factors in developing a universal model to explain seasonal outbreaks of influenza. However, further research is needed to assess the association between weather factors and influenza activity in a wider context of social and environmental conditions.

  4. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  5. Experiences with collaborative climate impacts assessments for regional governments in southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, S. R.; Murdock, T. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Infrastructure vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning have created demand for detailed information about climate change and extreme events from local and regional governments. Individual communities often have distinct priorities regarding climate change impacts. While projections from climate models are available to investigate these impacts, they are not always applicable or easily interpreted by local agencies. We discuss a series of climate impacts assessments for several regional and local governments in southwestern British Columbia. Each of the assessments was conducted with input from the users on project definition from the start of the process and on interpretation of results throughout each project. To produce sufficient detail for the assessment regions, we produce high-resolution (800m) simulations of precipitation and temperature using downscaled climate model projections. Sets of derived climate parameters tailored to each region are calculated from both standard indices such as CLIMDEX and from an energy-balance snowpack model. Involving user groups from the beginning of the analysis helps to convey the meaning and confidence of each set of climate change parameters to users and also clarifies what projections are feasible or not for impact assessments. We discuss the different levels of involvement and collaboration with each organization, and the resulting decisions implemented following each of the projects.

  6. A solid waste audit and directions for waste reduction at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Felder, M A; Petrell, R J; Duff, S J

    2001-08-01

    A novel design for a solid waste audit was developed and applied to the University of British Columbia, Canada, in 1998. This audit was designed to determine the characteristics of the residual solid waste generated by the campus and provide directions for waste reduction. The methodology was constructed to address complications in solid waste sampling, including spatial and temporal variation in waste, extrapolation from the study area, and study validation. Accounting for spatial effects decreased the variation in calculating total waste loads. Additionally, collecting information on user flow provided a means to decrease daily variation in solid waste and allow extrapolation over time and space. The total annual waste estimated from the experimental design was compared to documented values and was found to differ by -18%. The majority of this discrepancy was likely attributable to the unauthorised disposal of construction and demolition waste. Several options were proposed to address waste minimisation goals. These included: enhancing the current recycling program, source reduction of plastic materials, and/or diverting organic material to composting (maximum diversion: approximately 320, approximately 270, and approximately 1510 t yr(-1), respectively). The greatest diversion by weight would be accomplished through the diversion of organic material, as it was estimated to comprise 70% of the projected waste stream. The audit methodology designed is most appropriate for facilities/regions that have a separate collection system for seasonal wastes and have a means for tracking user flow.

  7. A study of challenges and opportunities for long-term care dietitians in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Dunham, Rebecca; Kafka, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    While demand for long-term care (LTC) in Canada is expected to grow in the coming years, little is known about the current LTC dietetic workforce or its members' practice-related concerns. A web-based survey was developed and distributed to and subsequently completed by 75 LTC dietitians in British Columbia. The survey was intended to characterize dietitians' demographic characteristics, educational and employment experiences, salaries and benefits, future employment plans, and concerns about current practice. Regression models were used to examine the associations between demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and self-reported hourly wages. The majority of respondents were employed at more than one facility (57%) and did not belong to a union (71%). The mean hourly wage for LTC dietetics positions was $37.50 ± $5.85, and was significantly higher for positions that did not provide additional employee benefits (p < 0.05). Hourly wages were not significantly higher for dietitians with more years of experience or graduate-level education. Concerns were raised about potential implications of revised residential care regulations for workload, and only 36% of respondents reported being committed to working in the area of LTC dietetics in the future. This study highlights practice-related challenges and future opportunities to build the LTC dietetic workforce, and can inform planning for training, recruitment, and retention.

  8. Low-flow hydraulic geometry of small, steep mountain streams in southwest British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Donald E.; Hickin, Edward J.; Babakaiff, Scott C.

    2010-10-01

    This investigation explores the at-a-station hydraulic geometry (AHG) of small, steep mountain streams at low discharge. Thirteen reaches in five tributaries of Chilliwack River, British Columbia, ranging in size from 12 to 77 km 2 are examined. The resulting data set is composed of eight to twelve measurements of water-surface width, mean depth, and mean velocity at each of 61 cross sections or 625 unique combinations of the three variables. Mean velocity in a given cross section responds most rapidly to changing discharge, and 31 of the 61 cross sections have velocity exponents that are greater than the water-surface width and mean-depth exponents combined. The velocity exponent ( m) averages 0.51, while the mean water-surface width exponent ( b) and mean-depth exponent ( f) average 0.20 and 0.29, respectively. Somewhat surprisingly, the AHG of steep mountain streams can be reasonably predicted from just a few measurements of the primary flow variables and stream discharge. While conditions at the cross section appear predictable from a few measurements, extrapolating the results from one cross section to another in the same reach involves large errors. The section-to-section variability of the exponents and coefficients, even when they are located in similar channel units such as riffles, prevents accurate extrapolation to unmeasured cross sections.

  9. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Jane A; Sebastian, Renee; Clearsky, Lorne; Angus, Natalie; Shah, Lena; Lem, Marcus; Spacey, Sian D

    2011-01-21

    An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America.Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74%) of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55%) had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48%) cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents.Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  10. Phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate humid regions of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2009-08-01

    The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the aboveground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  11. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  12. Stability and mechanism of failure of The Barrier, southwest British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, Peter

    The Barrier is a steep, 250 m-high escarpment of dacite in Garibaldi Provincial Park, British Columbia. The lava flow comprises four lobes, two of which (Lobes 3 and 4) came into contact with the late Pleistocene Cordilleran ice sheet. Lobe 3 was the source of a major landslide in 1855-1856 and a smaller event in 1977. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms responsible for landslides from The Barrier. Methods that I applied include magnetic surveys to determine the three-dimensional character of lava flows forming The Barrier, long-range photogrammetry to map the structure of the escarpment in digital terrain models, field mapping, distinct element modelling, and passive seismic landslide monitoring. Of particular importance to the stability of The Barrier are ice-contact structures in the volcanic rocks, which provide clues about emplacement environments. Results show that The Barrier should be considered potentially unstable and that past instability is intimately linked to structures produced by emplacement of the lavas against glacier ice. My work also provides new geophysical and geomechanical data for The Barrier. Keywords: The Barrier; landslide; rock fall; Garibaldi Provincial Park; Pleistocene; magnetic survey; photogrammetry; survey; UDEC; geophysics; modelling; distinct element code; Voronoi; tessellation; ice-contact volcanism.

  13. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice Py; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-02-08

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P < 0.05). Influenza peaked at low temperature or high temperature with high RH. Temperature and VP are important weather factors in developing a universal model to explain seasonal outbreaks of influenza. However, further research is needed to assess the association between weather factors and influenza activity in a wider context of social and environmental conditions.

  14. Physiological effects of work stress and pesticide exposure in tree planting by British Columbia silviculture workers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D G; Trites, D G; Banister, E W

    1993-08-01

    Tree planters in British Columbia have reported symptoms that are congruent with musculoskeletal stress and organophosphate or carbamate pesticide intoxication. The purpose of this research was to determine the existence of any physiological or biochemical correlate supporting the existence of these potential hazards in tree planting. Worker's health complaints were assessed from regularly distributed questionnaires. Blood samples were obtained from 14 male and three female Canadian subjects before and after tree planting work on 10 occasions throughout a tree planting season. The strenuous physical challenge of tree planting was confirmed by a significant elevation of serum enzyme activity (ESEA) at the beginning of the season, which did not return to a normal level during the remainder of the season. Significant (p < or = 0.05) inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) postwork was observed in 15.9% of individuals, and a significant group mean prework-postwork difference of AChE or plasma pseudocholinesterase (PChE) was observed on two days of testing, indicating a potential toxicological hazard from pesticide absorption. No correlation was found between the degree of ESEA or cholinesterase inhibition and the number of health complaints.

  15. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Entanglement in and ingestion of synthetic marine debris is increasingly recognized worldwide as an important stressor for marine wildlife, including marine mammals. Studying its impact on wildlife populations is complicated by the inherently cryptic nature of the problem. The coastal waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada provide important habitat for marine mammal species, many of which have unfavorable conservation status in the US and Canada. As a priority-setting exercise, we used data from systematic line-transect surveys and spatial modeling methods to map at-sea distribution of debris and 11 marine mammal species in BC waters, and to identify areas of overlap. We estimated abundance of 36,000 (CIs: 23,000-56,600) pieces of marine debris in the region. Areas of overlap were often far removed from urban centers, suggesting that the extent of marine mammal-debris interactions would be underestimated from opportunistic sightings and stranding records, and that high-overlap areas should be prioritized by stranding response networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Satisfaction of recent University of British Columbia dietetics graduates with undergraduate education and current job.

    PubMed

    Barr, S I; Russell, K A

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the career status of recent University of British Columbia (UBC) dietetics graduates and their satisfaction with undergraduate education and current job. All graduates from the UBC Dietetics Program between 1978-1987, inclusive (n = 238), were mailed questionnaires. Information was sought regarding success in obtaining a dietetic internship, current employment status, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with undergraduate education. Questionnaires were returned by 67% (n = 130) of those who received them. Approximately 83% were eventually successful in obtaining an internship. Most respondents (68.5%) were employed as dietitian/nutritionists, and 69% of those who were employed worked full-time. Those who interned had significantly higher salaries than those who did not. A measure of overall job satisfaction revealed that 89.6% were satisfied to very satisfied with their present job, and scores on the Brayfield-Rothe Index of Job Satisfaction revealed no differences between those who did and did not intern. With regard to undergraduate education, respondents were most satisfied with library resources, class size and quality of teaching, and least satisfied with internship opportunities. Those who had interned were significantly more satisfied with their undergraduate education than were those who had not. We conclude that success in obtaining a dietetic internship affects salary and satisfaction with undergraduate education, but does not affect job satisfaction.

  17. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  18. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  19. Respiratory health in chrysotile asbestos miners in British Columbia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Enarson, D A; Embree, V; MacLean, L; Grzybowski, S

    1988-01-01

    A respiratory survey was undertaken in chrysotile asbestos miners in British Columbia consisting of a questionnaire, spirometry, chest radiography, and physical examination. The tests were performed in 1977 and again in 1983. The population groups studied included 63 "exposed" (working in the plant more than nine years), 52 "controls" (working in the plant less than five years), and 38 residents of the village at the minesite. A subset of 39 was identified with high exposure (worked in the mill more than five years). Measured levels of environmental particulates were similar over the entire period of operation of the plant (1.4 to 14.0 million particles per cubic foot and 0.7-88.0 fibres/cc in the mill; 0.2 to 2.7 mpcf and 0.6 to 9.3 f/cc in the mine). The exposed groups were more likely to report cough and breathlessness than the two other groups and were also more likely to have abnormal FVC and chest x ray films (the latter not significant, p greater than 0.05) and to be more likely to have a combination of these abnormalities. There was no trend to progression in the combination of abnormalities associated with exposure on follow up. The heavily exposed group showed a significantly worse trend in FVC. This adverse trend was confined to those with initial abnormalities. Tobacco smoking did not increase the trend to progression in this group. PMID:2840111

  20. Holocene disturbance dynamics from a pine-dominated forest in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. J.; Hebda, N.; Condor, N.; Hebda, R.; Hawkes, B.

    2013-12-01

    A lake sediment record was retrieved from the Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce biogeoclimatic zone on the Chilcotin Plateau in central British Columbia, Canada. The record is being analyzed for charcoal, pollen, and magnetic susceptibility, as well as insect and mollusc content. The oldest radiocarbon age is 9.2 cal BP, illustrating that the record spans most of the Holocene. Regarding fire disturbance, charcoal fragments are persistent throughout the core, revealing that fire disturbance has characterized the site for millennia. In total, 74 fire events were recognized. During the warm dry early Holocene, fire frequency was 12-15 fires 2000 yr-1 and peak magnitudes were low, possibly in response to a more open landscape. A change in fire regime occurred at ca. 5000 cal BP, as fire frequency increased, peaking at ca. 20 fires 2000 yr-1 by 3000 cal BP. Peak magnitude likewise increased notably, possibly in response to the development of denser forest cover. On-going analysis of pollen will better constrain the vegetation history in this poorly sampled region. In contrast to charcoal, which was pervasive, Dendroctonus ponderosae (mountain pine beetle) remains were absent in both modern and paleo samples. Given that several insect outbreaks have occurred in the region in the last 100 years, the scarcity of remains is likely related to taphonomic issues.

  1. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time.

  2. Sub-tidal Circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles; Foreman, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in Kitimat fjord system that opens to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. The fjord is separated from the open shelf by a broad sill that is about 150 m deep, and there is another sill (200 m) that separates the fjord into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected from three moorings deployed during 2013-2015, and the water property observations collected during six cruises (2014 and 2015). Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill-depth. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from early June to September, and this dense water renews both basins in the form of gravity currents at 0.1 - 0.2 m/s with a thickness of 100 m. At other times of the year, the deep flow structures and water properties suggest horizontal and vertical processes and support the re-circulation idea in the inner and the outer basins. The near surface current velocity fluctuations are dominated by the along-channel wind. Overall, the circulation in the meteorological band is a mix of the estuarine flow, direct wind driven flow, and the baroclinic response to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind driven currents.

  3. Microbial community dynamics in a seasonally anoxic fjord: Saanich Inlet, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Walsh, David A; Stilwell, Claire P; Mohn, William W; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration plays a major role in shaping biotic interactions and nutrient flows within marine ecosystems. Throughout the global ocean, regions of low dissolved oxygen concentration (hypoxia) are a common and expanding feature of the water column, with major feedback on productivity and greenhouse gas cycling. To better understand microbial diversity underlying biogeochemical transformations within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters, we monitored and quantified bacterial and archaeal community dynamics in relation to dissolved gases and nutrients during a seasonal stratification and deep water renewal cycle in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, a seasonally anoxic fjord. A number of microbial groups partitioned within oxygen-deficient waters including Nitrospina and SAR324 affiliated with the delta-proteobacteria, SAR406 and gamma-proteobacteria related to thiotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. Microbial diversity was highest within the hypoxic transition zone decreasing dramatically within anoxic basin waters and temporal patterns of niche partitioning were observed along defined gradients of oxygen and phosphate. These results provide a robust comparative phylogenetic framework for inferring systems metabolism of nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycling within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and establish Saanich Inlet as a tractable model for studying the response of microbial communities to changing levels of water column hypoxia.

  4. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles <5 mm, are an emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. Because microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  5. Summertime climate response to mountain pine beetle disturbance in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H.; Kushner, P. J.; Fung, I.

    2013-01-01

    The present mountain pine beetle infestation in forests in British Columbia ranks among the largest ecological disturbances recorded in Canada so far. These recent outbreaks are thought to have been favoured by large-scale climatic shifts, and may foreshadow outbreaks of a similar magnitude in North American forests over the coming decades. The associated forest dieback could result in substantial shifts in evapotranspiration and albedo, thereby altering the local surface energy balance, and in turn regional temperature and climate. Here we quantify the impact of the Canadian pine beetle disturbance on the local summertime surface energy budget, using measurements of evapotranspiration, albedo and surface temperature, obtained primarily through remote sensing. We show that over the 170,000km2 of affected forest, the typical decrease in summertime evapotranspiration is 19%. Changes to the absorbed short-wave flux are negligible, in comparison. As a result, outgoing sensible and radiative heat fluxes increased by 8% and 1%, respectively, corresponding to a typical increase in surface temperature of 1°C. These changes are comparable to those observed for other types of disturbance, such as wildfire, and may have secondary consequences for climate, including modifications to circulation, cloud cover and precipitation.

  6. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    PubMed Central

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  7. The role of compressive stresses in jointing on Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessinger, Brad; Cook, Neville G. W.; Myer, Larry; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Benito, Pascual; Suarez-Rivera, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    This study demonstrates that joint-parallel compressive stresses were integral to the development of joint sets on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The mapped study area contains paleostress indicators in the form of calcareous concretions, which have multiple, internal fractures in precisely the same orientation as one of the surrounding joint sets in the sandstone matrix. Field and laboratory tests indicate that the stiffest concretions are the most likely to be fractured; however, results from numerical simulations using measured rock properties preclude an origin for the concretion fractures from either a far-field uniaxial tensile or compressive stress. Fracturing is only found to be possible if the concretions possessed a lower Poisson's ratio than the sandstone at the time of fracturing. In the latter case, a far-field uniaxial compressive stress may have generated tensile effective stresses in the vicinity of high modulus concretions, seeding the field site with an initial population of concretion fractures and joints. Given the close spacing of some joints, their extension cannot be satisfactorily explained without invoking grain-scale compression-driven tensile fracturing mechanisms.

  8. Outcomes in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: analysis of 107 patients treated in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Xing, Katharine H; Kahlon, Amrit; Skinnider, Brian F; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Sehn, Laurie H; Savage, Kerry J; Slack, Graham W; Shenkier, Tamara N; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Villa, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) accounts for less than 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We identified 107 cases diagnosed with SMZL between 1985 and 2012 from the British Columbia Cancer Agency Centre for Lymphoid Cancer and Lymphoma Pathology Databases. Patient characteristics were: median age 67 years (range 30-88), male 40%, stage IV 98%, splenomegaly 93%, bone marrow involvement 96%, peripheral blood involvement 87%. As initial treatment, 52 underwent splenectomy (10 with chemotherapy), 38 chemotherapy alone (21 chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, 1 rituximab alone), two antivirals for hepatitis C, and 15 were only observed. The 10-year overall survival for first-line splenectomy versus chemotherapy was 61% and 42%, respectively [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0·48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·26-0·88, P = 0·017]. The 10-year failure-free survival (FFS) after first-line splenectomy vs chemotherapy was 39% and 14%, respectively (HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·28-0·80, P = 0·004). Among the 38 patients who received first-line chemotherapy, FFS was similar between those receiving rituximab (n = 22) and those who did not (n = 16) (HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·31-1·34, P = 0·238). Fifteen patients transformed to aggressive lymphoma with median time to transformation of 3·5 years (range 6 months to 12 years) and the 10-year transformation rate was 18%. In conclusion, splenectomy remains a reasonable treatment for patients with SMZL.

  9. Remote Sensing Analysis of a Rapidly Eroding Sea Cliff at Point Grey, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westin, A. M.; Francioni, M.; Kremsater, R.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    A range of remote sensing tools can be used to document hazardous and sensitive environments. Presented at this time are the first results of an ongoing study of a rapidly eroding, steep sea cliff in Vancouver, British Columbia. The sea cliff is formed in a 70-m-thick sequence of outwash sands and silts (Quadra Sand) deposited during the early part of the last glaciation, known locally as the Fraser Glaciation. The sea cliff is unstable and retreating due to wave attack, groundwater seepage, and shallow-seated landslides. If no measures are taken to stem wave erosion, the sea cliff will likely retreat faster with rising seas over the remainder of this century. The beach below the cliff is a popular recreational location, thus a hard engineering solution to the erosion problem might be unacceptable to Vancouver residents. We have used conventional photogrammetry, structures from motion, thermal imaging, and terrestrial full waveform laser scanning to provide base-line spatial data for the most rapidly eroding section of the cliff. Here, we present some of our results and discuss the challenges that we faced in characterizing this large soil slope.

  10. Isotopic studies of the diet of the people of the coast of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Henry P; Chisholm, Brian S; Burchell, Meghan

    2014-11-01

    In 1982, Chisholm et al. used δ(13) C data for human burials from shell midden sites widely distributed on the coast of British Columbia (BC) to show the extreme dependence of these individuals on high trophic level marine consumers, principally salmon and marine mammals. Here, we present previously unpublished analyses of δ(15) N for some of the same individuals as well as δ(13) C data for additional individuals. Nitrogen isotope data show that the diet was dominated by high trophic level marine fauna including carnivorous fish and marine mammals. Although most burials were found in shell middens, marine mollusks made up of only a minor component of diet. The data for δ(13) C demonstrate that terrestrial faunal foods are undetectable in the diet of the majority of individuals, and seldom constitute more than 10% of the dietary protein of individuals living on the coast although terrestrial fauna were widely available as a potential source of protein. This dietary pattern of exclusion of land-based animals from their diet persisted for almost 6,000 years along a wide expanse of coastline. In contrast, people from the BC interior (100 km or more from the coast) consumed a mixed diet of terrestrial and marine foods including spawning salmon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  12. Aquifer responses to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Southwest British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sean W; Quilty, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    We used climatological composite analysis to investigate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals in long-term shallow ground water level observations from four wells in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Significance of differences between warm-phase, cold-phase, and neutral climate states was assessed with a Monte Carlo bootstrap technique. We also considered time series of local precipitation and streamflow for comparison. Composite annual hyetographs suggest that ENSO precipitation impacts are largely limited to winter and spring, with higher and lower rainfall occurring, respectively, under cold-phase and warm-phase episodes. This is consistent with prior work in the region and is found to be directly reflected in both streamflow and ground water level data. The mean magnitude of ENSO terrestrial hydrologic anomalies can be up to approximately 50% of the average seasonal cycle amplitude. ENSO does not appear to systematically affect annual hydrometeorological cycle timing in this study area. However, relative to the surface hydrologic systems considered, aquifers are observed to retain a stronger memory of seasonal ENSO-related precipitation anomalies, with changes potentially extending through the following summer, presumably reflecting storage effects. Most responses appear to be somewhat nonlinear.

  13. Impact of hospital volume on quality indicators for rectal cancer surgery in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    McColl, Ryan J; McGahan, Colleen E; Cai, Eric; Olson, Rob; Cheung, Winson Y; Raval, Manoj J; Phang, Paul Terry; Karimuddin, Ahmer A; Brown, Carl J

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between hospital volume and patient outcomes remains controversial for rectal cancer. This is a population-based database study. Patients treated with surgery for a stage I to III rectal adenocarcinoma from 2003 to 2009 were identified. High-volume hospitals (HVH) were those centers performing 20 surgeries or more per year. Primary outcomes were operative and perioperative factors that have proven influence on patient outcomes. In all, 2,081 patients had surgery for rectal cancer. Of these, 1,690 patients had surgery in an HVH and 391 had surgery in a low-volume hospital. On multivariate analysis, patients who had surgery in an HVH were more likely to have sphincter-preserving surgery, 12 or more lymph nodes removed with the tumor, neoadjuvant radiation therapy, and receive pre-operative or postoperative chemotherapy. For rectal cancer patients in British Columbia, Canada, being treated at an HVH is associated with several quality indicators linked to better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational female breast and reproductive cancer mortality in British Columbia, Canada, 1950-94.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Amy C; Le, Nhu D; Abanto, Zenaida U; Gallagher, Richard P

    2007-06-01

    It has been postulated that recent increases in female breast and reproductive cancers may be, in part, attributable to occupational exposures. We aimed to identify occupational associations with female breast and reproductive cancer mortality among women living in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Case-control methods were used to calculate mortality odds ratios for occupation and cause of death information obtained from the provincial death registry. Cases included women 20 years of age or older who died from breast or reproductive cancer between 1950 and 1994 and resident in BC, Canada. Controls were randomly selected from non-cancer deaths, matched according to age at death and year of death. In a subsequent, stratified analysis, we also identified changes over time to breast and reproductive cancer mortality among each worker group. There was excess mortality from breast and ovarian cancer among teachers, nurses, secretaries, librarians, retail sales clerks and religious workers. An elevated risk of breast cancer mortality was also found among professionals employed as owners, managers and government officials, financial saleswomen, scientists, physicians, medical and dental technicians and accountants. Secretaries, telephone operators and musicians were at increased risk of death from endometrial cancer. Cervical cancer mortality was not significantly increased for any occupational classification. Our study was aimed primarily at hypothesis generation. More systematic reviews, including cancer registry studies, will prove useful for confirming the relationships we have observed, including a possible increase in the risk of breast and ovarian cancer mortality among women employed in professional occupations.

  15. Bridging research and practice through the Nursing Research Facilitator Program in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina; Ronquillo, Charlene; Axen, Linda; Black, Agnes; Cummings, Lynn; Chakraborty, Bubli

    2013-12-01

    As Canadian health systems transform to meet changing needs, grounding nursing practice in evidence remains an essential goal for providing safe, high-quality care. nursing research facilitators (NRFs) are strengthening the use of evidence in nursing practice across the province of British Columbia. NRFs are nurses with a research background, whose work is focused on supporting people within health systems to use and do research in their practice and decision-making. Since this role was established in 2009, NRFs have provided facilitative support to over 50 funded research projects, led numerous workshops and journal clubs, and conducted more than 600 research-related consultations. In this paper, we discuss the role and offer exemplars of creative ways in which NRFs are strengthening nurses' engagement in doing and using research by developing capacity for research and evidence-informed practice, building meaningful partnerships and cultivating a culture of curiosity among nurses and other healthcare providers. We reflect on factors contributing to the success of this role and some of the challenges of integration. The paper concludes with a comment on the strategic value of the role.

  16. Does general surgery residency prepare surgeons for community practice in British Columbia?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hamish

    2009-06-01

    Preparing surgeons for clinical practice is a challenging task for postgraduate training programs across Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single surgeon entering practice was adequately prepared by comparing the type and volume of surgical procedures experienced in the last 3 years of training with that in the first year of clinical practice. During the last 3 years of general surgery training, I logged all procedures. In practice, the Medical Services Plan (MSP) of British Columbia tracks all procedures. Using MSP remittance reports, I compiled the procedures performed in my first year of practice. I totaled the number of procedures and broke them down into categories (general, colorectal, laparoscopic, endoscopic, hepatobiliary, oncologic, pediatric, thoracic, vascular and other). I then compared residency training with community practice. I logged a total of 1170 procedures in the last 3 years of residency. Of these, 452 were performed during community rotations. The procedures during residency could be broken down as follows: 392 general, 18 colorectal, 242 laparoscopic, 103 endoscopic, 85 hepatobiliary, 142 oncologic, 1 pediatric, 78 thoracic, 92 vascular and 17 other. I performed a total of 1440 procedures in the first year of practice. In practice the break down was 398 general, 15 colorectal, 101 laparoscopic, 654 endoscopic, 2 hepatobiliary, 77 oncologic, 10 pediatric, 0 thoracic, 70 vascular and 113 other. On the whole, residency provided excellent preparation for clinical practice based on my experience. Areas of potential improvement included endoscopy, pediatric surgery and "other," which comprised mostly hand surgery.

  17. Agricultural pesticide residues of farm runoff in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jen-ni; Soon, Alicia Y; Garrett, Christine; Wan, Michael T K; Pasternak, John P

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine environmental occurrence and concentrations of selected currently-used-pesticides and some transformation products in agricultural farms in the Okanagan Valley (OKV), and to conduct a simple risk assessment of environmental pesticides levels detected in OKV on non-target aquatic organisms. The OKV is the tree fruit country of the Province of British Columbia where considerable amount of pesticides are applied annually. Water, sediment and soil samples were collected at eleven sites in early June and late September following rainfall events and/or extended periods of irrigation from drainage ditches and/or from small streams. Undisturbed reference sites were also sampled. Study results showed that forty of the eighty chemicals analyzed, including organochlorine, nitrogen-containing and organophosphate pesticides commonly used for OKV crops, were detected in runoff and small stream water samples. Among which, endosulfan-sulfate was the most frequently detected chemical. Also, azinophos-methyl (0.699-25.5 ng/L), diazinon (0.088-214 ng/L) exceeded, and α-, β- endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate approached the guidelines for the protection of aquatic life.

  18. Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a survey of registered social workers in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R D; Young, M G

    1998-04-01

    This anonymous postal survey explores the attitudes and experiences concerning voluntary euthanasia (VE) and assisted suicide (AS) held by professionally registered members of the British Columbia Association of Social Workers. Social workers determine only a minor moral distinction between VE and AS and a large majority believe both acts should be legal, in certain circumstances (VE 75.9 per cent; AS 78.2 per cent). Approximately 80.0 per cent feel that social workers should be involved in social policy development concerning VE and AS, and, if such acts were to be legal, 70.0 per cent believe social workers should be involved in the decision making process with clients. Over 21.0 per cent of all social workers and nearly 40.0 per cent of social workers with medical employers have been consulted by a patient about VE or AS. Six respondents (1.1 per cent) reported assisting the death of a patient by VE. None had involvement in AS. Further research and education is required to better inform social work practice in this ethical area. Given the unique position of social workers in health care, they should, for the benefit of patients, families, and physicians, actively participate in the discussion concerning end of life decisions.

  19. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  20. Reservoirs of Selenium in Coal Waste Rock: Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hendry, M Jim; Biswas, Ashis; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Chen, Ning; Day, Stephen J; Barbour, S Lee

    2015-07-07

    Selenium (Se) reservoirs in coal waste rock from the Elk Valley, southeastern British Columbia, the location of Canada's major steelmaking coal mines, were characterized and quantified by analyzing samples collected from the parent rock, freshly blasted waste rock (less than 10 days old), and aged waste rock (deposited between 1982 and 2012). Se is present throughout the waste rock dumps at a mean digestible (SeD) concentration of 3.12 mg/kg. Microprobe analyses show that Se is associated with the primary minerals sphalerite, pyrite, barite, and chalcopyrite and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Selenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analyses indicate that, on average, 21% of Se is present as selenide (Se(2-)) in pyrite and sphalerite, 19% of Se is present as selenite (Se(4+)) in barite, 21% of Se is present as exchangeable Fe oxyhydroxide and clay-adsorbed Se(4+), and 39% of Se is present as organoselenium associated with coaly matter. The dominant source minerals for aqueous-phase Se are pyrite and sphalerite. Secondary Fe oxyhydroxide sequesters, on average, 37% of Se released by pyrite oxidation. Measured long-term Se fluxes from a rock drain at the base of a waste dump suggest that at least 20% of Se(2-)-bearing sulfides were oxidized and released from that dump over the past 30 year period; however, the Se mass lost was not evident in SeD analyses.

  1. 'Heated political dynamics exist ...': examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.

  2. Culicoides Hypersensitivity in the Horse: 15 Cases in Southwestern British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kleider, N.; Lees, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal. The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.Figure 3.FIGURE 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422351

  3. Microbial water quality communication: public and practitioner insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dunn, G; Henrich, N; Holmes, B; Harris, L; Prystajecky, N

    2014-09-01

    This work examines the communication interactions of water suppliers and health authorities with the general public regarding microbial source water quality for recreational and drinking water. We compare current approaches to risk communication observable in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with best practices derived from the communications literature, finding significant gaps between theory and practice. By considering public views and government practices together, we identify key disconnects, leading to the conclusion that at present, neither the public's needs nor public health officials' goals are being met. We find: (1) there is a general lack of awareness and poor understanding by the public of microbial threats to water and the associated health implications; (2) the public often does not know where to find water quality information; (3) public information needs are not identified or met; (4) information sharing by authorities is predominantly one-way and reactive (crisis-oriented); and (5) the effectiveness of communications is not evaluated. There is a need for both improved public understanding of water quality-related risks, and new approaches to ensure information related to water quality reaches audiences. Overall, greater attention should be given to planning and goal setting related to microbial water risk communication.

  4. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  5. Alkali-deficient tourmaline from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Alkali-deficient tourmalines are found in albitized rocks from the hanging-wall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia, Canada). They approximate the Mg-equivalent of foitite with an idealized formula D???(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO 3)3(OH)4. Major chemical substitutions in the tourmalines are the alkali-defect type [Na*(x) + Mg*(Y) = ???(X) + Al(Y)] and the uvite type [Na*(X) + Al(Y) = Ca(X) + Mg*(Y)], where Na* = Na + K, Mg* = Mg + Fe + Mn. The occurrence of these alkali-deficient tourmalines reflects a unique geochemical environment that is either alkali-depleted overall or one in which the alkalis preferentially partitioned into coexisting minerals (e.g. albite). Some of the alkali-deficient tourmalines have unusually high Mn contents (up to 1.5 wt.% MnO) compared to other Sullivan tourmalines. Manganese has a strong preference for incorporation into coexisting garnet and carbonate at Sullivan, thus many tourmalines in Mn-rich rocks are poor in Mn (<0.2 wt.% MnO). It appears that the dominant controls over the occurrence of Mn-rich tourmalines at Sullivan are the local availability of Mn and the lack of other coexisting minerals that may preferentially incorporate Mn into their structures.

  6. Modelling gravel transport and morphology for the Fraser River Gravel Reach, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. S.; Millar, R. G.; Islam, S.

    2008-03-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic-morphological model is developed to investigate gravel transport and channel morphology in a large wandering gravel-bed river, the Fraser River Gravel Reach, in British Columbia, Canada. The model takes into count multi-fraction bedload transport, including the effects of surface coarsening, hiding and protrusion. Model outputs together with river discharge statistics were analyzed, producing distributed sediment budget and well-defined, localised zones of aggradation and degradation along the gravel reach. Long-term channel response to gravel extraction from aggrading zones as a flood hazard mitigation measure was also investigated numerically to assess the effectiveness of such an extraction. The total computed sediment budget agrees well with results based on field measurements of gravel transport available to us. This study points to the importance of a number of factors to bedload predictions: the gravel-to-sand ratio, the adequacy of resolving the wandering planform, and the distinction between bed shear stress driving bedload transport and bed resistance on the flow. These are in addition to the physical processes governing the flow field and gravel mobilization. The methodology presented in this paper can provide a scientific basis for gravel management including monitoring and extraction in order to maintain adequate flood protection and navigation, while preserving the ecosystem.

  7. Taxonomic review of Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent waters, with the description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G

    2014-06-26

    The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp..

  8. Minimum alcohol prices and outlet densities in British Columbia, Canada: estimated impacts on alcohol-attributable hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices were associated with reduced alcohol-attributable hospital admissions in British Columbia. The longitudinal panel study (2002-2009) incorporated minimum alcohol prices, density of alcohol outlets, and age- and gender-standardized rates of acute, chronic, and 100% alcohol-attributable admissions. We applied mixed-method regression models to data from 89 geographic areas of British Columbia across 32 time periods, adjusting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation, moving average effects, season, and a range of economic and social variables. A 10% increase in the average minimum price of all alcoholic beverages was associated with an 8.95% decrease in acute alcohol-attributable admissions and a 9.22% reduction in chronic alcohol-attributable admissions 2 years later. A Can$ 0.10 increase in average minimum price would prevent 166 acute admissions in the 1st year and 275 chronic admissions 2 years later. We also estimated significant, though smaller, adverse impacts of increased private liquor store density on hospital admission rates for all types of alcohol-attributable admissions. Significant health benefits were observed when minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia were increased. By contrast, adverse health outcomes were associated with an expansion of private liquor stores.

  9. Minimum Alcohol Prices and Outlet Densities in British Columbia, Canada: Estimated Impacts on Alcohol-Attributable Hospital Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices were associated with reduced alcohol-attributable hospital admissions in British Columbia. Methods. The longitudinal panel study (2002–2009) incorporated minimum alcohol prices, density of alcohol outlets, and age- and gender-standardized rates of acute, chronic, and 100% alcohol-attributable admissions. We applied mixed-method regression models to data from 89 geographic areas of British Columbia across 32 time periods, adjusting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation, moving average effects, season, and a range of economic and social variables. Results. A 10% increase in the average minimum price of all alcoholic beverages was associated with an 8.95% decrease in acute alcohol-attributable admissions and a 9.22% reduction in chronic alcohol-attributable admissions 2 years later. A Can$ 0.10 increase in average minimum price would prevent 166 acute admissions in the 1st year and 275 chronic admissions 2 years later. We also estimated significant, though smaller, adverse impacts of increased private liquor store density on hospital admission rates for all types of alcohol-attributable admissions. Conclusions. Significant health benefits were observed when minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia were increased. By contrast, adverse health outcomes were associated with an expansion of private liquor stores. PMID:23597383

  10. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  11. Integration of Invertebrate Monitoring Data Into a Chemical-Based Water Quality Index for Selected Rivers in British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, S.; Ryan, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is a recently developed tool used to summarize complex water quality data for communication to senior managers and the public. Within the index, water quality is assessed relative to its desirable state, as defined by water quality objectives, and indicates the degree to which it is affected by human activities. The index combines water quality measures of concern at a particular site (e.g. coliforms, metals, dissolved oxygen) and compares them to objectives to provide a ranking (e.g. good, fair, poor) for rivers and lakes. In British Columbia, the federal and provincial governments collaboratively maintain a network of water quality stations which are sampled routinely for a range of chemical variables. Environment Canada incorporated an annual biomonitoring component at 10 of these stations using the reference condition approach. Benthic invertebrates are used in this approach to assess the health of a stream by comparing expected invertebrate communities with observed communities. At one station the biological community indicated an impaired environment where the CCME WQI indicated "good" water quality. We will discuss options for incorporating the information provided by the benthic invertebrate community into the calculation of the index.

  12. Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

  13. Paleogeography, glacially induced crustal displacement, and Late Quaternary coastlines on the continental shelf of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Renée; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Reid, Robert G. B.; MacLeod, Roger; Smith, Dan J.

    2004-02-01

    Subsequent to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), complex isostatic adjustments resulted from deglaciation, eustatic sea level change, tectonic faulting, and a relatively thin, flexible lithosphere in the Queen Charlotte Islands (QCI) region. A geostatistical interpolation model charts the sequence of evolving landscapes and displays temporal changes in the magnitudes and extent of crustal flexure that accompanied forebulge development on the Late Quaternary northeast Pacific continental shelf between 14.2 and 8.7 ka BP. Wavelength and forebulge amplitude are consistent with thermal modeling implying low upper mantle viscosity and thin elastic lithospheric thickness beneath Queen Charlotte (QC) Sound and Hecate Strait. Glacial ice ˜690 m thick began retreating from Dixon Entrance after 14.5 ka BP ( 14C years ago) and prior to 12.6 ka BP, permitting over 100 m of crustal uplift in northern Hecate Strait. A forebulge persisted in Hecate Strait and QC Sound from 13.2 until after 9.7 ka BP, implying fixed glacial ice on the British Columbia (BC) mainland until ˜10 ka BP. Paleogeographic reconstructions show two emergent ice-free terrains, one extending eastward from the QCI and the other in QC Sound. By ˜11.7 ka BP, a landbridge connected the BC mainland and the QCI.

  14. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  15. The association between population-based treatment guidelines and adjuvant therapy for node-negative breast cancer. British Columbia/Ontario Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Sawka, C.; Olivotto, I.; Coldman, A.; Goel, V.; Holowaty, E.; Hislop, T. G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of province-wide treatment guidelines on consistency of adjuvant therapy for node-negative breast cancer. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, which has province-wide guidelines, and Ontario, which does not. All eligible 1991 incident cases of node-negative breast cancer in British Columbia (n = 942) and a similar number of randomly selected 1991 incident cases in Ontario (n = 938) were reviewed. Consistency of adjuvant therapy received was evaluated by stratifying cases into discrete diagnostic groups using several grouping systems, and by then comparing the distribution of treatments received within each diagnostic group in the two provinces. Recursive partitioning was also performed. We observed that patterns of pathology reporting were consistent with awareness of the factors used in the British Columbia guidelines to define indications for adjuvant therapy. Consistency of care was greater in British Columbia than in Ontario by all diagnostic grouping systems and by recursive partitioning (P < 0.001), and the observed patterns in British Columbia corresponded to the British Columbia guidelines. We conclude that population-based treatment guidelines can play a role in promoting consistent patterns of adjuvant therapy for women with node-negative breast cancer. PMID:9166950

  16. Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead. The Report. Access and Excellence: The Campus 2020 Plan for British Columbia's Post-Secondary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead asked British Columbians to imagine the future of higher learning and to create a plan that will help us get there. This report is that plan. This report is the first comprehensive look at higher education in British Columbia in 45 years. It charts a course for the future that builds on the strengths of the past. While…

  17. Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead. The Report. Access and Excellence: The Campus 2020 Plan for British Columbia's Post-Secondary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead asked British Columbians to imagine the future of higher learning and to create a plan that will help us get there. This report is that plan. This report is the first comprehensive look at higher education in British Columbia in 45 years. It charts a course for the future that builds on the strengths of the past. While…

  18. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following a severe wildfire season in 2003, and several subsequent damaging debris flow and flood events, the British Columbia Forest Service developed a procedure for analysing risks to public safety and infrastructure from such events. At the same time, the Forest Service undertook a research program to determine the extent of post-wildfire hazards, and examine the hydrologic and geomorphic processes contributing to the hazards. The risk analysis procedure follows the Canadian Standards Association decision-making framework for risk management (which in turn is based on international standards). This has several steps: identification of risk, risk analysis and estimation, evaluation of risk tolerability, developing control or mitigation strategies, and acting on these strategies. The Forest Service procedure deals only with the first two steps. The results are passed on to authorities such as the Provincial Emergency Program and local government, who are responsible for evaluating risks, warning residents, and applying mitigation strategies if appropriate. The objective of the procedure is to identify and analyse risks to public safety and infrastructure. The procedure is loosely based on the BAER (burned area emergency response) program in the USA, with some important differences. Our procedure focuses on identifying risks and warning affected parties, not on mitigation activities such as broadcast erosion control measures. Partly this is due to limited staff and financial resources. Also, our procedure is not multi-agency, but is limited to wildfires on provincial forest land; in British Columbia about 95% of forest land is in the publicly-owned provincial forest. Each fire season, wildfires are screened by size and proximity to values at risk such as populated areas. For selected fires, when the fire is largely contained, the procedure begins with an aerial reconnaissance of the fire, and photography with a hand-held camera, which can be used to make a

  19. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with <1 km2 in Prince Rupert under the lowest to highest emissions scenarios. In contrast, the NO2 critical level was not exceeded in Kitimat, and ranged from 4.5 to 6 km2 in Prince Rupert owing to proposed LNG related emissions. Predicted areal exceedance of the critical load of acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21

  20. Discovery of variant infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) of European genotype in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, Molly Jt; Iwamoto, Tokinori; Wang, Yingwei; Morton, Alexandra; Routledge, Richard; Kibenge, Frederick Sb

    2016-01-06

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV occurs in two basic genotypes, North American and European. The European genotype is more widespread and shows greater genetic variation and greater virulence variation than the North American genotype. To date, all of the ISAV isolates from the clinical disease, ISA, have had deletions in the highly polymorphic region (HPR) on ISAV segment 6 (ISAV-HPRΔ) relative to ISAV-HPR0, named numerically from ISAV-HPR1 to over ISAV-HPR30. ISA outbreaks have only been reported in farmed Atlantic salmon, although ISAV has been detected by RT-PCR in wild fish. It is recognized that asymptomatically ISAV-infected fish exist. There is no universally accepted ISAV RT-qPCR TaqMan® assay. Most diagnostic laboratories use the primer-probe set targeting a 104 bp-fragment on ISAV segment 8. Some laboratories and researchers have found a primer-probe set targeting ISAV segment 7 to be more sensitive. Other researchers have published different ISAV segment 8 primer-probe sets that are highly sensitive. In this study, we tested 1,106 fish tissue samples collected from (i) market-bought farmed salmonids and (ii) wild salmon from throughout British Columbia (BC), Canada, for ISAV using real time RT-qPCR targeting segment 8 and/or conventional RT-PCR with segment 8 primers and segment 6 HPR primers, and by virus isolation attempts using Salmon head kidney (SHK-1 and ASK-2) cell line monolayers. The sequences from the conventional PCR products were compared by multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses. Seventy-nine samples were "non-negative" with at least one of these tests in one or more replicates. The ISAV segment 6 HPR sequences from the PCR products matched ISAV variants, HPR5 on 29 samples, one sample had both HPR5 and HPR7b and one matched HPR0. All sequences were of European genotype. In addition, alignment of sequences of the conventional PCR product segment 8 showed they

  1. Stratigraphic and Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Hazelton Trough-Bowser Basin, Northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Jean-Francois

    The Hazelton trough--Bowser basin is a large sedimentary basin that developed on volcanic arc rocks of the Stikine terrane in northern British Columbia, Canada. Its fill mostly consists of the Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group and the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Bowser Lake Group. Regional correlations indicate that the Hazelton Group can be divided in two distinct lithostratigraphic intervals separated in most places by an unconformity. The lower Hazelton Group (LHG) is dominated by arc-related volcanic rocks, whereas the upper Hazelton Group (UHG) contains mainly fine-grained clastic rocks and lesser bimodal rift-related volcanic rocks. Lowermost coarse-grained strata of the UHG, including the bioturbated and fossiliferous units of the Smithers Formation and the Spatisizi River Formation, record a transgressive trend consistent with thermal subsidence and relative sea-level rise. Transgression of the Stikine arc culminated with the establishment of deep-water conditions in the Late Toarcian-Early Aalenian, and deposition of the Quock Formation. Interbedded siliceous mudstone and rusty-weathered tuff of the Quock Formation are correlated throughout most of the basin, except in the Iskut River area on the northwestern margin of the basin, where contemporaneous strata of the Iskut River Formation are dominated by rift-related volcanic rocks and conglomerates. Inception of rifting in the Iskut River area constitutes an independent extensional event on Stikinia, and could be related to reorganization of tectonic plates during a protracted period of terrane accretion in the Middle Jurassic. Obduction of the Cache Creek terrane over Stikinia in early Middle Jurassic provided a new source of sediment, which led to accumulation of the Bowser Lake Group. The second pulse of subsidence observed at Todagin Mountain can be explained by sediment loading of the accommodation previously generated during extension of the Hazelton trough in Early Jurassic time.

  2. Measurement of plant-available zinc in British Columbia orchard soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, D.; Hoyt, P.B.; MacKenzie, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc availability in 20 southern British Columbia orchard soils was examined in the greenhouse. Zinc concentration, uptake and yield in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were measured and compared with soil Zn extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ at three concentrations (1.0 M, 0.50 and 0.25 M), DTPA, 0.10 M HCl and 0.05 M HCl + 0.0125 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Adding Zn at the rate of 10 mg/kg did not increase yields. Available Zn varied greatly as measured by the soil tests and by plant Zn concentration and uptake. These availability indices, except for plant Zn concentration, varied directly with Bray-P1 extractable P and organic matter content. Plant Zn uptake and concentration and MgCl/sub 2/ extractable Zn also varied inversely with pH. Zinc extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ was more closely related to plant Zn concentration and uptake than Zn extracted by the other three extractants. Furthermore, extraction of Zn with 0.25 M MgCl/sub 2/ instead of with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ decreased analytical difficulties with atomic absorption spectrophotometry and also resulted in improved relationships with plant Zn concentration. Comparisons between Zn and Mn extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ solutions ranging from 1.0 M to 0.01 M in strength and at different soil:extractant ratios indicated that 0.25 M MgCl/sub 2/ extracted less specifically adsorbed Zn than 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ which resulted in the improved relationship with plant Zn.

  3. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jessica A; Cloutier, Ryan N; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides-a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates-began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  4. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  5. Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608

  6. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in Northern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We defined patterns of habitat use and selection by female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Besa-Prophet watershed of northern British Columbia. We fitted 13 adult females with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars and monitored them between 2001 and 2004. We examined patterns of habitat selection by grizzly bears relative to topographical attributes and 3 potential surrogates of food availability: land-cover class, vegetation biomass or quality (as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and selection value for prey species themselves (moose [Alces alces], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Although vegetation biomass and quality, and selection values for prey were important in seasonal selection by some individual bears, land-cover class, elevation, aspect, and vegetation diversity most influenced patterns of habitat selection across grizzly bears, which rely on availability of plant foods and encounters with ungulate prey. Grizzly bears as a group avoided conifer stands and areas of low vegetation diversity, and selected for burned land-cover classes and high vegetation diversity across seasons. They also selected mid elevations from what was available within seasonal ranges. Quantifying relative use of different attributes helped place selection patterns within the context of the landscape. Grizzly bears used higher elevations (1,595??31 m SE) in spring and lower elevations (1,436??27 m) in fall; the range of average elevations used among individuals was highest (500 m) during the summer. During all seasons, grizzly bears most frequented aspects with high solar gain. Use was distributed across 10 land-cover classes and depended on season. Management and conservation actions must maintain a diverse habitat matrix distributed across a large elevational gradient to ensure persistence of grizzly bears as levels of human access increase in the northern Rocky Mountains

  7. The influence of surface mining on runoff timing and flow pathways, Elk Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock thereby allowing access to mineable ore. The removed waste rock is deposited in adjacent valleys where it may bury existing streams. Previous research, predominantly in Appalachia, has focused on downstream water quality impacts with less focus on how streamflow response and flow pathways are affected by surface mining. This study reports on how surface mining affects streamflow hydrological and chemical responses at the headwater catchment scale in the Elk Valley, British Columbia. A paired catchment approach was utilized between May and October 2012, where a reference catchment (Dry Creek - DC) was compared to an impacted catchment (West Line Creek - WLC), whose area is ~30% covered by deposited waste rock. Hydrometrically, WLC had considerably lower flows and exhibited a damped, slower response to precipitation events than DC. Dissolved ions were an order of magnitude greater in WLC, with conductivity (SpC) ranging between 400 μS/cm at high flow to 1300 μS/cm at low flow. A strong hysteretic pattern was observed between SpC and flow and with specific ions at WLC, suggesting dilution or changing flowpaths as the season progressed. In contrast, patterns of SpC and flow at DC did not exhibit hysteresis. Major ion hydrochemistry at WLC shows dilution affecting ion concentrations whereas results at DC are consistent with chemostatic behavior. Stable isotopes were more depleted at DC compared with WLC, suggesting different sources and timing of water contributing to streamflow. Future research will work towards a conceptual model of surface mining impacts on catchment scale processes in montane environments through increased understanding of residence time and flowpath distributions at a number of impacted and reference catchments. .

  8. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  9. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Ryan N.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  10. Does general surgery residency prepare surgeons for community practice in British Columbia?

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hamish

    2009-01-01

    Background Preparing surgeons for clinical practice is a challenging task for postgraduate training programs across Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single surgeon entering practice was adequately prepared by comparing the type and volume of surgical procedures experienced in the last 3 years of training with that in the first year of clinical practice. Methods During the last 3 years of general surgery training, I logged all procedures. In practice, the Medical Services Plan (MSP) of British Columbia tracks all procedures. Using MSP remittance reports, I compiled the procedures performed in my first year of practice. I totaled the number of procedures and broke them down into categories (general, colorectal, laparoscopic, endoscopic, hepatobiliary, oncologic, pediatric, thoracic, vascular and other). I then compared residency training with community practice. Results I logged a total of 1170 procedures in the last 3 years of residency. Of these, 452 were performed during community rotations. The procedures during residency could be broken down as follows: 392 general, 18 colorectal, 242 laparoscopic, 103 endoscopic, 85 hepatobiliary, 142 oncologic, 1 pediatric, 78 thoracic, 92 vascular and 17 other. I performed a total of 1440 procedures in the first year of practice. In practice the break down was 398 general, 15 colorectal, 101 laparoscopic, 654 endoscopic, 2 hepatobiliary, 77 oncologic, 10 pediatric, 0 thoracic, 70 vascular and 113 other. Conclusion On the whole, residency provided excellent preparation for clinical practice based on my experience. Areas of potential improvement included endoscopy, pediatric surgery and “other,” which comprised mostly hand surgery. PMID:19503663

  11. Characterization of noise and carbon monoxide exposures among professional firefighters in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Tracy L; Koehoorn, Mieke W; Davies, Hugh; Demers, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    To characterize exposures to noise and carbon monoxide (CO) among firefighters in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were recruited from 13 fire halls across three municipalities in Metro Vancouver. Personal full-shift noise and CO samples were collected using datalogging noise dosimeters and CO monitors on both day and night shifts. Determinants of exposure (DoE) information were recorded by trained research staff and hygienists through direct observation during the measurement period. In total, 113 noise and 156 CO samples were collected from 45 male firefighters, aged 41.0 ± 7.2 years with 14.2 ± 9.0 years of experience. Mean L(eq) and peak noise levels were 81.1 ± 4.8 dBA and 137.1 ± 5.2 dB, respectively; 45% of samples exceeded occupational limits. Noise levels were significantly greater on day shifts, among firefighters in non-supervisory jobs, for those working on engine and rescue trucks, by number of emergency calls they attended and in particular for motor vehicle accident (MVA) and building alarms calls, if subjects worked near or used fire equipment, or if they participated in active firefighting training activities. Full-shift and peak CO levels were 1.0 ppm [geometric mean (GM) = 0.7, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.8] and 42.9 ppm (GM = 9.95, GSD = 5.6), respectively; 1% of CO samples exceeded occupational limits. Both full-shift and peak CO levels were significantly correlated by number of MVAs and building alarms calls. Our results show that firefighters may be at an increased risk of exposure to high noise levels, but CO exposures were lower than anticipated. Additional exposure studies are needed to confirm our results and to better understand the DoE to noise and CO among this occupational group.

  12. Hepatitis B Awareness and Knowledge in Asian Communities in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ford, Jo-Ann; Kwan, Peter Wing Cheung; Chan, Jessica; Choo, Queenie; Lee, Tim K; Kwong, Willie; Huang, Alan; Yoshida, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study examined hepatitis B virus (HBV) awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia (BC). Methods. A statistical random sample representation of Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in Greater Vancouver was surveyed by telephone. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HBV knowledge. Results. General awareness of HBV was reported in 78.8% (798/1013). HBV awareness was the highest in Chinese (89%) and Filipino (88%) populations and the lowest in the South Asian (56%) population. "Reasonable" knowledge of HBV was elicited in 76.8% (778/1013). Higher HBV knowledge was associated with younger age (p = 0.014), higher education (p < 0.0001), Chinese ethnicity (p < 0.0001), and use of media (p = 0.01) and Internet (p = 0.024) for health information. Compared to the Chinese (OR = 1.0) population, "reasonable" knowledge of HBV was lower in Korean (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.5), Filipino (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6), South Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.4), and Southeast Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) populations. 54.8% (555/1013) felt that HBV education was inadequate and 80.1% (811/1013) preferred HBV education in their native languages. Conclusion. Compared to the Chinese population, other Asian communities in BC have lower HBV awareness and knowledge. Public education should target older and less educated and Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in their native languages via media and Internet.

  13. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Treatment outcomes for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis under program conditions in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kamila; Chiang, Leslie Y; Roth, David Z; Krajden, Mel; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Victoria J; Johnston, James C

    2017-09-04

    Every year, over 1 million people develop isoniazid (INH) resistant tuberculosis (TB). Yet, the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. Given increasing prevalence, the clinical efficacy of regimens used by physicians is of interest. This study aims to examine treatment outcomes of INH resistant TB patients, treated under programmatic conditions in British Columbia, Canada. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for cases of culture-confirmed INH mono-resistant TB reported to the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) from 2002 to 2014. Treatment regimens, patient and strain characteristics, and clinical outcomes were analysed. One hundred sixty five cases of INH mono-resistant TB were included in analysis and over 30 different treatment regimens were prescribed. Median treatment duration was 10.5 months (IQR 9-12 months) and treatment was extended beyond 12 months for 26 patients (15.8%). Fifty six patients (22.6%) experienced an adverse event that resulted in a drug regimen modification. Overall, 140 patients (84.8%) had a successful treatment outcome while 12 (7.2%) had an unsuccessful treatment outcome of failure (n = 2; 1.2%), relapse (n = 4; 2.4%) or all cause mortality (n = 6; 3.6%). Our treatment outcomes, while consistent with findings reported from other studies in high resource settings, raise concerns about current recommendations for INH resistant TB treatment. Only a small proportion of patients completed the recommended treatment regimens. High quality studies to confirm the effectiveness of standardized regimens are urgently needed, with special consideration given to trials utilizing fluoroquinolones.

  15. Opinions and preferences of British Columbia pharmacists and physicians on medication management services

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Nicole W.; Khakban, Amir; Gastonguay, Louise; Zafari, Zafar; Lynd, Larry D.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medication management (MM) services are being provided by pharmacists across Canada in various forms, but pharmacist-physician collaboration is still not a routine practice in most jurisdictions. This survey aimed to gather pharmacists’ and physicians’ opinions and preferences for MM provision. Methods: Two parallel, cross-sectional online surveys, including best-worst scaling tasks, were designed for pharmacists and physicians in British Columbia to capture and compare their preferences for a number of attributes of MM. Results: Surveys were completed by 119 pharmacists and 146 physicians. Results indicate that pharmacists and physicians had similar opinions on many aspects of MM. Ninety-five percent of pharmacists and 69% of physicians believed that additional health services are needed to help patients optimize the use of their medications. However, the majority of each group felt that they were the most important health care professional in providing this service. Most pharmacists (79%) and some physicians (25%) thought that optimizing use of medications would result in both decreased costs and utilization to the health care system. Both pharmacists and physicians felt that the best attribute of an MM service would be if the services resulted in improved health and medication use for patients. Both groups were motivated by increased remuneration for MM; however, the relative strength of preference for this was higher among physicians. Interestingly, physicians valued improved medication adherence as a result of MM more highly than pharmacists did. Discussion and Conclusion: Most pharmacists and physicians agreed that improving patients’ health and medication use would be the best attribute of MM and that there is a need for such services. However, physicians also had strong preferences for being remunerated for participating in MM provision. PMID:28286592

  16. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  17. Atmospheric forcing of tsunami-like waves along the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, I.; Sepic, J.; Thomson, R.; Rabinovich, A.

    2012-12-01

    A unique set of high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic data is being used to study atmospheric forcing of tsunami-like long-period ocean surface oscillations off southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. In this study, the pronounced events of 13 July 2007 and 17 October 2009 are examined using a network of 6 tide gauges and 40 high-resolution meteorological stations, all with sampling intervals of 1 min, spanning an area of 50 ×70 km2.. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations with amplitudes of up to 3 hPa over a 1 minute period are identified as the main forcing mechanism for the observed extreme ocean motions. Atmospheric pressure oscillations capable of generating strong sea level oscillations are found to propagate northward with a speed equal to the speed of long ocean waves in water depths of 40 to 90 m (20 to 30 m/s). The forcing region is limited to 10 to 30 km in the direction of wave propagation and to 25 to 100 km in the direction normal to the direction of propagation. The high correlation between the wind and air pressure fluctuations during the event, combined with the non-dispersive nature of the atmospheric pressure oscillations and the fact that the atmospheric pressure variations propagated for several wavelengths without losing strength, all indicate that the observed air pressure oscillations were trapped atmospheric gravity waves. An analysis of atmospheric vertical profiles supports the thesis that conditions were favorable for wave trapping during both events. The main physical properties of the atmospheric waves and their dispersion characteristics are computed from vertical profiles of air temperature and wind velocity. Good agreement with observations is achieved.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Howard, A. Fuchsia; Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah; Hasan, Haroon; Goddard, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  19. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Stephen N; Olson, John R; Kershner, Jeffrey L; Corbett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish Stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2=0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone.

  20. Radiation oncology and medical physicists quality assurance in British Columbia Cancer Agency Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Mira; Morris, William James; Spadinger, Ingrid; Araujo, Cynthia; Cheung, Arthur; Chng, Nick; Crook, Juanita; Halperin, Ross; Lapointe, Vince; Miller, Stacy; Pai, Howard; Pickles, Tom

    2013-01-01

    To describe in detail British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency (BCCA) Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy (PB) Quality Assurance (QA) Program. The BCCA PB Program was established in 1997. It operates as one system, unified and supported by electronic and information systems, making it a single PB treatment provider for province of BC and Yukon. To date, >4000 patients have received PB (450 implants in 2011), making it the largest program in Canada. The Program maintains a large provincial prospective electronic database with records on all patients, including disease characteristics, risk stratification, pathology, preplan and postimplant dosimetric data, follow-up of prostate-specific antigen, and toxicity outcomes. QA was an integral part of the program since its inception. A formal QA Program was established in 2002, with key components that include: unified eligibility criteria and planning system, comprehensive database, physics and oncologist training and mentorship programs, peer review process, individual performance outcomes and feedback process, structured continuing education and routine assessment of the program's dosimetry, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen outcomes, administration and program leadership that promotes a strong culture of patient safety. The emphasis on creating a robust, broad-based network of skilled providers has been achieved by the program's requirements for training, education, and the QA process. The formal QA process is considered a key factor for the success of cancer control outcomes achieved at BCCA. Although this QA model may not be wholly transferable to all PB programs, some of its key components may be applicable to other programs to ensure quality in PB and patient safety. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-01-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation. PMID:10480460

  2. Anoxia Precedes the end-Triassic Mass Extinction: Evidence from the Kennecott Point Formation, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A. H.; Sepúlveda, J.; Price-Waldman, R.; Williford, K. H.; Whiteside, J. H.; Summons, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE), at 201.4 million years ago, is one of the five largest ecologic disasters of the Phanerozoic eon. Few geologic sections offer the potential to reconstruct environmental and ecological changes at this time in the marine realm with global significance. The Kennecott Point Formation in Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, preserves a thick sequence of calcareous shales and siltstones deposited on late Triassic basaltic rocks interpreted to be an oceanic plateau resting within the Panthalassic basin, the largest ocean basin at the time of the Triassic-Jurassic transition. This section, which spans the late Norian to the mid-Hettangian, is plausibly the most representative of the global ocean system at this time; however, environmental reconstructions have been mostly based on bulk carbon and sulfur isotope records. Here, we present a record of molecular fossils (biomarkers) and indices indicative of ecological and redox changes (i.e., algal steranes and bacterial hopanes, gammacerane index, homohopane index, 2- and 3- methyl hopane indices) from the Kennecott Point Formation to argue for a period of low oxygen conditions associated with increased stratification, ecological changes, and disrupted nutrient cycling directly preceding the end-Triassic mass extinction. We couple these results with biomarkers indicative of terrestrial input and vegetation disturbance (tricyclic diterpanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) to clarify the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry and environmental changes in the terrestrial realm. This record provides new evidence for changing marine conditions preceding and associated with the ETE and allows for a more rigorous investigation into the chronology of events hypothesized to be mechanistically linked to this mass extinction, including abrupt global warming, major alterations to marine primary productivity, and terrestrial vegetation die-off.

  3. Predictors of High Streamflow Events in the Fraser River Basin of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Fraser River basin (FRB) of British Columbia is one of the largest and most important watersheds in Western North America, and is home to a rich diversity of biological species and economic assets that depend implicitly upon its extensive riverine habitats. The hydrology of the FRB is dominated by snow accumulation and melt processes, leading to a prominent annual peak streamflow invariably occurring in June-July. However, while annual peak daily streamflow (APDF) during the spring freshet in the FRB is historically well correlated with basin-averaged, annual maximum snow water equivalent (SWEmax), there are numerous occurrences of anomalously large APDF in below- or near-normal SWEmax years, some of which have resulted in damaging floods in the region. An imperfect understanding of which other climatic factors contribute to these anomalously large APDFs complicates future projections of streamflow magnitude and frequency. We employ the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) process-based hydrological model driven by both observations and an ensemble of CMIP3 climate models in an attempt to discover the proximate causes of anomalous APDF events in the FRB. At several hydrometric stations representing a range of elevations, the relative importance of a set of predictors characterizing the magnitude and timing of rainfall, snowfall, and temperature is examined within a regression framework. The results indicate that next to the magnitude of SWEmax, the rate of warming subsequent to the date of SWEmax is the most influential variable for predicting APDF magnitudes in the lower FRB. Finally, the role of large-scale climate modes of variability for APDF magnitude and timing in the basin will be briefly discussed.

  4. An evaluation of immediate roadside prohibitions for drinking drivers in British Columbia: findings from roadside surveys.

    PubMed

    Beirness, Douglas J; Beasley, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the impact of new immediate roadside prohibitions (IRPs) for drinking drivers introduced in British Columbia in September 2010 as assessed by random roadside surveys of alcohol and drug use among nighttime drivers. Two roadside surveys were conducted prior to and following the introduction of IRPs. Drivers were randomly selected from the traffic stream in 5 cities and asked to provide a breath sample to determine alcohol content and a sample of oral fluid to be tested for the presence of psychoactive drugs. The survey was conducted between the hours of 9:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. on Wednesday through Saturday nights in June 2010 and again in June 2012. Driving after drinking decreased significantly following the introduction of IRPs. In particular, the percentage of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) over 80 mg/dL decreased by 59 percent; drivers with BACs of at least 50 mg/dL decreased by 44 percent. The decreases in drinking and driving were not restricted to specific subgroups of drivers but were universal across age groups, sex, and communities. The results also revealed a changing pattern of drinking of driving. For example, the typical pattern of increased drinking and driving on weekend nights was not observed and the prevalence of drinking drivers on the road during late night hours was less than half that found in 2010. The prevalence of drug use by drivers in 2012 did not change from the levels reported in 2010. The IRP program combined immediate short-term roadside suspensions with vehicle impoundment and monetary penalties to enhance the swiftness, certainty, and perceived severity of sanctions for drinking and driving. The introduction of these measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the prevalence of driving with a BAC over 50 mg/dL and driving with a BAC over 80 mg/dL.

  5. Hepatitis B Awareness and Knowledge in Asian Communities in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ford, Jo-Ann; Kwan, Peter Wing Cheung; Chan, Jessica; Choo, Queenie; Kwong, Willie; Huang, Alan; Yoshida, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study examined hepatitis B virus (HBV) awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia (BC). Methods. A statistical random sample representation of Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in Greater Vancouver was surveyed by telephone. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HBV knowledge. Results. General awareness of HBV was reported in 78.8% (798/1013). HBV awareness was the highest in Chinese (89%) and Filipino (88%) populations and the lowest in the South Asian (56%) population. “Reasonable” knowledge of HBV was elicited in 76.8% (778/1013). Higher HBV knowledge was associated with younger age (p = 0.014), higher education (p < 0.0001), Chinese ethnicity (p < 0.0001), and use of media (p = 0.01) and Internet (p = 0.024) for health information. Compared to the Chinese (OR = 1.0) population, “reasonable” knowledge of HBV was lower in Korean (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.5), Filipino (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.6), South Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.4), and Southeast Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.6) populations. 54.8% (555/1013) felt that HBV education was inadequate and 80.1% (811/1013) preferred HBV education in their native languages. Conclusion. Compared to the Chinese population, other Asian communities in BC have lower HBV awareness and knowledge. Public education should target older and less educated and Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in their native languages via media and Internet. PMID:27446839

  6. Methane Emissions from Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Developments in Northeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, E. E.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Marshall, A. D.; Werring, J.

    2016-12-01

    If we are to attain the recent North American goals to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, we must understand emission patterns across developments of different types. In this study we quantified the incidence of CH4 emissions from unconventional natural gas infrastructure accessing the Montney play in British Columbia, Canada. We used mobile surveying to collect CH4 and CO2 measurements over 11,000 km of survey campaigns. Our routes brought us past more than 1600 unique well pads and facilities, and we repeated the six routes 7-10 times during summer (2015) and winter (2016) to explore temporal variability. Well pads and facilities were considered probable emission sources only if they were upwind by 500 m or less from the survey vehicle, and on-road concentrations were in excess of local background. In the summer campaigns we found that 47% of individual active production wells emitted CH4-rich plumes, and most of them emitted persistently across repeat surveys. Older infrastructure tended to emit more frequently (per unit), with comparable severity to younger infrastructure in terms of measured excess concentrations on-road. About 26% of abandoned wells were also found to be emitting. Extrapolating our emission incidence values across all abandoned oil and gas infrastructure in the BC portion of the Montney, we estimate that there are more than 550 abandoned wells in this area that could be emitting CH4-rich plumes. The results of this study suggest that analyzing emitting infrastructure by ages and operational differences can help delineate emission trends. Considering the recent industry downturn, our results also highlight the importance of focusing emission reduction efforts on abandoned and suspended infrastructure, as well as active. This is the first bottom-up monitoring study of fugitive emissions in the Canadian energy sector, and the results can be used to inform policy development to reduce energy-related emissions.

  7. A Retrospective Review of Chemotherapy for Patients with Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Duerr, Donat; Ellard, Susan; Zhai, Yongliang; Taylor, Marianne; Rao, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is associated with a poor prognosis. It is an uncommon malignancy and therefore difficult to study. Randomized phase III trials are not available to guide best approaches. The Provincial Cancer Registry of the British Columbia Cancer Agency contains long-term data on patients with SBA. The authors analyzed characteristics and treatment outcomes for SBA patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2008. Material and methods: Charts of 150 patients with a histological diagnosis of SBA were retrospectively analyzed. Epidemiological and treatment data were collected. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Baseline characteristics, such as median age at diagnosis (64.5 years), tumor stage (I-II 33%, III-IV 58%, unknown 9%), and location (duodenum 48%, jejunum 31%, ileum 21%) were consistent with published data. 55% of patients had a positive family history of cancer. DFS and OS of 29 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were not significantly different to that of 47 patients without (p = 1 and p = 0.211, respectively). In the palliative setting patients treated with polychemotherapy (21 patients) had statistically better OS than patients treated with monochemotherapy (12 patients) (p = 0.0228). Conclusions: Our study suggests a survival benefit for advanced-stage SBA patients treated with poly- versus monochemotherapy. This, however, was a retrospective analysis with several potential confounders. Nevertheless, our study adds to the evidence suggesting that chemotherapy may be beneficial for patients with SBA, at least in the palliative setting. PMID:27994666

  8. Five-Year Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in British Columbia (2010-2015).

    PubMed

    Golby, Riley; Poirier, Brigitte; Fabros, Marife; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Yousefi, Masoud; Cashman, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative neurological disease with significant effects on quality of life. International studies continue to provide consistent incidence values, though complete case ascertainment remains a challenge. The Canadian population has been understudied, and there are currently no quantitative data on the incidence of ALS in British Columbia (BC). The objectives of this study were to determine the five-year incidence rates of ALS in BC and to characterize the demographic patterns of the disease. The capture-recapture method was employed to estimate ALS incidence over a five-year period (2010-2015). Two sources were used to identify ALS cases: one database from an ALS medical centre and another from a not-for-profit ALS organization. During this time period, there were 690 incident cases within the two sources. The capture-recapture method estimated 57 unobserved cases, corresponding to a crude five-year incidence rate of 3.29 cases per 100,000 (CI 95%=3.05-3.53). The mean age of diagnosis was 64.6 (CI 95%=59.7-69.4), with 63.5 (CI 95%=56.9-70.1) for men and 65.7 (CI 95%=58.6-72.7) for women. There was a slight male preponderance in incidence, with a 1.05:1 ratio to females. Peak numbers in incidence occurred between the ages of 70 and 79. The incidence of ALS in BC was found to be consistent with international findings though nominally higher than that in other Canadian provinces to date.

  9. Acidic herbicides in surface waters of Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Woudneh, Million B; Sekela, Mark; Tuominen, Taina; Gledhill, Melissa

    2007-01-12

    In the period 2003-2005 a study was conducted to determine the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of five acidic herbicides in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) region of British Columbia, Canada. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method capable of detecting analytes at the sub ng/L level was developed for this study. Samples were collected and analyzed from two references, five agricultural, two urban and five agricultural and urban mixed sites. Only (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and triclopyr were detected at the reference sites. The highest concentration of herbicide detected at the reference sites was 0.109ng/L for (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid. Varying levels of all of the herbicides monitored were detected at the urban, agricultural and the mixed sites. For the urban sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 66.6ng/L for 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid. For the agricultural sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 345ng/L for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D). For the mixed sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 1230ng/L for 2,4-D. Overall the mixed sites showed highest concentrations and detection frequencies followed by the agricultural and urban sites. With few exceptions higher concentrations of herbicides were observed for samples collected during spring than for samples collected during fall. The detected concentrations of herbicides were evaluated against established water quality criteria. Herbicide data presented in this study provide reference levels for future pesticide monitoring programs in the region.

  10. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lorna J; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained.

  11. Harvesting and climate effects on organic matter characteristics in British Columbia coastal forests.

    PubMed

    Preston, C M; Trofymow, J A; Niu, J; Fyfe, C A

    2002-01-01

    As part of investigations into the effects of harvesting old-growth forest, we characterized carbon in five organic matter pools in eight forest chronosequences of coastal British Columbia. Each chronosequence comprised stands in four seral stages from regeneration (3-8 yr) to old-growth (>250 yr), with second-growth stands mostly of harvest origin. Stands were located in two biogeoclimatic subzones with contrasting climate (wetter, slightly cooler conditions on the west coast of Vancouver Island than on the east). Carbon concentrations in fine woody debris (FWD), forest floor (LFH), fine roots from LFH, and two water-floatable fractions from 10 to 30 cm mineral soil (MIN-ROOT, 2-8 mm and MIN-FLOAT, <2 mm) showed no significant effects due to climate, seral stage, or site. There were some significant differences in N concentrations, but none related to seral stage. Carbon-13 cross-polarization with magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra with principal component analysis of relative areas also showed little harvesting effect, but greater variation related to input of coarse woody debris (CWD) vs. roots high in tannin. Overall, there tended to be more spectral features associated with wood and lignin in the west; whereas some MIN-ROOT samples from the drier east side had aromatic intensity attributed to charcoal. The minimal effects of one harvest on organic matter are most likely due to the large legacy effect; however, more intensive management will probably result in less CWD retention, less charcoal input, and less microsite variability in these pools of poorly decomposed organic matter.

  12. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  13. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia's harvest, 1965-2065.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Caren C

    2012-07-24

    The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  14. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Jane A; Skutezky, Trevor; Tu, Andrew W; Waheed, Bilal; Wallace, Alex; Mak, Sunny

    2009-05-29

    Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD) relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC) in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14). Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24%) occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver) were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p < 0.01) and more likely to be male (90.7% vs. 77.5%; p = 0.03). Provincially Aboriginal ethnicity was reported for 19 deaths; 13 (30.2%) of 43 females and 6 (3.3%) of 180 males (p = < 0.001).Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0%) p = 0.015. Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  15. Food insecurity and hunger are prevalent among HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Normén, Lena; Chan, Keith; Braitstein, Paula; Anema, Aranka; Bondy, Greg; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2005-04-01

    Hunger and food insecurity are important factors that may affect an individual's nutritional state and should therefore be assessed in nutrition surveillance activities. The objective of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity and hunger among HIV-positive persons accessing antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia. A cross-sectional study was performed in the BC HIV/AIDS drug treatment program, a province-wide source of free-of-charge antiretroviral medications. In 1998-1999, participants completed a questionnaire focusing on personal information, health, and clinical status. Food and hunger issues were evaluated with the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire. Overall, 1213 responding men and women were classified as food secure (52%), food insecure without hunger (27%), or food insecure with hunger (21%). In both categories of food insecurity, individuals were significantly more likely to be women, aboriginals, living with children, and to have less education, a history of recreational injection drug and/or alcohol abuse, and an unstable housing situation (P < 0.05). In logistic multivariate modeling, income < or = Can$10,000 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.78, 95% CI (2.53-5.65)], shared household with children [AOR 3.68, 95% CI (1.98-6.84)] and unemployment [AOR 3.15, 95% CI (1.94-5.13)] were the strongest predictors of hunger. In HIV-positive individuals, the occurrence of food insecurity was nearly 5 times higher than in the general Canadian population. The results should stimulate further research to identify to what extent hunger-associated factors are reversible with interventions built on nutritional and/or social strategies.

  16. A New Stalked Filter-Feeder from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Lorna J.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality. This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events. Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained

  17. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    PubMed

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of measurements

  18. Homogenization of Monthly Temperaure Data and Climate Trend Analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Anslow, F. S.; Zwiers, F. W.; Atkinson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Non-climatic variations (such as changes of instrument, station relocation, changes in observing time and procedure, etc.) in climate data can lead to discontinuities, causing the inaccurate analysis of the climatic characteristics for a given location. Thus, data quality control and homogenization is the crucial first step before properly analyzing climate trend and extremes. In Canada, the most recent Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data (AHCCD) from Environment and Climate Change Canada have been produced for four climate variables at various temporal resolution, such as adjusted surface air temperature for 338 locations (Vincent et al., 2012), adjusted precipitation dataset for over 450 locations (Mekis and Vincent, 2011). In British Columbia (B.C.), thousands of stations from non-ECCC networks are available for quality control and homogenization. In this project, homogenization of monthly temperature data for 79 stations (more stations will be included) from three networks (BCHydro, Ministry of Forests Lands and Natural Resource Operations Wildfire Management Branch and the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure) is based on a penalized maximum t-test with Quantile-Matching (QM) algorithm to detect inhomogeneities and make adjustments to the data (Wang et al. 2007, Wang 2008a, Wang 2008b). The homogenized product from the project will be made available to climate researchers through the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium's (PCIC) data portal. Climate trends in the studied region (Northwest of B.C. and Vancouver Island) will be presented from the homogenized dataset and will be compared to those calculated from datasets without homogenization and the AHCCD data. After such evaluation, the results are expected to suggest an improvement in the ability of characterizing climate change with the homogenized datasets.

  19. Beyond Rabies: Are Free-Ranging Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in British Columbia Reservoirs of Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Britton, A P; Redford, T; Bidulka, J J; Scouras, A P; Sojonky, K R; Zabek, E; Schwantje, H; Joseph, T

    2017-04-01

    Wild animal reservoirs are an important source of emerging and zoonotic infection. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are a reservoir of skunk strain rabies virus in Canada, with the exception of some areas including the province of British Columbia (BC). Beyond rabies, the reservoir status of skunks for emerging and zoonotic pathogens in BC is unknown. From March 2011 to February 2015, 50 free-ranging skunks were necropsied and tested for 4 pathogens: influenza A, Aleutian disease virus (ADV), Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. Two skunks (4%) with respiratory disease caused by influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 were detected during the human flu season suggesting that skunks may represent a target population for reverse zoonosis of this strain of influenza A virus. High prevalence of ADV infection was detected (43/50, 86%). Two of the infected skunks exhibited Aleutian disease (AD) suggesting that skunks act as both a reservoir and a target population for the virus. Most studies of ADV have focused on the potential for infection of free-ranging species living near mink farms. Our study suggests that urban skunks may be a primary host for the virus independent of domestic mink. Whether skunks act as a reservoir of ADV infection for other peridomestic species will depend on host specificity of the viral strains. Leptospira interrogans was detected in 18% (9/49) of the skunks. Identification of the serovar(s) detected is needed to determine any public health risk of leptospirosis following exposure to infected skunks. Salmonella spp. was isolated from three of 43 skunks (7%), specifically S. Typhimurium, S. Muenchen and S. Enteritidis. These serotypes cause disease in humans, but the low prevalence of infection suggests there is a low risk for zoonotic transmission.

  20. Flesh quality of market-size farmed and wild British Columbia salmon.

    PubMed

    Ikonomou, M G; Higgs, D A; Gibbs, M; Oakes, J; Skura, B; McKinley, S; Balfry, S K; Jones, S; Withler, R; Dubetz, C

    2007-01-15

    This study compared the flesh quality of farmed and wild sources of British Columbia (BC) salmon with respect to concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans and their associated toxic equivalents, total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and selected fatty acids of known importance for human health viz., omega-3 (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) and (n-6) fatty acids. Skinned fillets from known sources of farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110) and wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91) were examined. Atlantic salmon contained higher PCB concentrations (means, 28-38 ng/g) than farmed coho or chinook salmon, and levels in these latter species were similar to those in wild counterparts (means, 2.8-13.7 ng/g). PCB levels in Atlantic salmon flesh were, nevertheless, 53-71-fold less than the level of concern for human consumption of fish, i.e., 2000 ng/g as established by Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). Similarly, THg and MeHg levels in all samples were well below the Health Canada guideline (0.5 microg/g) and the US-FDA action level (1.0 microg/g). On average, THg in farmed salmon (0.021 microg/g) was similar to or lower than wild salmon (0.013-0.077 microg/g). Atlantic salmon were a richer source (mean, 2.34 g/100 g fillet) of n-3 HUFAs than the other farmed and wild sources of salmon examined (means, 0.39-1.17 g/100 g). The present findings support the recommended weekly consumption guidelines for oily fish species (includes all BC salmon sources) for cardio-protective benefits as made by the American Heart Association and the UK Food Standards Agency.

  1. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-04-14

    High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students' levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007-08 (N=513) and 2011-12 (N=490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools.

  2. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  3. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  4. RISQy business (Relationships, Incentives, Supports, and Quality): evolution of the British Columbia Model of Primary Care (patient-centered medical home).

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Dan; Hollander, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the British Columbia Medical Association (now Doctors of BC) came together to form the British Columbia General Practice Services Committee to bring about transformative change in primary care in British Columbia, Canada. This committee's approach to primary care was to respond to an operational problem--the decline of family practice in British Columbia--with an operational solution--assist general practitioners to provide better care by introducing new incentive fees into the fee-for-service payment schedule, and by providing additional training to general practitioners. This may be referred to as a "soft power" approach, which can be summarized in the abbreviation RISQ: focus on Relationships; provide Incentives for general practitioners to spend more time with their patients and provide guidelines-based care; Support general practitioners by developing learning modules to improve their practices; and, through the incentive payments and learning modules, provide better Quality care to patients and improved satisfaction to physicians. There are many similarities between the British Columbian approach to primary care and the US patient-centered medical home.

  5. COST-EFFECTIVENESS IMPACTS CANCER CARE FUNDING DECISIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA, EVIDENCE FROM 1998 TO 2008.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zahra; Peacock, Stuart J; Kovacic, Laurel; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-05

    The Priorities and Evaluation Committee (PEC) funding recommendations for new cancer drugs in British Columbia, Canada have been based on both clinical and economic evidence. The British Columbia Ministry of Health makes funding decisions. We assessed the association between cost-effectiveness of cancer drugs considered from 1998 to 2008 and the subsequent funding decisions. All proposals submitted to the PEC between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and the association between cost-effectiveness and funding decisions was examined by (i) using logistic regression to test the hypothesis that interventions with higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) have a lower probability of receiving a positive funding decision and (ii) using parametric and nonparametric tests to determine if a statistically significant difference exists between the mean cost-effectiveness of funded versus not funded proposals. A sub-analysis was conducted to determine if the findings varied across different outcome measures. Of the 149 proposals reviewed, 78 reported cost-effectiveness using various outcome measures. In the proposals that used life-years gained as the outcome (n = 22), a statistically significant difference of nearly $115,000 was observed between the mean ICERs for funded proposals ($42,006) and for unfunded proposals ($156,967). An odds ratio indicating higher ICERs have a lower probability of being funded was also found to be statistically significant (p < .05). Economic evidence appears to play a role in British Columbia cancer funding decisions from 1998 to 2008; other decision-making criteria may also have an important role in recommendations and subsequent funding decisions.

  6. Differences in obstetric care among nulliparous First Nations and non–First Nations women in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Corinne A.; Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Dahlgren, Leanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Canada’s Aboriginal population faces significantly higher rates of stillbirth and neonatal and postnatal death than those seen in the general population. The objective of this study was to compare indicators of obstetric care quality and use of obstetric interventions between First Nations and non-First Nations mothers in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: We linked obstetrical medical records with the First Nations Client File for all nulliparous women who delivered single infants in British Columbia from 1999 to 2011. Using logistic regression models, we examined differences in the proportion of women who received services aligned with best practice guidelines, as well as the overall use of obstetric interventions among First Nations mothers compared with the general population, controlling for geographic barriers (distance to hospital) and other relevant confounders. Results: During the study period, 215 993 single births occurred in nulliparous women in British Columbia, 9152 of which were to members of our First Nations cohort. First Nations mothers were less likely to have early ultrasonography (adjusted risk difference = 10.2 fewer women per 100 deliveries [95% confidence interval {CI} −11.3 to −9.3]), to have at least 4 antenatal care visits (3.6 fewer women per 100 deliveries [95% CI −4.6 to −2.6]), and to undergo labour induction after prolonged (> 24 hours) prelabour rupture of membranes (−5.9 [95% CI −11.8 to 0.1]) or at post-dates gestation (−10.6 [95% CI −13.8 to −7.5]). Obstetric interventions including epidural, labour induction, instrumental delivery and cesarean delivery were used less often in First Nations mothers. Interpretation: We identified differences in the obstetric care received by First Nations mothers compared with the general population. Such differences warrant further investigation, given increases in perinatal mortality that are consistently shown and that may be a downstream consequence of

  7. Lidar and paleoseismic trenching reveal first documentation of late Quaternary onshore faulting in the forearc of southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K. D.; Regalla, C.; Amos, C. B.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Leonard, L. J.; Graham, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Two new paleoseismic trenches excavated across the Leech River fault, a 60-km-long fault in the forearc of the northern Cascadia subduction zone on Vancouver Island, confirm at least three surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred in southwest British Columbia since the latest Quaternary. Analyses of high-resolution lidar-derived topography were used to identify the trench sites, where a 2-4 m-high, E-W-striking fault scarp offsets a latest Pleistocene colluvial surface. The western trench, excavated across one of several faulted debris flow channels incised into this surface, exposed schist of the Jurassic Leech River Complex in fault contact with latest Pleistocene loess and colluvium. The eastern trench, excavated across an adjacent interfluve, exposed latest Pleistocene till faulted against scarp-derived colluvium that post-dates the Last Glacial Maximum (< 15 ka). Colluvial wedge stratigraphy provide evidence for ≥ 3 large earthquakes since the latest Pleistocene, each with 1 m of vertical displacement. Restoration of surface displacement across the scarp suggests 6 m of dip-slip has occurred since development of the colluvial surface while only 4 m of displacement has occurred since channel incision, which further supports the occurrence of repeated surface-rupturing events within the past 15 ka. Our field mapping, aided by lidar-derived topography, indicates that this scarp is part of a steeply-dipping, 500 m-wide fault zone that is continuous for more than 30-50 km and likely accommodates regional transpression together with other active faults in western Washington (e.g., Devils Mountain fault). This study reinforces the need for lidar when conducting paleoseismic studies in this steep and densely vegetated terrain. These observations provide the first evidence of late Quaternary onshore faulting in the forearc of southwestern Canada and suggest the region is host to active structures that should be considered in seismic hazard assessments.

  8. Topographic soil wetness index derived from combined Alaska-British Columbia datasets for the Gulf of Alaska region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Biles, F. E.

    2016-12-01

    The flow of water is often highlighted as a priority in land management planning and assessments related to climate change. Improved measurement and modeling of soil moisture is required to develop predictive estimates for plant distributions, soil moisture, and snowpack, which all play important roles in ecosystem planning in the face of climate change. Drainage indexes are commonly derived from GIS tools with digital elevation models. Soil moisture classes derived from these tools are useful digital proxies for ecosystem functions associated with the concentration of water on the landscape. We developed a spatially explicit topographically derived soil wetness index (TWI) across the perhumid coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) of Alaska and British Columbia. Developing applicable drainage indexes in complex terrain and across broad areas required careful application of the appropriate DEM, caution with artifacts in GIS covers and mapping realistic zones of wetlands with the indicator. The large spatial extent of the model has facilitated the mapping of forest habitat and the development of water table depth mapping in the region. A key element of the TWI is the merging of elevation datasets across the US-Canada border where major rivers transect the international boundary. The unified TWI allows for seemless mapping across the international border and unified ecological applications. A python program combined with the unified DEM allows end users to quickly apply the TWI to all areas of the PCTR. This common platform can facilitate model comparison and improvements to local soil moisture conditions, generation of streamflow, and ecological site conditions. In this presentation we highlight the application of the TWI for mapping risk factors related to forest decline and the development of a regional water table depth map. Improved soil moisture maps are critical for deriving spatial models of changes in soil moisture for both plant growth and streamflow across

  9. Characteristics and origin of coarse gold in Late Pleistocene sediments of the Cariboo placer mining district, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, N.

    1995-02-01

    The Cariboo placer mining district (1000 km 2) sited in the Interior Plateau of central British Columbia, Canada, is the premier placer gold mining district of the Province. Gold is recovered from three Late Pleistocene sedimentary facies: postglacial fluvial gravels (< 10 Ka), Late Wisconsin till (ca. 25-10 Ka), and "older" fluvial gravels (>25 Ka). This study reports the morphology (size, roundness, sphericity) of 1636 gold grains, ranging in size from 0.25 to 17 mm, recovered from 19 placer mines. Older gravels contain the smallest gold grains (mean grani size 1.53 mm), grains of intermediate size occur in till (2.23 mm) and the coarsest gold occurs in postglacial gravels (2.34 mm) with a mean of 1.93 mm for the mining district as a whole. The most common grain shapes are sub-rounded, discoidal (14.73% of the grain population), sub-angular, discoidal (10.88%), and sub-rounded, sub-discoidal (9.59%); the most angular grains occur in postglacial gravels. In-situ growth of coarse, angular grains is indicated by a "composite" grain structure, consisting of aggregates of gold particles welded together by high-grade (Ag = < 2%) filamentous gold; in-situ coarsening may be reliant on organic complexing agents produced below a dense forest cover. An evolutionary sequence of grain form, from angular aggregates to rounded "pumpkin seed" grains, is suggested. Rounded grains commonly show a crystalline structure which may result from the cold hammering of gold during transport; fracturing along crystal boundaries is common. Gold grains may undergo cycles of coarsening, rounding, diagenesis and breakup in response to repeated recycling through Pleistocene sedimentary environments.

  10. Oil Spills and Marine Mammals in British Columbia, Canada: Development and Application of a Risk-Based Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Jarvela Rosenberger, Adrianne L; MacDuffee, Misty; Rosenberger, Andrew G J; Ross, Peter S

    2017-07-01

    Marine mammals are inherently vulnerable to oil spills. We developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts of potential oil exposure on marine mammals and applied it to 21 species inhabiting coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Oil spill vulnerability was determined by examining both the likelihood of species-specific (individual) oil exposure and the consequent likelihood of population-level effects. Oil exposure pathways, ecology, and physiological characteristics were first used to assign species-specific vulnerability rankings. Baleen whales were found to be highly vulnerable due to blowhole breathing, surface filter feeding, and invertebrate prey. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were ranked as highly vulnerable due to their time spent at the ocean surface, dense pelage, and benthic feeding techniques. Species-specific vulnerabilities were considered to estimate the likelihood of population-level effects occurring after oil exposure. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations were deemed at highest risk due to small population sizes, complex social structure, long lives, slow reproductive turnover, and dietary specialization. Finally, we related the species-specific and population-level vulnerabilities. In BC, vulnerability was deemed highest for Northern and Southern Resident killer whales and sea otters, followed by Bigg's killer whales and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Our findings challenge the typical "indicator species" approach routinely used and underscore the need to examine marine mammals at a species and population level for risk-based oil spill predictions. This conceptual framework can be combined with spill probabilities and volumes to develop more robust risk assessments and may be applied elsewhere to identify vulnerability themes for marine mammals.

  11. Renovating the built environment for dementia care: lessons learned at the Lodge at Broadmead in Victoria, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Gnaedinger, Nancy; Robinson, Janice; Sudbury, Fiona; Dutchak, Merv

    2007-01-01

    Major renovations were carried out in occupied dementia care units at the Lodge at Broadmead, Victoria, British Columbia. A 32-bed lodge was divided into two, requiring the relocation of three sets of doors. Home-like kitchens and living and dining rooms were built and furnished in each unit. A silent resident call system was installed. Nursing stations were moved off the unit. Murals added atmosphere and camouflaged exit doors. The process, while challenging, was successful due to comprehensive planning, careful phasing, the contractor's daily presence, the education of construction workers about residents, constant communication among key people and cooperation of lodge staff. Preliminary results are positive.

  12. Ice-free conditions on the queen charlotte islands, british columbia, at the height of late wisconsin glaciation.

    PubMed

    Warner, B G; Mathewes, R W; Clague, J J

    1982-11-12

    New radiocarbon dates and plant macrofossil data establish that parts of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, were ice-free during and subsequent to the late Wisconsin glacial maximum on the Pacific coast of Canada. A paleoecological investigation of dated sediments at Cape Ball has indicated that a varied flora consisting of terrestrial and aquatic plants was present there about 16,000 years ago. This finding provides support for the existence of a heretofore questioned biotic refugium on the Queen Charlotte Islands during the last glaciation. These results shed new light on problems of glacial chronology, climatic change, biogeography, and archeology along the western margin of North America.

  13. Measuring Maturity of Use for Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in British Columbia: The Physician Information Technology Office (PITO).

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Carol; Hagens, Simon; Baldwin, Anne; Anderson, Carol J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines British Columbia (BC)'s Physician Information Technology Office's efforts to measure and improve the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) by select practices in BC with an assessment of their progress using a maturity model, and targeted support. The follow-up assessments showed substantial increases in the physicians' scores resulting from action plans that comprised a series of tailored support activities. Specifically, there was an increase from 21% to 83% of physicians who could demonstrate that they used their EMRs as the principal method of record-keeping.

  14. Deep electrical conductivity structure of the Cascadia subduction zone in Southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyer, W.; Unsworth, M. J.; Xiao, W.; Kovacs, G. J.; Samson, C.; Fernberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made in southwestern British Columbia in 2003 to investigate the electrical structure of the Cascadia subduction zone as part of the POLARIS project. Data were recorded in the period range 1 to 25000 seconds at 36 field sites using long-period MT systems with fluxgate magnetometers. The instruments used were the Geological Survey of Canada LIMS systems and University of Alberta NIMS systems. MT data were collected at many locations in the Canadian Cordillera during the Lithoprobe project, but the new MT data are the first to give the long period data needed for imaging deep structure. The stations were concentrated on a profile that extended from Port Renfrew on Vancouver Island to Shuswap Lake. Some MT stations were located in Washington State to investigate the 3-D effects of the low resistivity salt water in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound. The MT impedance data have been analyzed with 2-D inversions and the models reveal the following features: (1) The data on Vancouver Island detect low resistivities above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, similar to previous results on a profile to the northwest. This anomaly corresponds to an area of high seismic reflectivity ('E-reflector') and low seismicity, and may be related to fluids originating from the oceanic plate. (2) A zone of low resistivity is present beneath the volcanic arc at a depth of 15-20 km below the surface. (3) The Intermontane and Omineca Belts are characterized by high resistivities in the upper crust and low resistivity in the lower crust, similar to models of previous studies such as Lithoprobe. The lower crustal resistivity decreases to the east, as also indicated by vertical magnetic transfer functions. Further analysis of these data are in progress to determine the resistivity of the underlying upper mantle and to evaluate the depth of the astenosphere. A second deployment of the NIMS instruments in summer 2004 will extend the line

  15. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  16. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, P.

    2011-12-01

    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  17. Sociodemographic correlates of HIV drug resistance and access to drug resistance testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Genevieve; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Oliveira, Natalia; Brumme, Zabrina L; Rusch, Melanie; Shoveller, Jeannie; Brumme, Chanson J; Harrigan, P Richard

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic correlates of engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care are well studied, however the association with accessing drug resistance testing (DRT) and the development of drug resistance have not been characterized. Between 1996-2014, 11 801 HIV patients accessing therapy in British Columbia were observed longitudinally. A subset of 9456 patients had testable viral load; of these 8398 were linked to census data. Sociodemographic (census tract-level) and clinical (individual-level) correlates of DRT were assessed using multivariable General Estimating Equation logistic regression adjusted odds ratios (aOR). The mean number of tests per patient was 2.1 (Q1-Q3; 0-3). Separately, any drug resistance was determined using IAS-USA (2013) list for 5703 initially treatment naïve patients without baseline resistance; 5175 were census-linked (mean of 1.5 protease-reverse transcriptase sequences/patient, Q1-Q3; 0-2). Correlates of detecting drug resistance in this subset were analyzed using Cox PH regression adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Our results indicate baseline CD4 <200 cells/μL (aOR: 1.5, 1.3-1.6), nRTI-only baseline regimens (aOR: 1.4, 1.3-1.6), and unknown (therapy initiation before routine pVL in BC) baseline pVL (aOR: 1.8, 1.5-2.1) were among individual-level clinical covariates strongly associated with having accessed DRT; while imperfect adherence (aHR: 2.2, 1.9-2.5), low baseline CD4 count (aHR: 1.9, 1.6-2.3), and high baseline pVL (aHR: 2.0, 1.6-2.6) were associated with a higher likelihood of developing drug resistance. A higher median income (aOR: 0.83, 0.77-0.89) and higher percentage of those with aboriginal ancestry (aOR: 0.85, 0.76-0.95) were census tract-level sociodemographic covariates associated with decreased access to DRT. Similarly, aboriginal ancestry (aHR: 1.2, 1.1-1.5) was associated with development of drug resistance. In conclusion, clinical covariates continue to be the strongest correlates of development of drug

  18. Prevalence of alcohol and drug use in injured British Columbia drivers

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Chan, Herbert; Martz, Walter; Schreiber, William; Asbridge, Mark; Eppler, Jeffrey; Lund, Adam; Macdonald, Scott; Drummer, Olaf; Purssell, Roy; Andolfatto, Gary; Mann, Robert; Brant, Rollin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Determine the prevalence of drug use in injured drivers and identify associated demographic factors and crash characteristics. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Seven trauma centres in British Columbia, Canada (2010–2012). Participants Automobile drivers who had blood obtained within 6 h of a crash. Main outcome measures We analysed blood for cannabis, alcohol and other impairing drugs using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LCMS). Results 1097 drivers met inclusion criteria. 60% were aged 20–50 years, 63.2% were male and 29.0% were admitted to hospital. We found alcohol in 17.8% (15.6% to 20.1%) of drivers. Cannabis was the second most common recreational drug: cannabis metabolites were present in 12.6% (10.7% to 14.7%) of drivers and we detected Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) in 7.3% (5.9% to 9.0%), indicating recent use. Males and drivers aged under 30 years were most likely to use cannabis. We detected cocaine in 2.8% (2.0% to 4.0%) of drivers and amphetamines in 1.2% (0.7% to 2.0%). We also found medications including benzodiazepines (4.0% (2.9% to 5.3%)), antidepressants (6.5% (5.2% to 8.1%)) and diphenhydramine (4.7% (3.5% to 6.2%)). Drivers aged over 50 years and those requiring hospital admission were most likely to have used medications. Overall, 40.1% (37.2% to 43.0%) of drivers tested positive for alcohol or at least one impairing drug and 12.7% (10.7% to 14.7%) tested positive for more than one substance. Conclusions Alcohol, cannabis and a broad range of other impairing drugs are commonly detected in injured drivers. Alcohol is well known to cause crashes, but further research is needed to determine the impact of other drug use, including drug–alcohol and drug–drug combinations, on crash risk. In particular, more work is needed to understand the role of medications in causing crashes to guide driver education programmes and improve public safety. PMID:26966054

  19. Linking recent observations of cyclic steps from fjords to outcropping stratigraphic products, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Covault, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Repeated bathymetric surveys of fjord prodeltas in Western Canada track channel erosion and deposition, which is interpreted to result from upstream migrating cyclic steps. Cyclic steps are long-wave (the ratio of wavelength to height is >>1), upstream-migrating bedforms that develop as a result of repeated internal hydraulic jumps in an overriding turbidity current at lee-to-stoss slope breaks. An internal hydraulic jump is the result of a transition from subaqueous densimetric Froude supercritical to subcritical flow. As the supercritical bedforms migrate greater than 90% of the deposits are reworked, making morphology- and facies- based recognition challenging in the depositional record. The objectives of this work are to use predictions of remnant bedform geometry from repeat bathymetric surveys to recognize cyclic step deposits in the stratigraphic record. We compare fjord deposits to Late Cretaceous submarine channel strata of the Nanaimo Group at Gabriola Island, British Columbia. In the Squamish prodelta, sediment accumulation on the stoss side of cyclic steps and erosion on the lee side promotes their up-slope migration. Deposits are modified by overriding turbidity currents, resulting in sedimentary bodies 5-30 m long, 0.5-2 m thick and < 30 m wide. The Nanaimo Group comprises scour fills of similar scale composed of stratified sandstone, with laminated siltstone locally overlying basal erosion surfaces. Up-slope dipping backset stratification is widely observed; packages of 2-4 backset beds, each of which are up to 60 cm thick and up to 15 m long (along dip), commonly share composite basal erosion surfaces. Numerous scour fills are recognized over thin intervals (< 4m) along 100-200 m depositional dip, indicating limited aggradation and preservation potential for the bedforms. It is likely that cyclic steps are common in strata deposited on high gradient submarine slopes. Evidence for updip-migrating cyclic step deposits inform a revised interpretation

  20. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant