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Sample records for complex event extraction

  1. Complex Biological Event Extraction from Full Text using Signatures of Linguistic and Semantic Features

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Liam R.; Domico, Kelly O.; Corley, Courtney D.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2011-06-24

    Building on technical advances from the BioNLP 2009 Shared Task Challenge, the 2011 challenge sets forth to generalize techniques to other complex biological event extraction tasks. In this paper, we present the implementation and evaluation of a signature-based machine-learning technique to predict events from full texts of infectious disease documents. Specifically, our approach uses novel signatures composed of traditional linguistic features and semantic knowledge to predict event triggers and their candidate arguments. Using a leave-one out analysis, we report the contribution of linguistic and shallow semantic features in the trigger prediction and candidate argument extraction. Lastly, we examine evaluations and posit causes for errors of infectious disease track subtasks.

  2. Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

  3. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  4. Design and implementation of a distributed Complex Event Processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Shang, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Making use of the massive events from event sources such as sensors and bank transactions and extract valuable information is of significant importance. Complex Event Processing (CEP), a method of detecting complex events from simple events stream, provides a solution of processing data in real time fast and efficiently. However, a single node CEP system can't satisfy requirements of processing massive event streams from multitudinous event sources. Therefore, this article designs a distributed CEP system, which combine Siddhi, a CEP engine, and Storm, a distributed real time computation architecture. This system can construct topology automatically based on the event streams and execution plans provided by users and process the event streams parallel. Compared with single node complex event system, the distributed system can achieve better performance.

  5. Combining joint models for biomedical event extraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We explore techniques for performing model combination between the UMass and Stanford biomedical event extraction systems. Both sub-components address event extraction as a structured prediction problem, and use dual decomposition (UMass) and parsing algorithms (Stanford) to find the best scoring event structure. Our primary focus is on stacking where the predictions from the Stanford system are used as features in the UMass system. For comparison, we look at simpler model combination techniques such as intersection and union which require only the outputs from each system and combine them directly. Results First, we find that stacking substantially improves performance while intersection and union provide no significant benefits. Second, we investigate the graph properties of event structures and their impact on the combination of our systems. Finally, we trace the origins of events proposed by the stacked model to determine the role each system plays in different components of the output. We learn that, while stacking can propose novel event structures not seen in either base model, these events have extremely low precision. Removing these novel events improves our already state-of-the-art F1 to 56.6% on the test set of Genia (Task 1). Overall, the combined system formed via stacking ("FAUST") performed well in the BioNLP 2011 shared task. The FAUST system obtained 1st place in three out of four tasks: 1st place in Genia Task 1 (56.0% F1) and Task 2 (53.9%), 2nd place in the Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications track (35.0%), and 1st place in the Infectious Diseases track (55.6%). Conclusion We present a state-of-the-art event extraction system that relies on the strengths of structured prediction and model combination through stacking. Akin to results on other tasks, stacking outperforms intersection and union and leads to very strong results. The utility of model combination hinges on complementary views of the data, and we show that our

  6. Answering Questions about Complex Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    STRIPS: Fikes and Nilsson 1971) to work in probabilistic models of planning, events and causality ( Astrom 1965; Pearl 2001), employing many... Astrom , K. J. (1965). "Optimal control of Markov decision processes with incomplete state estimation." J1 Math1 Anal1 Applic. 10: 174-205. Barker, K

  7. Event oriented dictionary learning for complex event detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yang, Yi; Meng, Deyu; Liu, Gaowen; Tong, Wei; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-06-01

    Complex event detection is a retrieval task with the goal of finding videos of a particular event in a large-scale unconstrained Internet video archive, given example videos and text descriptions. Nowadays, different multimodal fusion schemes of low-level and high-level features are extensively investigated and evaluated for the complex event detection task. However, how to effectively select the high-level semantic meaningful concepts from a large pool to assist complex event detection is rarely studied in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to automatically select semantic meaningful concepts for the event detection task based on both the events-kit text descriptions and the concepts high-level feature descriptions. Moreover, we introduce a novel event oriented dictionary representation based on the selected semantic concepts. Toward this goal, we leverage training images (frames) of selected concepts from the semantic indexing dataset with a pool of 346 concepts, into a novel supervised multitask lp -norm dictionary learning framework. Extensive experimental results on TRECVID multimedia event detection dataset demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method.

  8. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  9. Distributed feature extraction for event identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Ko, Teresa H.

    2004-05-01

    An important component of ubiquitous computing is the ability to quickly sense the dynamic environment to learn context awareness in real-time. To pervasively capture detailed information of movements, we present a decentralized algorithm for feature extraction within a wireless sensor network. By approaching this problem in a distributed manner, we are able to work within the real constraint of wireless battery power and its effects on processing and network communications. We describe a hardware platform developed for low-power ubiquitous wireless sensing and a distributed feature extraction methodology which is capable of providing more information to the user of events while reducing power consumption. We demonstrate how the collaboration between sensor nodes can provide a means of organizing large networks into information-based clusters.

  10. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344

  11. Deep Convective Event extraction procedure: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, Jean Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Cacault, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The tropopause temperature is one of the rare non ambiguous threshold which can be applied to geostationary infra-red measurements. Therefore a straightforward procedure to delineate in space and time Deep Convective Event (DCE) is first to binarize according to this threshold and then to apply a 3D connectivity on successive 10.8 µm satellite images. This process circumnavigate the issue of splitting or merging systems as extracted DCE are only 3D volumes. A key point of this method is that it does not require any local tuning parameter and thus is well suited for building long term climatology. A specific algorithm has been developed to optimize long series data processing and then applied on 18 months database of MSG, MET7 and MTSAT. This presentation will not address the issue of actual rainfall estimation but will focus on behavior of DCE seen as a proxy for intense precipitation event. Basic morphological parameters, such as duration or maximum area, are extracted and related with ground and upper air parameters. Some well known features appear clearly: continent/sea difference, diurnal cycle on land. A more innovative result is the relationship with elevation which appears strong but irregular. The relief triggering effect on DCE appears clearly. In strong contrast with orography, the vegetation cover does not show any clear dependence beyond DCE frequency. Upper air data are supplied by NCEP and ECMWF. Although total precipitable water content is related both with DCE frequency and mean size, such a relationship does not appear for low level winds. This observation does not match with theoretical results which emphasize on wind shear in low troposphere. A possible explanation should rely in limits of deep convection representation in weather reanalysis models. These first results suggest that DCE extraction procedure on one hand is stable enough to run on an operational basis and on another hand can bring significant information. As it relies on the 10

  12. A Novel Sample Selection Strategy for Imbalanced Data of Biomedical Event Extraction with Joint Scoring Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Ma, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yuxin; Pei, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical event extraction is an important and difficult task in bioinformatics. With the rapid growth of biomedical literature, the extraction of complex events from unstructured text has attracted more attention. However, the annotated biomedical corpus is highly imbalanced, which affects the performance of the classification algorithms. In this study, a sample selection algorithm based on sequential pattern is proposed to filter negative samples in the training phase. Considering the joint information between the trigger and argument of multiargument events, we extract triplets of multiargument events directly using a support vector machine classifier. A joint scoring mechanism, which is based on sentence similarity and importance of trigger in the training data, is used to correct the predicted results. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can extract events efficiently. PMID:28096894

  13. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  14. An Overview of Biomolecular Event Extraction from Scientific Documents

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, Jorge A.; Matos, Sérgio; González, Fabio; Oliveira, José L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art approaches to automatic extraction of biomolecular events from scientific texts. Events involving biomolecules such as genes, transcription factors, or enzymes, for example, have a central role in biological processes and functions and provide valuable information for describing physiological and pathogenesis mechanisms. Event extraction from biomedical literature has a broad range of applications, including support for information retrieval, knowledge summarization, and information extraction and discovery. However, automatic event extraction is a challenging task due to the ambiguity and diversity of natural language and higher-level linguistic phenomena, such as speculations and negations, which occur in biological texts and can lead to misunderstanding or incorrect interpretation. Many strategies have been proposed in the last decade, originating from different research areas such as natural language processing, machine learning, and statistics. This review summarizes the most representative approaches in biomolecular event extraction and presents an analysis of the current state of the art and of commonly used methods, features, and tools. Finally, current research trends and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:26587051

  15. Improved Automated Seismic Event Extraction Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, L.; Kleiner, A.; Jordan, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Like many organizations engaged in seismic monitoring, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization collects and processes seismic data from a large network of sensors. This data is continuously transmitted to a central data center, and bulletins of seismic events are automatically extracted. However, as for many such automated systems at present, the inaccuracy of this extraction necessitates substantial human analyst review effort. A significant opportunity for improvement thus lies in the fact that these systems currently fail to fully utilize the valuable repository of historical data provided by prior analyst reviews. In this work, we present the results of the application of machine learning approaches to several fundamental sub-tasks in seismic event extraction. These methods share as a common theme the use of historical analyst-reviewed bulletins as ground truth from which they extract relevant patterns to accomplish the desired goals. For instance, we demonstrate the effectiveness of classification and ranking methods for the identification of false events -- that is, those which will be invalidated and discarded by analysts -- in automated bulletins. We also show gains in the accuracy of seismic phase identification via the use of classification techniques to automatically assign seismic phase labels to station detections. Furthermore, we examine the potential of historical association data to inform the direct association of new signal detections with their corresponding seismic events. Empirical results are based upon parametric historical seismic detection and event data received from the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization.

  16. ACIS Extract takes on the Carina Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broos, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra community has been using the ACIS Extract (AE) software package to extract and analyze sources in ACIS observations since y2002. AE brings significant automation to the extraction of point-like and diffuse sources, and provides a simple analysis strategy for projects that involve multiple overlapping observations. The community has in past years applied AE to some very complex Chandra projects, e.g. the Chandra Deep Field and the Galactic Center. The AE developers have recently completed their first AE analysis of similar scale---the 14,000 point sources and extensive diffuse emission in the Carina Very Large Project. That experience has significantly refined AE's capabilities and recipes; we will illustrate some of this new functionality with examples from Carina.

  17. Adaptable, high recall, event extraction system with minimal configuration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical event extraction has been a major focus of biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) research since the first BioNLP shared task was held in 2009. Accordingly, a large number of event extraction systems have been developed. Most such systems, however, have been developed for specific tasks and/or incorporated task specific settings, making their application to new corpora and tasks problematic without modification of the systems themselves. There is thus a need for event extraction systems that can achieve high levels of accuracy when applied to corpora in new domains, without the need for exhaustive tuning or modification, whilst retaining competitive levels of performance. Results We have enhanced our state-of-the-art event extraction system, EventMine, to alleviate the need for task-specific tuning. Task-specific details are specified in a configuration file, while extensive task-specific parameter tuning is avoided through the integration of a weighting method, a covariate shift method, and their combination. The task-specific configuration and weighting method have been employed within the context of two different sub-tasks of BioNLP shared task 2013, i.e. Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC), removing the need to modify the system specifically for each task. With minimal task specific configuration and tuning, EventMine achieved the 1st place in the PC task, and 2nd in the CG, achieving the highest recall for both tasks. The system has been further enhanced following the shared task by incorporating the covariate shift method and entity generalisations based on the task definitions, leading to further performance improvements. Conclusions We have shown that it is possible to apply a state-of-the-art event extraction system to new tasks with high levels of performance, without having to modify the system internally. Both covariate shift and weighting methods are useful in facilitating the production of high recall systems

  18. Extraction of Stride Events From Gait Accelerometry During Treadmill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Kristin A.; Bellanca, Jennica; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Brach, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: evaluating stride events can be valuable for understanding the changes in walking due to aging and neurological diseases. However, creating the time series necessary for this analysis can be cumbersome. In particular, finding heel contact and toe-off events which define the gait cycles accurately are difficult. Method: we proposed a method to extract stride cycle events from tri-axial accelerometry signals. We validated our method via data collected from 14 healthy controls, 10 participants with Parkinson’s disease, and 11 participants with peripheral neuropathy. All participants walked at self-selected comfortable and reduced speeds on a computer-controlled treadmill. Gait accelerometry signals were captured via a tri-axial accelerometer positioned over the L3 segment of the lumbar spine. Motion capture data were also collected and served as the comparison method. Results: our analysis of the accelerometry data showed that the proposed methodology was able to accurately extract heel and toe-contact events from both feet. We used t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mixed models to summarize results and make comparisons. Mean gait cycle intervals were the same as those derived from motion capture, and cycle-to-cycle variability measures were within 1.5%. Subject group differences could be similarly identified using measures with the two methods. Conclusions: a simple tri-axial acceleromter accompanied by a signal processing algorithm can be used to capture stride events. Clinical impact: the proposed algorithm enables the assessment of stride events during treadmill walking, and is the first step toward the assessment of stride events using tri-axial accelerometers in real-life settings. PMID:27088063

  19. Coreference based event-argument relation extraction on biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to exploit coreference information for extracting event-argument (E-A) relations from biomedical documents. This approach has two advantages: (1) it can extract a large number of valuable E-A relations based on the concept of salience in discourse; (2) it enables us to identify E-A relations over sentence boundaries (cross-links) using transitivity of coreference relations. We propose two coreference-based models: a pipeline based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers, and a joint Markov Logic Network (MLN). We show the effectiveness of these models on a biomedical event corpus. Both models outperform the systems that do not use coreference information. When the two proposed models are compared to each other, joint MLN outperforms pipeline SVM with gold coreference information. PMID:22166257

  20. Bag of Events: An Efficient Probability-Based Feature Extraction Method for AER Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhao, Bo; Yan, Rui; Tang, Huajin; Yi, Zhang

    2016-03-18

    Address event representation (AER) image sensors represent the visual information as a sequence of events that denotes the luminance changes of the scene. In this paper, we introduce a feature extraction method for AER image sensors based on the probability theory, namely, bag of events (BOE). The proposed approach represents each object as the joint probability distribution of the concurrent events, and each event corresponds to a unique activated pixel of the AER sensor. The advantages of BOE include: 1) it is a statistical learning method and has a good interpretability in mathematics; 2) BOE can significantly reduce the effort to tune parameters for different data sets, because it only has one hyperparameter and is robust to the value of the parameter; 3) BOE is an online learning algorithm, which does not require the training data to be collected in advance; 4) BOE can achieve competitive results in real time for feature extraction (>275 frames/s and >120,000 events/s); and 5) the implementation complexity of BOE only involves some basic operations, e.g., addition and multiplication. This guarantees the hardware friendliness of our method. The experimental results on three popular AER databases (i.e., MNIST-dynamic vision sensor, Poker Card, and Posture) show that our method is remarkably faster than two recently proposed AER categorization systems while preserving a good classification accuracy.

  1. Robust event detection scheme for complex scenes in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Erkang; Xu, Yi; Yang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2011-07-01

    Event detection for video surveillance is a difficult task due to many challenges: cluttered background, illumination variations, scale variations, occlusions among people, etc. We propose an effective and efficient event detection scheme in such complex situations. Moving shadows due to illumination are tackled with a segmentation method with shadow detection, and scale variations are taken care of using the CamShift guided particle filter tracking algorithm. For event modeling, hidden Markov models are employed. The proposed scheme also reduces the overall computational cost by combing two human detection algorithms and using tracking information to aid human detection. Experimental results on TRECVid event detection evaluation demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme. It is robust, especially to moving shadows and scale variations. Employing the scheme, we achieved the best run results for two events in the TRECVid benchmarking evaluation.

  2. Extreme events and natural hazards: The complexity perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Advanced societies have become quite proficient at defending against moderate-size earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, or other natural assaults. What still pose a significant threat, however, are the unknowns, the extremes, the natural phenomena encompassed by the upper tail of the probability distribution. Alongside the large or powerful events, truly extreme natural disasters are those that tie different systems together: an earthquake that causes a tsunami, which leads to flooding, which takes down a nuclear reactor. In the geophysical monograph Extreme Events and Natural Hazards: The Complexity Perspective, editors A. Surjalal Sharma, Armin Bunde, Vijay P. Dimro, and Daniel N. Baker present a lens through which such multidisciplinary phenomena can be understood. In this interview, Eos talks to Sharma about complexity science, predicting extreme events and natural hazards, and the push for "big data."

  3. Complex events in a fault model with interacting asperities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Michele; Tallarico, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of a fault with heterogeneous friction is studied by employing a discrete fault model with two asperities of different strengths. The average values of stress, friction and slip on each asperity are considered and the state of the fault is described by the slip deficits of the asperities as functions of time. The fault has three different slipping modes, corresponding to the asperities slipping one at a time or simultaneously. Any seismic event produced by the fault is a sequence of n slipping modes. According to initial conditions, seismic events can be different sequences of slipping modes, implying different moment rates and seismic moments. Each event can be represented geometrically in the state space by an orbit that is the union of n damped Lissajous curves. We focus our interest on events that are sequences of two or more slipping modes: they show a complex stress interchange between the asperities and a complex temporal pattern of slip rate. The initial stress distribution producing these events is not uniform on the fault. We calculate the stress drop, the moment rate and the frequency spectrum of the events, showing how these quantities depend on initial conditions. These events have the greatest seismic moments that can be produced by fault slip. As an example, we model the moment rate of the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake that can be described as the consecutive failure of two asperities, one of which has a double strength than the other, and evaluate the evolution of stress distribution on the fault during the event.

  4. Improved method to extract nucleon helicity distributions using event weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretz, J.

    2017-02-01

    An improved analysis method to extract quark helicity distributions in leading order (LO) QCD from semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The method relies on the fact that fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a quark into a hadron, have a strong dependence on the energy fraction z of the observed hadron. Hadrons with large z contain more information about the struck quark. This can be used in a weighting procedure to improve the figure of merit (= inverse of variance). In numerical examples it is shown that one could gain 15–39% depending on the quark flavor and cut on z. Mathematically the problem can be described as finding an optimal solution in terms of the figure of merit for parameters Θ determined from a system of linear equations B(x) Θ =Y(x), where the measured input vector Y(x) is given as event distributions depending on a random variable x, the coefficients of the matrix B(x) depend as well on x, whereas the parameter vector Θ to be determined does not.

  5. Simulating an Extreme Wind Event in a Topographically Complex Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennard, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Complex topography modifies local weather characteristics such as air temperature, rainfall and airflow within a larger regional extent. The Cape Peninsula around Cape Town, South Africa, is a complex topographical feature responsible for the modification of rainfall and wind fields largely downstream of the Peninsula. During the passage of a cold front on 2 October 2002, an extreme wind event associated with tornado-like damage occurred in the suburb of Manenberg, however synoptic conditions did not indicate convective activity typically associated with a tornado. A numerical regional climate model was operated at very high horizontal resolution (500 m) to investigate the dynamics of the event. The model simulated an interaction between the topography of the peninsula and an airflow direction change associated with the passage of the cold front. A small region of cyclonic circulation was simulated over Manenberg that was embedded in an area of negative vorticity and a leeward gravity wave. The feature lasted 14 min and moved in a north to south direction. Vertically, it was not evident above 220 m. The model assessment describes this event as a shallow but intense cyclonic vortex generated in the lee of the peninsula through an interaction between the peninsula and a change in wind direction as the cold front made landfall. The model did not simulate wind speeds associated with the observed damage suggesting that the horizontal grid resolution ought to be at the scale of the event to more completely understand such microscale airflow phenomena.

  6. Finding the Cause: Verbal Framing Helps Children Extract Causal Evidence Embedded in a Complex Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucas P.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    In making causal inferences, children must both identify a causal problem and selectively attend to meaningful evidence. Four experiments demonstrate that verbally framing an event ("Which animals make Lion laugh?") helps 4-year-olds extract evidence from a complex scene to make accurate causal inferences. Whereas framing was unnecessary when…

  7. Knowledge-Driven Event Extraction in Russian: Corpus-Based Linguistic Resources.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Valery; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Automatic event extraction form text is an important step in knowledge acquisition and knowledge base population. Manual work in development of extraction system is indispensable either in corpus annotation or in vocabularies and pattern creation for a knowledge-based system. Recent works have been focused on adaptation of existing system (for extraction from English texts) to new domains. Event extraction in other languages was not studied due to the lack of resources and algorithms necessary for natural language processing. In this paper we define a set of linguistic resources that are necessary in development of a knowledge-based event extraction system in Russian: a vocabulary of subordination models, a vocabulary of event triggers, and a vocabulary of Frame Elements that are basic building blocks for semantic patterns. We propose a set of methods for creation of such vocabularies in Russian and other languages using Google Books NGram Corpus. The methods are evaluated in development of event extraction system for Russian.

  8. Extraction of spatio-temporal information of earthquake event based on semantic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Guo, Dan; Li, Huaiyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a web information extraction method is presented which identifies a variety of thematic events utilizing the event knowledge framework derived from text training, and then further uses the syntactic analysis to extract the event key information. The method which combines the text semantic information and domain knowledge of the event makes the extraction of information people interested more accurate. In this paper, web based earthquake news extraction is taken as an example. The paper firstly briefs the overall approaches, and then details the key algorithm and experiments of seismic events extraction. Finally, this paper conducts accuracy analysis and evaluation experiments which demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising way of hot events mining.

  9. Consolidation of Complex Events via Reinstatement in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Keidel, James L.; Ing, Leslie P.; Horner, Aidan J.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that active rehearsal increases the efficacy of memory consolidation. It is also known that complex events are interpreted with reference to prior knowledge. However, comparatively little attention has been given to the neural underpinnings of these effects. In healthy adults humans, we investigated the impact of effortful, active rehearsal on memory for events by showing people several short video clips and then asking them to recall these clips, either aloud (Experiment 1) or silently while in an MRI scanner (Experiment 2). In both experiments, actively rehearsed clips were remembered in far greater detail than unrehearsed clips when tested a week later. In Experiment 1, highly similar descriptions of events were produced across retrieval trials, suggesting a degree of semanticization of the memories had taken place. In Experiment 2, spatial patterns of BOLD signal in medial temporal and posterior midline regions were correlated when encoding and rehearsing the same video. Moreover, the strength of this correlation in the posterior cingulate predicted the amount of information subsequently recalled. This is likely to reflect a strengthening of the representation of the video's content. We argue that these representations combine both new episodic information and stored semantic knowledge (or “schemas”). We therefore suggest that posterior midline structures aid consolidation by reinstating and strengthening the associations between episodic details and more generic schematic information. This leads to the creation of coherent memory representations of lifelike, complex events that are resistant to forgetting, but somewhat inflexible and semantic-like in nature. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memories are strengthened via consolidation. We investigated memory for lifelike events using video clips and showed that rehearsing their content dramatically boosts memory consolidation. Using MRI scanning, we measured patterns of brain activity while

  10. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  11. Early bone healing events in the human extraction socket.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Sloan, P

    2002-12-01

    The tooth extraction socket is unique in terms of a bone-healing defect in that it contains the remnants of periodontal ligament fibroblasts attached to the socket wall. Although these cells have an osteogenic potential in vitro, the origin of cells populating the human extraction socket is unknown and may include bone marrow, periosteum and pericytic cells. Recently, monoclonal antibodies (AML-3, SB-10 and SB-20) have become available which can identify cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the pattern of osteoblast differentiation in the human extraction socket using these markers. Immunolocalization was used to identify the osteoprogenitor cell population in the extraction sockets of three patients. Runx2 was most strongly expressed by the osteoblasts at the socket margin and in the surrounding marrow spaces. Osteoprogenitor, pre-osteoblast and osteoblast cells surrounded the newly formed trabeculae, and expressed on their cell surface antigens which reacted with the SB-10 and SB-20 antibodies. In a specimen with the tooth and periodontium present, both osteo-blasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts were immunoreactive with SB-10, and SB-20 and also expressed Runx2. There was heterogeneity of expression of these osteogenic markers e.g. not all osteoblasts expressed Runx2. We have shown that osteoprogenitor cells in the residual periodontal ligament and bone marrow may contribute to bone regeneration following tooth extraction.

  12. Early bone healing events following rat molar tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H

    2000-01-01

    Healing of the rat tooth extraction socket occurs rapidly, indicating a mechanism for cancellous bone formation occurring swiftly throughout the matrix. The residual periodontal ligament is evident at 2 days after extraction and its rich collagen type III fibre content may form a template for future cancellous bone formation. In the remainder of the early tooth extraction socket, fibronectin staining was generalized. The widespread distribution of fibronectin staining has given rise to speculation that the function of fibronectin may be important in granulation tissue formation, by providing a template matrix for fibroblast migration. Osteoprogenitor cells migrated into the socket from the surrounding bone, and produced decorin and proMMP-13 (procollagenase-3). ProMMP-13 was only expressed at sites of new bone formation, e.g. the border of the recently formed trabecular islands or the periphery of the closing socket. Collagen type I fibres were formed later, and were especially evident at 6 days after extraction. The pattern of distribution of both collagen type I and III fibres were similar as they passed from the bone margin towards the centre of the socket - in the same direction as the forming bone trabeculae. Bone formation occurs by rapid movement of the osteoprogenitor cells along these collagen fibres to allow a rapid healing, rather than that of resorption followed by slow bone deposition.

  13. Acquiring Information from Wider Scope to Improve Event Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    classification, filtering, and selection applications by extracting and representing language content (i.e., the meaning conveyed by the data ). Thus the...ACE program requires the development of technologies that automatically detect and characterize this meaning .2” Unlike MUC data , which was primarily...paths appear only once or twice in   23   ACE data , which means that we cannot depend on such features since their frequency of occurrence is

  14. Knowledge-Driven Event Extraction in Russian: Corpus-Based Linguistic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Valery; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Automatic event extraction form text is an important step in knowledge acquisition and knowledge base population. Manual work in development of extraction system is indispensable either in corpus annotation or in vocabularies and pattern creation for a knowledge-based system. Recent works have been focused on adaptation of existing system (for extraction from English texts) to new domains. Event extraction in other languages was not studied due to the lack of resources and algorithms necessary for natural language processing. In this paper we define a set of linguistic resources that are necessary in development of a knowledge-based event extraction system in Russian: a vocabulary of subordination models, a vocabulary of event triggers, and a vocabulary of Frame Elements that are basic building blocks for semantic patterns. We propose a set of methods for creation of such vocabularies in Russian and other languages using Google Books NGram Corpus. The methods are evaluated in development of event extraction system for Russian. PMID:26955386

  15. Complex Dynamic Scene Perception: Effects of Attentional Set on Perceiving Single and Multiple Event Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments measured the efficiency of monitoring complex scenes composed of changing objects, or events. All events lasted about 4 s, but in a given block of trials, could be of a single type (single task) or of multiple types (multitask, with a total of four event types). Overall accuracy of detecting target events amid distractors was…

  16. Optimizing graph-based patterns to extract biomedical events from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In BioNLP-ST 2013 We participated in the BioNLP 2013 shared tasks on event extraction. Our extraction method is based on the search for an approximate subgraph isomorphism between key context dependencies of events and graphs of input sentences. Our system was able to address both the GENIA (GE) task focusing on 13 molecular biology related event types and the Cancer Genetics (CG) task targeting a challenging group of 40 cancer biology related event types with varying arguments concerning 18 kinds of biological entities. In addition to adapting our system to the two tasks, we also attempted to integrate semantics into the graph matching scheme using a distributional similarity model for more events, and evaluated the event extraction impact of using paths of all possible lengths as key context dependencies beyond using only the shortest paths in our system. We achieved a 46.38% F-score in the CG task (ranking 3rd) and a 48.93% F-score in the GE task (ranking 4th). After BioNLP-ST 2013 We explored three ways to further extend our event extraction system in our previously published work: (1) We allow non-essential nodes to be skipped, and incorporated a node skipping penalty into the subgraph distance function of our approximate subgraph matching algorithm. (2) Instead of assigning a unified subgraph distance threshold to all patterns of an event type, we learned a customized threshold for each pattern. (3) We implemented the well-known Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) principle to optimize the event pattern set by balancing prediction errors on training data against regularization. When evaluated on the official GE task test data, these extensions help to improve the extraction precision from 62% to 65%. However, the overall F-score stays equivalent to the previous performance due to a 1% drop in recall. PMID:26551594

  17. Sex Differences in Infants' Ability to Represent Complex Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinle, Amy; Wilcox, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Prior research suggests that when very simple event sequences are used, 4.5-month-olds demonstrate the ability to individuate objects based on the continuity or disruption of their speed of motion (Wilcox & Schweinle, 2003). However, infants demonstrate their ability to individuate objects in an event-monitoring task (i.e., infants must keep track…

  18. Extreme events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, extreme events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of extreme events and a state of full of extreme events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with extreme events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service providers can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale extreme events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of extreme events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown. PMID:26612009

  19. A pipeline to extract drug-adverse event pairs from multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacovigilance aims to uncover and understand harmful side-effects of drugs, termed adverse events (AEs). Although the current process of pharmacovigilance is very systematic, the increasing amount of information available in specialized health-related websites as well as the exponential growth in medical literature presents a unique opportunity to supplement traditional adverse event gathering mechanisms with new-age ones. Method We present a semi-automated pipeline to extract associations between drugs and side effects from traditional structured adverse event databases, enhanced by potential drug-adverse event pairs mined from user-comments from health-related websites and MEDLINE abstracts. The pipeline was tested using a set of 12 drugs representative of two previous studies of adverse event extraction from health-related websites and MEDLINE abstracts. Results Testing the pipeline shows that mining non-traditional sources helps substantiate the adverse event databases. The non-traditional sources not only contain the known AEs, but also suggest some unreported AEs for drugs which can then be analyzed further. Conclusion A semi-automated pipeline to extract the AE pairs from adverse event databases as well as potential AE pairs from non-traditional sources such as text from MEDLINE abstracts and user-comments from health-related websites is presented. PMID:24559132

  20. A prediction technique for single-event effects on complex integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Chunqing, Yu; Long, Fan; Suge, Yue; Maoxin, Chen; Shougang, Du; Hongchao, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of complex integrated circuits to single-event effects is investigated. Sensitivity depends not only on the cross section of physical modules but also on the behavior of data patterns running on the system. A method dividing the main functional modules is proposed. The intrinsic cross section and the duty cycles of different sensitive modules are obtained during the execution of data patterns. A method for extracting the duty cycle is presented and a set of test patterns with different duty cycles are implemented experimentally. By combining the intrinsic cross section and the duty cycle of different sensitive modules, a universal method to predict SEE sensitivities of different test patterns is proposed, which is verified by experiments based on the target circuit of a microprocessor. Experimental results show that the deviation between prediction and experiment is less than 20%.

  1. Combining rules and machine learning for extraction of temporal expressions and events from clinical narratives

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Aleksandar; Dehghan, Azad; Filannino, Michele; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Objective Identification of clinical events (eg, problems, tests, treatments) and associated temporal expressions (eg, dates and times) are key tasks in extracting and managing data from electronic health records. As part of the i2b2 2012 Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data challenge, we developed and evaluated a system to automatically extract temporal expressions and events from clinical narratives. The extracted temporal expressions were additionally normalized by assigning type, value, and modifier. Materials and methods The system combines rule-based and machine learning approaches that rely on morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, and domain-specific features. Rule-based components were designed to handle the recognition and normalization of temporal expressions, while conditional random fields models were trained for event and temporal recognition. Results The system achieved micro F scores of 90% for the extraction of temporal expressions and 87% for clinical event extraction. The normalization component for temporal expressions achieved accuracies of 84.73% (expression's type), 70.44% (value), and 82.75% (modifier). Discussion Compared to the initial agreement between human annotators (87–89%), the system provided comparable performance for both event and temporal expression mining. While (lenient) identification of such mentions is achievable, finding the exact boundaries proved challenging. Conclusions The system provides a state-of-the-art method that can be used to support automated identification of mentions of clinical events and temporal expressions in narratives either to support the manual review process or as a part of a large-scale processing of electronic health databases. PMID:23605114

  2. Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-02-01

    The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

  3. Event attribution using data assimilation in an intermediate complexity atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, Sammy; Hannart, Alexis; Ruiz, Juan; Carrassi, Alberto; Bocquet, Marc; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A new approach, coined DADA (Data Assimilation for Detection and Attribution) has been recently introduced by Hannart et al. 2015, and is potentially useful for near real time, systematic causal attribution of weather and climate-related events The method is purposely designed to allow its operability at meteorological centers by synergizing causal attribution with Data Assimilation (DA) methods usually designed to deal with large nonlinear models. In Hannart et al. 2015, the DADA proposal is illustrated in the context of a low-order nonlinear model (forced three-variable Lorenz model) that is of course not realistic to represent the events considered. As a continuation of this stream of work, we therefore propose an implementation of the DADA approach in a realistic intermediate complexity atmospheric model (ICTP AGCM, nicknamed SPEEDY). The SPEEDY model is based on a spectral dynamical core developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (see Held and Suarez 1994). It is a hydrostatic, r-coordinate, spectral-transform model in the vorticity-divergence form described by Bourke (1974). A synthetic dataset of observations of an extreme precipitation event over Southeastern South America is extracted from a long SPEEDY simulation under present climatic conditions (i.e. factual conditions). Then, following the DADA approach, observations of this event are assimilated twice in the SPEEDY model: first in the factual configuration of the model and second under its counterfactual, pre-industrial configuration. We show that attribution can be performed based on the likelihood ratio as in Hannart et al. 2015, but we further extend this result by showing that the likelihood can be split in space, time and variables in order to help identify the specific physical features of the event that bear the causal signature. References: Hannart A., A. Carrassi, M. Bocquet, M. Ghil, P. Naveau, M. Pulido, J. Ruiz, P. Tandeo (2015) DADA: Data assimilation for the detection and

  4. Extracting insights from the shape of complex data using topology

    PubMed Central

    Lum, P. Y.; Singh, G.; Lehman, A.; Ishkanov, T.; Vejdemo-Johansson, M.; Alagappan, M.; Carlsson, J.; Carlsson, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies topological methods to study complex high dimensional data sets by extracting shapes (patterns) and obtaining insights about them. Our method combines the best features of existing standard methodologies such as principal component and cluster analyses to provide a geometric representation of complex data sets. Through this hybrid method, we often find subgroups in data sets that traditional methodologies fail to find. Our method also permits the analysis of individual data sets as well as the analysis of relationships between related data sets. We illustrate the use of our method by applying it to three very different kinds of data, namely gene expression from breast tumors, voting data from the United States House of Representatives and player performance data from the NBA, in each case finding stratifications of the data which are more refined than those produced by standard methods. PMID:23393618

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum by extraction of its thiosulphate complex.

    PubMed

    Yatirajam, V; Ram, J

    1974-12-01

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum is described. The molybdenum thiosulphate complex is extracted into isoamyl alcohol from 1.0-1.5M hydrochloric acid containing 36-40 mg of Na(2)S(2)O(3).5H(2)O per ml. The absorbance at lambda(max) = 475 nm obeys Beer's law over the range 0-32 microg of Mo per ml of solvent phase. Up to 5 mg/ml of Ti(IV), V(V), Cr(VI), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), U(VI), W(VI), Sb(III), 1 mg/ml of Cu(II), Sn(II), Bi(V) and 10 microg/ml of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) do not interfere. Large amounts of complexing agents interfere. The method has been applied to analysis of synthetic and industrial samples.

  6. Robot traders can prevent extreme events in complex stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolnik, Nicolas; Galimberti, Jaqueson; Da Silva, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    If stock markets are complex, monetary policy and even financial regulation may be useless to prevent bubbles and crashes. Here, we suggest the use of robot traders as an anti-bubble decoy. To make our case, we put forward a new stochastic cellular automata model that generates an emergent stock price dynamics as a result of the interaction between traders. After introducing socially integrated robot traders, the stock price dynamics can be controlled, so as to make the market more Gaussian.

  7. Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Rials, Timothy G; Urban, Volker S; Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

  8. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  9. Knowledge-based extraction of adverse drug events from biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many biomedical relation extraction systems are machine-learning based and have to be trained on large annotated corpora that are expensive and cumbersome to construct. We developed a knowledge-based relation extraction system that requires minimal training data, and applied the system for the extraction of adverse drug events from biomedical text. The system consists of a concept recognition module that identifies drugs and adverse effects in sentences, and a knowledge-base module that establishes whether a relation exists between the recognized concepts. The knowledge base was filled with information from the Unified Medical Language System. The performance of the system was evaluated on the ADE corpus, consisting of 1644 abstracts with manually annotated adverse drug events. Fifty abstracts were used for training, the remaining abstracts were used for testing. Results The knowledge-based system obtained an F-score of 50.5%, which was 34.4 percentage points better than the co-occurrence baseline. Increasing the training set to 400 abstracts improved the F-score to 54.3%. When the system was compared with a machine-learning system, jSRE, on a subset of the sentences in the ADE corpus, our knowledge-based system achieved an F-score that is 7 percentage points higher than the F-score of jSRE trained on 50 abstracts, and still 2 percentage points higher than jSRE trained on 90% of the corpus. Conclusion A knowledge-based approach can be successfully used to extract adverse drug events from biomedical text without need for a large training set. Whether use of a knowledge base is equally advantageous for other biomedical relation-extraction tasks remains to be investigated. PMID:24593054

  10. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  11. Event-related complexity analysis and its application in the detection of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhidong; Zhang, Zimu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an event-related complexity (ERC) analysis method is proposed and used to explore the neural correlates of facial attractiveness detection in the context of a cognitive experiment. The ERC method gives a quantitative index for measuring the diverse brain activation properties that represent the neural correlates of event-related responses. This analysis reveals distinct effects of facial attractiveness processing and also provides further information that could not have been achieved from event-related potential alone.

  12. Extraction Behaviors of Heavy Rare Earths with Organophosphoric Extractants: The Contribution of Extractant Dimer Dissociation, Acid Ionization, and Complexation. A Quantum Chemistry Study.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu; Chen, Ji; Chen, Li; Su, Wenrou; Liu, Yu; Li, Deqian

    2017-03-30

    Heavy rare earths (HREs), namely Ho(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), are rarer and more exceptional than light rare earths, due to the stronger extraction capacity for 100 000 extractions. Therefore, their incomplete stripping and high acidity of stripping become problems for HRE separation by organophosphoric extractants. However, the theories of extractant structure-performance relationship and molecular design method of novel HRE extractants are still not perfect. Beyond the coordination chemistry of the HRE-extracted complex, the extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation behaviors can be crucial to HRE extraction and reactivity of ionic species for understanding and further improving the extraction performance. To address the above issues, three primary fundamental processes, including extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and HRE complexation, were identified and investigated systematically. The intrinsic extraction performances of HRE cations with four acidic organophosphoric extractants (P507, P204, P227 and Cyanex 272) were studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f core pseudopotentials, combined with density functional theory and a solvation model. Four acidic organophosphoric extractants have been qualified quantitatively from microscopic structures to chemical properties. It has been found that the Gibbs free energy changes of the overall extraction process (sequence: P204 > P227 > P507 > Cyanex 272) and their differences as a function of HREs (sequence: Ho/Er > Er/Tm > Tm/Yb > Yb/Lu) are in good agreement with the experimental maximum extraction capacities and separation factors. These results could provide an important approach to evaluate HRE extractants by the comprehensive consideration of dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation processes. This paper also demonstrates the importance of the P-O bond, the P-C bond, isomer substituent, and solvation effects on the structure

  13. Stereochemically constrained complex organic molecules extracted from olivine crystal matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimenko, I.; Freund, F. T.; Imanaka, H.; Rodgers, R.

    2011-12-01

    Paradoxically, the dense solid state of magmatic minerals is a medium, in which organic synthesis can take place. The reason is that gas-fluid components such as H2O, CO/CO2/N2 and H2S are omnipresent in terrestrial magmatic environments. Any silicate mineral that crystallizes from such magmas will incorporate small quantities of the fluid-phase components in the form of structurally incompatible low-z impurities. During cooling the solute species undergo a redox conversion, resulting in chemically reduced low-z elements. To the extent that these low-z impurities are diffusively mobile, they will exsolve to the surface and/or to major structural defects inside the crystal matrix such as dislocations. Dislocations provide a 3-D structured environment, where the low-z impurities will tend to form stereochemically constrained polyatomic Cn-H-O-N-S entities, which we call organic protomolecules. In Nature, during weathering, such protomolecules will be released into the environment in the form of complex organic molecules. In our study we crush samples under clean conditions as a way to expose Cn-H-O-N-S entities at the fracture surfaces. We conduct identical experiments with selected large olivine single crystals, mm-sized olivine from peridiotite nodules from the San Carlos Volcanic Field, Arizona, and the vesiculated basalt that had carried the nodules upward in the volcanic conduit. We Soxhlet-extract the crushed powders with water, THF and ethyl acetate. The extracts are analyzed at the FTICR-MS facility at Florida State University using ultrahigh resolution Mass Spectrometry techniques capable of determining the chemical composition of the organic molecules up to 600 amu and more. So far we have found several analog sequences of oxygen-rich aliphatic hydrocarbons, families with up to 34 carbon atoms, probably poly-carboxylic acids, and some families containing sulfur.

  14. An extended grammar system for learning and recognizing complex visual events.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Tan, Tieniu; Huang, Kaiqi

    2011-02-01

    For a grammar-based approach to the recognition of visual events, there are two major limitations that prevent it from real application. One is that the event rules are predefined by domain experts, which means huge manual cost. The other is that the commonly used grammar can only handle sequential relations between subevents, which is inadequate to recognize more complex events involving parallel subevents. To solve these problems, we propose an extended grammar approach to modeling and recognizing complex visual events. First, motion trajectories as original features are transformed into a set of basic motion patterns of a single moving object, namely, primitives (terminals) in the grammar system. Then, a Minimum Description Length (MDL) based rule induction algorithm is performed to discover the hidden temporal structures in primitive stream, where Stochastic Context-Free Grammar (SCFG) is extended by Allen's temporal logic to model the complex temporal relations between subevents. Finally, a Multithread Parsing (MTP) algorithm is adopted to recognize interesting complex events in a given primitive stream, where a Viterbi-like error recovery strategy is also proposed to handle large-scale errors, e.g., insertion and deletion errors. Extensive experiments, including gymnastic exercises, traffic light events, and multi-agent interactions, have been executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Extracting complexity waveforms from one-dimensional signals

    PubMed Central

    Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Bojić, Tijana; Rakić, Ljubisav

    2009-01-01

    Background Nonlinear methods provide a direct way of estimating complexity of one-dimensional sampled signals through calculation of Higuchi's fractal dimension (1complexity variation (or running fractal dimension), FD(t), is to be extracted, a moving window (epoch) approach is needed. However, due to low-pass filtering properties of moving windows, short epochs are preferred. Since Higuchi's method is based on consecutive reduction of signal sampling frequency, it is not suitable for estimating FD of very short epochs (N < 100 samples). Results In this work we propose a new and simple way to estimate FD for N < 100 by introducing 'normalized length density' of a signal epoch, where yn(i) represents the ith signal sample after amplitude normalization. The actual calculation of signal FD is based on construction of a monotonic calibration curve, FD = f(NLD), on a set of Weierstrass functions, for which FD values are given theoretically. The two existing methods, Higuchi's and consecutive differences, applied simultaneously on signals with constant FD (white noise and Brownian motion), showed that standard deviation of calculated window FD (FDw) increased sharply as the epoch became shorter. However, in case of the new NLD method a considerably lower scattering was obtained, especially for N < 30, at the expense of some lower accuracy in calculating average FDw. Consequently, more accurate reconstruction of FD waveforms was obtained when synthetic signals were analyzed, containig short alternating epochs of two or three different FD values. Additionally, scatter plots of FDw of an occipital human EEG signal for 10 sample epochs demontrated that Higuchi's estimations for some epochs exceeded the theoretical FD limits, while NLD

  16. Extraction of events and rules of land use/cover change from the policy text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guangfa; Xia, Beicheng; Huang, Wangli; Jiang, Huixian; Chen, Youfei

    2007-06-01

    The database of recording the snapshots of land parcels history is the foundation for the most of the models on simulating land use/cover change (LUCC) process. But the sequences of temporal snapshots are not sufficient to deduce and describe the mechanism of LUCC process. The temporal relationship between scenarios of LUCC we recorded could not be transfer into causal relationship categorically, which was regarded as a key factor in spatial-temporal reasoning. The proprietor of land parcels adapted themselves to the policies from governments and the change of production market, and then made decisions in this or that way. The occurrence of each change of a land parcel in an urban area was often related with one or more decision texts when it was investigated on the local scale with high resolution of the background scene. These decision texts may come from different sections of a hierarchical government system on different levels, such as villages or communities, towns or counties, cities, provinces or even the paramount. All these texts were balance results between advantages and disadvantages of different interest groups. They are the essential forces of LUCC in human dimension. Up to now, a methodology is still wanted for on how to express these forces in a simulation system using GIS as a language. The presented paper was part of our initial research on this topic. The term "Event" is a very important concept in the frame of "Object-Oriented" theory in computer science. While in the domain of temporal GIS, the concept of event was developed in another category. The definitions of the event and their transformation relationship were discussed in this paper on three modeling levels as real world level, conceptual level and programming level. In this context, with a case study of LUCC in recent 30 years in Xiamen city of Fujian province, P. R. China, the paper focused on how to extract information of events and rules from the policy files collected and integrate

  17. [Study on molybdenum(V) thiocyanate complex extracted by Tween-80].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Li, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Ai-li; Cao, Tong-chuan; Teng, Li-man

    2002-02-01

    Molybdenum(V) thiocyanate complex extracted by Tween-80, a non-ionic surface active agent, in chloroform has been studied. When the concentration of Tween-80 is 0.1%, extractive ratio can reach 94%, while tungsten(III) thiocyanate can not extracted in the same condition. Therefore, the two kinds of complexes can be separated very well. It enjoys a better extraction efficiency compared with petroleum ether or dimethyl sulfoxide and the advantage of low cost, no toxicity and no pollution. The extraction mechanism has been studied and may be a kind of extraction belonging to the category of supermolecular, which has not been reported publicly.

  18. Grape Extracts Inhibit Multiple Events in the Cell Biology of Cholera Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Srikar; Taylor, Michael; Zhao, Mojun; Cherubin, Patrick; Geden, Sandra; Ray, Supriyo; Francis, David; Teter, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT), an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera. PMID:24039929

  19. Grape extracts inhibit multiple events in the cell biology of cholera intoxication.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Srikar; Taylor, Michael; Zhao, Mojun; Cherubin, Patrick; Geden, Sandra; Ray, Supriyo; Francis, David; Teter, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT), an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera.

  20. Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri

    2016-11-01

    In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2-3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.

  1. The complex frequencies of long-period seismic events as probes of fluid composition beneath volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-period (LP) events have been widely observed in relation to magmatic and hydrothermal activities in volcanic areas. LP waveforms characterized by their harmonic signature have been interpreted as oscillations of a fluid-filled resonator, and mixtures of liquid and gas in the form of bubbly liquids have been mainly assumed for the fluid. To investigate the characteristic properties of the resonator system, we analyse waveforms of LP events observed at four different volcanoes in Hawaii, Alaska, Colombia and Japan using a newly developed spectral method. This method allows an estimation of the complex frequencies of decaying sinusoids based on an autoregressive model. The results of our analysis show a wide variety of Q factors, ranging from tens to several hundred. We compare these complex frequencies with those predicted by the fluid-filled crack model for various mixtures of liquid, gas and ash. Although the oscillations of LP events with Q smaller than 50 can be explained by various combinations of liquids and gases, we find that ash-laden gases are required to explain long-lasting oscillations with Q larger than 100. The complex frequencies of LP events yield useful information on the types of fluids. Temporal and spatial variations of the complex frequencies can be used as probes of fluid composition beneath volcanoes.

  2. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  3. Everyday Matters in Science and Mathematics: Studies of Complex Classroom Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo, Ed.; Rosebery, Ann S., Ed.; Solomon, Jesse, Ed.; Warren, Beth, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book re-examines the dichotomy between the everyday and the disciplinary in mathematics and science education, and explores alternatives to this opposition from points of view grounded in the close examination of complex classroom events. It makes the case that students' everyday experience and knowledge in their entire manifold forms matter…

  4. Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri

    2016-01-01

    In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3–5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2–3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning. PMID:27828957

  5. Pre-trained D-CNN models for detecting complex events in unconstrained videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joseph P.; Fu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Rapid event detection faces an emergent need to process large videos collections; whether surveillance videos or unconstrained web videos, the ability to automatically recognize high-level, complex events is a challenging task. Motivated by pre-existing methods being complex, computationally demanding, and often non-replicable, we designed a simple system that is quick, effective and carries minimal overhead in terms of memory and storage. Our system is clearly described, modular in nature, replicable on any Desktop, and demonstrated with extensive experiments, backed by insightful analysis on different Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), as stand-alone and fused with others. With a large corpus of unconstrained, real-world video data, we examine the usefulness of different CNN models as features extractors for modeling high-level events, i.e., pre-trained CNNs that differ in architectures, training data, and number of outputs. For each CNN, we use 1-fps from all training exemplar to train one-vs-rest SVMs for each event. To represent videos, frame-level features were fused using a variety of techniques. The best being to max-pool between predetermined shot boundaries, then average-pool to form the final video-level descriptor. Through extensive analysis, several insights were found on using pre-trained CNNs as off-the-shelf feature extractors for the task of event detection. Fusing SVMs of different CNNs revealed some interesting facts, finding some combinations to be complimentary. It was concluded that no single CNN works best for all events, as some events are more object-driven while others are more scene-based. Our top performance resulted from learning event-dependent weights for different CNNs.

  6. A Novel Feature Selection Strategy for Enhanced Biomedical Event Extraction Using the Turku System

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jingbo; Fang, Alex Chengyu; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES) is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE) algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion. PMID:24800214

  7. A novel feature selection strategy for enhanced biomedical event extraction using the Turku system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jingbo; Fang, Alex Chengyu; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES) is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE) algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion.

  8. Statistics and characteristics of spatiotemporally rare intense events in complex Ginzburg-Landau models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Won; Ott, Edward

    2003-02-01

    We study the statistics and characteristics of rare intense events in two types of two-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation based models. Our numerical simulations show finite amplitude collapselike solutions which approach the infinite amplitude solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an appropriate parameter regime. We also determine the probability distribution function of the amplitude of the CGL solutions, which is found to have enhanced (as compared to Gaussian) probability for the amplitude to be large. Our results suggest a general picture in which an incoherent background of weakly interacting waves, occasionally, "by chance," initiates intense, coherent, self-reinforcing, highly nonlinear events.

  9. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  10. Complex network based techniques to identify extreme events and (sudden) transitions in spatio-temporal systems.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    We present here two promising techniques for the application of the complex network approach to continuous spatio-temporal systems that have been developed in the last decade and show large potential for future application and development of complex systems analysis. First, we discuss the transforming of a time series from such systems to a complex network. The natural approach is to calculate the recurrence matrix and interpret such as the adjacency matrix of an associated complex network, called recurrence network. Using complex network measures, such as transitivity coefficient, we demonstrate that this approach is very efficient for identifying qualitative transitions in observational data, e.g., when analyzing paleoclimate regime transitions. Second, we demonstrate the use of directed spatial networks constructed from spatio-temporal measurements of such systems that can be derived from the synchronized-in-time occurrence of extreme events in different spatial regions. Although there are many possibilities to investigate such spatial networks, we present here the new measure of network divergence and how it can be used to develop a prediction scheme of extreme rainfall events.

  11. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  12. Event-triggered asynchronous intermittent communication strategy for synchronization in complex dynamical networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Guo; Hill, David J; Dong, Zhaoyang; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new framework for synchronization of complex network by introducing a mechanism of event-triggering distributed sampling information. A kind of event which avoids continuous communication between neighboring nodes is designed to drive the controller update of each node. The advantage of the event-triggering strategy is the significant decrease of the number of controller updates for synchronization task of complex networks involving embedded microprocessors with limited on-board resources. To describe the system's ability reaching synchronization, a concept about generalized algebraic connectivity is introduced for strongly connected networks and then extended to the strongly connected components of the directed network containing a directed spanning tree. Two sufficient conditions are presented to reveal the underlying relationships of corresponding parameters to reach global synchronization based on algebraic graph, matrix theory and Lyapunov control method. A positive lower bound for inter-event times is derived to guarantee the absence of Zeno behavior. Finally, a numerical simulation example is provided to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  13. Self-Structures, Negative Events, and Adolescent Depression: Clarifying the Role of Self-Complexity in a Prospective, Multiwave Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Spiegler, Kevin M.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this multiwave longitudinal study was to examine the structure of self-complexity and its relation to depressive symptoms in 276 adolescents (M = 12.55; SD = 1.04). Self-complexity, depressive symptoms, and negative events were assessed during a laboratory assessment at baseline, and then depressive symptoms and negative events were…

  14. Cell-Based Screening: Extracting Meaning from Complex Data

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Steven; Frumkin, Michael; Kassner, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unbiased discovery approaches have the potential to uncover neurobiological insights into CNS disease and lead to the development of therapies. Here we review lessons learned from imaging-based screening approaches and recent advances in these areas, including powerful new computational tools to synthesize complex data into more useful knowledge that can reliably guide future research and development. PMID:25856492

  15. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  16. Engineering natural language processing solutions for structured information from clinical text: extracting sentinel events from palliative care consult letters.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H; Thai, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Despite a trend to formalize and codify medical information, natural language communications still play a prominent role in health care workflows, in particular when it comes to hand-overs between providers. Natural language processing (NLP) attempts to bridge the gap between informal, natural language information and coded, machine-interpretable data. This paper reports on a study that applies an advanced NLP method for the extraction of sentinel events in palliative care consult letters. Sentinel events are of interest to predict survival and trajectory for patients with acute palliative conditions. Our NLP method combines several novel characteristics, e.g., the consideration of topological knowledge structures sourced from an ontological terminology system (SNOMED CT). The method has been applied to the extraction of different types of sentinel events, including simple facts, temporal conditions, quantities, and degrees. A random selection of 215 anonymized consult letters was used for the study. The results of the NLP extraction were evaluated by comparison with coded sentinel event data captured independently by clinicians. The average accuracy of the automated extraction was 73.6%.

  17. Towards Hybrid Online On-Demand Querying of Realtime Data with Stateful Complex Event Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2013-10-09

    Emerging Big Data applications in areas like e-commerce and energy industry require both online and on-demand queries to be performed over vast and fast data arriving as streams. These present novel challenges to Big Data management systems. Complex Event Processing (CEP) is recognized as a high performance online query scheme which in particular deals with the velocity aspect of the 3-V’s of Big Data. However, traditional CEP systems do not consider data variety and lack the capability to embed ad hoc queries over the volume of data streams. In this paper, we propose H2O, a stateful complex event processing framework, to support hybrid online and on-demand queries over realtime data. We propose a semantically enriched event and query model to address data variety. A formal query algebra is developed to precisely capture the stateful and containment semantics of online and on-demand queries. We describe techniques to achieve the interactive query processing over realtime data featured by efficient online querying, dynamic stream data persistence and on-demand access. The system architecture is presented and the current implementation status reported.

  18. Complex Events Initiated by Individual Spikes in the Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Komlósi, Gergely; Füle, Miklós; Szabadics, János; Varga, Csaba; Barzó, Pál; Tamás, Gábor

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain slices were prepared from nonpathological samples of cortex that had to be removed for the surgical treatment of brain areas beneath association cortices of 58 patients aged 18 to 73 y. Simultaneous triple and quadruple whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed testing mono- and polysynaptic potentials in target neurons following a single action potential fired by layer 2/3 pyramidal cells, and the temporal structure of events and underlying mechanisms were analyzed. In addition to monosynaptic postsynaptic potentials, individual action potentials in presynaptic pyramidal cells initiated long-lasting (37 ± 17 ms) sequences of events in the network lasting an order of magnitude longer than detected previously in other species. These event series were composed of specifically alternating glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic potentials and required selective spike-to-spike coupling from pyramidal cells to GABAergic interneurons producing concomitant inhibitory as well as excitatory feed-forward action of GABA. Single action potentials of human neurons are sufficient to recruit Hebbian-like neuronal assemblies that are proposed to participate in cognitive processes. PMID:18767905

  19. Discrete event simulation as a tool in optimization of a professional complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anders Lassen; Hilwig, Helmer; Kissoon, Niranjan; Teelucksingh, Surujpal

    2008-01-01

    Similar urgent needs for improvement of health care systems exist in the developed and developing world. The culture and the organization of an emergency department in developing countries can best be described as a professional complex adaptive system, where each agent (employee) are ignorant of the behavior of the system as a whole; no one understands the entire system. Each agent's action is based on the state of the system at the moment (i.e. lack of medicine, unavailable laboratory investigation, lack of beds and lack of staff in certain functions). An important question is how one can improve the emergency service within the given constraints. The use of simulation signals is one new approach in studying issues amenable to improvement. Discrete event simulation was used to simulate part of the patient flow in an emergency department. A simple model was built using a prototyping approach. The simulation showed that a minor rotation among the nurses could reduce the mean number of visitors that had to be refereed to alternative flows within the hospital from 87 to 37 on a daily basis with a mean utilization of the staff between 95.8% (the nurses) and 87.4% (the doctors). We conclude that even faced with resource constraints and lack of accessible data discrete event simulation is a tool that can be used successfully to study the consequences of changes in very complex and self organizing professional complex adaptive systems.

  20. The South American rainfall dipole: A complex network analysis of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Niklas; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Marwan, Norbert; Marengo, José; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Intraseasonal rainfall variability of the South American monsoon system is characterized by a pronounced dipole between southeastern South America and southeastern Brazil. Here we analyze the dynamical properties of extreme rainfall events associated with this dipole by combining a nonlinear synchronization measure with complex networks. We make the following main observations: (i) Our approach reveals the dominant synchronization pathways of extreme events for the two dipole phases, (ii) while extreme rainfall synchronization in the tropics is directly driven by the trade winds and their deflection by the Andes mountains, extreme rainfall propagation in the subtropics is mainly dictated by frontal systems, and (iii) the well-known rainfall dipole is, in fact, only the most prominent mode of an oscillatory pattern that extends over the entire continent. This provides further evidence that the influence of Rossby waves, which cause frontal systems over South America and impact large-scale circulation patterns, extends beyond the equator.

  1. Maximum likelihood: Extracting unbiased information from complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Loffredo, Maria I.

    2008-07-01

    The choice of free parameters in network models is subjective, since it depends on what topological properties are being monitored. However, we show that the maximum likelihood (ML) principle indicates a unique, statistically rigorous parameter choice, associated with a well-defined topological feature. We then find that, if the ML condition is incompatible with the built-in parameter choice, network models turn out to be intrinsically ill defined or biased. To overcome this problem, we construct a class of safely unbiased models. We also propose an extension of these results that leads to the fascinating possibility to extract, only from topological data, the “hidden variables” underlying network organization, making them “no longer hidden.” We test our method on World Trade Web data, where we recover the empirical gross domestic product using only topological information.

  2. Structured event complexes in the medial prefrontal cortex support counterfactual representations for future planning

    PubMed Central

    Barbey, Aron K.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    We propose that counterfactual representations for reasoning about the past or predicting the future depend on structured event complexes (SECs) in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC; ‘What would happen if X were performed in the past or enacted in the future?’). We identify three major categories of counterfactual thought (concerning action versus inaction, the self versus other and upward versus downward thinking) and propose that each form of inference recruits SEC representations in distinct regions of the medial PFC. We develop a process model of the regulatory functions these representations serve and draw conclusions about the importance of SECs for explaining the past and predicting the future. PMID:19528010

  3. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  4. Feature extraction of event-related potentials using wavelets: an application to human performance monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, L. J.; Shensa, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many free parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  6. Extraction of complex refractive index dispersion from SPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakkach, Mohamed; Moreau, Julien; Canva, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonnance (SPR) techniques have been mostly set-up as angular reflectivity interrogation mode using quasi-monochromatic light or as spectral reflectivity interrogation mode at one given wavelength, providing information about variation of effective optical thickness ▵n.e above the metal surface. In this communication we present a dual mode sensor working both in angular and spectral interrogation modes. A white light illuminates the sensor surface and the reflectivity spectra in TE and TM polarization are measured with a spectrometer. By changing the angular coupling conditions, a complete reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) can be measured. The 2D reflectivity decrease valley is affected by both the real and imaginary part of the optical index of the dielectric medium as well as their spectral dispersion. With such experimental data set, it is possible to back calculate the dispersion of the complex refractive index of the dielectric layer. This is demonstrated using a turquoise dye doped solution. According to the Kramers-Kronig relations, the imaginary part of the refractive index for an absorbing medium is proportional to the absorption while the real part presents a large dispersion around the absorption wavelength. The reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) was measured from 500 nm to 750 nm over about 8° angular range. The whole complex refractive optical index of the doped solution, absorbing around 630 nm, was reconstructed from the SPR reflectivity experimental data, using a homemade program based on an extended Rouard method to fit the experimental angular plasmon data for each wavelength. These results show that the classical SPR technique can be extended to acquire precise spectral information about biomolecular interactions occurring on the metallic layer.

  7. Complex cardiac defects after ethanol exposure during discrete cardiogenic events in zebrafish: Prevention with folic acid

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes a range of birth defects including various congenital heart defects (CHDs). Mechanisms of FASD-associated CHDs are not understood. Whether alcohol interferes with a single critical event or with multiple events in heart formation is not known. RESULTS Our zebrafish embryo experiments showed that ethanol interrupts different cardiac regulatory networks and perturbed multiple steps of cardiogenesis (specification, myocardial migration, looping, chamber morphogenesis and endocardial cushion formation). Ethanol exposure during gastrulation until cardiac specification or during myocardial midline migration did not produce severe or persistent heart development defects. However, exposure comprising gastrulation until myocardial precursor midline fusion or during heart patterning stages produced aberrant heart looping and defective endocardial cushions. Continuous exposure during entire cardiogenesis produced complex cardiac defects leading to severely defective myocardium, endocardium, and endocardial cushions. Supplementation of retinoic acid with ethanol partially rescued early heart developmental defects, but the endocardial cushions did not form correctly. In contrast, supplementation of folic acid rescued normal heart development, including the endocardial cushions. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that ethanol exposure interrupted divergent cardiac morphogenesis events causing heart defects. Folic acid supplementation was effective in preventing a wide spectrum of ethanol-induced heart developmental defects. PMID:23832875

  8. Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R; Mullock, Barbara M; Bright, Nicholas A; Lindsay, Margaret R; Gray, Sally R; Richardson, Simon C W; Stewart, Abigail; James, David E; Piper, Robert C; Luzio, J Paul

    2004-06-01

    Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using antibody inhibition experiments in rat liver cell-free systems, we confirmed this result, but found that the same Q-SNAREs can combine with an alternative R-SNARE, namely VAMP7, for heterotypic fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated separate syntaxin 7 complexes with either VAMP7 or VAMP8 in solubilized rat liver membranes. Additionally, overexpression of the N-terminal domain of VAMP7, in cultured fibroblastic cells, inhibited the mixing of a preloaded lysosomal content marker with a marker delivered to late endosomes. These data show that combinatorial interactions of SNAREs determine whether late endosomes undergo homotypic or heterotypic fusion events.

  9. Extraction of DNA-cellulose-bound glucocorticoid-receptor complexes with sodium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Murakami, N; Moudgil, V K

    1981-09-04

    Glucocorticoid-receptor complex from rat liver cytosol, activated by warming at 23 degrees C or fractionation with (NH4)2SO4, was adsorbed over DNA-cellulose. This DNA-cellulose-bound [3H]triamcinolone acetonide-receptor complex was extracted in a dose-dependent manner by incubation with different concentrations of sodium tungstate. A 50% recovery of receptor was achieved with 5 mM sodium tungstate. Almost the entire glucocorticoid-receptor complex bound to DNA-cellulose could be extracted with 20 mM sodium tungstate. The [3H]triamcinolone acetonide released from DNA-cellulose following tungstate and molybdate treatment was found to be associated with a macromolecule, as seen by analysis on a Sephadex G-75 column. The glucocorticoid-receptor complex extracted by both the compounds sedimented as a 4 S entity of 5-20% sucrose gradients under low- and high-salt conditions. Addition of tungstate or molybdate to the preparations containing activated receptor had no effect on the sedimentation rate of receptor. However, addition of tungstate to non-activated receptor preparation caused aggregates of larger size. The tungstate-extracted glucocorticoid-receptor complex failed to rebind to DNA-cellulose even after extensive dialysis, whereas receptor in molybdate-extract retained its DNA-cellulose binding capacity.

  10. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

    2012-01-01

    Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent.

  11. Complex Settlement Pattern Extraction With Multi-instance Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Graesser, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    Per-pixel (or single instance) based classification schemes which have proven to be very useful in thematic classification have shown to be inadequate when it comes to analyzing very high resolution remote sensing imagery. The main problem being that the pixel size (less than a meter) is too small as compared to the typical object size (100s of meters) and contains too little contextual information to accurately distinguish complex settlement types. One way to alleviate this problem is to consider a bigger window or patch/segment consisting a group of adjacent pixels which offers better spatial context than a single pixel. Unfortunately, this makes per-pixel based classification schemes ineffective. In this work, we look at a new class of machine learning approaches, called multi-instance learning, where instead of assigning class labels to individual instances (pixels), a label is assigned to the bag (all pixels in a window or segment). We applied this multi-instance learning approach for identifying two important urban patterns, namely formal and informal settlements. Experimental evaluation shows the better performance of multi-instance learning over several well-known single-instance classification schemes.

  12. Heart Rate Deceleration as a Function of Viewing Complex Visual Events in Eighteen-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Lowry M.; And Others

    This research project assessed: (1) the practicality of recording heart rate in 18-month-old infants as they watched events filmed on color, silent motion picture films; and (2) the validity and sensitivity of heart rate change as an index of differential attention arousal elicited by changes within and between complex visual events. The research…

  13. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  14. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  15. Music video shot segmentation using independent component analysis and keyframe extraction based on image complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Wenjun; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Jun

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, Music video data is increasing at an astonishing speed. Shot segmentation and keyframe extraction constitute a fundamental unit in organizing, indexing, retrieving video content. In this paper a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframe of a shot. Music video is first segmented to shots by illumination-invariant chromaticity histogram in independent component (IC) analysis feature space .Then we presents a new metric, image complexity, to extract keyframe in a shot which is computed by ICs. Experimental results show the framework is effective and has a good performance.

  16. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  17. Effects of target routing model on the occurrence of extreme events in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xiang; Hu, Mao-Bin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qing; Jiang, Rui

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of routing protocol on the occurrence of extreme events (EE) in complex networks, as an extension of [V. Kishore, M.S. Santhanam, R.E. Amritkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 188701 (2011)]. The target routing model [W.X. Wang, B.H. Wang, C.Y. Yin, Y.B. Xie, T. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026111 (2006)] is considered. In the model, a tunable power parameter α controls the packets' preference of forwarding direction. We derive exact expressions for the stationary distribution probability of packets and estimate the occurrence probability of EE on the nodes. The occurrence of EE strongly depends on the routing parameter. For Barabási-Albert scale-free network, Erdös-Rényi random network and Newman-Watts small-world network, it is shown that the minimal occurrence of EE is achieved at α = -1.

  18. Sentiment Diffusion of Public Opinions about Hot Events: Based on Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaoqing; An, Haizhong; Zhang, Lijia; Li, Huajiao; Wei, Guannan

    2015-01-01

    To study the sentiment diffusion of online public opinions about hot events, we collected people’s posts through web data mining techniques. We calculated the sentiment value of each post based on a sentiment dictionary. Next, we divided those posts into five different orientations of sentiments: strongly positive (P), weakly positive (p), neutral (o), weakly negative (n), and strongly negative (N). These sentiments are combined into modes through coarse graining. We constructed sentiment mode complex network of online public opinions (SMCOP) with modes as nodes and the conversion relation in chronological order between different types of modes as edges. We calculated the strength, k-plex clique, clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality of the SMCOP. The results show that the strength distribution obeys power law. Most posts’ sentiments are weakly positive and neutral, whereas few are strongly negative. There are weakly positive subgroups and neutral subgroups with ppppp and ooooo as the core mode, respectively. Few modes have larger betweenness centrality values and most modes convert to each other with these higher betweenness centrality modes as mediums. Therefore, the relevant person or institutes can take measures to lead people’s sentiments regarding online hot events according to the sentiment diffusion mechanism. PMID:26462230

  19. Words Analysis of Online Chinese News Headlines about Trending Events: A Complex Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Because the volume of information available online is growing at breakneck speed, keeping up with meaning and information communicated by the media and netizens is a new challenge both for scholars and for companies who must address public relations crises. Most current theories and tools are directed at identifying one website or one piece of online news and do not attempt to develop a rapid understanding of all websites and all news covering one topic. This paper represents an effort to integrate statistics, word segmentation, complex networks and visualization to analyze headlines’ keywords and words relationships in online Chinese news using two samples: the 2011 Bohai Bay oil spill and the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We gathered all the news headlines concerning the two trending events in the search results from Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine. We used Simple Chinese Word Segmentation to segment all the headlines into words and then took words as nodes and considered adjacent relations as edges to construct word networks both using the whole sample and at the monthly level. Finally, we develop an integrated mechanism to analyze the features of words’ networks based on news headlines that can account for all the keywords in the news about a particular event and therefore track the evolution of news deeply and rapidly. PMID:25807376

  20. Words analysis of online Chinese news headlines about trending events: a complex network perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Because the volume of information available online is growing at breakneck speed, keeping up with meaning and information communicated by the media and netizens is a new challenge both for scholars and for companies who must address public relations crises. Most current theories and tools are directed at identifying one website or one piece of online news and do not attempt to develop a rapid understanding of all websites and all news covering one topic. This paper represents an effort to integrate statistics, word segmentation, complex networks and visualization to analyze headlines' keywords and words relationships in online Chinese news using two samples: the 2011 Bohai Bay oil spill and the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We gathered all the news headlines concerning the two trending events in the search results from Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine. We used Simple Chinese Word Segmentation to segment all the headlines into words and then took words as nodes and considered adjacent relations as edges to construct word networks both using the whole sample and at the monthly level. Finally, we develop an integrated mechanism to analyze the features of words' networks based on news headlines that can account for all the keywords in the news about a particular event and therefore track the evolution of news deeply and rapidly.

  1. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Anders, G.; Avolio, G.; Kazarov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Soloviev, I.

    2015-12-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from many sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment's operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system's behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP rules is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the rules work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the data reader from existing storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second is a playback tool that allows to re-inject data of specific data taking sessions from the past into the CEP engine, and the third is a reporting tool that shows the output that the rules loaded into the engine would have produced in the live system. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of this validation system, highlight its strengths and shortcomings and indicate how such a system could be reused in similar projects.

  2. Molecular events underlying maggot extract promoted rat in vivo and human in vitro skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Nan; Li, Hong; Zhong, Li-Xia; Sun, Yuan; Yu, Li-Jun; Wu, Mo-Li; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Kong, Qing-You; Wang, Shou-Yu; Lv, De-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Maggot extracts promote wound healing, but their bioactive part(s) and molecular effects on the regenerating tissues/cells remain largely unclear. These issues are addressed here by treating rat skin wounds, human keratinocyte line/HaCat and fibroblasts with maggot secretion/excretion, and the extracts of maggots without and with secretion/excretion. The wound closure rates, cell proliferation activities, and statuses of wound healing-related signaling pathways (STAT3, Notch1, Wnt2, NF-κB, and TGF-beta/Smad3) and their downstream gene expression (c-Myc, cyclin D1, and VEGF) are evaluated by multiple approaches. The results reveal that the maggot extracts, especially the one from the maggots without secretion/excretion, show the best wound healing-promoting effects in terms of quicker wound closure rates and more rapid growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Of the five signaling pathways checked, the ones mediated by TGF-beta/Smad3, and STAT3 are activated in the untreated wounds and become further enhanced by the maggot extracts, accompanied with c-Myc, VEGF, and cyclin D1 up-regulation. Our results thus show (1) that both body extract and secretion/excretion of maggots contain favorable wound healing elements and (2) that the enhancement of TGF-beta/Smad3 and STAT3 signaling activities may be the main molecular effects of maggot extracts on the wound tissues.

  3. Using Complex Event Processing (CEP) and vocal synthesis techniques to improve comprehension of sonified human-centric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeff; Ballora, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The field of sonification, which uses auditory presentation of data to replace or augment visualization techniques, is gaining popularity and acceptance for analysis of "big data" and for assisting analysts who are unable to utilize traditional visual approaches due to either: 1) visual overload caused by existing displays; 2) concurrent need to perform critical visually intensive tasks (e.g. operating a vehicle or performing a medical procedure); or 3) visual impairment due to either temporary environmental factors (e.g. dense smoke) or biological causes. Sonification tools typically map data values to sound attributes such as pitch, volume, and localization to enable them to be interpreted via human listening. In more complex problems, the challenge is in creating multi-dimensional sonifications that are both compelling and listenable, and that have enough discrete features that can be modulated in ways that allow meaningful discrimination by a listener. We propose a solution to this problem that incorporates Complex Event Processing (CEP) with speech synthesis. Some of the more promising sonifications to date use speech synthesis, which is an "instrument" that is amenable to extended listening, and can also provide a great deal of subtle nuance. These vocal nuances, which can represent a nearly limitless number of expressive meanings (via a combination of pitch, inflection, volume, and other acoustic factors), are the basis of our daily communications, and thus have the potential to engage the innate human understanding of these sounds. Additionally, recent advances in CEP have facilitated the extraction of multi-level hierarchies of information, which is necessary to bridge the gap between raw data and this type of vocal synthesis. We therefore propose that CEP-enabled sonifications based on the sound of human utterances could be considered the next logical step in human-centric "big data" compression and transmission.

  4. Research on Extraction of Ship Target in Complex Sea-sky Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W. J.; Ding, X. M.; Cui, J. W.; Ao, L.

    2006-10-01

    Research on the extraction of ship target in complex sea-sky background has important value to improve the capability of imaging-typed sea navigation and nautical traffic control systems. According to the imaging property of complex sea-sky background, a reliable ship target extraction method is proposed in this paper. The general guide line is that getting the sea-sky division line as a priori knowledge and then the target potential area is determined through discontinuous region of the sea-sky division line. Firstly, a local selective window filter is adopted to filter the image; secondly, eight directions Sobel operator edge detection method and gradient Hough transform are combined to extract sea-sky division line in the image; then a multi-histogram matching technique is adopted to remove the sea and sky background and thus ship target is extracted from complex background. The experiments show that our method has the merits of robustness to noise, small computational complexity and stability.

  5. Radiochemical data collected on events from which radioactivity escaped beyond the borders of the Nevada test range complex. [NONE

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-02-12

    This report identifies all nuclear events in Nevada that are known to have sent radioactivity beyond the borders of the test range complex. There have been 177 such tests, representing seven different types: nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, nuclear excavation events, nuclear safety events, underground nuclear events that inadvertently seeped or vented to the atmosphere, dispersion of plutonium and/or uranium by chemical high explosives, nuclear rocket engine tests, and nuclear ramjet engine tests. The source term for each of these events is given, together with the data base from which it was derived (except where the data are classified). The computer programs used for organizing and processing the data base and calculating radionuclide production are described and included, together with the input and output data and details of the calculations. This is the basic formation needed to make computer modeling studies of the fallout from any of these 177 events.

  6. Complex Negative Regulation of TLR9 by Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Events.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Siddhartha S; Cameron, Jody; Brooks, James C; Leifer, Cynthia A

    2016-08-15

    TLR9 is an innate immune receptor important for recognizing DNA of host and foreign origin. A mechanism proposed to prevent excessive response to host DNA is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of TLR9 in endosomes to generate a mature form of the receptor (TLR9(471-1032)). We previously described another cleavage event in the juxtamembrane region of the ectodomain that generated a dominant-negative form of TLR9. Thus, there are at least two independent cleavage events that regulate TLR9. In this study, we investigated whether an N-terminal fragment of TLR9 could be responsible for regulation of the mature or negative-regulatory form. We show that TLR9(471-1032), corresponding to the proteolytically cleaved form, does not function on its own. Furthermore, activity is not rescued by coexpression of the N-terminal fragment (TLR9(1-440)), inclusion of the hinge region (TLR9(441-1032)), or overexpression of UNC93B1, the last of which is critical for trafficking and cleavage of TLR9. TLR9(1-440) coimmunoprecipitates with full-length TLR9 and TLR9(471-1032) but does not rescue the native glycosylation pattern; thus, inappropriate trafficking likely explains why TLR9(471-1032) is nonfunctional. Lastly, we show that TLR9(471-1032) is also a dominant-negative regulator of TLR9 signaling. Together, these data provide a new perspective on the complexity of TLR9 regulation by proteolytic cleavage and offer potential ways to inhibit activity through this receptor, which may dampen autoimmune inflammation.

  7. Error Analysis of Satellite Precipitation-Driven Modeling of Complex Terrain Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Nikolopoulos, E. I.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Zoccatelli, D.; Borga, M., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    The error characteristics of satellite precipitation driven flood event simulations over mountainous basins are evaluated in this study for eight different global satellite products. A methodology is devised to match the observed records of the flood events with the corresponding satellite and reference rainfall and runoff simulations. The flood events are sorted according to flood type (i.e. rain flood and flash flood) and basin's antecedent conditions represented by the event's runoff-to-precipitation ratio. The satellite precipitation products and runoff simulations are evaluated based on systematic and random error metrics applied on the matched event pairs and basin scale event properties (i.e. cumulative volume, timing and shape). Overall satellite-driven event runoff exhibits better error metrics than the satellite precipitation. Better error metrics are also shown for the rain flood events relative to the flash flood events. The event timing and shape from satellite-derived precipitation agreed well with the reference; the cumulative volume is mostly underestimated. In terms of error propagation, the study shows dampening effect in both systematic and random error components of the satellite-driven runoff time series relative to the satellite-retrieved event precipitation. This error dampening effect is less pronounced for the flash flood events and the rain flood events with high runoff coefficients. This study provides for a first time flood event characteristics of the satellite precipitation error propagation in flood modeling, which has implications on the Global Precipitation Measurement application in mountain flood hydrology.

  8. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.

    2014-12-01

    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  9. [Determination of residual aluminium Ion in Huoxiang Zhengqi pellets by GFAAS with EDTA complexation extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Na; Ran, Cong-Cong; Li, Qing-Lian; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-06-01

    To establish an EDTA complexation extraction pretreatment combining with GFAAS method for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets without digestive treatment, systematical investigation was made on sample preparation, and EDTA was used for the complexation extraction of residual aluminium ion in samples. The pH, concentration and volume of extraction solution, the temperature and time of microwave extraction, and graphite furnace temperature program were investigated. The results were compared with the microwave digestion. It was showed that, 0.1 g of sample weight was added in 20 mL 0.05 mol x L(-1) EDTA solution (pH 3.5), followed by heating at 150 degrees C for 10 min in the microwave extraction device. The determination of GFAAS was performed at optimized detection wavelength (257.4 nm) as well as graphite furnace temperature program, the detection limits and quantification limits were 2.37 μg x L(-1) and 7.89 μg x L(-1), respectively. The precision (RSD) was less than 2.3%. The average recovery was 96.9% -101%. The present method is easy, rapid and accurate for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets.

  10. [Extraction of single-trial event-related potentials by means of ARX modeling and independent component analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongchang; Du, Sidan

    2006-12-01

    The present paper focused on the extraction of event-related potentials on a single sweep under extremely low S/N ratio. Two methods that can efficiently remove spontaneous EEG, ocular artifacts and power line interference were presented based on ARX modeling and independent component analysis (ICA). The former method applied ARX model to the measured compound signal that extensively contained the three kinds of ordinary noises mentioned above, and used ARX algorithm for parametric identification. The latter decomposed the signal by means of independent component analysis. Besides, some of ICA's important decomposing characters and its intrinsic causality were pointed out definitely. According to the practical situation, some modification on FastICA algorithm was also given, so as to implement auto-adaptive mapping of decomposed results to ERP component. Through simulation, both the two ways are proved to be highly capable of signal extraction and S/N ratio improving.

  11. Application of the EVEX resource to event extraction and network construction: Shared Task entry and result analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern methods for mining biomolecular interactions from literature typically make predictions based solely on the immediate textual context, in effect a single sentence. No prior work has been published on extending this context to the information automatically gathered from the whole biomedical literature. Thus, our motivation for this study is to explore whether mutually supporting evidence, aggregated across several documents can be utilized to improve the performance of the state-of-the-art event extraction systems. In this paper, we describe our participation in the latest BioNLP Shared Task using the large-scale text mining resource EVEX. We participated in the Genia Event Extraction (GE) and Gene Regulation Network (GRN) tasks with two separate systems. In the GE task, we implemented a re-ranking approach to improve the precision of an existing event extraction system, incorporating features from the EVEX resource. In the GRN task, our system relied solely on the EVEX resource and utilized a rule-based conversion algorithm between the EVEX and GRN formats. Results In the GE task, our re-ranking approach led to a modest performance increase and resulted in the first rank of the official Shared Task results with 50.97% F-score. Additionally, in this paper we explore and evaluate the usage of distributed vector representations for this challenge. In the GRN task, we ranked fifth in the official results with a strict/relaxed SER score of 0.92/0.81 respectively. To try and improve upon these results, we have implemented a novel machine learning based conversion system and benchmarked its performance against the original rule-based system. Conclusions For the GRN task, we were able to produce a gene regulatory network from the EVEX data, warranting the use of such generic large-scale text mining data in network biology settings. A detailed performance and error analysis provides more insight into the relatively low recall rates. In the GE task we

  12. Aerogel Keystones: Extraction Of Complete Hypervelocity Impact Events From Aerogel Collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A J; Snead, C; Butterworth, A; Graham, G A; Bradley, J; Bajt, S; Grant, P G; Bench, G; Brennan, S; Piannetta, P

    2003-11-07

    In January 2006, the Stardust mission will return the first samples from a solid solar-system body since Apollo, and the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust ever collected. Although sophisticated laboratory instruments exist for the analysis of Stardust samples, techniques for the recovery of particles and particle residues from aerogel collectors remain primitive. Here we describe our recent progress in developing techniques for extracting small volumes of aerogel, which we have called ''keystones,'' which completely contain particle impacts but minimize the damage to the surrounding aerogel collector. These keystones can be fixed to custom-designed micromachined silicon fixtures (so-called ''microforklifts''). In this configuration the samples are self-supporting, which can be advantageous in situations in which interference from a supporting substrate is undesirable. The keystones may also be extracted and placed onto a substrate without a fixture. We have also demonstrated the capability of homologously crushing these unmounted keystones for analysis techniques which demand flat samples.

  13. Molecular events during translocation and proofreading extracted from 200 static structures of DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases in family B are workhorses of DNA replication that carry out the bulk of the job at a high speed with high accuracy. A polymerase in this family relies on a built-in exonuclease for proofreading. It has not been observed at the atomic resolution how the polymerase advances one nucleotide space on the DNA template strand after a correct nucleotide is incorporated, that is, a process known as translocation. It is even more puzzling how translocation is avoided after the primer strand is excised by the exonuclease and returned back to the polymerase active site once an error occurs. The structural events along the bifurcate pathways of translocation and proofreading have been unwittingly captured by hundreds of structures in Protein Data Bank. This study analyzes all available structures of a representative member in family B and reveals the orchestrated event sequence during translocation and proofreading. PMID:27325739

  14. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Stephen P; O’Connor, Joan; Fitton, J Helen; Brooks, Lyndon; Rolfe, Margaret; Connellan, Paul; Wohlmuth, Hans; Cheras, Phil A; Morris, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects. Purpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients and methods: Participants (n = 12, five females [mean age, 62 ± 11.06 years] and seven males [mean age, 57.14 ± 9.20 years]) with a confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to either 100 mg (n = 5) or 1000 mg (n = 7) of a Maritech® extract formulation per day. The formulation contained Maritech® seaweed extract containing Fucus vesiculosis (85% w/w), Macrocystis pyrifera (10% w/w) and Laminaria japonica (5% w/w) plus vitamin B6, zinc and manganese. Primary outcome was the average comprehensive arthritis test (COAT) score which is comprised of four sub-scales: pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity measured weekly. Safety measures included full blood count, serum lipids, liver function tests, urea, creatinine and electrolytes determined at baseline and week 12. All adverse events were recorded. Results: Eleven participants completed 12 weeks and one completed 10 weeks of the study. Using a multilevel linear model, the average COAT score was reduced by 18% for the 100 mg treatment and 52% for the 1000 mg dose at the end of the study. There was a clear dose response effect seen between the two treatments (P ≤ 0.0005) on the average COAT score and each of the four COAT subscales (pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity) (P ≤ 0.05). The preparation was well tolerated and the few adverse events were unlikely to be related to the study medication. There were no changes in blood parameters measured over the course of the study with the exception of

  15. Complexation of Manganese with Glutarimidedioxime: Implication for Extraction Uranium from Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiang; Tian, Yin; Qin, Zhen; Yu, Qianhong; Wei, Hongyuan; Wang, Dongqi; Li, Xingliang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-03-01

    The molecule of glutaroimidedioxime, a cyclic imidedioxime moiety that can form during the synthesis of the poly(amidoxime)sorbent and is reputedly responsible for the extraction of uranium from seawater. Complexation of manganese (II) with glutarimidedioxime in aqueous solutions was investigated with potentiometry, calorimetry, ESI-mass spectrometry, electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. Results show that complexation reactions of manganese with glutarimidedioxime are both enthalpy and entropy driven processes, implying that the sorption of manganese on the glutarimidedioxime-functionalized sorbent would be enhanced at higher temperatures. Complex formation of manganese with glutarimidedioxime can assist redox of Mn(II/III). There are about ~15% of equilibrium manganese complex with the ligand in seawater pH(8.3), indicating that manganese could compete to some degree with uranium for sorption sites.

  16. Complexation of Manganese with Glutarimidedioxime: Implication for Extraction Uranium from Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang; Tian, Yin; Qin, Zhen; Yu, Qianhong; Wei, Hongyuan; Wang, Dongqi; Li, Xingliang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    The molecule of glutaroimidedioxime, a cyclic imidedioxime moiety that can form during the synthesis of the poly(amidoxime)sorbent and is reputedly responsible for the extraction of uranium from seawater. Complexation of manganese (II) with glutarimidedioxime in aqueous solutions was investigated with potentiometry, calorimetry, ESI-mass spectrometry, electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. Results show that complexation reactions of manganese with glutarimidedioxime are both enthalpy and entropy driven processes, implying that the sorption of manganese on the glutarimidedioxime-functionalized sorbent would be enhanced at higher temperatures. Complex formation of manganese with glutarimidedioxime can assist redox of Mn(II/III). There are about ~15% of equilibrium manganese complex with the ligand in seawater pH(8.3), indicating that manganese could compete to some degree with uranium for sorption sites. PMID:28266579

  17. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  18. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    SciTech Connect

    Fatimah, Is Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-02-08

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  19. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-02-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  20. Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide.

    PubMed

    Pedder, Hugo; Sarri, Grammati; Keeney, Edna; Nunes, Vanessa; Dias, Sofia

    2016-12-13

    As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of points to consider when collecting data, primarily aimed at systematic reviewers preparing data for meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis (NMA), multiple outcomes analysis and analysis combining different types of data are considered in a manner that can be useful across a range of data collection programmes. The guide has been shown to be both easy to learn and useful in a small pilot study.

  1. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2010-02-19

    The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition.

  2. Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, You-Chia; Liu, Chang-Hua; Liu, Che-Hung; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B.

    2014-06-01

    A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer chemical-vapor-deposited graphene. We model graphene as a truly two-dimensional (2D) material with a sheet conductivity, rather than a phenomenological effective refractive index as has been used in the literature. This technique measures both the real and imaginary part of the optical conductivity, which is important for graphene optoelectronics and metamaterials. Using this method, we obtain broadband measurements of the complex optical conductivity for mono- and bilayer graphene from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths. We also study how chemical doping with nitric acid modifies the complex optical conductivity.

  3. Complex eigenvalue extraction in NASTRAN by the tridiagonal reduction (FEER) method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.; Mann, F. I.

    1977-01-01

    An extension of the Tridiagonal Reduction (FEER) method to complex eigenvalue analysis in NASTRAN is described. As in the case of real eigenvalue analysis, the eigensolutions closest to a selected point in the eigenspectrum are extracted from a reduced, symmetric, tridiagonal eigenmatrix whose order is much lower than that of the full size problem. The reduction process is effected automatically, and thus avoids the arbitrary lumping of masses and other physical quantities at selected grid points. The statement of the algebraic eigenvalue problem admits mass, damping and stiffness matrices which are unrestricted in character, i.e., they may be real, complex, symmetric or unsymmetric, singular or non-singular.

  4. Current approaches and challenges for the metabolite profiling of complex natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Marti, Guillaume; Thomas, Aurélien; Bertrand, Samuel

    2015-02-20

    Metabolite profiling is critical in many aspects of the life sciences, particularly natural product research. Obtaining precise information on the chemical composition of complex natural extracts (metabolomes) that are primarily obtained from plants or microorganisms is a challenging task that requires sophisticated, advanced analytical methods. In this respect, significant advances in hyphenated chromatographic techniques (LC-MS, GC-MS and LC-NMR in particular), as well as data mining and processing methods, have occurred over the last decade. Together, these tools, in combination with bioassay profiling methods, serve an important role in metabolomics for the purposes of both peak annotation and dereplication in natural product research. In this review, a survey of the techniques that are used for generic and comprehensive profiling of secondary metabolites in natural extracts is provided. The various approaches (chromatographic methods: LC-MS, GC-MS, and LC-NMR and direct spectroscopic methods: NMR and DIMS) are discussed with respect to their resolution and sensitivity for extract profiling. In addition the structural information that can be generated through these techniques or in combination, is compared in relation to the identification of metabolites in complex mixtures. Analytical strategies with applications to natural extracts and novel methods that have strong potential, regardless of how often they are used, are discussed with respect to their potential applications and future trends.

  5. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    DOE PAGES

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; ...

    2016-02-19

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2Dmore » space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.« less

  6. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2D space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.

  7. Lipophilic ternary complexes in liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Latesky, Stanley; Henderson, Renesha V.; Edwards, Emilio A.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of ternary complexes between lanthanide ions [Nd(III) or Eu(III)], octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) was probed by liquid-liquid extraction and spectroscopic techniques. Equilibrium modeling of data for the extraction of Nd(III) or Eu(III) from lactic acid media into n-dodecane solutions of CMPO and HDEHP indicates the predominant extracted species are of the type [Ln(AHA){sub 2}(A)] and [Ln(CMPO)(AHA){sub 2}(A)], where Ln = Nd or Eu and A represents the DEHP{sup -} anion. FTIR (for both Eu and Nd) and visible spectrophotometry (in the case of Nd) indicate the formation of the [Ln(CMPO)(A){sup 3}] complexes when CMPO is added to n-dodecane solutions of the LnA{sub 3} compounds. Both techniques indicate a stronger propensity of CMPO to complex Nd(III) versus Eu(III).

  8. Modelling of a Zonda wind event in a complex terrain region using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R. P.; Cremades, P. G.; Lakkis, G.; Allende, D. G.; Santos, R.; Puliafito, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The air quality modeling in a regional scale requires the coupling to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, mainly when a high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as in those cases related to large pollutants emissions episodes or extreme weather events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) is a last generation NWP model which computes temperature, pressure, humidity and wind fields in high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to perform simulations in complex terrain regions, WRF must be locally configured to obtain a proper representation of the physical processes, and an independent validation must be performed, both under common and extreme conditions. Once the local configuration is obtained, a full atmospheric chemistry modeling can be performed by means of WRF-Chem. In this work a mesoescale event of Zonda wind (similar to Foehn and Chinook winds) affecting the topographically complex mountainous region of Mendoza (Argentina) on February 15th, 2007 is represented using WRF. The model results are compared to the Argentine National Weather Service (SMN) observations at "El Plumerillo" station (WMO #87418), showing a good performance. A description of the local model configuration and most important physical parameterizations selected for the simulations is given, including the improvement of the default resolution of land use and land cover (LULC) fields. The high resolution modeling domain considered is centered at the city of Mendoza (32° 53' South, 68° 50' West), it extends 200 km N/S × 160 km E/W and includes a 3-nested domain downscaling of 36, 12 and 4 km resolution, respectively. The results for the Zonda wind episode show a very good performance of the model both in spatial and temporal scales. The temporal dew point variation (the physical variable that best describes the Zonda wind) shows a good agreement with the measured values, with a sharp decrease of 20 °C (from 16 °C to -4 °C) in 3 hours. A full 3-D regional

  9. World, We Have Problems: Simulation for Large Complex, Risky Projects, and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Prior to a spacewalk during the NASA STS/129 mission in November 2009, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) correspondent William Harwood reported astronauts, "were awakened again", as they had been the day previously. Fearing something not properly connected was causing a leak, the crew, both on the ground and in space, stopped and checked everything. The alarm proved false. The crew did complete its work ahead of schedule, but the incident reminds us that correctly connecting hundreds and thousands of entities, subsystems and systems, finding leaks, loosening stuck valves, and adding replacements to very large complex systems over time does not occur magically. Everywhere major projects present similar pressures. Lives are at - risk. Responsibility is heavy. Large natural and human-created disasters introduce parallel difficulties as people work across boundaries their countries, disciplines, languages, and cultures with known immediate dangers as well as the unexpected. NASA has long accepted that when humans have to go where humans cannot go that simulation is the sole solution. The Agency uses simulation to achieve consensus, reduce ambiguity and uncertainty, understand problems, make decisions, support design, do planning and troubleshooting, as well as for operations, training, testing, and evaluation. Simulation is at the heart of all such complex systems, products, projects, programs, and events. Difficult, hazardous short and, especially, long-term activities have a persistent need for simulation from the first insight into a possibly workable idea or answer until the final report perhaps beyond our lifetime is put in the archive. With simulation we create a common mental model, try-out breakdowns of machinery or teamwork, and find opportunity for improvement. Lifecycle simulation proves to be increasingly important as risks and consequences intensify. Across the world, disasters are increasing. We anticipate more of them, as the results of global warming

  10. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    PubMed

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube.

  11. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29)…

  12. Unique selectivity reversal in Am(3+)-Eu(3+) extraction in a tripodal TREN-based diglycolamide in ionic liquid: extraction, luminescence, complexation and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Andrea; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Raut, Dhaval R; Sengupta, Arijit; Verma, Parveen K; Tiwari, Nidhi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Jha, Sambhunath; Wouda, Anna M; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2016-02-14

    An N-pivot diglycolamide extractant (DGA-TREN) was synthesized for the first time and its complexation behaviour was studied towards trivalent lanthanide/actinide ions. The solvent extraction studies suggested a unique selectivity reversal in the extraction of trivalent actinides versus trivalent lanthanides which was observed performing extraction studies in an ionic liquid vis-à-vis a molecular diluent for a tripodal TREN-based diglycolamide ligand (DGA-TREN) vs. a tripodal diglycolamide ligand (T-DGA) which may have great significance in radioactive waste remediation. The nature of the bonding to Eu(3+) ion was investigated by EXAFS as well as by DFT calculations.

  13. Recovery and purification of cholesterol from cholesterol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Chen, Youliang; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction (UAE) of cholesterol from cholesterol-β-cyclodextrin (C-β-CD) inclusion complex prepared from duck yolk oil. The best extraction conditions were solvent-solid ratio 10mL/g, ultrasonic power 251W, extraction temperature 56°C and sonication time 36min. Under these conditions, the highest cholesterol extraction yield and cholesterol content obtained 98.12±0.25% and 43.38±0.61mg/g inclusion complex, respectively. As compared with Reflux extraction and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE was more efficient and economical. To increase the purity of crude cholesterol extraction, silica gel column chromatography and crystallization were carried out. Finally, cholesterol was obtained at 95.1% purity, 71.7% recovery and 22.0% yield.

  14. Deciphering landscape complexity to predict (non)linear responses to extreme climatic events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme events are increasing in frequency and magnitude for many landscapes globally. Ecologically, most of the focus on extreme climatic events has been on effects of either short-term pulses (floods, freezes) or long-term drought. Multi-year increases in precipitation are also occurring with litt...

  15. An event generator for simulations of complex β-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, D.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a Monte Carlo event generator for the design, optimization and performance characterization of beta decay spectroscopy experimental set-ups. The event generator has been developed within the Geant4 simulation architecture and provides new features and greater flexibility in comparison with the current available decay generator.

  16. [Isolation and purification of puerarin from puerarin extractive by chelate complex chromatography].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian; Yuan, Chuanxun; Dai, Yuqing

    2006-09-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone compound, is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, which has the good medical effects on hypertension and angina. A new type of separation and purification method for isolating puerarin was developed using chelate complex chromatography. The stationary phase was prepared with silica gel containing 7% of Cu(OAc)2 in the chloroform. After the chloroform was evaporated, it was used as chelate complex chromatographic stationary phase to purify puerarin extractive. Pure puerarin was obtained when a mixture of chloroform and methanol (10:1, v/v) was used as eluent. In comparison with a common silica gel column, the chelate complex chromatographic column was more convenient and efficient. The purity and recovery of puerarin, and column capacity were improved 11%, 12% and 200%, respectively. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the purity of puerarin could be as high as with a recovery of 92%.

  17. An automatic rules extraction approach to support OSA events detection in an mHealth system.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Detection and real time monitoring of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) episodes are very important tasks in healthcare. To suitably face them, this paper proposes an easy-to-use, cheap mobile-based approach relying on three steps. First, single-channel ECG data from a patient are collected by a wearable sensor and are recorded on a mobile device. Second, the automatic extraction of knowledge about that patient takes place offline, and a set of IF…THEN rules containing heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters is achieved. Third, these rules are used in our real-time mobile monitoring system: the same wearable sensor collects the single-channel ECG data and sends them to the same mobile device, which now processes those data online to compute HRV-related parameter values. If these values activate one of the rules found for that patient, an alarm is immediately produced. This approach has been tested on a literature database with 35 OSA patients. A comparison against five well-known classifiers has been carried out.

  18. Hand region extraction and gesture recognition from video stream with complex background through entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, JongShill; Lee, YoungJoo; Lee, EungHyuk; Hong, SeungHong

    2004-01-01

    Hand gesture recognition utilizing image processing relies upon recognition through markers or hand extraction by colors, and therefore is heavily restricted by the colors of clothes or skin. We propose a method to recognize band gestures extracted from images with a complex background for a more natural interface in HCI (human computer interaction). The proposed method obtains the image by subtracting one image from another sequential image, measures the entropy, separates hand region from images, tracks the hand region and recognizes hand gestures. Through entropy measurement, we have color information that has near distribution in complexion for regions that have big values and extracted hand region from input images. We could draw the hand region adaptively in variable lighting or individual differences because entropy offers color information as well as motion information at the same time. The detected contour using chain code for the hand region is extracted, and present centroidal profile method that is improved little more and recognized gesture of hand. In the experimental results for 6 kinds of hand gesture, it shows the recognition rate with more than 95% for person and 90-100% for each gesture at 5 frames/sec.

  19. On the use of prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with coagulopathy requiring tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yoshinari; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    In patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy (prothrombin time-international normalized ratio [PT-INR] ≥ 4.5), surgical procedures can be carried out with bridging therapy using heparin. However, surgical treatment options are severely limited in patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy and who have heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), as heparin use is contraindicated. We performed tooth extraction using prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in 2 HIT patients on high-level anticoagulation therapy (PT-INR ≥ 4.5). Five hundred units of PCC were administered intravenously, and after 15 minutes, it was confirmed that PT-INR was less than 2.0. Tooth extraction was then performed and sufficient local hemostasis was achieved. At 3 hours after tooth extraction, PT-INR was 2.0 or higher and later increased to 4.0 or higher, but postoperative bleeding was mostly absent. When performing tooth extraction in HIT patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy, favorable hemostatic management was achieved through sufficient local hemostasis and transient warfarin reversal using PCC.

  20. Dynamic Topology and Spatio-Temporal Complexity of Stick-Slip Events in Natural Faulted Westerly Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, H.; Thompson, B. D.; Young, R.

    2011-12-01

    The patterns of acoustic events prior to and after a stick-slip event are transformed to complex networks and the characteristics of the networks are measured. The patterns are the result of acoustic emission monitoring through loading a cylindrical sample of Westerly granite containing a natural fault [1].Two approaches are implemented in construction of the networks. In the first approach the network is constructed based on nearest neighbour events while the interactions of the main fault with the second and third faults are inspected through analyzing the spatial communities of the networks. The second approach uses a network method on phase space of time series (i.e., constructing a smooth manifold) obtained from the waveforms of over occurrence rank of events [2]. With the later implementation, we characterize the source mechanism of events while we compare the characteristics of the obtained networks (i.e., motif distribution and eigenvector of Laplacian) with the inferred source mechanism from the inverse moment tensor approach. Our results show the correlation of motifs rank evolution with source mechanism. Furthermore, with respect to the shape of triangles (as well as stretching and folding) over spatial complex networks and based on the first approach, the 3 point nodes motif distributions are extended to consider possible statistical geometry of events. Thus, the spatio-temporal complexity and possible coupling of events in time and space in terms of network parameters is inferred. We compare our results with the recent analysis of networks motifs from pure shear rupture associated with sudden variation of contact strings [3]. Keyword:, Stick-sllip; Westerly granite, Acoustic Emission Patterns; Complex Networks, and Motifs Ref. [1] Thompson, B.D., D.A. Lockner and R.P. Young, Premonitory acoustic emissions and stick slip in natural and smooth faulted Westerly granite,J. Geophysical Research, Vol 114, B02205, doi: 10.1029/2008jb005753, 2009. [2] J. F

  1. Simultaneous determination of iron and ruthenium as ternary complexes by extractive second derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Toral, M I; Richter, P; Tapia, A E; Hernández, J

    1999-08-23

    A highly sensitive and selective second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium and iron in mixtures. The method is based on the formation of the binary complexes of iron and ruthenium with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline) in the presence of ethyleneglycol. These complexes are formed at pH 4.0-6.0 upon heating at 90 degrees C for 60 min. The ternary perchlorate complexes are then separated by liquid-liquid extraction. The extracts were evaluated directly by derivative spectrophotometric measurement, using the zero-crossing approach for determination of both analytes. Ruthenium and iron were thus determined in the ranges 9.6-450 and 16.3-280 ng/ml, respectively, in the presence of one another. The detection limits achieved (3sigma) were found to be 2.9 ng/ml of ruthenium and 4.9 ng/ml of iron. The relative standard deviations were in all instances less than 1.5%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of both analytes in synthetic mixtures.

  2. Extraction of nickel from edible oils with a complexing agent prior to determination by FAAS.

    PubMed

    Tokay, Feyzullah; Bağdat, Sema

    2016-04-15

    In the present work, a new extraction method for separation of nickel from edible oils and determination by FAAS is reported. This method is based on extraction of Ni(II) ions from the oil to aqueous phase with N,N'-bis(4-methoxysalicylidene) ethylenediamine (MSE) and determination by FAAS. Properties of the complex formed between MSE and Ni(II) were investigated spectrophotometrically. Central composite design (CCD) was utilized for optimization of MSE to oil, stirring time and temperature, which were 0.97 mL g(-1), 15.4 min, and 29.7°C, respectively. The developed method was tested with an oil-based metal standard and the recovery was 93.8±3.9%. The proposed method was applied with five different edible oils.

  3. Beam transport channels and beam injection and extraction systems of the NICA accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Kolesnikov, S. Yu.; Meshkov, I. N.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Rabtsun, S. V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.; Topilin, N. D.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Fateev, A. A.; Shvetsov, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    A new accelerator complex is being constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research as a part of the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) project. The goal is to conduct experiments with colliding ion beams (at the first stage of the project) and colliding polarized proton/deuteron beams (at the second stage). Transport beam channels and the systems of beam injection and extraction for synchrotrons and collider rings are an important connecting link for the whole accelerator facility. The design of the primary beam-transport channels and injection/extraction systems are presented. Special attention is paid to various aspects of dynamics of beams in their transfer between the NICA accelerators.

  4. Effects of Thymus serpyllum extract on cell proliferation, apoptosis and epigenetic events in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Emir; Atmaca, Harika; Kisim, Asli; Uzunoglu, Selim; Uslu, Ruchan; Karaca, Burcak

    2012-01-01

    Thymus (T.) serpyllum (wild thyme) is an aromatic medicinal plant due to its several biological properties, including anticancer activity. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and increasing evidence supports that it is not only a genetic but also an epigenetic disease. Epigenetics investigates changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms that do not involve alterations in DNA sequence. DNA methylation and histone acetylation are the most widely studied epigenetic changes in cancer cells. This study evaluated the effects of T. serpyllum on apoptosis and epigenetic events in breast cancer cells. XTT cell viability assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays were used in the assesment of apoptosis. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities were evaluated by ELISA and verified by qRT-PCR. T. serpyllum extract induced significant cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) but not in normal cells. It also induced apoptosis and inhibited the DNMT and HDAC activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. In the present study, the first preliminary data on the effects of the methanolic extract of T. serpyllum in normal and breast cancer cells were obtained and suggest that T. serpyllum may be a promising candidate in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for breast cancer treatment.

  5. Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Lange, S.; Sadowski, F.; Bosbach, D.; Beele, B.B.; Panak, P.J.; Skerencak-Frech, A.; Geist, A.; Iqbal, M.; Verboom, W.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the back-bone of the diglycolamide-structure of the TODGA extractant was modified by adding one or two methyl groups to the central methylene carbon-atoms. The influence of these structural modifications on the extraction behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides and other fission products was studied in solvent extraction experiments. The addition of methyl groups to the central methylene carbon atoms leads to reduced distribution ratios, also for Sr(II). This reduced extraction efficiency for Sr(II) is beneficial for process applications, as the co-extraction of Sr(II) can be avoided, resulting in an easier process design. The use of these modified diglycol-amides in solvent extraction processes is discussed. Furthermore, the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) to the ligands was studied using Time-Resolved-Laser-Fluorescence-Spectroscopy (TRLFS). The complexes were characterized by slope analysis and conditional stability constants were determined.

  6. Complex effusive events at Kilauea as documented by the GOES satellite and remote video cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, A.J.L.; Thornber, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    GOES provides thermal data for all of the Hawaiian volcanoes once every 15 min. We show how volcanic radiance time series produced from this data stream can be used as a simple measure of effusive activity. Two types of radiance trends in these time series can be used to monitor effusive activity: (a) Gradual variations in radiance reveal steady flow-field extension and tube development. (b) Discrete spikes correlate with short bursts of activity, such as lava fountaining or lava-lake overflows. We are confident that any effusive event covering more than 10,000 m2 of ground in less than 60 min will be unambiguously detectable using this approach. We demonstrate this capability using GOES, video camera and ground-based observational data for the current eruption of Kilauea volcano (Hawai'i). A GOES radiance time series was constructed from 3987 images between 19 June and 12 August 1997. This time series displayed 24 radiance spikes elevated more than two standard deviations above the mean; 19 of these are correlated with video-recorded short-burst effusive events. Less ambiguous events are interpreted, assessed and related to specific volcanic events by simultaneous use of permanently recording video camera data and ground-observer reports. The GOES radiance time series are automatically processed on data reception and made available in near-real-time, so such time series can contribute to three main monitoring functions: (a) automatically alerting major effusive events; (b) event confirmation and assessment; and (c) establishing effusive event chronology.

  7. An Analysis Method for Superconducting Resonator Parameter Extraction with Complex Baseline Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-empirical model is proposed for extracting the quality (Q) factors of arrays of superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The determination of the total internal and coupling Q factors enables the computation of the loss in the superconducting transmission lines. The method used allows the simultaneous analysis of multiple interacting discrete resonators with the presence of a complex spectral baseline arising from reflections in the system. The baseline removal allows an unbiased estimate of the device response as measured in a cryogenic instrumentation setting.

  8. Extraction of an urease-active organo-complex from soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.; El-Sayed, M. H.; Mclaren, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an extraction from a Dublin clay loam soil of a colloidal organic matter complex that is urease active and, by X-ray analysis, free of clays. Urease activity in the clay-free precipitates, as in the soil, was not destroyed by the activity of an added proteolytic enzyme, pronase. This is attributed to the circumstance that native soil urease resides in organic colloidal particles with pores large enough for water, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide to pass freely, but nevertheless small enough to exclude pronase.

  9. Event-based state estimation for a class of complex networks with time-varying delays: A comparison principle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbing; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Yurong; Ding, Derui; Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of time-delayed complex networks with event-triggering communication protocol. A novel event generator function, which is dependent not only on the measurement output but also on a predefined positive constant, is proposed with hope to reduce the communication burden. A new concept of exponentially ultimate boundedness is provided to quantify the estimation performance. By means of the comparison principle, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the estimation error is exponentially ultimately bounded, and then the estimator gains are obtained in terms of the solution of certain matrix inequalities. Furthermore, a rigorous proof is proposed to show that the designed triggering condition is free of the Zeno behavior. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed event-based estimator.

  10. Volume perception: Disparity extraction and depth representation in complex three-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie M

    2014-10-13

    Our sensitivity to binocular disparity is exquisite under the best conditions, typically in uncluttered scenes with few small objects. Yet binocular vision can deliver a very strong impression of depth for complex, cluttered scenes with lots of objects and overlaps. How good is disparity processing under these conditions? Here we explored a novel task: depth volume perception, to study how a global representation of depth is obtained using binocular disparity information. We found that the human visual system is sensitive to depth volume but that the volume perceived is dependent on the local and global arrangement of scene content. We also show how a model of early disparity extraction and combination can account for some of the biases found. Our work shows that the visual system is not able to correctly represent and interpret disparity for all locations in a complex three-dimensional scene.

  11. Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Heterogeneous Particles: Implications for Applications to Complex Atmospheric Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longin, T.; Waring-Kidd, C.; Wingen, L. M.; Lyster, K.; Anderson, C.; Kumbhani, S.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) is a direct, real time technique for obtaining mass spectra of gases, liquid droplets, solid particles, and aerosols with little sample processing. EESI-MS involves the interaction of charged electrospray droplets with a separate spray containing the analyte of interest, but the exact mechanism by which the solvent droplets extract analyte from the sample is unclear. Possible mechanisms include complete coalescence of the sample particle with the solvent droplet in which all of the analyte is incorporated into the solvent or a more temporary interaction such that only some of the analyte is transferred to the solvent. Previous studies of the mechanism of EESI-MS on homogeneous particles indicate that both mechanisms are possible. We studied the behavior of EESI-MS toward heterogeneous particles created by coating NaCl particles with various thicknesses of organic diacids. Our results indicate that the signal strength depends on the solubility of the organic acid in the electrospray solvent, in agreement with previous studies, and also that the outer 10-15 nm of the particles are most susceptible to extraction into the electrospray droplets. Our results combined with those of previous studies suggest that the mass spectra obtained with EESI will not necessarily reflect the overall particle composition, especially for particles that are spatially inhomogeneous, and hence caution in interpretation of the data is advised for application to complex atmospheric aerosol.

  12. Teaching Tacting of Private Events Based on Public Accompaniments: Effects of Contingencies, Audience Control, and Stimulus Complexity.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Hart, John M

    2014-06-01

    Our current understanding of the role of private events in the science of behavior is based largely on Skinner's natural science interpretation of private events. Skinner described public accompaniments as one source of control for a verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal behavior regarding private events. In this study, we developed an experimental analogue to study variables influencing tacting of private events. The participant had exclusive access to one set of stimuli (the private stimuli), and the experimenter attempted to teach tacts for private stimuli based on their correspondence with public stimuli accessible to both the experimenter and participant. Results of experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that reports of private stimuli were a function of degree of public-private correspondence, reinforcement contingency, and audience control. In some cases, we encountered reports controlled exclusively by public stimuli. Results of experiment 3 showed that public control was less likely when public stimuli were more complex and the experimenter had a unique behavioral history with respect to those stimuli that was not shared by the learner. The orderly patterns of data obtained suggest that analogue arrangements might be a useful, and even necessary, starting point for experimental investigations of how private events may enter into the analysis of behavior.

  13. Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions by complexation with organoboronates in ion-pair extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    Recovery of propylene glycol (1,2-PD) from aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments using extractants consisting of ion pairs of Aliquat 336 and phenylboronate in 2-ethylhexanol, toluene, o-xylene, or diisobutyl ketone. The heterogeneous complexation constant {beta}{sub 11} calculated from the results of 25 C was highest in 2-ethylhexanol (49--100 (mol/L){sup {minus}1}). The equilibrium water concentration in the extractants was 8--12 wt% and decreased with increasing uptake of 1,2-PD. Nearly all extractant/diluent systems exhibited stoichiometric overloading. Evidence for aggregation of the ion-pair extractant in the organic phase was found from water solubilization studies and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy studies. The complexation constant decreased with increasing temperature. Up to 80% of the extracted 1,2-PD was back extracted into water after acidification with CO{sub 2}. The extractant could then be regenerated by stripping CO{sub 2} from solution at temperatures exceeding 110 C. However, at these temperatures the color of the extractant changes, and the extraction capacity is reduced to about 60% of its original value. Regeneration by contacting with aqueous solutions of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not cause extractant degradation; regeneration effectiveness increased with increasing pH.

  14. Modified CTAB and TRIzol protocols improve RNA extraction from chemically complex Embryophyta1

    PubMed Central

    Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.; Chanderbali, Andre S.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Here we present a series of protocols for RNA extraction across a diverse array of plants; we focus on woody, aromatic, aquatic, and other chemically complex taxa. Methods and Results: Ninety-one taxa were subjected to RNA extraction with three methods presented here: (1) TRIzol/TURBO DNA-free kits using the manufacturer’s protocol with the addition of sarkosyl; (2) a combination method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and TRIzol/sarkosyl/TURBO DNA-free; and (3) a combination of CTAB and QIAGEN RNeasy Plant Mini Kit. Bench-ready protocols are given. Conclusions: After an iterative process of working with chemically complex taxa, we conclude that the use of TRIzol supplemented with sarkosyl and the TURBO DNA-free kit is an effective, efficient, and robust method for obtaining RNA from 100 mg of leaf tissue of land plant species (Embryophyta) examined. Our protocols can be used to provide RNA of suitable stability, quantity, and quality for transcriptome sequencing. PMID:25995975

  15. Automated bare earth extraction technique for complex topography in light detection and ranging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Bradford, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital surface models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. Few existing algorithms can handle substantial terrain diversity without significant editing or user interaction. This effort presents a newly developed methodology that provides a flexible, adaptable tool capable of integrating multiple LiDAR data attributes for an accurate terrain assessment. The terrain extraction and segmentation (TEXAS) approach uses a third-order spatial derivative for each point in the digital surface model to determine the curvature of the terrain rather than rely solely on the slope. The utilization of the curvature has shown to successfully preserve ground points in areas of steep terrain as they typically exhibit low curvature. Within the framework of TEXAS, the contiguous sets of points with low curvatures are grouped into regions using an edge-based segmentation method. The process does not require any user inputs and is completely data driven. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LiDAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity.

  16. Moving objects extraction method in H.264/advanced video coding bit stream of a complex scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingsheng, Chen; Mingxin, Qin; Guangming, Liang; Jixiang, Sun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    For the purpose of extracting moving objects from H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) bit stream of a complex scene, an algorithm based on maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MRF) framework to extract moving objects directly from H.264 compressed video is proposed in this paper. It mainly involves encoding information of motion vectors (MVs) and block partition modes in H.264/AVC bit stream and utilizes temporal continuity and spatial consistency of moving object's pieces. First, it retrieves MVs and block partition modes of identical 4×4 pixel blocks in P frames and establishes Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the phase of MVs as a reference background, and then creates MRF model based on MVs, block partition modes, the GMM of the background, spatial, and temporal consistency. The moving objects are retrieved by solving the MRF model. The experimental results show that it can perform robustly in a complex environment and the precision and recall have been improved over the existing algorithm.

  17. Prediction of the most extreme rainfall events in the South American Andes: A statistical forecast based on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    During the monsoon season, the subtropical Andes in South America are exposed to spatially extensive extreme rainfall events that frequently lead to flashfloods and landslides with severe socio-economic impacts. Since dynamical weather forecast has substantial problems with predicting the most extreme events (above the 99th percentile), alternative forecast methods are called for. Based on complex network theory, we developed a general mathematical framework for statistical prediction of extreme events in significantly interrelated time series. The key idea of our approach is to make the internal synchronization structure of extreme events mathematically accessible in terms of the topology of a network which is constructed from measuring the synchronization of extreme events at different locations. The application of our method to high-spatiotemporal resolution rainfall data (TRMM 3B42) reveals a migration pattern of large convective systems from southeastern South America towards the Argentinean and Bolivian Andes, against the direction of the northwesterly low-level moisture flow from the Amazon Basin. Once these systems reach the Andes, they lead to spatially extensive extreme events up to elevations above 4000m, leading to substantial risks of associated natural hazards. Based on atmospheric composites, we could identify an intricate interplay of frontal systems approaching from the South, low-level moisture flow from the Amazon Basin to the North, and the Andean orography as responsible climatic mechanism. These insights allow to formulate a simple forecast rule predicting 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of extreme rainfall events at the eastern slopes of the subtropical Andes. The rule can be computed from readily available rainfall and pressure data and is already being tested by local institutions for disaster preparation.

  18. Ionic liquids as a key medium for efficient extraction of copper complexes from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Popowski, Dominik; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-05-15

    Due to insufficient information, the aim of study was to concern on the optimization of extraction procedure of selected metal complexes with flavonoids from chia seeds. Evaluation of the amount of elements in compound, not only their total concentration content, is highly important due to the fact, that only a part from total content of metal is absorbed by human body. At the beginning the total amount of elements in chia seeds was established as 14.51±0.42 µg g(-1) for copper, 57.44±1.23 µg g(-1) for manganese, 81.12±1.89 µg g(-1) for zinc and 0.35±0.13 µg g(-1) for cobalt. After the most suitable solvent was established, effects of several parameters on the efficiency of metal extraction were studied. Solvent concentration, solid-solvent ratio, extraction method, extraction time and temperature have been investigated as independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions included vortexing during 20 min in 50°C, using an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as an extractant, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20. The determination of total and extractable amount of metals in chia seeds was carried out by standalone ICP MS. In addition, a complementary analysis of extracted metal complexes was performed using SEC-ICP MS method. It was confirmed that the ionic liquid is able to extract different copper complexes in comparison with commonly used solvents. The study indicated that extraction by using an ionic liquid has been successfully applied for determination of metals and metal complexes in chia seeds.

  19. Using rain-on-snow events to evaluate the quality of bias correction to represent complex inter-variable dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Bosshard, Thomas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    A key issue for adaptation planning is the information of projections about changes of extremes. Climate projections of meteorological extremes and their downscaling are a challenge on their own. Yet - at least in hydrology - meteorological extremes are not necessarily hydrological extremes. These can also result from a sequence of days with only moderate meteorological conditions, too. This sequences are called "storylines". In climate change impact assess studies it is relevant to know, whether these meteorological storylines are represented in regional climate models, and how well can bias correction preserve or improve the representation. One storyline leading to hydrological extremes are rain-on-snow events, and more specifically rain-on-snowfall events. These events challenge the regional climate model and the bias correction in terms of representing absolute values and inter-variable dependences. This study makes use of the rain-on-snow-storylines to evaluate the performance of regional climate models and a bias correction method in reproducing complex inter-variable dependencies. At first, we applied a hydrological model to a mesoscale catchment in Switzerland that is known to be effected by rain-on-snow events. At second, the ERA-Interim driven regional climate model RCA4.5 - developed at SMHI - with a spatial resolution of 0.11 * 0.11 degree was used to drive the hydrological model. At third, bias-correction of the RCM was done applying the distribution based scaling (DBS) bias-correction method (Yang et al., 2010) developed at the SMHI. The bias-corrected data then also served as driving input data to the hydrological model. Based on the simulated runoff, as well as simulated precipitation, temperature, and snow pack data, an algorithm to detect rain-on-snow events was applied. Finally, the presence or absents of rain-on-snow events for the three different climate input data, ERA.RCA4.5, DBS corrected ERA.RC4 and observed climate, are evaluated within

  20. Extraction and processing of circulating DNA from large sample volumes using methylation on beads for the detection of rare epigenetic events.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Brian; Stark, Alejandro; Pisanic, Thomas R; Kwak, Ruby; Zhang, Yi; Wrangle, John; Baylin, Stephen; Herman, James; Ahuja, Nita; Brock, Malcolm V; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2013-10-21

    The use of methylated tumor-specific circulating DNA has shown great promise as a potential cancer biomarker. Nonetheless, the relative scarcity of tumor-specific circulating DNA presents a challenge for traditional DNA extraction and processing techniques. Here we demonstrate a single tube extraction and processing technique dubbed "methylation on beads" that allows for DNA extraction and bisulfite conversion for up to 2 ml of plasma or serum. In comparison to traditional techniques including phenol chloroform and alcohol extraction, methylation on beads yields a 1.5- to 5-fold improvement in extraction efficiency. The technique results in far less carryover of PCR inhibitors yielding analytical sensitivity improvements of over 25-fold. The combination of improved recovery and sensitivity make possible the detection of rare epigenetic events and the development of high sensitivity epigenetic diagnostic assays.

  1. Determining the Total Volume of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Magmatic Event: Correlation of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Pitcavage, E.; Bybee, G. M.; Feineman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa, erupted 2.05 billion years ago, is the world's largest layered intrusion in the range of 710-1060 x 103 km3 conservatively. However, the total volume of the magmatic event that produced the BIC remains poorly known. Several other intrusions occurred approximately contemporaneously with the BIC, but a clear relationship between these multiple intrusions is yet to be determined. The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous complex of similar age 2.044 Ga ­± 24 Ma located in Botswana, 200km west of the far western limb of the BIC, with a total volume of 1300 km2. Using trace element analysis, this study makes an attempt to find a correlation between the magma that emplaced the Molopo Farms Complex with the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The MFC is related to the BIC and is located under approximately 200m of Kalahari sands, which prevents any direct sampling or observation. Unlike the BIC, the MFC is poorly studied creating a lack of information for the complex. Drill core samples from the MFC were analyzed to determine the trace element composition using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using previously reported values for the BIC; a comparison can be made on both complexes to find possible correlations. The comparison of trace element schematics in the MFC and the BIC suggest that both complexes are derived from the same parental magma, often referred to as the "B1" magma. These comparisons allow for an assumption that the initial parental magma of the BIC may have also emplaced the MFC.

  2. Incorporating Love- and Rayleigh-wave magnitudes, unequal earthquake and explosion variance assumptions and interstation complexity for improved event screening

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N; Bonner, Jessie L; Stroujkova, Anastasia; Shumway, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to improve seismic event screening using the properties of surface waves, We are accomplishing this through (1) the development of a Love-wave magnitude formula that is complementary to the Russell (2006) formula for Rayleigh waves and (2) quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion-generated surface waves. We have applied the M{sub s} (VMAX) analysis (Bonner et al., 2006) using both Love and Rayleigh waves to events in the Middle East and Korean Peninsula, For the Middle East dataset consisting of approximately 100 events, the Love M{sub s} (VMAX) is greater than the Rayleigh M{sub s} (VMAX) estimated for individual stations for the majority of the events and azimuths, with the exception of the measurements for the smaller events from European stations to the northeast. It is unclear whether these smaller events suffer from magnitude bias for the Love waves or whether the paths, which include the Caspian and Mediterranean, have variable attenuation for Love and Rayleigh waves. For the Korean Peninsula, we have estimated Rayleigh- and Love-wave magnitudes for 31 earthquakes and two nuclear explosions, including the 25 May 2009 event. For 25 of the earthquakes, the network-averaged Love-wave magnitude is larger than the Rayleigh-wave estimate. For the 2009 nuclear explosion, the Love-wave M{sub s} (VMAX) was 3.1 while the Rayleigh-wave magnitude was 3.6. We are also utilizing the potential of observed variances in M{sub s} estimates that differ significantly in earthquake and explosion populations. We have considered two possible methods for incorporating unequal variances into the discrimination problem and compared the performance of various approaches on a population of 73 western United States earthquakes and 131 Nevada Test Site explosions. The approach proposes replacing the M{sub s} component by M{sub s} + a* {sigma}, where {sigma} denotes the interstation standard deviation obtained from the

  3. Medium-throughput profiling method for screening polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in complex bacterial extracts.

    PubMed

    Fer, Maude; Préchoux, Aurélie; Leroy, Andréa; Sassi, Jean-François; Lahaye, Marc; Boisset, Claire; Nyvall-Collén, Pi; Helbert, William

    2012-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the most abundant and the most diverse renewable materials found on earth. Due to the stereochemical variability of carbohydrates, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes - i.e. glycoside hydrolases and polysaccharide lyases - are essential tools for resolving the structure of these complex macromolecules. The exponential increase of genomic and metagenomic data contrasts sharply with the low number of proteins that have ascribed functions. To help fill this gap, we designed and implemented a medium-throughput profiling method to screen for polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in crude bacterial extracts. Our strategy was based on a series of filtrations, which are absolutely necessary to eliminate any reducing sugars not directly generated by enzyme degradation. In contrast with other protocols already available in the literature, our method can be applied to any panel of polysaccharides having known and unknown structures because no chemical modifications are required. We applied this approach to screen for enzymes that occur in Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora grown in two culture conditions.

  4. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  5. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Miguel; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. PMID:27239333

  6. Knocking on wood: base metal complexes as catalysts for selective oxidation of lignin models and extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Susan K; Baker, R Tom

    2015-07-21

    This work began as part of a biomass conversion catalysis project with UC Santa Barbara funded by the first NSF Chemical Bonding Center, CATSB. Recognizing that catalytic aerobic oxidation of diol C-C bonds could potentially be used to break down lignocellulose, we began to synthesize oxovanadium complexes and explore their fundamental reactivity. Of course there were theories regarding the oxidation mechanism, but our mechanistic studies soon revealed a number of surprises of the type that keep all chemists coming back to the bench! We realized that these reactions were also exciting in that they actually used the oxygen-on-every-carbon property of biomass-derived molecules to control the selectivity of the oxidation. When we found that these oxovanadium complexes tended to convert sugars predominantly to formic acid and carbon dioxide, we replaced one of the OH groups with an ether and entered the dark world of lignin chemistry. In this Account, we summarize results from our collaboration and from our individual labs. In particular, we show that oxidation selectivity (C-C vs C-O bond cleavage) of lignin models using air and vanadium complexes depends on the ancillary ligands, the reaction solvent, and the substrate structure (i.e., phenolic vs non-phenolic). Selected vanadium complexes in the presence of added base serve as effective alcohol oxidation catalysts via a novel base-assisted dehydrogenation pathway. In contrast, copper catalysts effect direct C-C bond cleavage of these lignin models, presumably through a radical pathway. The most active vanadium catalyst exhibits unique activity for the depolymerization of organosolv lignin. After Weckhuysen's excellent 2010 review on lignin valorization, the number of catalysis studies and approaches on both lignin models and extracts has expanded rapidly. Today we are seeing new start-ups and lignin production facilities sprouting up across the globe as we all work to prove wrong the old pulp and paper chemist

  7. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time.

  8. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Krause, Jeanette A.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2016-01-27

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO– anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions.

  9. Salient contour extraction from complex natural scene in night vision image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Yue, Jiang; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2014-03-01

    The theory of center-surround interaction in non-classical receptive field can be applied in night vision information processing. In this work, an optimized compound receptive field modulation method is proposed to extract salient contour from complex natural scene in low-light-level (LLL) and infrared images. The kernel idea is that multi-feature analysis can recognize the inhomogeneity in modulatory coverage more accurately and that center and surround with the grouping structure satisfying Gestalt rule deserves high connection-probability. Computationally, a multi-feature contrast weighted inhibition model is presented to suppress background and lower mutual inhibition among contour elements; a fuzzy connection facilitation model is proposed to achieve the enhancement of contour response, the connection of discontinuous contour and the further elimination of randomly distributed noise and texture; a multi-scale iterative attention method is designed to accomplish dynamic modulation process and extract contours of targets in multi-size. This work provides a series of biologically motivated computational visual models with high-performance for contour detection from cluttered scene in night vision images.

  10. Investigation of Microphysical Parameters within Winter and Summer Type Precipitation Events over Mountainous [Complex] Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, James R.; Bossert, James E.

    1997-12-31

    In this study we investigate complex terrain effects on precipitation with RAMS for both in winter and summer cases from a microphysical perspective. We consider a two dimensional east-west topographic cross section in New Mexico representative of the Jemez mountains on the west and the Sangre de Cristo mountains on the east. Located between these two ranges is the Rio Grande Valley. In these two dimensional experiments, variations in DSDs are considered to simulate total precipitation that closely duplicate observed precipitation.

  11. Complex rupture process of the March 19, 2013, Rudna mine (Poland) seismic event - local and regional view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinski, Lukasz; Cesca, Simone; Lizurek, Grzegorz

    2015-04-01

    On March 19th, 2013 a strong shallow induced seismic event struck a mining panel in the room-and-pillar Rudna copper mine, SE Poland. The event caused important damages at the mining tunnel and trapped 19 miners, which were safely rescued few hour later. Despite mining induced seismicity is frequent at this mine, the March 19 event was unusual because of its larger magnitude, its occurrence far from the mining stopes, and because it was accompanied by a strong hazardous rockburst. The mining inspections following the event verified the occurrence of a rockfall with tunnel floor uplift, but also recognized the presence of a faulting structure at the hypocentral location. The availability of three monitoring networks, including local and regional data, short-period and broadband seismometers, as well as surface and in-mine installation, give an optimal set up to determine rupture parameters and compare the performance and results from different installations. We perform waveform and spectral based analysis to infer source properties, with a particular interest to the determination of the rupture processes, using different moment tensor inversion techniques. Our results are surprisingly different, ranging from a dominant thrust mechanism, resolved at closest distances, to a collapse-type rupture, resolved at regional distances. We proof that a complex rupture model is needed to explain all observations and justify these discrepancies. The final scenario indicates that the rupture nucleated as a weaker thrust mechanism, along a pre-existing weakened surface, and continued in a more energetic collapse event. The local surface LUMINEOS network has the potential to resolve both subevents, but not using a standard moment tensor decomposition. We propose here a new moment tensor decomposition and an alternative moment tensor fitting procedure, which can be used to analyze the moment tensor of collapse sources.

  12. A LADAR bare earth extraction technique for diverse topography and complex scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.

    2012-06-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to LADAR data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. A successful approach provides a flexible methodology (adaptable for topography and/or environment) that is capable of integrating multiple ladar point cloud data attributes. A newly developed approach (TE-SiP) uses a 2nd and 3rd order spatial derivative for each point in the DEM to determine sets of contiguous regions of similar elevation. Specifically, the derivative of the central point represents the curvature of the terrain at that position. Contiguous sets of high (positive or negative) values define sharp edges such as building edges or cliffs. This method is independent of the slope, such that very steep, but continuous topography still have relatively low curvature values and are preserved in the terrain classification. Next, a recursive segmentation method identifies unique features of homogeneity on the surface separated by areas of high curvature. An iterative selection process is used to eliminate regions containing buildings or vegetation from the terrain surface. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LADAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity. The results shown here include developed and forested regions in the Dominican Republic.

  13. Complexity extraction of electroencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease with weighted-permutation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bin; Liang, Li; Li, Shunan; Wang, Ruofan; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, weighted-permutation entropy (WPE) is applied to investigating the complexity abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) signals from 14 severe AD patients and 14 age-matched normal subjects. The WPE values are estimated in the delta, the theta, the alpha, and the beta sub-bands for each channel with an overlapped sliding window. WPE is modified from the permutation entropy (PE), which has been recently suggested as a measurement to extract the complexity of the EEG signals. The advantage of WPE over PE is verified by both the model simulated and the experimental EEG signals. Although the results show that both the average PE and WPE of AD patients are decreased in contrast with the normal group in these four sub-bands, especially in the theta band, WPE can exhibit a better performance in distinguishing the AD patients from the normal controls by the more significant differences in the four sub-bands, which may be attributed to the brain dysfunction. Thus, it suggests that WPE may become a probable useful tool to detect brain dysfunction in AD and it seems to be promising to disclose the abnormalities of brain activity for other neural disease.

  14. Ultrafast events in the electron photodetachment from the hexacyanoferrate(II) complex in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommeret, Stanislas; Naskrecki, Ryszard; van der Meulen, Peter; Ménard, Marjorie; Vigneron, Georges; Gustavsson, Thomas

    1998-05-01

    Following excitation of the hexacyanoferrate(II) complex in water with a 40 fs laser pulse at 267 nm, the absorption of the hydrated electron rises with a global time constant of 510 fs, whereas the characteristic absorption of the hexacyanoferrate(III) appears almost instantaneously. A transient absorption band around 490 nm is tentatively assigned to the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) state of the hexacyanoferrate(II). Its ultra-rapid decay (≪60 fs) is due to the electronic repulsion between the electron and its parent core.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of tungsten in ores and steel by chloroform extraction of the tungsten-thiocyanate-diantipyrylmethane complex.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    A method for determining up to about 6% of tungsten in ores and mill products is described. It is based on the extraction of the yellow tungsten(V)-thiocyanate-diantipyrylmethane ion-association complex into chloroform from a 2.4M sulphuric acid-7.8M hydrochloric acid medium containing ammonium hydrogen fluoride as masking agent for niobium. The molar absorptivity of the complex is 1510 1. mole(-1).mm(-1) at 404 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. Moderate amounts of molybdenum and selenium may be present in the sample solution without causing appreciable error in the result. Interference from large amounts is avoided by separating these elements from tungsten by chloroform extraction of their xanthate complexes. Large amounts of copper interfere during the extraction of tungsten because of the precipitation of cuprous thiocyanate. Common ions, including uranium, vanadium, cobalt, titanium, arsenic and tellurium, do not interfere. The proposed method is also applicable to steel.

  16. Bézier curve string method for the study of rare events in complex chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Michael A.; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new string method for finding the most probable transition pathway and optimal reaction coordinate in complex chemical systems. Our approach evolves an analytic parametric curve, known as a Bézier curve, to the most probable transition path between metastable regions in configuration space. In addition, we demonstrate that the geometric properties of the Bézier curve can be used to construct the optimal reaction coordinate near the most probable reaction path, and can further be used to devise a ranking vector capable of identifying precisely which collective variables are most important for governing the transition between metastable states. We discuss the algorithmic details of the Bézier curve string method, analyze its stability, accuracy and efficiency, and illustrate its capabilities using model potential energy functions. In particular, we use the degree elevation property of Bézier curves to develop an algorithm that adaptively learns the degree polynomial necessary to accurately represent the most probable transition path. Subsequently, we apply our method to the isomerization of alanine dipeptide, and demonstrate that the reaction coordinate obtained from the Bézier curve string method is in excellent agreement with the optimal reaction coordinate constructed from an aimless shooting and maximum likelihood procedure. Finally, we apply our method to a large complex system and study the homogenous nucleation of benzene from the melt. In these two examples, we illustrate that the ranking vector correctly identifies which collective variables govern these chemical transitions.

  17. Hydroxy- and alkoxy-bridged dinuclear uranyl-Schiff base complexes: hydrolysis, transamination and extraction studies.

    PubMed

    Bharara, Mohan S; Heflin, Kathryn; Tonks, Stephen; Strawbridge, Kara L; Gorden, Anne E V

    2008-06-14

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with 1,3-bis(salicylideneamino)-2-propanol (H(3)L1) and 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylideneamino)-2-propanol (H(3)L2) in the presence of triethylamine (Et(3)N) yielded hydroxy- and alkoxy-bridged dinuclear complexes; [(UO(2))(2)(L1)(OH)(MeOH)(2)].(MeOH)(2) (.(MeOH)(2)) and [(UO(2))(2)(L2)(OH)(MeOH)(2)].(MeOH)(2) (.(MeOH)(2)). The crystal structures of .(DMF)(2) and .(DMF)(2) exhibit an unsymmetrical central U(2)O(2) core involving bridging alkoxy- and hydroxy-oxygen atoms. The geometry around the uranium center in .(DMF)(2) and .(DMF)(2) is that of a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with the solvent molecule occupying the fifth coordination site. The flexible nature of the ligand backbone is more pronounced in .(DMF)(2) compared to .(DMF)(2), yielding two molecules per unit cell in different conformations. Under similar reaction conditions, using ethylenediamine as a base, the respective Salen-based uranyl compounds, [UO(2)(Salen)(MeOH)] () and [UO(2)(Bu(t)(2)-Salen)(MeOH)] () are obtained due to transamination of the ligand backbone. Complexes .(MeOH)(2) and .(MeOH)(2) when reacted with an excess of ethylenediamine failed to yield the respective Salen-based complexes, and , respectively. The new compounds have been characterized using solution (NMR and UV-Vis) and solid-state (IR, X-ray crystallography) techniques. Hydrolysis of .(MeOH)(2) and .(MeOH)(2) in the pH range 1-14 was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy and compared with the hydrolysis of and [UO(2)(Salophen)(MeOH)] (). A two-phase extraction study suggests quantitative removal of uranyl ions from the aqueous phase at higher pH conditions.

  18. Probing energy transfer events in the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides with two-dimensional spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Andrew F.; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.; Long, Phillip D.; Dahlberg, Peter D.

    2013-10-21

    Excitation energy transfer events in the photosynthetic light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are investigated with polarization controlled two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. A spectrally broadened pulse allows simultaneous measurement of the energy transfer within and between the two absorption bands at 800 nm and 850 nm. The phased all-parallel polarization two-dimensional spectra resolve the initial events of energy transfer by separating the intra-band and inter-band relaxation processes across the two-dimensional map. The internal dynamics of the 800 nm region of the spectra are resolved as a cross peak that grows in on an ultrafast time scale, reflecting energy transfer between higher lying excitations of the B850 chromophores into the B800 states. We utilize a polarization sequence designed to highlight the initial excited state dynamics which uncovers an ultrafast transfer component between the two bands that was not observed in the all-parallel polarization data. We attribute the ultrafast transfer component to energy transfer from higher energy exciton states to lower energy states of the strongly coupled B850 chromophores. Connecting the spectroscopic signature to the molecular structure, we reveal multiple relaxation pathways including a cyclic transfer of energy between the two rings of the complex.

  19. Probing energy transfer events in the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides with two-dimensional spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Andrew F; Singh, Ved P; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Engel, Gregory S

    2013-10-21

    Excitation energy transfer events in the photosynthetic light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are investigated with polarization controlled two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. A spectrally broadened pulse allows simultaneous measurement of the energy transfer within and between the two absorption bands at 800 nm and 850 nm. The phased all-parallel polarization two-dimensional spectra resolve the initial events of energy transfer by separating the intra-band and inter-band relaxation processes across the two-dimensional map. The internal dynamics of the 800 nm region of the spectra are resolved as a cross peak that grows in on an ultrafast time scale, reflecting energy transfer between higher lying excitations of the B850 chromophores into the B800 states. We utilize a polarization sequence designed to highlight the initial excited state dynamics which uncovers an ultrafast transfer component between the two bands that was not observed in the all-parallel polarization data. We attribute the ultrafast transfer component to energy transfer from higher energy exciton states to lower energy states of the strongly coupled B850 chromophores. Connecting the spectroscopic signature to the molecular structure, we reveal multiple relaxation pathways including a cyclic transfer of energy between the two rings of the complex.

  20. TP53 mutations are early events in chronic lymphocytic leukemia disease progression and precede evolution to complex karyotypes.

    PubMed

    Lazarian, Gregory; Tausch, Eugen; Eclache, Virginie; Sebaa, Amel; Bianchi, Vincent; Letestu, Remi; Collon, Jean-Francois; Lefebvre, Valerie; Gardano, Laura; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Soussi, Thierry; Stilgenbauer, Stephen; Cymbalista, Florence; Baran-Marszak, Fanny

    2016-10-15

    TP53 abnormalities lead to resistance to purine analogues and are found in over 40% of patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). At diagnosis, no more than 5% of patients carry the 17p deletion, most cases harbour mutations within the other TP53 allele. The incidence of a TP53 mutation as the only alteration is approximately 5%, but this depends on the sensitivity of the technique. Recently, having a complex karyotype has been considered a strong adverse prognostic factor. However, there are no longitudinal studies simultaneously examining the presence of the 17p deletion, TP53 mutations and karyotype abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 31 relapsed/refractory CLL patients. Two to six blood samples per patient were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 8 years. In this report, we assessed the sequence of events of TP53 clonal evolution and correlated the presence of TP53 abnormalities to genetic instability during progression and treatment. Next-generation sequencing allowed the early detection of TP53 mutated clones and was able to be performed on a routine basis, demonstrating an excellent correlation between the Illumina and Ion Torrent technologies. We concluded that TP53 mutations are early events and precede clonal evolution to complex karyotypes. We strongly recommend the early and iterated detection of TP53 mutations in progressive cases.

  1. The event-related brain potential as an index of attention allocation in complex displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, C. D.; Heffley, E. F.; Kramer, A. F.; Donchin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of employing the event-related brain potential (ERP) in the assessment of allocation of attention in dynamic environments are discussed. Three experiments are presented in which the P300 component of the ERP is demonstrated to be a useful index of subjects' locus of attention. The first two experiments were concerned with the allocation of attention during discrete and continuous visual monitoring tasks. The results indicated that a P300 was elicited only by stimuli to which the subject had to attend in order to perform successfully the task. The third experiment was conducted to assess the sensitivity of P300 to the manner in which attention is allocated to different aspects of a display during the performance of a 3-dimensional target acquisition task. The amplitude of the P300 was found to reflect differences between two levels of workload, as well as the task relevance of the stimuli. The results of the experiments are discussed in terms of their utility in the evaluation of the design of man-machine systems as well as in the study of the allocation of attention in operational environments.

  2. Complex Socio-Ecological Dynamics driven by extreme events in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Several years with extreme floods or droughts in the past decade have caused human suffering in remote communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Despite documented local knowledge and practices for coping with the high seasonal variability characteristic of the region's hydrology (e.g. 10m change in river levels between dry and flood seasons), and despite 'civil Defense' interventions by various levels of government, the more extreme years seem to have exceeded the coping capacity of the community. In this paper, we explore whether there is a real increase in variability, whether the community perceives that recent extreme events are outside the experience which shapes their responses to 'normal' levels of variability, and what science-based policy could contribute to greater local resilience. Hydrological analyses suggest that variability is indeed increasing, in line with expectations from future climate change. However, current measures of hydrological regimes do not predict years with social hardship very well. Interviewees in two regions are able to express their strategies for dealing with 'normal' variability very well, but also identify ways in which abnormal years exceed their ability to cope. Current Civil Defense arrangements struggle to deliver emergency assistance in a sufficiently timely and locally appropriate fashion. Combining these insights in the context of social-ecological change, we suggest how better integration of science, policy and local knowledge could improve resilience to future trends, and identify some contributions science could make into such an arrangement.

  3. 990 and 1100 Ma Grenvillian tectonothermal events in the northern Oaxacan Complex, southern Mexico: roots of an orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Cameron, K. L.; Lopez, R.; Hames, W. E.

    2003-04-01

    Inliers of ˜1.0-1.3 Ga rocks occur throughout Mexico and form the basement of the Oaxaquia microcontinent. In the northern part of the largest inlier in southern Mexico, rocks of the Oaxacan Complex consist of the following structural sequence of units (from bottom to top), which protolith ages are: (1) Huitzo unit: a 1012±12 Ma anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite; (2) El Catrı´n unit: ≥1350 Ma orthogneiss migmatized at 1106±6 Ma; and (3) El Marquez unit: ≥1140 Ma para- and orthogneisses. These rocks were affected by two major tectonothermal events that are dated using U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon: (a) the 1106±6 Ma Olmecan event produced a migmatitic or metamorphic differentiation banding folded by isoclinal folds; and (b) the 1004-978±3 Ma Zapotecan event produced at least two sets of structures: (Z1) recumbent, isoclinal, Class 1C/3 folds with gently NW-plunging fold axes that are parallel to mineral and stretched quartz lineations under granulite facies metamorphism; and (Z2) tight, upright, subhorizontal WNW- to NNE-trending folds accompanied by development of brown hornblende at upper amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. Cooling through 500 °C at 977±12 Ma is documented by 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of hornblende. Fold mechanisms operating in the northern Oaxacan Complex under Zapotecan granulite facies metamorphism include flexural and tangential-longitudinal strain accompanied by intense flattening and stretching parallel to the fold axes. Subsequent Phanerozoic deformation includes thrusting and upright folding under lower-grade metamorphic conditions. The Zapotecan event is widespread throughout Oaxaquia, and took crustal rocks to a depth of ˜25-30 km by orogenic crustal thickening, and is here designated as Zapotecan Orogeny. Modern analogues for Zapotecan granulite facies metamorphism and deformation occur in middle to lower crustal portion of subduction and collisional orogens. Contemporaneous tectonothermal events

  4. Evolutionary site-number changes of ribosomal DNA loci during speciation: complex scenarios of ancestral and more recent polyploid events.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Marcela; Moreno-Saiz, Juan C; Galián, José A; Rosselló, Josep A

    2015-11-16

    Several genome duplications have been identified in the evolution of seed plants, providing unique systems for studying karyological processes promoting diversification and speciation. Knowledge about the number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci, together with their chromosomal distribution and structure, provides clues about organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. In this work, we aim to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of karyological and rDNA site-number variation in all known taxa of subtribe Vellinae, showing a complex scenario of ancestral and more recent polyploid events. Specifically, we aim to infer the ancestral chromosome numbers and patterns of chromosome number variation, assess patterns of variation of both 45S and 5S rDNA families, trends in site-number change of rDNA loci within homoploid and polyploid series, and reconstruct the evolutionary history of rDNA site number using a phylogenetic hypothesis as a framework. The best-fitting model of chromosome number evolution with a high likelihood score suggests that the Vellinae core showing x = 17 chromosomes arose by duplication events from a recent x = 8 ancestor. Our survey suggests more complex patterns of polyploid evolution than previously noted for Vellinae. High polyploidization events (6x, 8x) arose independently in the basal clade Vella castrilensis-V. lucentina, where extant diploid species are unknown. Reconstruction of ancestral rDNA states in Vellinae supports the inference that the ancestral number of loci in the subtribe was two for each multigene family, suggesting that an overall tendency towards a net loss of 5S rDNA loci occurred during the splitting of Vellinae ancestors from the remaining Brassiceae lineages. A contrasting pattern for rDNA site change in both paleopolyploid and neopolyploid species was linked to diversification of Vellinae lineages. This suggests dynamic and independent changes in rDNA site number during speciation processes and a

  5. Acoustic scaling of anisotropic flow in shape-engineered events: implications for extraction of the specific shear viscosity of the quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.; Reynolds, D.; Taranenko, A.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alexander, J. M.; Liu, Fu-Hu; Gu, Yi; Mwai, A.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that the acoustic scaling patterns of anisotropic flow for different event shapes at a fixed collision centrality (shape-engineered events), provide robust constraints for the event-by-event fluctuations in the initial-state density distribution from ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The empirical scaling parameters also provide a dual-path method for extracting the specific shear viscosity {(η /s)}{QGP} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in these collisions. A calibration of these scaling parameters via detailed viscous hydrodynamical model calculations, gives {(η /s)}{QGP} estimates for the plasma produced in collisions of Au + Au (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=0.2 {TeV}) and Pb + Pb (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 {TeV}). The estimates are insensitive to the initial-state geometry models considered.

  6. Garlic Revisited: Antimicrobial Activity of Allicin-Containing Garlic Extracts against Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J.; Place, Marc; Govan, John R. W.; Campopiano, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics. PMID:25438250

  7. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  8. Extraction of situational meaning by integrating multiple meanings in a complex environment: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2009-08-01

    Humans extract behaviorally significant meaning from a situation by integrating meanings from multiple components of a complex daily environment. To determine the neural underpinnings of this ability, the authors performed functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects while the latter viewed naturalistic scenes of two people and an object, including a threatening situation of a person being attacked by an offender with an object. The authors used a two-factorial design: the object was either aversive or nonaversive, and the offender's action was either directed to the person or elsewhere. This allowed the authors to examine the neural response to object aversiveness and person-directed intention separately. A task unrelated to threat was also used to address incidental (i.e., subconscious or unintentional) detection. Assuming individual differences in incidental threat detection, the authors used a functional connectivity analysis using principal components analysis of intersubject variability. The left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) were specifically activated in response to a threatening situation. The threat-related component of intersubject variability was extracted from these data and showed a significant correlation with personality scores. There was also a correlation between threat-related intersubject variability and activation for object aversiveness in the left temporal pole and lateral orbitofrontal cortex; person-directed intention in the left superior frontal gyrus; threatening situations in the left MPFC; and independently for both factors in the right MPFC. Results demonstrate independent processing of object aversiveness and person-directed intention in the left temporal-orbitofrontal and superior frontal networks, respectively, and their integration into situational meaning in the MPFC.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extracts, Ginkgo biloba extract phospholipid complexes and Ginkgo biloba extract solid dispersions in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-peng; Sun, Jun; Chen, Hong-xuan; Xiao, Yan-yu; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jun; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-chang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through preparing G. biloba extract phospholipid complexes (GBP) and G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBS). Firstly we prepared the GBP and GBS and studied their physicochemical properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dissolution. Then we studied the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in rats. The results showed that the bioavailability of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rats was increased remarkably after oral administration of GBP and GBS comparing with GBE. The bioavailabilities of GBP increased more than that of GBS.

  10. The Development of Narrative Productivity, Syntactic Complexity, Referential Cohesion and Event Content in Four- to Eight-Year-Old Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Nieminen, Lea; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of narrative structure and the relationship between narrative productivity and event content. A total of 172 Finnish children aged between four and eight participated. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for productivity, syntactic complexity, referential cohesion and event content. Each measure…

  11. Single-event multilevel acute total correction of complex equinocavovarus deformity in skeletally mature patients with spastic cerebral palsy hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Bishay, Sherif N G

    2013-01-01

    Complex multiplanar ankle/foot deformity as equinocavovarus is a common problem in patients with spastic cerebral palsy hemiparesis. The data from 30 consecutive patients (30 feet), treated between March 2009 and March 2010, with equinocavovarus and toe clawing secondary to spastic cerebral palsy hemiparesis, aged 16 to 18 years, were analyzed clinically and radiographically. All the patients had received conservative physiotherapy treatment and ankle/foot orthoses before undergoing combined soft tissue and bony surgical procedures performed in a single session to correct the complex toe clawing, cavus, varus, and equinus deformities. Preoperative measurements of certain foot angles were compared with their corresponding postoperative values. A grading system for evaluation of the results using a point scoring system was used to accurately evaluate both the clinical and the radiographic results after an average follow-up period of 2.5 years. Of the 30 patients (30 feet), 18 (60%) had excellent, 9 (30%) good, 3 (10%) fair, and 0 had poor outcomes. Neither vascular problems nor nonunion occurred. Significant improvement was seen postoperatively (p < .0333). Neither staged surgical procedures nor gradual distraction techniques using external fixators are ideal modalities to correct complex ankle/foot equinocavovarus deformity in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. Single-event, multilevel surgery with complete soft tissue and bony correction appears to be the treatment of choice in such cases. It shortens the treatment period and avoids patient dissatisfaction associated with multiple procedures, without major complications.

  12. ISWI Remodeling Complexes in Xenopus Egg Extracts: Identification as Major Chromosomal Components that Are Regulated by INCENP-aurora B

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, David E.; Losada, Ana; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    We previously characterized major components of mitotic chromosomes assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and collectively referred to them as Xenopus chromosome–associated polypeptides (XCAPs). They included five subunits of the condensin complex essential for chromosome condensation. In an effort to identify novel proteins involved in this process, we have isolated XCAP-F and found it to be the Xenopus ortholog of ISWI, a chromatin remodeling ATPase. ISWI exists in two major complexes in Xenopus egg extracts. The first complex contains ACF1 and two low-molecular-weight subunits, most likely corresponding to Xenopus CHRAC. The second complex is a novel one that contains the Xenopus ortholog of the human Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF). In the absence of the ISWI complexes, the deposition of histones onto DNA is apparently normal, but the spacing of nucleosomes is greatly disturbed. Despite the poor spacing of nucleosomes, ISWI depletion has little effect on DNA replication, chromosome condensation or sister chromatid cohesion in the cell-free extracts. The association of ISWI with chromatin is cell cycle regulated and is under the control of the INCENP-aurora B kinase complex that phosphorylates histone H3 during mitosis. Apparently contradictory to the generally accepted model, we find that neither chromosome condensation nor chromosomal targeting of condensin is compromised when H3 phosphorylation is drastically reduced by depletion of INCENP-aurora B. PMID:11809820

  13. Ion-pair extraction of multi-OH compounds by complexation with organoboronate

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, L.A.; Chow, T.K.F.; King, C.J. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1994-08-01

    Ion-pair extraction with organoboronate has been investigated as a regenerable means of removal and recovery of multi -OH compounds from aqueous solution. The extractant utilized was 3-nitrophenylboronate (NPB[sup [minus

  14. Extraction chromatographic separations of tantalum and tungsten from hafnium and complex matrix constituents.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Finck, Martha R; Carney, Kevin P; Morrison, Samuel S

    2017-02-10

    Tantalum (Ta), hafnium (Hf), and tungsten (W) analyses from complex matrices require high purification of these analytes from each other and major/trace matrix constituents, however, current state-of-the-art Ta/Hf/W separations rely on traditional anion exchange approaches that show relatively similar distribution coefficient (Kd) values for each element. This work reports an assessment of three commercially available extraction chromatographic resins (TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA) for Ta/Hf/W separations. Batch contact studies show differences in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values of up to 10(6) and 10(4) (respectively), representing an improvement of a factor of 100 and 300 in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values (respectively) over AG1×4 resin. Variations in the Kd values as a function of HCl concentration for TRU resin show that this resin is well suited for Ta/Hf/W separations, with Ta/Hf, Ta/W, and W/Hf Kd value improvements of 10, 200, and 30 (respectively) over AG1×4 resin. Analyses of digested soil samples (NIST 2710a) using TRU resin and tandem TEVA-TRU columns demonstrate the ability to achieve extremely high purification (>99%) of Ta and W from each other and Hf, as well as enabling very high purification of Ta and W from the major and trace elemental constituents present in soils using a single chromatographic step.

  15. Improvement of photon extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED using micro and nano complex polymer structures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A micro- and nanoscale complex structure made of a high refractive index polymer (n = 2.08) was formed on the ITO electrode layer of an edge-emitting type GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED), in order to improve the photon extraction efficiency by suppressing total internal reflection of photons. The nanoimprint lithography process was used to form the micro- and nanoscale complex structures, using a polymer resin with dispersed TiO2 nano-particles as an imprint resin. Plasma processing, such as reactive ion etching, was used to form the micro- and nano-scale complex structure; thus, plasma-induced damage to the LED device can be avoided. Due to the high refractive index polymeric micro- and nanostructure on the ITO layer, the electroluminescence emission was increased up to 20%, compared to an identical LED that was grown on a patterned sapphire substrate to improve photon extraction efficiency. PMID:22040200

  16. Evolutionary site-number changes of ribosomal DNA loci during speciation: complex scenarios of ancestral and more recent polyploid events

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Moreno-Saiz, Juan C.; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Several genome duplications have been identified in the evolution of seed plants, providing unique systems for studying karyological processes promoting diversification and speciation. Knowledge about the number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci, together with their chromosomal distribution and structure, provides clues about organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. In this work, we aim to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of karyological and rDNA site-number variation in all known taxa of subtribe Vellinae, showing a complex scenario of ancestral and more recent polyploid events. Specifically, we aim to infer the ancestral chromosome numbers and patterns of chromosome number variation, assess patterns of variation of both 45S and 5S rDNA families, trends in site-number change of rDNA loci within homoploid and polyploid series, and reconstruct the evolutionary history of rDNA site number using a phylogenetic hypothesis as a framework. The best-fitting model of chromosome number evolution with a high likelihood score suggests that the Vellinae core showing x = 17 chromosomes arose by duplication events from a recent x = 8 ancestor. Our survey suggests more complex patterns of polyploid evolution than previously noted for Vellinae. High polyploidization events (6x, 8x) arose independently in the basal clade Vella castrilensis–V. lucentina, where extant diploid species are unknown. Reconstruction of ancestral rDNA states in Vellinae supports the inference that the ancestral number of loci in the subtribe was two for each multigene family, suggesting that an overall tendency towards a net loss of 5S rDNA loci occurred during the splitting of Vellinae ancestors from the remaining Brassiceae lineages. A contrasting pattern for rDNA site change in both paleopolyploid and neopolyploid species was linked to diversification of Vellinae lineages. This suggests dynamic and independent changes in rDNA site number during speciation processes and a

  17. Assessing the Influence of an Individual Event in Complex Fault Spreading Network Based on Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Qin

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the pivotal causes and highly influential spreaders in fault propagation processes is crucial for improving the maintenance decision making for complex systems under abnormal and emergency situations. A dynamic uncertain causality graph-based method is introduced in this paper to explicitly model the uncertain causalities among system components, identify fault conditions, locate the fault origins, and predict the spreading tendency by means of probabilistic reasoning. A new algorithm is proposed to assess the impacts of an individual event by investigating the corresponding node's time-variant betweenness centrality and the strength of global causal influence in the fault propagation network. The algorithm does not depend on the whole original and static network but on the real-time spreading behaviors and dynamics, which makes the algorithm to be specifically targeted and more efficient. Experiments on both simulated networks and real-world systems demonstrate the accuracy, effectiveness, and comprehensibility of the proposed method for the fault management of power grids and other complex networked systems.

  18. Complex rheological properties of a water-soluble extract from the fronds of the black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Hall, Christopher E; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2007-11-01

    A water-soluble extract was obtained from the fronds of a New Zealand native black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or Mamaku in Māori). The extract exhibited complex rheological behavior. Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, antithixotropic, and viscoelastic behaviors were observed depending on polymer concentration, shear rate, and shear history. The extract also displayed rod-climbing and self-siphoning properties typical of viscoelastic fluids. Such complex rheological properties have been reported in synthetic or chemically modified polymers but are less frequent in unmodified biopolymers. Although Mamaku extract obtained from the pith of the fern has been traditionally used by the Māori in New Zealand for treating wounds and diarrhea among other ailments, this material has never been characterized before. This study reports on the chemical composition of the extract and on its viscoelastic properties through rotational and oscillatory rheological measurements. Explanations of the mechanism behind the rheological properties were based on transient network models for associating polymers.

  19. Fast and robust 2D-shape extraction using discrete-point sampling and centerline grouping in complex images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongxiao; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Zhong

    2013-12-01

    This paper initially develops the discrete-point sampling operator's concept, model, and parameters that we have previously proposed, and makes its belt-shaped regions in a discrete-point sampling map more salient and appropriate for centerline extraction. The cross-sectional features of these belt-shaped regions are then analyzed and seven types of feature points are defined to facilitate descriptions of such features. Based on these feature points, a three-level detection system is proposed, including feature points, line segments, and centerlines, to extract centerlines from the belt-shaped regions. Eight basic types of centerlines and five types of relationships among the centerlines are defined by computational geometry algorithms, and Gestalt laws are used to cluster them into groupings. If some prior information about a desired shape is available, retrieval grouping may be carried out by a discrete-point sampling map, the purpose of which is to find centerlines by best matching with prior information. Discrete-point sampling effectually overcomes the influences of interference from noise, textures, and uneven illumination, and greatly reduces the difficulty of centerline extraction. Centerline clustered groupings and retrieval grouping can offer a strong anti-interference ability with nonlinear deformations such as articulation and occlusion. This method can extract large-scale complex shapes combined of lines and planes from complex images. The wheel location results of noise test and other shape extraction experiments show that our method has a strong capability to persist with nonlinear deformations.

  20. The effects of synoptical weather pattern and complex terrain on the formation of aerosol events in the Greater Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chang, E-E; Lee, Chung-Te

    2008-07-25

    The aerosol in the Taipei basin is difficult to transport outward under specific weather patterns owing to complex terrain blocking. In this study, seven weather patterns are identified from synoptic weather maps for aerosol events, which occurred from March 2002 to February 2005. Among the identified weather patterns, High Pressure Peripheral Circulation (HPPC), Warm area Ahead of a cold Front (WAF), TYPhoon (TYP), Pacific High Pressure system stretching westerly (PHP), Weak High Pressure system (WHP), and Weak Southern Wind (WSW) are related to terrain blocking. The remaining pattern is High Pressure system Pushing (HPP). The classification of the pollution origin of the air masses shows that 15% of event days were contributed by long-range transport (LRT), 20% by local pollution (LP), and 65% by LRT/LP mix. Terrain blocking causes aerosol accumulation from high atmospheric stability and weak winds occurring under HPPC, TYP, and PHP weather patterns when the Taipei basin is situated on the lee side of the Snow Mountains Chain (SMC). Terrain blocking also occurs when the Taipei basin is situated on the upwind of SMC and Mt. Da-Twen under WAF and WSW patterns. To study the variation of aerosol properties under the mixed influence of terrain and pollution origin, we conducted a field observation simultaneously at the urban, suburban, and background sites in the Greater Taipei area from April 14 to 23, 2004. Terrain blocking plays an important role in aerosol accumulation in the stagnant environment when the Taipei basin is on the lee side of SMC. On the other hand, the PM(2.5) sulfate level is stable with a fraction of 30% in PM(2.5) during the observation period at the urban (25%-33%) and background (25%-41%) sites. It indicates that background PM(2.5) sulfate is high on the West Pacific in winter.

  1. Difference in extractability of estradiol- and tamoxifen-receptor complex in the nuclei from MCF-7 cells with Nonidet P-40.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Omukai, Y; Hosokawa, K; Senoo, T

    1984-05-01

    The extraction of [3H]estradiol- and [3H]tamoxifen-receptor complex in the nuclei from MCF-7 cells with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 has been studied. We found that there is a striking difference in the extractability of estradiol- and tamoxifen-receptor complex from nuclei with 0.5% Nonidet P-40. The nuclear bound estradiol-receptor complex is scarcely extractable with Nonidet P-40. In contrast, almost all of the nuclear bound tamoxifen-receptor complex is extractable. The nuclear [3H]tamoxifen-receptor complex extracted in the presence of Nonidet P-40 sediments in two peaks at 7 S and 5 S. The latter sedimentation rate is the same with that of the nuclear [3H]tamoxifen-receptor complex extracted with 0.4 M KCl. The nuclear [3H]estradiol-receptor complex extracted with 0.4 M KCl sediments at 4 S. The results suggest that interaction of tamoxifen-receptor complex with chromatin is different from that of estradiol-receptor complex.

  2. Extraction, Thermodynamic Analysis, and Precipitation Mechanism of MnS-TiN Complex Inclusions in Low-Sulfur Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lifeng; Duan, Haojian; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Yan; Conejo, Alberto N.

    2016-06-01

    Inclusions in square billets of low-sulfur steels employed in the production of steel springs were fully extracted using an improved non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and were characterized as oxides, MnS, and TiN-MnS complex inclusions. Inclusions were analyzed using SEM for their three-dimensional morphology. The formation mechanism of the complex TiN-MnS was investigated analyzing the equilibrium precipitation conditions during cooling from the liquid through solidification and in the solid state. In this analysis, three microsegregation models were employed. It was found that titanium nitride precipitates first and then manganese sulfide. Electron backscattered diffraction is employed to explore the crystal orientation relationship between TiN and MnS in the complex inclusions, which provided additional elements to fully describe the mechanism of formation of the observed TiN-MnS complex inclusions.

  3. Purification of plant complex protein extracts in non-denaturing conditions by in-solution isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R A; Martins-Dias, S

    2016-09-15

    An alternative approach for plant complex protein extracts pre-purification by in-solution isoelectric focusing in non-denaturing conditions is presented. The separation of biologically active proteins, in narrow ranges of isoelectric point (pI) was obtained by a modified OFFGEL electrophoresis. Two different water-soluble protein extracts from Phragmites leaves were fractionated into 24 fractions within a 3-10 pI range at 10 °C in the absence of denaturing/reducing agents. One-dimensional electrophoretic analysis revealed different protein distribution patterns and the effective fractionation of both protein extracts. Peroxidase activity of each fraction confirmed that proteins remained active and pre-purification occurred. Biological triplicates assured the needed reproducibility.

  4. Evaluation of DNA extraction techniques for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Asian elephant trunk wash samples.

    PubMed

    Kay, Meagan K; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipitation (TSEP) approach were evaluated under three different treatment conditions: heat treatment, phenol treatment, and contamination with Mycobacterium avium. A third approach, using a column filtration method, was evaluated for samples contaminated with soil. Trunk wash samples from uninfected elephants were spiked with various concentrations of M. bovis cells and subjected to the described treatment conditions prior to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was amplified using IS6110-targeted PCR analysis. The ZR and TSEP methods detected as low as 1 to 5 M. bovis cells and 10 M. bovis cells, respectively, per 1.5 ml of trunk wash under all three conditions. Depending on the amount of soil present, the column filtration method detected as low as 5 to 50 M. bovis cells per 1.5 ml of trunk wash. Analytical specificity was assessed by DNA extraction from species of nontuberculous mycobacteria and amplification using the same PCR technique. Only M. bovis DNA was amplified, indicating 100% analytical specificity of this PCR technique. Our results indicate that these DNA extraction techniques offer promise as useful tests for detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in elephant trunk wash specimens.

  5. Offside decisions by expert assistant referees in association football: Perception and recall of spatial positions in complex dynamic events.

    PubMed

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29) and Belgian elite (n = 28) assistant referees (ARs) assessed 64 computer-based offside situations. First, an expertise effect was found. The FIFA ARs assessed the trials more accurately than the Belgian ARs (76.4% vs. 67.5%). Second, regarding the type of error, all ARs clearly tended to raise their flag in doubtful situations. This observation could be explained by a perceptual bias associated with the flash-lag effect. Specifically, attackers were perceived ahead of their actual positions, and this tendency was stronger for the Belgian than for the FIFA ARs (11.0 vs. 8.4 pixels), in particular when the difficulty of the trials increased. Further experimentation is needed to examine whether video- and computer-based decision-making training is effective in improving the decision-making skills of ARs during the game.

  6. Electric field-assisted solid phase extraction and cleanup of ionic compounds in complex food matrices: Fluoroquinolones in eggs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cyntia Cabral; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Rohwedder, Jarbas José Rodrigues; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Rath, Susanne

    2016-05-15

    The use of electric fields as additional driving forces in sample preparation techniques is an innovative approach that is environmentally friendly, straightforward, and able to overcome several limitations of conventional sample preparation procedures. In this work, the advantages of electric field-assisted solid phase extraction (E-SPE) using syringe-type cartridges were demonstrated for the extraction of four fluoroquinolones (FQs) in their anionic forms. The FQs were extracted from eggs and subsequently determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. The use of electric fields during the washing and final elution steps resulted in a significant improvement of the extraction efficiencies for almost all FQs when compared to conventional SPE. Intra- and inter-day assays showed coefficients of variation below 10%. The better cleanup also resulted in the appearance of less precipitated matter in the final eluate, as well as reduced matrix effects. The results showed that the electrophoretic forces derived from electric fields are a promising way of significantly increasing the extraction efficiency of ionic analytes, while minimizing matrix effects associated with complex samples.

  7. [Formation of a depside-caffeine complex during cold conservation of coffee leaf samples in a hydro-ethanolic medium. Methodologic implications for the extraction of depsides].

    PubMed

    Colonna, J P

    1977-07-18

    The depsides present in coffee leaves are not apparent upon extraction with ethanol if the plant material has been fixed in boiling ethanol then maintained at - 25 degrees C. A complex formed with cafein prevents the extraction and this artefact from cold conservation concerns chlorogenic acid and its isomers. A treatment with chloroform can break the complex and allows the depsides to be dosed. The complex does not seem to exist in living tissues.

  8. New chelating reagents for preconcentration, separation, determination of metal complexes by high performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yan wen

    1991-12-03

    A general scheme is outlined for rapid determination of metal cations by complexation and subsequent HPLC separation. The synthesis and general properties are described for several new thiohydrazone chelating reagents. Solubility considerations suggest that the metal complexes have a positive charge. Excellent chromatographic separations are obtained for mixtures of up to seven metal complexes. Addition of a positively charged additive to the eluent is shown to have a significant effect on both the retention times and sharpness of the chromatographic peaks. Separation of the metal complexes on resins with a permanent charge is also shown to be feasible. Two new hydrazone reagents have been synthesized and characterized. Trace metal ions in aqueous solution are complexed by one of the hydrazones and the resulting metal complexes are solid phase extracted onto a mini cation-exchange or polymeric column. The uptake of metal complexes is complete and the elution step is fast and complete. The quantitative recoveries of metal ions determined by both spectrophotometric method and ICP-MS are very satisfactory and agree with each other.

  9. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent.

  10. Automated detection of feeding strikes by larval fish using continuous high-speed digital video: a novel method to extract quantitative data from fast, sparse kinematic events.

    PubMed

    Shamur, Eyal; Zilka, Miri; Hassner, Tal; China, Victor; Liberzon, Alex; Holzman, Roi

    2016-06-01

    Using videography to extract quantitative data on animal movement and kinematics constitutes a major tool in biomechanics and behavioral ecology. Advanced recording technologies now enable acquisition of long video sequences encompassing sparse and unpredictable events. Although such events may be ecologically important, analysis of sparse data can be extremely time-consuming and potentially biased; data quality is often strongly dependent on the training level of the observer and subject to contamination by observer-dependent biases. These constraints often limit our ability to study animal performance and fitness. Using long videos of foraging fish larvae, we provide a framework for the automated detection of prey acquisition strikes, a behavior that is infrequent yet critical for larval survival. We compared the performance of four video descriptors and their combinations against manually identified feeding events. For our data, the best single descriptor provided a classification accuracy of 77-95% and detection accuracy of 88-98%, depending on fish species and size. Using a combination of descriptors improved the accuracy of classification by ∼2%, but did not improve detection accuracy. Our results indicate that the effort required by an expert to manually label videos can be greatly reduced to examining only the potential feeding detections in order to filter false detections. Thus, using automated descriptors reduces the amount of manual work needed to identify events of interest from weeks to hours, enabling the assembly of an unbiased large dataset of ecologically relevant behaviors.

  11. p97 Negatively Regulates NRF2 by Extracting Ubiquitylated NRF2 from the KEAP1-CUL3 E3 Complex.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shasha; Liu, Pengfei; Luo, Gang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Chen, Heping; Wu, Tongde; Tillotson, Joseph; Chapman, Eli; Zhang, Donna D

    2017-04-15

    Activation of the stress-responsive transcription factor NRF2 is the major line of defense to combat oxidative or electrophilic insults. Under basal conditions, NRF2 is continuously ubiquitylated by the KEAP1-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and is targeted to the proteasome for degradation (the canonical mechanism). However, the path from the CUL3 complex to ultimate proteasomal degradation was previously unknown. p97 is a ubiquitin-targeted ATP-dependent segregase that extracts ubiquitylated client proteins from membranes, protein complexes, or chromatin and has an essential role in autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we show that p97 negatively regulates NRF2 through the canonical pathway by extracting ubiquitylated NRF2 from the KEAP1-CUL3 E3 complex, with the aid of the heterodimeric cofactor UFD1/NPL4 and the UBA-UBX-containing protein UBXN7, for efficient proteasomal degradation. Given the role of NRF2 in chemoresistance and the surging interest in p97 inhibitors to treat cancers, our results indicate that dual p97/NRF2 inhibitors may offer a more potent and long-term avenue of p97-targeted treatment.

  12. A drug-adverse event extraction algorithm to support pharmacovigilance knowledge mining from PubMed citations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Haerian, Krystl; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) create a serious problem causing substantial harm to patients. An executable standardized knowledgebase of drug-ADE relations which is publicly available would be valuable so that it could be used for ADE detection. The literature is an important source that could be used to generate a knowledgebase of drug-ADE pairs. In this paper, we report on a method that automatically determines whether a specific adverse event (AE) is caused by a specific drug based on the content of PubMed citations. A drug-ADE classification method was initially developed to detect neutropenia based on a pre-selected set of drugs. This method was then applied to a different set of 76 drugs to determine if they caused neutropenia. For further proof of concept this method was applied to 48 drugs to determine whether they caused another AE, myocardial infarction. Results showed that AUROC was 0.93 and 0.86 respectively.

  13. Neuroimaging measures of error-processing: Extracting reliable signals from event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Anderson, Nathaniel E; Claus, Eric D; Bernat, Edward M; Rao, Vikram; Assaf, Michal; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-05-15

    Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing.

  14. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  15. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  16. Leadership within Emergent Events in Complex Systems: Micro-Enactments and the Mechanisms of Organisational Learning and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazy, James K.; Silberstang, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    One tradition within the complexity paradigm considers organisations as complex adaptive systems in which autonomous individuals interact, often in complex ways with difficult to predict, non-linear outcomes. Building upon this tradition, and more specifically following the complex systems leadership theory approach, we describe the ways in which…

  17. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  18. [Study on the effect of extraction behaviour of molybdenum (V) thiocyanate complex in the dimethyl sulfoxide and water system by spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-zhen; Gao, Lian-bin; Qu, Zeng-lu; He, Zhong-lin

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the effect of petroleum sulfoxide-carbon tetrachloride used as extractant on the extraction behaviour of molybdenum (V) thiocyanate complex at different concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide and water system is studied by spectrophotometry. The mixture ratio of extraction is directly calculated using spectrophotometric data. Functional relation of mixture ratio and concentration of thiocyanate in mixed solution is discussed. By increasing the percent of volume of dimethyl sulfoxide in mixed solution, the effects of mixture ratio and percentage of extraction were studied. The experimental results were explained. It shows that the extraction system of MoO (SCN)3 has an application value.

  19. Thermobarometric constraints on mid-Cretaceous to late Cretaceous metamorphic events in the western metamorphic belt of the Coast Mountains complex near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, Glen R.; Brew, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast Mountains Complex of southeastern Alaska and western Canada. This complex formed as a result of mid-Cretaceous through middle Eocene crustal shortening between the previously amalgamated Wrangellia and Alexander terranes (Insular superterrane) and previously accreted terranes of the North American continental margin (Intermontane superterrane). The western metamorphic belt, which ranges from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers in width, records a complex sequence of contact-metamorphic and regional metamorphic events, the most significant of which are designated M1R, M2C-R, and M3R. The M1R regional metamorphic event ranged in grade from subgreenschist to greenschist facies and was overprinted by the M2C-R and M3R metamorphic events. The M2C-R metamorphic event is recorded in discrete contact-metamorphic aureoles and regional metamorphic-mineral assemblages related to tonalite-granodiorite plutons of the Admiralty-Revillagigedo plutonic belt. The M3R metamorphic belt, which is adjacent to the M2C-R belt, is characterized by regional Barrovian isograds of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and sillimanite. Using the THERMOCALC program, pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the M2C-R metamorphic event are estimated to be in the ranges 5.3-7.5 kbars and 525-640 deg.C and for the M3R metamorphic event in the ranges 9.4-12.6 kbars and 730-895 deg.C. The M2C-R metamorphic event occurred at approximately 90 Ma, but the timing of the M3R metamorphic event is poorly documented and uncertain. On the basis of an 40Ar/39Ar age on actinolitic amphibole and a Sm-Nd age on garnet core, the timing of metamorphism might be constrained between 90+/-1 and 80+/-9 Ma, although the Sm-Nd age of 80+/-9 m.y. possibly reflects postpeak growth. Thermobarometric data suggest that the two events occurred at different crustal levels and followed different P-T paths. No evidence exists that M2C-R metamorphic-mineral assemblages were

  20. New efficient calixarene amide ionophores for the selective removal of strontium ion from nuclear waste: synthesis, complexation, and extraction properties.

    PubMed

    Casnati, A; Barboso, S; Rouquette, H; Schwing-Weill, M J; Arnaud-Neu, F; Dozol, J F; Ungaro, R

    2001-12-12

    Three novel lower rim hexamide derivatives 5(6), 7(6), and 9(6) of p-hydroxycalix[6]arene and four octamides 5(8), 7(8)-9(8) derived from the corresponding p-hydroxycalix[8]arene were synthesized, and their potential as extractants in radioactive waste treatment was evaluated, in comparison with upper rim analogues 12(6) and 12(8) and other existing selective neutral ionophores currently used in radioactive waste treatment. Extraction of alkali and alkaline earth metal picrates from water to dichloromethane, and of the corresponding nitrates from acidic water solution simulating radioactive waste, to 2-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE), showed that the lower rim amides extract divalent cations much better than monovalent ones. The upper rim hexa-12(6) and octamide 12(8) are very inefficient ligands, hardly extracting any cation. In all cases, p-alkoxy octamides are more efficient and selective extractants than the corresponding hexamides. In the case of simulated waste solutions, the distribution coefficients for strontium removal by octamides (6.5 < D(Sr) < 30) are much higher than the corresponding value (D(Sr)) found for dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DC18C6), and the same applies for the strontium/sodium selectivity, which is 6500 < D(Sr)/D(Na) < 30 000 for octamides and 47 for DC18C6. ESI-MS, UV-vis, and X-ray crystal structure studies give consistent results and indicate the formation of 2:1 (cation/ligand) strontium complexes for all octamides tested. Stability constants were determined in homogeneous methanol solution for alkali metal (log beta(11) < or = 2), calcium (4.3 < or = log beta(11) < or = 6.0; 9.4 < or = log beta(21) < or = 12.0), and strontium (5.6 < or = log beta(11) < or = 12.3) ions using a UV-vis competition method with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). They confirm the high efficiency and high divalent/monovalent selectivity found in metal ion extraction experiments for the new octamide ligands. Evidence for a positive cooperative effect between the

  1. Towards a new conservation method for ancient manuscripts by inactivation of iron via complexation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, B; Bulska, E

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of extraction of iron from model paper samples by use of different ligands (deferoxamine mesylate, the potassium-magnesium salt of phytic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) at varied concentrations (0.01, 0.005, and 0.001 mol L(-1)) and pH (7, 8, 9). Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to monitor the total amount of iron in solutions of the respective ligands. Two types of model were used to investigate the behaviour of various iron species present in ancient iron-gall ink. Requirements for the optimal procedure, which could possibly be used in the conservation of ancient manuscripts, included high effectiveness of iron extraction from samples which modelled free iron ions (samples "Fe"), while iron deposited in the form of ink (samples "A") should remain without any visible change of the ink's intensity. The best results were achieved with the solution of 0.005 mol L(-1 )diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (pH=9), which allowed extraction of 97+/-1% of iron from "Fe" model samples and only 64+/-1% from "A" samples.

  2. Extracting Complex Refractive Index from Polycrystalline Glucose with Self-Referenced Method for Terahertz Time-Domain Reflection Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Ping; He, Yingfeng; Zou, Yun; Deng, Yuqiang

    2016-07-01

    A self-referenced method for extracting the complex refractive index of material was proposed. The method utilized signals reflected from the front and rear surfaces of a slice sample as reference and sample signals, respectively. Before using the self-referenced method, a hybrid filtering technique for eliminating systematic and random noises of time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy was used. A terahertz reflection spectrum of crystalline glucose was measured and three feature absorption peaks were obtained from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. We suggest that intermolecular vibrational modes may contribute to the observed absorption spectra in the THz frequency range.

  3. Incorporating Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes, Unequal Earthquake and Explosion Variance Assumptions, and Intrastation Complexity for Improved Event Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. We have applied the Ms (VMAX) analysis (Bonner et al...for Rayleigh waves and (2) quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. We...quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED Love

  4. Investigation of the extraction complexes of light lanthanides(III) with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid by EXAFS, IR, and MS in comparison with the americium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Guoxin, Tian; Yongjun, Zhu; Jingming, Xu; Ping, Zhang; Tiandou, Hu; Yaning, Xie; Jing, Zhang

    2003-02-10

    The structure of the extraction complexes of light lanthanides (La(III), Nd(III), Eu(III)) with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (HBTMPDTP) have been characterized with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), IR, and MS; the IR spectrum of the extraction complex of (241)Am with HBTMPDTP has been studied too. The molecular formula of the extraction complexes of lanthanides is deduced to be HML(4).H(2)O (M = La, Nd, Eu; L = anion of HBTMPDTP). The coordination number of Ln(III) in the complexes is 8; the coordinated donor atoms are 7 sulfur atoms from 4 HBTMDTP molecules and 1 O atom from a hydrated water molecule. With the increase of the atomic number of Ln, the coordination bond lengths of Ln-O and Ln-S decrease in the complexes. For La(III), Nd(III), and Eu(III), the coordination bond lengths of Ln-O are 2.70, 2.56, and 2.50, respectively, the coordination bond lengths of Ln-S are 3.01, 2.91, and 2.84, respectively, and the average distances between Ln and P atoms are 3.60, 3.53, and 3.46, respectively. The structure of the extraction complexes of Ln(III) with HBTMDTP is different from that of the Am(III) extraction complex. The results of IR show that there is no water coordinated with Am in the extraction complex. The molecular formula of the complex of Am(III) is deduced as being HAmL(4), and there are 8 S atoms from 4 HBTMPDTP molecules coordinated with Am. Composition and structure differences of the extraction complexes may be one of the most most important factors affecting the excellent selectivity of HBTMPDTP for Am(III) over Ln(III).

  5. Complex mixture analysis of organic compounds in green coffee bean extract by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-11-01

    A complex mixture analysis by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was carried out for the first time for the identification and quantification of organic compounds in green coffee bean extract (GCBE). A combination of (1)H-(1)H DQF-COSY, (1)H-(13)C HSQC, and (1)H-(13)C CT-HMBC two-dimensional sequences was used, and 16 compounds were identified. In particular, three isomers of caffeoylquinic acid were identified in the complex mixture without any separation. In addition, GCBE components were quantified by the integration of carbon signals by use of a relaxation reagent and an inverse-gated decoupling method without a nuclear Overhauser effect. This NMR methodology provides detailed information about the kinds and amounts of GCBE components, and in our study, the chemical makeup of GCBE was clarified by the NMR results.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of uranium using solvent extraction and bis(salicylaldehyde) tetramethylethylenediimine as complexing reagent.

    PubMed

    Khuhawar, M Y; Lanjwani, S N

    1995-12-01

    The reagent bis(salicylaldehyde)tetramethylethylenediimine has been used for the determination of dioxouranium(VI), based on complexation in aqueous solution at pH 6, followed by extraction in chloroform and HPLC determination on a Hypersil ODS (3 mum) column. The complex was eluted with the ternary mixture methanol-acetonitrile-water (40:30:30, v/v/v), with UV detection at 260 nm. Oxovanadium(IV), iron(III), copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and palladium(II) were completely separated and did not interfere in the determination of uranium. The linear calibration range and detection limits have been obtained. The method has been applied to the determination of uranium together with copper, iron and nickel in mineral ore samples.

  7. Non-extensive entropy and the extraction of BOLD spatial information in event-related functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturzbecher, M. J.; Tedeschi, W.; Cabella, B. C. T.; Baffa, O.; Neves, U. P. C.; de Araujo, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis has been carried out recently in the framework of information theory, by means of the Shannon entropy. As a natural extension, a method based on the generalized Tsallis entropy was developed to the analysis event-related (ER-fMRI), where a brief stimulus is presented, followed by a long period of rest. The new technique aims for spatial localization neuronal activity due to a specific task. This method does not require a priori hypothesis of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) shape and the linear relation between BOLD responses with the presented task. Numerical simulations were performed so as to determine the optimal values of the Tsallis q parameter and the number of levels, L. In order to avoid undesirable divergences of the Tsallis entropy, only positive q values were studied. Results from simulated data (with L = 3) indicated that, for q = 0.8, the active brain areas are detected with the highest performance. Moreover, the method was tested for an in vivo experiment and demonstrated the ability to discriminate active brain regions that selectively responded to a bilateral motor task.

  8. A biologically motivated neural network for phase extraction from complex sounds.

    PubMed

    Borst, Marcus; Langner, Gerald; Palm, Günther

    2004-02-01

    We demonstrate that natural acoustic signals like speech or music contain synchronous phase information across multiple frequency bands and show how to extract this information using a spiking neural network. This network model is motivated by common neurophysiological findings in the auditory brainstem and midbrain of several species. A computer simulation of the model was tested by applying spoken vowels and organ pipe tones. As expected, spikes occurred synchronously in the activated frequency bands. This phase information may be used for sound separation with one microphone or sound localization with two microphones.

  9. Identification of Ellagic Acid Rhamnoside as a Bioactive Component of a Complex Botanical Extract with Anti-biofilm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Jariwala, Parth B.; García-Rodriguez, Jennifer M.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Weinert, Emily E.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. It is listed among the top “serious threats” to human health in the USA, due in large part to rising rates of resistance. Many S. aureus infections are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy due to their ability to form a biofilm, which acts not only as a physical barrier to antibiotics and the immune system, but results in differences in metabolism that further restricts antibiotic efficacy. Development of a modular strategy to synthesize a library of phenolic glycosides allowed for bioactivity testing and identification of anti-biofilm compounds within an extract of the elmleaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius). Two ellagic acid (EA) derivatives, EA xyloside and EA rhamnoside, have been identified as components of the Rubus extract. In addition, EA rhamnoside has been identified as an inhibitor of biofilm formation, with activity comparable to the complex extract 220D-F2 (composed of a mixture of EA glycosides), and confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses. PMID:28386254

  10. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of doxepin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations using titanium (IV) and iron (III) thiocyanate complexes.

    PubMed

    Misiuk, Wiesława

    2005-01-01

    Two simple, precise, and accurate extractive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of doxepin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of doxepin with titanium (IV) and iron (III) thiocyanate complexes in acidic medium. The produced compounds are insoluble in water but well soluble in some organic solvents. They are extracted with mixtures of butyl alcohol-chloroform (2:3, v/v) and (1:4, v/v) and measured spectrophotometrically at 400 and 490 nm for DOX-Ti-SCN and DOX-Fe(III)-SCN methods, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 5-50 and 3-30 microg/ml with molar absorptivity of 7.12 x 10(3) and 1.36 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for DOX-Ti-SCN and DOX-Fe-SCN systems, respectively. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the analysis of the drug in dosage forms. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. The methods have been also used for the determination of the drug in the presence of its degradation product. Statistical comparison of the obtained results with the reference methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  11. $\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$ and $M_W$(indirect) extracted from 9 fb$^{-1}$ $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ event sample at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, A.

    2016-06-02

    We report on the extraction of $\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$ and indirect measurement of the mass of the W boson from the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ events in the $Z$ boson mass region. The data sample collected by the CDF detector corresponds to the full 9 fb$^{-1}$ run II sample. We measure $\\sin^2 \\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.2315 \\pm 0.0010$, $ \\sin^2 \\theta_W = 0.2233 \\pm 0.0009$ and $M_W ({\\rm indirect}) = 80.365 \\pm 0.047 \\;{\\rm GeV}/c^2$, where each uncertainty includes both statistical and systematic contributions. Comparison with the results of the D0 collaboration are presented.

  12. Role extraction in complex networks and its application in control of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mingyang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhongqian; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Given a large network, dynamics of the network are determined by both nodes' features and network connections. Some features could be extracted from node labels and other kinds of priori knowledge. But how to perform the feature classification without priori knowledge is a challenge. This paper addresses the key problem: how do we conduct role extraction in networks with only edge connections known? On the basis of behavior differences in dynamics, nodes are classified into three role groups: Leaders(L), Communicators(C) and Members(M). Unlike traditional community detections, we detect overlapping communities by link clustering first and then classify nodes according to the community entropy, which describes the disorder of how many different communities a node connects to. We propose a time saving and unsupervised learning approach for automatically discovering nodes' roles based solely on network topology. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated on six real-world networks through pinning control. By controlling communicator nodes, the controllability is enhanced and the cost for control is reduced obviously in networks with strong community structure.

  13. Turning Pictures into Numbers: Extracting and Generating Information From Complex Visualizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    focuses on the encoding and understanding of graphs (Lewandowsky & Spence, 1990; Pinker , 1990). Kosslyn’s work emphasizes the cognitive processes that... Pinker , 1990; Lohse, 1993). In contrast, real-world users of complex visualizations not only have a great deal of domain knowledge but have to decide...domain of meteorology (Ho!man, 1991; Pliske, Crandall & Klein, in press) and in other domains studied by cognitive scientists (Gentner & Stevens

  14. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  15. Kurtosis-based blind source extraction of complex non-circular signals with application in EEG artifact removal in real-time.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Soroush; Mandic, Danilo P; Took, Clive Cheong; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    A new class of complex domain blind source extraction algorithms suitable for the extraction of both circular and non-circular complex signals is proposed. This is achieved through sequential extraction based on the degree of kurtosis and in the presence of non-circular measurement noise. The existence and uniqueness analysis of the solution is followed by a study of fast converging variants of the algorithm. The performance is first assessed through simulations on well understood benchmark signals, followed by a case study on real-time artifact removal from EEG signals, verified using both qualitative and quantitative metrics. The results illustrate the power of the proposed approach in real-time blind extraction of general complex-valued sources.

  16. NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Baur, Tina; Ramadan, Kristijan; Schlundt, Andreas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Meyer, Hemmo H

    2007-08-15

    Despite the progress in understanding nuclear envelope (NE) reformation after mitosis, it has remained unclear what drives the required membrane fusion and how exactly this is coordinated with nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Here, we show that, like other intracellular fusion reactions, NE fusion in Xenopus laevis egg extracts is mediated by SNARE proteins that require activation by NSF. Antibodies against Xenopus NSF, depletion of NSF or the dominant-negative NSF(E329Q) variant specifically inhibited NE formation. Staging experiments further revealed that NSF was required until sealing of the envelope was completed. Moreover, excess exogenous alpha-SNAP that blocks SNARE function prevented membrane fusion and caused accumulation of non-flattened vesicles on the chromatin surface. Under these conditions, the nucleoporins Nup107 and gp210 were fully recruited, whereas assembly of FxFG-repeat-containing nucleoporins was blocked. Together, we define NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events as essential steps during NE formation downstream of Nup107 recruitment, and upstream of membrane flattening and completion of NPC assembly.

  17. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Caso Marasco, A; Vargas Ruiz, R; Salas Villagomez, A; Begoña Infante, C

    1996-01-01

    To remedy the deterioration in quality of life in large cities, the addition of ginseng root extract to a multivitamin base appears to produce a promising dietary supplement. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality-of-life parameters in subjects receiving multivitamins plus ginseng with those found in subjects receiving multivitamins alone. The study was comparative, randomized and double-blind, and it involved 625 patients of both sexes divided into two groups taking one capsule per day for 12 weeks. Group A received vitamins, minerals, trace elements and ginseng extract G115 (Pharmaton Capsules) while group B received vitamins, minerals and trace elements (multivitamin capsules) only. The resulting quality-of-life was assessed by a standardized 11-item questionnaire, validated by the Medical School of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Of the 625 patients recruited, 124 were excluded from the study due to lack of compliance with the treatment, so that 338 patients in group A and 163 patients in group B completed the study. By the end of the study, the 4th of the monthly assessments showed that both the group-A and the group-B treatments had induced a significant increase in the quality-of-life index, the change being 11.9 points for Pharmaton Capsules in group A which was significantly superior to the 6.4 average increase with the group-B capsules containing multivitamins alone. Group A showed significant improvement in every one of the 11 questionnaire items, whereas group B did not show significant improvement in any of these items. Significant increases in body weight and in diastolic blood pressure were recorded in the group B treated with the multivitamin alone. Adverse effects of the capsules were minimal in both groups. This study has demonstrated that Pharmaton Capsules were more effective than the multivitamin capsules alone in improving the quality-of-life in a population subjected to the stress of high physical and

  18. Formation of the Yandangshan volcanic-plutonic complex (SE China) by melt extraction and crystal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-Li; He, Zhen-Yu; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-12-01

    The association of volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in caldera may provide important clues to the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems. The Yandangshan caldera is a typical example of late Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic complex in SE China. It is composed of a series of rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites. In this work, we conducted petrological and geochemical studies, as well as zircon dating, on the coexisting volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Yandangshan caldera. The results of SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating revealed that the crystallization of the rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions was contemporaneous within analytical errors and in a short period (104-98 Ma). Geochemically, the volcanic rocks are characterized by high Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti, while the shallow plutons show high K, Ba, Al, Fe and low Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios with insignificant negative Eu anomalies. The volcanic and plutonic rocks have a similar range of zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = - 10.0 to + 1.5) and TDM2 model ages of 2.10-1.23 Ga. They also have comparable whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7084-0.7090; εNd(t) = - 7.8 to - 6.5) and zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O mainly = 4.5 to 6.0‰). We argue that the volcanic-plutonic complex of the Yandangshan caldera was formed by reworking of Paleoproterozoic lower crusts in the eastern Cathaysia block, and that the complex could be linked by fractional crystallization and crystal accumulation in a shallow magma chamber. The volcanic rocks represent the highly fractionated end-member, whereas the subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites could be the residual crystal mushes. This case study could have a general implication for the genetic relationship between volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in calderas.

  19. CLaSPS: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX ASTRONOMICAL DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Laurino, O.; Djorgovski, G.; Donalek, C.; Longo, G.

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, we present the Clustering-Labels-Score Patterns Spotter (CLaSPS), a new methodology for the determination of correlations among astronomical observables in complex data sets, based on the application of distinct unsupervised clustering techniques. The novelty in CLaSPS is the criterion used for the selection of the optimal clusterings, based on a quantitative measure of the degree of correlation between the cluster memberships and the distribution of a set of observables, the labels, not employed for the clustering. CLaSPS has been primarily developed as a tool to tackle the challenging complexity of the multi-wavelength complex and massive astronomical data sets produced by the federation of the data from modern automated astronomical facilities. In this paper, we discuss the applications of CLaSPS to two simple astronomical data sets, both composed of extragalactic sources with photometric observations at different wavelengths from large area surveys. The first data set, CSC+, is composed of optical quasars spectroscopically selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, observed in the x-rays by Chandra and with multi-wavelength observations in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet spectral intervals. One of the results of the application of CLaSPS to the CSC+ is the re-identification of a well-known correlation between the {alpha}{sub OX} parameter and the near-ultraviolet color, in a subset of CSC+ sources with relatively small values of the near-ultraviolet colors. The other data set consists of a sample of blazars for which photometric observations in the optical, mid-, and near-infrared are available, complemented for a subset of the sources, by Fermi {gamma}-ray data. The main results of the application of CLaSPS to such data sets have been the discovery of a strong correlation between the multi-wavelength color distribution of blazars and their optical spectral classification in BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars, and a

  20. [Methods for extraction of exopolymeric complex in plankton and biofilm growth mode of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 22M].

    PubMed

    Boretskaia, M A; Suslova, O S

    2013-01-01

    The optimal methods for the extraction of exopolymeric complex (EPS) of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 22M was determined. That EPS was synthesized in plankton and biofilm growth mode on the mild steel surface. It is desirable to use different physical and chemical methods for studying the EPS composition (carbohydrates and proteins) depending on the bacteria growth mode. In this way the interaction with ion exchange resin was the most effective for plankton growth mode to determine the maximum amount of carbohydrates (9.5 microg/ml), and the impact of heating to determine protein (3.9 microg/ml). For EPS biofilm in order to obtain maximum amount of carbohydrate it is desirable to use heating (30 microg/ml) and centrifugation (35 microg/ml). It is recommended to determine protein in the biofilm EPS after treatment with heating (3.75 microg/ml) and centrifugation (3.75 microg/ml).

  1. Hormonal profiling: Development of a simple method to extract and quantify phytohormones in complex matrices by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Lucía; Majada, Juan P; Ordás, Ricardo J; Feito, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are very different chemical compounds that play essential roles in plant development and the regulation of physiological processes. They exert their functions by a mechanism called cross-talk (involving either synergistic or antagonistic actions) thus; it is for great interest to study as many PGRs as possible to obtain accurate information about plant status. Much effort has been applied to develop methods capable of analyze large numbers of these compounds but frequently excluding some chemical families or important PGRs within each family. In addition, most of the methods are specially designed for matrices easy to work with. Therefore, we wanted to develop a method which achieved the requirements lacking in the literature and also being fast and reliable. Here we present a simple, fast and robust method for the extraction and quantification of 20 different PGRs using UHPLC-MS/MS optimized in complex matrices.

  2. Preparation of a multiple emulsion based on pectin-whey protein complex for encapsulation of saffron extract nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpour, Elham

    2017-04-15

    The present study illustrates a simple and practical way to produce an adequate delivery system of bioactive compounds of saffron by protein-polysaccharide complex. Frist, crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin were loaded in nanodroplets (<100nm) by using water in oil (W/O) microemulsions contain 5, and 10% aqueous saffron extract as a dispersed phase. These microemulsions were then covered with whey protein concentrate (WPC)-maltodextrin or WPC-pectin-maltodextrin through water in oil in water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions. The stability and release of loaded crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin in multiple emulsions were investigated during 22days storage. The produced multiple emulsion by WPC-pectin-maltodextrin along with 5% inner aqueous phase showed a high stability and low release of encapsulated compounds over time. This emulsion also provided a high protection of crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin in the gastric condition.

  3. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  4. Extractional spectrophotometric analysis of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and secnidazole bases through acid-dye complexation using bromothymol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An easy, precise and valid extractional-spectrophotometric technique is described for the assessment of metronidazole (MNZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and secnidazole (SNZ) in pure state and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The technique includes first the reduction of above cited drugs using HCl and zinc powder, then the formation of intense yellow colored ion-association complex species (1:3 drug/dye) using bromothymol blue (BTB) in a buffered aqueous acidic medium at pH 3-3.50. The colored products are extracted into dichloromethane and quantitatively determined at 416-420 nm. The experimental operating factors influencing the ion-pairs development were studied and optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. The Beer plots are obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.50-22.50, 2.50-30, 7.50-35 and 5-30 μgml-1 for MNZ, TNZ, ONZ and SNZ, respectively, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9995. The proposed technique is recommended for the routine quality control analysis of the investigated drugs in commercial tablets with no observed interference from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of such analysis were statistically validated and through recovery studies, showing excellent agreement with those achieved by the reported techniques.

  5. Extraction of uranium and lead from mixed waste debris using a variety of metal/ligand complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, D.A.; Duran, B.L.; Ehler, D.S.; Sauer, N.N.

    1997-12-31

    To ensure the safety of our Nation`s nuclear stockpile, Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of constructing the DARHT (Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test) facility. DARHT will examine the effects of aging and the stability of our stockpile. Contained testing will be phased in to reduce the impact of these tests, which contain depleted uranium, on our environment. The main focus of this research is to develop a treatment scheme for the recovery of depleted uranium and lead from shot debris that will result from these tests. The goals of this research are to optimize the conditions on a bench scale using a commercially available water soluble polymer to bind the lead and a variety of metal/ligand complexes such as 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene-disulfonic acid, dithionite, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite to bind the uranium. Studies were conducted on a mixture of debris, such as wood, cable, paper towels, and tubing that contained both uranium and lead ranging in concentration from 10-1000`s of ppm of contaminants. Experiments were done varying combinations and successions of extractant solutions as well as a number of sequential extractions. Studies show that a mixture of sodium hypochlorite and carbonate removed 90+% of both uranium and lead. We then focused on a separation scheme for the lead and uranium.

  6. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  7. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  8. Use of MEDUSA-based data analysis and capillary HPLC-ion-trap mass spectrometry to examine complex immunoaffinity extracts of RBAp48.

    PubMed

    Gururaja, Tarikere; Li, Weiqun; Bernstein, Jim; Payan, Donald G; Anderson, D C

    2002-01-01

    To examine the Jurkat cell interaction partners of RbAp48, we digested entire immunoaffinity extracts with trypsin and identified potential interacting proteins using one- and two-dimensional microcapillary HPLC-ion-trap mass spectrometry. An Oracle-based automated data analysis system (MEDUSA) was used to compare quadruplicate anti-RbAp48 antibody affinity extracts with two sets of quadruplicate control extracts. The anti-RbAp48 extracts contained over 40 difference 1D gel bands. We identified all known proteins of the NuRD/Mi-2 complex including human p66. Three potential homologues of members of this complex were also found, suggesting that there may be more than one variant of this complex. Eleven proteins associated with RNA binding or pre-mRNA splicing were observed. Four other proteins, including a putative tumor suppressor, were identified, as were 18 ribosomal proteins. There was little overlap with RbAp48-interacting proteins defined by yeast two-hybrid methods. These results demonstrate the analysis of a complex immunoaffinity extract and suggest a more complex cellular role for RbAp48 than previously documented.

  9. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae): Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period

    PubMed Central

    Corona-Santiago, Diushi Keri; Doadrio, Ignacio; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400–7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P’urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River. PMID:25946217

  10. News CPD Event: Teaching day gives new perspectives Workshop: IOP network devolops its ideas Conference: Conference offers much to teachers Event: Physics is made easy in Liverpool Communication: IOSTE debates the complexities of STE Conference: Teaching event excites in Exeter Meeting Invitation: Wales physics meeting invites bookings CPD Event: Science teachers get hands on with development Research: Conference highlights liquid crytstal research in teaching Education: Teachers give positive feedback Science Fair: Science fair brings physics to students Teaching: Conference explores trends in teaching Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    CPD Event: Teaching day gives new perspectives Workshop: IOP network devolops its ideas Conference: Conference offers much to teachers Event: Physics is made easy in Liverpool Communication: IOSTE debates the complexities of STE Conference: Teaching event excites in Exeter Meeting Invitation: Wales physics meeting invites bookings CPD Event: Science teachers get hands on with development Research: Conference highlights liquid crytstal research in teaching Education: Teachers give positive feedback Science Fair: Science fair brings physics to students Teaching: Conference explores trends in teaching Forthcoming events

  11. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  12. Alcohol--Induced Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complex Coacervate Systems: Characterization and Applications in Enzyme and Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati Moshtaghin, Mahboubeh

    The focus of this thesis is to achieve a better understanding of the newly discovered surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervate (SPCC) systems induced by fluoroalcohol/acid as well as short chain aliphatic alcohol; and to elucidate their applications in extraction and enrichment of proteins and enzyme. We have discovered that fluoroalcohols and --acids induce complex coacervation and phase separation in the aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged anionic polyelectrolytes; specifically, sodium salts of polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) over a broad range of concentrations of mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphiles. Accordingly, these new classes of coacervators will significantly broaden the scope and facilitate engineering of new coacervate phases. Toward these goals, we have inspected the formation of surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervates in the presence of fluoroalcohols namely hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and Trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, the extent of coacervation as a function of concentrations the system components, and charge ratios of the oppositely charged amphiphiles has been investigated. Polyelectrolytes are considered to be milder reagents, as compared to surfactants, regarding proteins denaturation. This highlights the importance of a detailed investigation of the efficiency of our coacervate systems for extraction and preconcentration of proteins and enzymes, especially, when the biological activity of the extracted proteins needs to be maintained based on the objectives mentioned above, the results of the investigations have been organized in four chapters. In Chapter II, the phase behavior of the FA-SPCC will be investigated. The objective is to examine the phase behavior and phase properties with respect to the extent of coacervation in different solution conditions. In particular, the effects of different solution variables such as concentration

  13. Low-abundant protein extraction from complex protein sample using a novel continuous aqueous two-phase systems device.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Villegas, Patricia; Espitia-Saloma, Edith; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Aguilar, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a novel continuous aqueous two-phase system prototype for the recovery of biomolecules. The prototype is an alternative platform for protein recovery and α-amylase from soybean extracts was used as a model system. The system was selected as an example of low-abundant protein present in complex mixtures. Compared with batch systems, continuous operation in this prototype seems to increase partition coefficient with higher recovery efficiencies. Processing time is reduced at least three times in the continuous system when compared to batch mode, while hold up (volumetric quantity of the opposing phase in a determined phase sample) decreases with decreasing phases flow. Furthermore, similar partition coefficient (Kp > 4) with a higher top phase enzyme recovery (81%) is also obtained in this system probably due to better contact surface between phases, compared with that obtained in batch (79%). A continuous aqueous two-phase system process with purification factor 40-fold higher than batch experiments was achieved. These preliminary results exhibit the potential of continuous systems for the recovery of low-abundant proteins from complex mixtures. The promising performance of this prototype can raise the attention of the industry for the adoption of aqueous two-phase system processes.

  14. Mitochondrial fragmentation is an important cellular event induced by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanxin; Fu, Xiaoyan; Li, Hong; Chen, Bolai; Guo, Yuhai; Su, Guoyi; Zhang, Hu; Ning, Feipeng; Lin, Yongpeng; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-04-01

    A series of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities. The results showed that ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, especially [Ru(bpy)2 (p-tFPIP)](2+) (2 a; bpy=bipyridine, tFPIP=2-(2-trifluoromethane phenyl)imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), exhibited novel anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines, but with less toxicity to a human normal cell line. The results of flow cytometry and caspase activities analysis indicated that the 2 a-induced growth inhibition against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells was mainly caused by mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation as detected by TUNEL-DAPI co-staining further confirmed 2 a-induced apoptotic cell death. Further, fluorescence imaging revealed that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes could target mitochondria to induce mitochondrial fragmentation, accompanied by depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these findings suggest a potential application of theses ruthenium(II) complexes in the treatment of cancers.

  15. Solvent extraction equilibria of the nickel-3-(2-furyl)-2-mercaptopropenoic acid complex as an ion-pair with the diphenylguanidinium ion.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, A; Prat, M D; Garbayo, A

    1988-12-01

    The extraction of nickel from aqueous media (0.1M NaClO(4)) with 3-(2-furyl)-2-mercaptopropenoic acid (FMPA) in dichloroethane at 25 degrees has been studied. The extraction is efficient only if a suitable counter-ion is present to form an ion-associate with the Ni-FMPA complex. The diphenylguanidinium ion has been found suitable as the counter-ion.

  16. How do you assign persistent identifiers to extracts from large, complex, dynamic data sets that underpin scholarly publications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Car, Nicholas; Evans, Benjamin; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Persistent identifiers in the form of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) are becoming more mainstream, assigned at both the collection and dataset level. For static datasets, this is a relatively straight-forward matter. However, many new data collections are dynamic, with new data being appended, models and derivative products being revised with new data, or the data itself revised as processing methods are improved. Further, because data collections are becoming accessible as services, researchers can log in and dynamically create user-defined subsets for specific research projects: they also can easily mix and match data from multiple collections, each of which can have a complex history. Inevitably extracts from such dynamic data sets underpin scholarly publications, and this presents new challenges. The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has been experiencing and making progress towards addressing these issues. The NCI is large node of the Research Data Services initiative (RDS) of the Australian Government's research infrastructure, which currently makes available over 10 PBytes of priority research collections, ranging from geosciences, geophysics, environment, and climate, through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and social sciences. Data are replicated to, or are produced at, NCI and then processed there to higher-level data products or directly analysed. Individual datasets range from multi-petabyte computational models and large volume raster arrays, down to gigabyte size, ultra-high resolution datasets. To facilitate access, maximise reuse and enable integration across the disciplines, datasets have been organized on a platform called the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). Combined, the NERDIP data collections form a rich and diverse asset for researchers: their co-location and standardization optimises the value of existing data, and forms a new resource to underpin data-intensive Science. New publication

  17. Event patterns (particle scatter plots) extracted from charged particle spectra in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Liu, Fu-Hu; Fakhraddin, Sakina; Rahim, Magda A.; Duan, Mai-Ying

    2017-02-01

    The transverse momentum (p T) and pseudorapidity (η) spectra of charged particles produced in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described by a hybrid model. In the model, the p T spectrum is described by a two-component distribution which contains an inverse power-law suggested by quantum chromodynamic calculus and an Erlang distribution resulted from a multisource thermal model. The η spectrum is described by a Gaussian rapidity (y) distribution resulted from the Landau hydrodynamic model and the two-component p T distribution, where the conversion between y and η is accurately considered. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in pp collisions at center-of-mass energy \\sqrt{s}=2.76 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair \\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from p T and η or y spectra, the event patterns or particle scatter plots in three-dimensional velocity and momentum spaces are obtained.

  18. Geology and petrology of the plutonic complexes in the Wadi Fizh area: Multiple magmatic events and segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Sumio

    2003-09-01

    Multiple magmatic events are recorded in the gabbroic unit in the Fizh area of the northern Oman ophiolite. Gabbroic blocks intruded by sheeted dike complex and upper gabbros of the main crustal sequence show the oldest event. Gabbronorite sills in the gabbroic blocks are nearly coeval with the host gabbro. Wehrlitic intrusions (wehrlite I) mark the third event of magmatism. These three magmatic events occurred at the retreating (dying) ridge axis because all these rocks are intruded by dolerite dike swarm, which is generally regarded as a precursor of advancing ridge axis. The next stage of magmatism is a main phase of oceanic crust generation in this area. Wehrlite II and then gabbronorite dikes intrude the still hot main gabbro unit. All of these above rocks have similar signatures with respect to clinopyroxene compositions and covariations between plagioclase and mafic minerals, though slight differences are present in the compositional ranges and clinopyroxene compositions of each unit. After considerable cooling of the main gabbro unit, primitive basalt dikes intrude the main gabbro unit, which may correspond to the Lasail unit. Finally, the Fizh-South complex intrudes into considerably cooled crustal sequence, being below the brittle-plastic transition temperatures. The Fizh-South complex, which was regarded as a common wehrlitic intrusion, is significantly different from all of the above mentioned rocks, with respect to the covariation between plagioclase and associating mafic minerals, crystallization order, and clinopyroxene compositions. The clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely low Ti and Na contents, comparable with those of the V2 unit (Alley volcanics), suggesting that the Fizh-South complex correlates with the plutonic facies of the V2 unit during arc stage. Layered gabbros in the Wadi Zabin area, about 10 km north of the Fizh area, may be a northern extension of the gabbro blocks of the Fizh area, because they are intruded by numerous

  19. Spatial distribution and frequency of precipitation during an extreme event: July 2006 mesoscale convective complexes and floods in southeastern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Webb, Robert H.; Pytlak, Erik; Troch, Peter A.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2009-07-01

    An extreme, multiday rainfall event over southeastern Arizona during 27-31 July 2006 caused record flooding and a historically unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. An unusual synoptic weather pattern induced repeated nocturnal mesoscale convective systems over southeastern Arizona for five continuous days, generating multiday rainfall totals up to 360 mm. Analysis of point rainfall and weather radar data yielded storm totals for the southern Santa Catalina Mountains at 754 grid cells approximately 1 km × 1 km in size. Precipitation intensity for the 31 July storms was not unusual for typical monsoonal precipitation in this region (recurrence interval (RI) < 1 year), but multiday rainfall where slope failures occurred had RI > 50 years and individual grid cells had RI exceeding 1000 years. The 31 July storms caused the watersheds to be essentially saturated following 4 days of rainfall.

  20. Spatial distribution and frequency of precipitation during an extreme event: July 2006 mesoscale convective complexes and floods in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Magirl, C.S.; Webb, R.H.; Pytlak, E.; Troch, Peter A.; Lyon, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    An extreme, multiday rainfall event over southeastern Arizona during 27-31 July 2006 caused record flooding and a historically unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. An unusual synoptic weather pattern induced repeated nocturnal mesoscale convective systems over southeastern Arizona for five continuous days, generating multiday rainfall totals up to 360 mm. Analysis of point rainfall and weather radar data yielded storm totals for the southern Santa Catalina Mountains at 754 grid cells approximately 1 km ?? 1 km in size. Precipitation intensity for the 31 July storms was not unusual for typical monsoonal precipitation in this region (recurrence interval (RI) < 1 year), but multiday rainfall where slope failures occurred had RI > 50 years and individual grid cells had RI exceeding 1000 years. The 31 July storms caused the watersheds to be essentially saturated following 4 days of rainfall. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  2. On Some Feedback Relations Between Igneous Intrusion - Fluid flow - Metamorphic / Metasomatic Events and Deformation Events During low-P high-T Metamorphism. An Example From the Osor High Grade Complex (Catalan Coastal Ranges. NE Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, F. J.

    2004-05-01

    Bulk composition is an important factor that can influence both the rheologic and paragenetic histories of metamorphic rocks. Metasomatic changes are likely to occur in certain crustal levels from interplaying phenomena such as the intrusion and crystallization of magmatic bodies and also from pervasive or densely channelized fluid flow through these rocks during their metamorphic evolution. Accordingly, the following possibilities should be tested: a) The role of particular metasomatic changes in the sequence of mineral assemblages and mineral reactions; b) their role in changing deformation regimes and styles; c) their role in the location of major crustal tectonic features such as detachment shear zones, and d) their role in the onset and development of the exhumation histories of metamorphic complexes formed in medium and lower crustal levels during orogenesis. In the Osor Complex we have found evidence for fluid flow related to garnet growth during the prograde stage of a LP/HT metamorphic event and of fluid flow related to granitoid crystallization during the waning stages of regional metamorphic evolution. Fluid flow during increasing T was responsible for the modal deplection of the Osor metapelitic-metapsamitic rocks in quartz, plagioclase and muscovite, carrying away the SiO2, CaO and alcalis in solution. Local migmatization, with the generation of peraluminous granitoid lenses, took place during the final stages of this prograde process. Crystallization of granites was responsible for the recycling of K2O into the enclosing series and, as a result, growth of secondary blastic muscovite, biotite and albitic plagioclase occurred. Quartz deposition during retrogression also implies the recycling of SiO2 lost during the previous deplection stage, although in this case SiO2 concentrated locally, forming a set of quartz veins. The Osor rocks show the imprint of three main deformational events. D2 produced the dominant foliation, a penetrative crenulation

  3. On the stoichiometry and stability of americium(III) complexes with a hydrophilic SO3-Ph-BTP ligand, studied by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Steczek, Łukasz; Rejnis, Magdalena; Narbutt, Jerzy; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Moisy, Philippe

    1:1 and 1:2 complexes of americium(III) with a hydrophilic anionic SO3-Ph-BTP(4-) ligand were detected in acidic aqueous nitrate solutions by a solvent extraction method. The determined conditional stability constants of these complexes, logβ1 = 4.35 ± 0.07 and logβ2 = 7.67 ± 0.06, related to 1 M aqueous solutions, are much lower than the literature values for the analogous curium species, determined by TRLFS in very dilute aqueous solutions. There is also no evidence for the existence of the 1:3 Am(3+) complex similar to the reported curium(III) complex. A hypothesis has been formulated to explain these discrepancies. It suggests the necessity to carefully check the equilibria in each phase of solvent extraction systems containing two competing ligands-lipophilic and hydrophilic.

  4. Lithological, Chemical and Chronological Constraints on Melt Extraction from the Mantle Section of the ~492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, B.; Walker, R. J.; Clay, P. L.; Day, J. M.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The mantle sections of ophiolites offer a means of studying the composition and structure of the oceanic mantle. In particular, the relations between different lithologies can be established in the field, permitting an assessment of the relative timing of processes such as melt extraction and melt-rock reaction. The Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC) contains a well-preserved mantle section that is dominated by harzburgite (≥70 vol.%), with dominantly chondritic present-day 187Os/188Os compositions1. Melt extraction and melt-rock reaction is evident in the form of dunite and chromitite layers and lenses, with thicknesses ranging from millimetres-to-metres. These lithologies are characteristic of supra-subduction zone processing and are considered to relate to closure of the Iapetus Ocean at ~492 Ma1. However, evidence of much earlier melt extraction has been suggested for some SOC harzburgites, which have relatively unradiogenic 187Os/188Os compositions that yield TRD model ages as old as ~1.4 Ga1. In order to assess the scales at which such compositional heterogeneities are preserved in the mantle, a small (45 m2) area of the SOC mantle section was selected for detailed lithological mapping and sampling. A selection of harzburgites (n=8), dunites (n=6) and pyroxenites (n=2) from this area has been analysed for their Os isotope and highly-siderophile element (HSE) compositions. Six of the harzburgites and four of the dunites have relative HSE abundances and gOs values that are approximately chondritic, with gOs ranging only from -0.6 to +2.7 (n=10). Two dunites have more radiogenic gOs (up to +7.5), that is correlated with enhanced concentrations of accessory base-metal sulphides, suggesting formation via melt percolation and melt-rock reaction. The two remaining harzburgites have less radiogenic gOs (-3.5 and -4), yielding Mesoproterozoic TRD ages. The new data indicate that a comparable range of Os isotope compositions to that previously measured across the

  5. The Neural Circuitry of Reward Processing in Complex Social Comparison: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, DongTao; Li, Wenfu; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which the brain activity in a complex social comparison context. One true subject and two pseudo-subjects were asked to complete a simple number estimate task at the same time which including upward and downward comparisons. Two categories of social comparison rewards (fair and unfair rewards distributions) were mainly presented by comparing the true subject with other two pseudo-subjects. Particularly, there were five conditions of unfair distribution when all the three subjects were correct but received different rewards. Behavioral data indicated that the ability to self-regulate was important in satisfaction judgment when the subject perceived an unfair reward distribution. fMRI data indicated that the interaction between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was important in self-regulation under specific conditions in complex social comparison, especially under condition of reward processing when there were two different reward values and the subject failed to exhibit upward comparison. PMID:24340037

  6. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in ¹³C (<-60‰) suggesting production lines which have used depleted methane for synthesis. The other source had typical carbon isotope compositions of >-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, ¹³C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas.

  7. Temporal evolution of a hydrothermal system in Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, Japan, inferred from the complex frequencies of long-period events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.; Nakano, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed description of temporal variations in the complex frequencies of long-period (LP) events observed at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano. Using the Sompi method, we analyze 35 LP events that occurred during the period from August 1992 through January 1993. The observed temporal variations in the complex frequencies can be divided into three periods. During the first period the dominant frequency rapidly decreases from 5 to 1 Hz, and Q of the dominant spectral peak remains roughly constant with an average value near 100. During the second period the dominant frequency gradually increases up to 3 Hz, and Q gradually decreases from 160 to 30. During the third period the dominant frequency increases more rapidly from 3 to 5 Hz, and Q shows an abrupt increase at the beginning of this period and then remains roughly constant with an average value near 100. Such temporal variations can be consistently explained by the dynamic response of a hydrothermal crack to a magmatic heat pulse. During the first period, crack growth occurs in response to the overall pressure increase in the hydrothermal system caused by the heat pulse. Once crack formation is complete, heat gradually changes the fluid in the crack from a wet misty gas to a dry gas during the second period. As heating of the hydrothermal system gradually subsides, the overall pressure in this system starts to decrease, causing the collapse of the crack during the third period.

  8. The coordination structure of the extracted nickel(ii) complex with a synergistic mixture containing dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-pyridinecarboxylate ester.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyuan; Hu, Huiping; Zhu, Shan; Hu, Fang; Wang, Yongxi

    2017-01-24

    In this paper, a synergist complex of Ni(ii) with naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (HNS) and n-hexyl 4-pyridinecarboxylate ester (L(I)), which are corresponding short chain analogues of active synergistic extractants dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-pyridinecarboxylate ester (4PC, L(II)), was prepared and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR), elemental analyses, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectroscopic studies. Single crystals of the nickel synergist complex have been grown from a methanol/water (10/1) solution and analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of the nickel synergist complex shows that Ni(ii) is coordinated by four water molecules and two monodentate L(I) ligands and there is no direct interaction of the Ni(ii) with sulfonic oxygen atoms of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid anions, while hydrogen-bonded interactions of the coordinated water molecules with sulfonic oxygen atoms of naphthalene-2-sulphate anions were observed. In addition, in order to provide parallels to solvent extraction, the extracted Ni(ii) complex with HDNNS and 4PC is also prepared and studied using FT-IR and ESI-MS technology. Compared with their corresponding free ligand, similar shifts assigned to the stretching vibration of the pyridine ring and S[double bond, length as m-dash]O in both the nickel synergist complex and the extracted Ni(ii) complex suggest that in the non-polar organic phase, Ni(ii) is also coordinated by L(II) ligands, while the sulfonic oxygen atoms of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate anions not directly bonded to Ni(ii) form hydrogen bonds with water molecules (coordinated with Ni(ii) or/and solubilized in the non-polar organic phase). For the ESI-MS spectrum of the extracted Ni(ii) complex in non-polar organic phase, there exists a peak at m/z values of 1058.76, which indicates that the extracted Ni(ii) complex in the non

  9. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Ronald C.

    2002-09-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1). Specifically, the circuit will convert the In-Phase and Quadrature terms into their corresponding phase angle. The design specifications were to implement the design in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors) technology with a minimum transistor count and ability to operate at a clock frequency of 700 MHz. Research on the arctangent function was performed to determine mathematical calculation methods and the CORDIC method was chosen to achieve the stated design specifications. MATLAB simulations were used to calculate and verify accuracy and to implement Quine-McClusky logic minimization. T-SPICE netlists were generated and simulations were run to determine transistor and circuit electrical operation and timing. Finally, overall circuit logic functionality of all possible input combinations was completed using a VHDL (VHSIC(Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language) simulation program.

  10. Characterization of surfactant complex mixtures using Raman spectroscopy and signal extraction methods: Application to laundry detergent deformulation.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Clement, Yohann; Bonhomme, Anne; Burger, Benjamin; Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse, Delphine; Rutledge, Douglas; Casabianca, Hervé; Lanteri, Pierre; Bordes, Claire

    2016-04-07

    This paper presents the analysis of surfactants in complex mixtures using Raman spectroscopy combined with signal extraction (SE) methods. Surfactants are the most important component in laundry detergents. Both their identification and quantification are required for quality control and regulation purposes. Several synthetic mixtures of four surfactants contained in an Ecolabel laundry detergent were prepared and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. SE methods, Independent Component Analysis and Multivariate Curve Resolution, were then applied to spectral data for surfactant identification and quantification. The influence of several pre-processing treatments (normalization, baseline correction, scatter correction and smoothing) on SE performances were evaluated by experimental design. By using optimal pre-processing strategy, SE methods allowed satisfactorily both identifying and quantifying the four surfactants. When applied to the pre-processed Raman spectrum of the Ecolabel laundry detergent sample, SE models remained robust enough to predict the surfactant concentrations with sufficient precision for deformulation purpose. Comparatively, a supervised modeling technique (PLS regression) was very efficient to quantify the four surfactants in synthetic mixtures but appeared less effective than SE methods when applied to the Raman spectrum of the detergent sample. PLS seemed too sensitive to the other components contained in the laundry detergent while SE methods were more robust. The results obtained demonstrated the interest of SE methods in the context of deformulation.

  11. Report of results of the vapor vacuum extraction test at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the state of Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D.; Miyasaki, D.H.; Sisson, J.B.; Sondrup, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A test-scale vapor vacuum extraction (VVE) system was installed and operated at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), which is west of Idaho Falls, Idaho and is managed by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. The system was constructed for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of VVE or vapor venting technology to abate a volatile organic compound (VOC) plume located in the vadose zone below the subsurface disposal area at the complex. To date, the system has been operated for two periods, a two-week test and a four-month test. The purpose of the two-week test was to determine what would be extracted from the borehole and to verify the design of the system to handle what would be extracted.

  12. Response of a hydrothermal system to magmatic heat inferred from temporal variations in the complex frequencies of long-period events at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakano, M.; Kumagai, H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate temporal variations in the complex frequencies (frequency and quality factor Q) of long-period (LP) events that occurred at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, central Japan. We analyze LP waveforms observed at this volcano in the period between 1988 and 1995, which covers a seismically active period between 1989 and 1993. Systematic temporal variations in the complex frequencies are observed in October-November 1989, July-October 1991, and September 1992-January 1993. We use acoustic properties of a crack filled with hydrothermal fluids to interpret the observed temporal variations in the complex frequencies. The temporal variations in October-November 1989 can be divided into two periods, which are explained by a gradual decrease and increase of a gas-volume fraction in a water-steam mixture in a crack, respectively. The temporal variations in July-October 1991 can be also divided into two periods. These variations in the first and second periods are similar to those observed in November 1989 and in September-November 1992, respectively, and are interpreted as drying of a water-steam mixture and misty gas in a crack, respectively. The repeated nature of the temporal variations observed in similar seasons between July and November suggests the existence of seasonality in the occurrence of LP events. This may be caused by a seasonally variable meteoritic water supply to a hydrothermal system, which may have been heated by the flux of volcanic gases from magma beneath this volcano. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the study of Ln(III) complexation and extraction speciation with calixarene-CMPO in the fuel partitioning concept.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, C; Rateau, S; Moulin, C

    2006-01-01

    The calixarene-bearing CMPO groups belong to a family of extracting agents recently developed for nuclear reprocessing. These molecules exhibit specific properties to separate actinides(III) from lanthanides(III) in nitric acid solution. Speciation of two distinct calixarene-CMPO (carbamoyl phosphine oxide), substituted either in the wide rim or in the narrow rim with lanthanides (La, Eu, Yb), was undertaken. The complexation behaviour in single phase or in liquid-liquid extraction was examined with two different electrospray spectrometer source geometries. The stoichiometries of the different complexes were reported and the selectivity of these calixarenes towards lanthanides was determined. The results obtained were concordant for the two spectrometers and confirm that electrospray mass spectrometry is a useful tool to study non-covalently bonded complexes.

  14. Disentangling the complex evolutionary history of the Western Palearctic blue tits (Cyanistes spp.) - phylogenomic analyses suggest radiation by multiple colonization events and subsequent isolation.

    PubMed

    Stervander, Martin; Illera, Juan Carlos; Kvist, Laura; Barbosa, Pedro; Keehnen, Naomi P; Pruisscher, Peter; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2015-05-01

    Isolated islands and their often unique biota continue to play key roles for understanding the importance of drift, genetic variation and adaptation in the process of population differentiation and speciation. One island system that has inspired and intrigued evolutionary biologists is the blue tit complex (Cyanistes spp.) in Europe and Africa, in particular the complex evolutionary history of the multiple genetically distinct taxa of the Canary Islands. Understanding Afrocanarian colonization events is of particular importance because of recent unconventional suggestions that these island populations acted as source of the widespread population in mainland Africa. We investigated the relationship between mainland and island blue tits using a combination of Sanger sequencing at a population level (20 loci; 12 500 nucleotides) and next-generation sequencing of single population representatives (>3 200 000 nucleotides), analysed in coalescence and phylogenetic frameworks. We found (i) that Afrocanarian blue tits are monophyletic and represent four major clades, (ii) that the blue tit complex has a continental origin and that the Canary Islands were colonized three times, (iii) that all island populations have low genetic variation, indicating low long-term effective population sizes and (iv) that populations on La Palma and in Libya represent relicts of an ancestral North African population. Further, demographic reconstructions revealed (v) that the Canary Islands, conforming to traditional views, hold sink populations, which have not served as source for back colonization of the African mainland. Our study demonstrates the importance of complete taxon sampling and an extensive multimarker study design to obtain robust phylogeographical inferences.

  15. Role of shielding in modulating the effects of solar particle events: Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose and DNA complex lesions in different organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes--such as FLUKA--yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy-1 Da-1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for the

  16. Monazite stability, composition and geochronology as tracers of Paleoproterozoic events at the eastern margin of the East European Craton (Taratash complex, Middle Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Gerdes, Axel; Ronkin, Yuri L.; Dziggel, Annika; Hetzel, Ralf; Schulte, Bernd Aloys

    2012-02-01

    The Precambrian Taratash complex (Middle Urals) is one of the rare windows into the Palaeoproterozoic and earlier history of the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Monazite from intensively deformed rocks within a major amphibolite-facies shear zone in the Taratash complex has been investigated by means of electron-probe microanalysis and laser-ablation SF-ICP-MS. Metamorphic and magmatic cores of monazite from metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks yield U-Pb ages of 2244 ± 19 and 2230 ± 22 Ma (± 2 σ) and record a previously unknown pre-deformational HT-metamorphic event in the Taratash complex. Subsequent dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite, during shear zone formation under amphibolite-facies conditions, caused patchy zonation and chemical alteration of the recrystallised monazite domains, leading to higher cheralite and huttonite components. This process, which was mediated by a probable (alkali + OH)-bearing metamorphic fluid also caused a total resetting of the U-Pb-system. The patchy domains yield concordant U-Pb-ages between 2052 ± 16 and 2066 ± 22 Ma, interpreted as the age of the shear zone. In line with previously published ages of high grade metamorphism and migmatisation, the data may point to a Palaeoproterozoic orogenic event at the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Post-deformational fluid-induced greenschist-facies retrogression caused partial to complete breakdown of monazite to fluorapatite, REE + Y-rich epidote, allanite and Th-orthosilicate.The retrograde assemblages either form coronas around monazite, or occur as dispersed reaction zones, indicating that the REE, Y, and Th were mobile at least on the thin section scale. The greenschist-facies metamorphic fluid was aqueous and rich in Ca. Monazite affected by advanced breakdown responded to the retrogression by incorporating the cheralite or huttonite components during a fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation process. This event did not reset the U

  17. Extraction Separation of Rare-Earth Ions via Competitive Ligand Complexations between Aqueous and Ionic-Liquid Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Sun, Xiaoqi; Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The extraction separation of rare earth elements is the most challenging separation processes in hydrometallurgy and advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) is a prime example of these separation processes. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for the TALSPEAK-like process, to further enhance its extraction efficiencies for lanthanides, and to investigate the potential of using this modified TALSPEAK process for separation of lanthanides among themselves. Eight imidazolium ILs ([Cnmim][NTf2] and [Cnmim][BETI], n=4,6,8,10) and one pyrrolidinium IL ([C4mPy][NTf2]) were investigated as diluents using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant for separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous solutions of 50 mM glycolic acid or citric acid and 5 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), an organic solvent used as diluent for the conventional TALSPEAK extraction system. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for a number of lanthanide ions using HDEHP as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs and anions on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of lanthanide ions are also presented in this paper.

  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome as a mirror of phytochemical variation in complex extracts of Equisetum arvense from America, China, Europe and India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pattern-oriented chemical profiling is increasingly being used to characterize the phytochemical composition of herbal medicines for quality control purposes. Ideally, a fingerprint of the biological effects should complement the chemical fingerprint. For ethical and practical reasons it is not possible to test each herbal extract in laboratory animals or humans. What is needed is a test system consisting of an organism with relevant biology and complexity that can serve as a surrogate in vitro system. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome might be used as an indicator of phytochemical variation of closely-related yet distinctly different extracts prepared from a single species of a phytogeographically widely distributed medicinal plant. We combined phytochemical profiling using chromatographic methods (HPTLC, HPLC-PDA-MS/MS) and gene expression studies using Affymetrix Yeast 2.0 gene chip with principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor clustering analysis to test this hypothesis using extracts prepared from the phytogeographically widely distributed medicinal plant Equisetum arvense as a test case. Results We found that the Equisetum arvense extracts exhibited qualitative and quantitative differences in their phytochemical composition grouped along their phytogeographical origin. Exposure of yeast to the extracts led to changes in gene expression that reflected both the similarities and differences in the phytochemical composition of the extracts. The Equisetum arvense extracts elicited changes in the expression of genes involved in mRNA translation, drug transport, metabolism of energy reserves, phospholipid metabolism, and the cellular stress response. Conclusions Our data show that functional genomics in S. cerevisiae may be developed as a sensitive bioassay for the scientific investigation of the interplay between phytochemical composition and transcriptional effects of complex

  19. Similarities in the dolomitization of upper Miocene reef complexes in Mallorca and the Las Negras areas, Spain: Possible evidence for a Mediterranean dolomitizing event during the Messinian

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, E.J.; Meyers, W.J. ); Franseen, E.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Reef complexes in the Las Negras area and the island of Mallorca, over 600 km to the northeast, contain dolomite with remarkably similar stratigraphic distribution and petrographic characteristics. In both reef complexes dolomite occurs as 5-50 {mu}m euhedral cements and microcrystalline replacement of red-algal fragments and muds. In addition, anhedral, moldic-zoned dolomite cements (5-20 {mu}m) are abundant in the youngest reefs of both areas. All inter-reefal erosional surfaces are cross-cut by dolomite cements. Distribution of dolomite within the reefal sequences is controlled by (1) proximity to the youngest reef margin. Dolomite abundances decrease from 100% to 0% over a 10 km transect into the platform interior in Mallorca. Stratigraphic and petrographic timing support a dolomitization event following exposure of the reefs, during initial deposition of the onlapping Messinian sequence in Mallorca, and before Pliocene deposition in Las Negras. In both areas, dolomitization took place as a Messinian transgression covered the reefs. Evidence for multiple dolomitization events has not been found. Mallorcan dolomites have heavy stable isotopes suggesting saline dolomitizing fluids. One hypothesis for dolomitization invokes brines associated with the deposition of extensive Messinian basinal evaporites. An early Messinian evaporitic lowstand could concentrate marine brines, and with the ensuing transgression bring them in contact with CaCo{sub 3} platforms, dolomitizing them. The similar styles and timing of dolomitization in these two distinct and distant reef settings suggest that dolomitization of late Miocene reefs around the western Mediterranean may have been genetically related to the Messinian salinity crisis.

  20. Numerical Prediction of Cold Season Fog Events over Complex Terrain: the Performance of the WRF Model During MATERHORN-Fog and Early Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Chachere, Catherine N.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    A field campaign to study cold season fog in complex terrain was conducted as a component of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program from 07 January to 01 February 2015 in Salt Lake City and Heber City, Utah, United States. To support the field campaign, an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to produce real-time forecasts and model evaluation. This paper summarizes the model performance and preliminary evaluation of the model against the observations. Results indicate that accurately forecasting fog is challenging for the WRF model, which produces large errors in the near-surface variables, such as relative humidity, temperature, and wind fields in the model forecasts. Specifically, compared with observations, the WRF model overpredicted fog events with extended duration in Salt Lake City because it produced higher moisture, lower wind speeds, and colder temperatures near the surface. In contrast, the WRF model missed all fog events in Heber City, as it reproduced lower moisture, higher wind speeds, and warmer temperatures against observations at the near-surface level. The inability of the model to produce proper levels of near-surface atmospheric conditions under fog conditions reflects uncertainties in model physical parameterizations, such as the surface layer, boundary layer, and microphysical schemes.

  1. Mono-modal feature extraction for bonding quality detection of explosive clad structure with optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Wang, Hongfang; Yuan, Feichen

    2017-03-01

    Bonding quality detection of explosive clad structure is significant to prevent catastrophic accidents. Multi-modal features related to bonding quality are contained in structural vibration response signal. Different modal feature has different sensitivity to the bonding quality. Extracting the desired mono-modal feature from the vibration response signal is necessary. Due to the mode aliasing easily appeared in the process of extracting the desired mono-modal feature, there is no effective method for this task. Dual-tree complex wavelet with attractive properties such as shift invariance and reduced spectral aliasing may provide a better way to extract the mono-modal feature. However, the fixed basis functions independent of the analyzed signal may weak the advantage of the method and even reduce the accuracy of detection result. To overcome this shortcoming, a technique called optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform (ODTCWT) is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyzed signal, the optimized dual-tree complex wavelet basis function is constructed by searching for the proper parameters of vanishing moment K and the order of filter L. The optimized dual-tree complex wavelet with improved wavelet filters can best matched the modal frequencies of the analyzed signal. The ODTCWT can extract the mono-modal feature from vibration response signal with lower mode aliasing. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method of constructing ODTCWT is illustrated by the simulated signal. The proposed ODTCWT is combined with time entropy to detecting bonding quality of explosive clad pipes. For comparison, un-optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform (UODTCWT), second-generation wavelet transform (SGWT) and band-pass filter (BPF) are also used for this task to demonstrate the validity of ODTCWT.

  2. Complex Approach to Conceptual Design of Machine Mechanically Extracting Oil from Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biomass-Based Fuel Production.

    PubMed

    Mašín, Ivan; Petrů, Michal

    One of important sources of biomass-based fuel is Jatropha curcas L. Great attention is paid to the biofuel produced from the oil extracted from the Jatropha curcas L. seeds. A mechanised extraction is the most efficient and feasible method for oil extraction for small-scale farmers but there is a need to extract oil in more efficient manner which would increase the labour productivity, decrease production costs, and increase benefits of small-scale farmers. On the other hand innovators should be aware that further machines development is possible only when applying the systematic approach and design methodology in all stages of engineering design. Systematic approach in this case means that designers and development engineers rigorously apply scientific knowledge, integrate different constraints and user priorities, carefully plan product and activities, and systematically solve technical problems. This paper therefore deals with the complex approach to design specification determining that can bring new innovative concepts to design of mechanical machines for oil extraction. The presented case study as the main part of the paper is focused on new concept of screw of machine mechanically extracting oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

  3. Complex Approach to Conceptual Design of Machine Mechanically Extracting Oil from Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biomass-Based Fuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mašín, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    One of important sources of biomass-based fuel is Jatropha curcas L. Great attention is paid to the biofuel produced from the oil extracted from the Jatropha curcas L. seeds. A mechanised extraction is the most efficient and feasible method for oil extraction for small-scale farmers but there is a need to extract oil in more efficient manner which would increase the labour productivity, decrease production costs, and increase benefits of small-scale farmers. On the other hand innovators should be aware that further machines development is possible only when applying the systematic approach and design methodology in all stages of engineering design. Systematic approach in this case means that designers and development engineers rigorously apply scientific knowledge, integrate different constraints and user priorities, carefully plan product and activities, and systematically solve technical problems. This paper therefore deals with the complex approach to design specification determining that can bring new innovative concepts to design of mechanical machines for oil extraction. The presented case study as the main part of the paper is focused on new concept of screw of machine mechanically extracting oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. PMID:27668259

  4. Mixed Ligand Complexes of N-Methyl-N-phenyl Dithiocarbamate: Synthesis, Characterisation, Antifungal Activity, and Solvent Extraction Studies of the Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ume, Cyril; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    A series of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate complexes with a general formula [ML2(py)2], where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), py = pyridine, and L = N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR and Uv spectroscopy, magnetic moment, and thermogravimetric and conductance analysis. The infrared spectra showed that symmetrical bidentate coordination occurred with the dithiocarbamate moiety through the sulfur atoms, while neutral monodentate coordination occurred through the nitrogen atom for the pyridine molecule in the complexes. The electronic spectra, elemental analysis, and magnetic moment results proved that the complexes adopted octahedral geometry. The conductance measurement showed that the complexes are nonelectrolytes proving their nonionic nature. The compounds were screened for three human pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The cobalt complex showed the best antifungal activity among the test compounds. Liquid-liquid extractive abilities of the ligand towards copper and nickel ions in different solvent media were investigated. The ligand showed a strong binding affinity towards the metals ions with an extractive efficiency of about 99%. PMID:26543441

  5. RecQ4 promotes the conversion of the pre-initiation complex at a site-specific origin for DNA unwinding in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Kubota, Yumiko; Kanemaki, Masato T; Takahashi, Tatsuro S; Mimura, Satoru; Takisawa, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is initiated through stepwise assembly of evolutionarily conserved replication proteins onto replication origins, but how the origin DNA is unwound during the assembly process remains elusive. Here, we established a site-specific origin on a plasmid DNA, using in vitro replication systems derived from Xenopus egg extracts. We found that the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) was preferentially assembled in the vicinity of GAL4 DNA-binding sites of the plasmid, depending on the binding of Cdc6 fused with a GAL4 DNA-binding domain in Cdc6-depleted extracts. Subsequent addition of nucleoplasmic S-phase extracts to the GAL4-dependent pre-RC promoted initiation of DNA replication from the origin, and components of the pre-initiation complex (pre-IC) and the replisome were recruited to the origin concomitant with origin unwinding. In this replication system, RecQ4 is dispensable for both recruitment of Cdc45 onto the origin and stable binding of Cdc45 and GINS to the pre-RC assembled plasmid. However, both origin binding of DNA polymerase α and unwinding of DNA were diminished upon depletion of RecQ4 from the extracts. These results suggest that RecQ4 plays an important role in the conversion of pre-ICs into active replisomes requiring the unwinding of origin DNA in vertebrates.

  6. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX EXTRACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Unidentified Organic Compounds. For target analytes, standards are purchased, extraction and clean-up procedures are optimized, and mass spectra and retention times for the chromatographic separation are obtained for comparison to the target compounds in environmental sample ...

  7. Effect of successive alkylation of N,N-dialkyl amides on the complexation behavior of uranium and thorium: solvent extraction, small angle neutron scattering, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath N; Kumari, Neelam; Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2014-12-11

    The effect of successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group in N,N-dialkyl amides (i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA)) on the extraction behavior of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) ions has been investigated. These studies show that the extraction of Th(IV) is significantly suppressed compared to that of U(VI) with increased branching at the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed an increased aggregation tendency in the presence of nitric acid and metal ions. D2EHAA showed more aggregation compared to its branched homologues, which explains its capacity for higher extraction of metal ions. These experimental observations were further supported by density function theory calculations, which provided structural evidence of differential binding affinities of these extractants for uranyl cations. The complexation process is primarily controlled by steric and electronic effects. Quantum chemical calculations showed that local hardness and polarizability can be extremely useful inputs for designing novel extractants relevant to a nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Silica-based ionic liquid coating for 96-blade system for extraction of aminoacids from complex matrixes.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-11-25

    1-Vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid [C18VIm]Br was prepared and used for the modification of mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica (Si-MPS) through surface radical chain-transfer addition. The synthesized octadecylimidazolium-modified silica (SiImC18) was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), (13)C NMR and (29)Si NMR spectroscopy and used as an extraction phase for the automated 96-blade solid phase microextraction (SPME) system with thin-film geometry using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) glue. The new proposed extraction phase was applied for extraction of aminoacids from grape pulp, and LC-MS-MS method was developed for separation of model compounds. Extraction efficiency, reusability, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and matrix effect were evaluated. The whole process of sample preparation for the proposed method requires 270min for 96 samples simultaneously (60min preconditioning, 90min extraction, 60min desorption and 60min for carryover step) using 96-blade SPME system. Inter-blade and intra-blade reproducibility were in the respective ranges of 5-13 and 3-10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all model compounds. Limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed SPME-LC-MS/MS system for analysis of analytes were found to range from 0.1 to 1.0 and 0.5 to 3.0μgL(-1), respectively. Standard addition calibration was applied for quantitative analysis of aminoacids from grape juice and the results were validated with solvent extraction (SE) technique.

  9. Complex dynamics of small-moderate volcanic events: the example of the 2011 rhyolitic Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistolesi, Marco; Cioni, Raffaello; Bonadonna, Costanza; Elissondo, Manuela; Baumann, Valerie; Bertagnini, Antonella; Chiari, Laura; Gonzales, Rafael; Rosi, Mauro; Francalanci, Lorella

    2015-01-01

    dispersal of the main tephra layers with satellite images, showing that most of the tephra was emitted during the first 72 h of the event. The analyzed juvenile material tightly clusters within the rhyolitic field, with negligible chemical variations through the eruptive sequence. Textural observations reveal that changes in eruption intensity (and consequently in magma ascent velocity within the conduit) and complex interactions between gas-rich and gas-depleted magma portions during ascent resulted in vesicular clasts with variable degrees of shear localization, and possibly in the large heterogeneity of the juvenile material.

  10. Spectrophotometric studies on ion-pair extraction equilibria of the iron(ii) and iron(III) complexes with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, H; Yotsuyanagi, T

    1984-07-01

    The ion-pair extraction equilibria of the iron(II) and iron(III) chelates of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR, H(2)L) are described. The anionic chelates were extracted into chloroform with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (QC1) as counter-ion. The extraction constants were estimated to be K(ex1)(Fe(II)) = [Q{Fe(II)(HL)L}](0)/[Q(+)][{Fe(II)(HL)L}(-)] = 10(8.59 +/- 0.11), K(ex2)(Fe(II)) = [Q(2){Fe(II)L(2)}](o)/ [Q(+)](2)[{Fe(II)L(2)}(2-)] = 10(12.17 +/- 0.10) and K(ex1)(Fe(III)) = [Q{Fe((III))L(2)}](o)/(Q(+)][{Fe(III)L(2)}(-)] = 10(6.78 +/- 0.15) at I = 0.10 and 20 degrees , where [ ](o) is concentration in the chloroform phase. Aggregation of Q{Fe(III)L(2)} in chloroform was observed and the dimerization constant (K(d) = [Q(2){Fe(III)L(2)}(2)](o)/[Q{Fe(III)L(2)}](o)(2)) was evaluated as log K(d) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 at 20 degrees . The neutral chelates of {Fe(II)(HL)(2)} and {Fe(III)(HL)L}, and the ion-pair of the cationic chelate, {Fe(III)(HL)(2)}ClO(4), were also extracted into chloroform or nitrobenzene. The relationship between the forms and extraction properties of the iron(II) and iron(III) PAR chelates are discussed in connection with those of the nickel(II) and cobalt(III) complexes. Correlation between the extraction equilibrium data and the elution behaviour of some PAR chelates in ion-pair reversed-phase partition chromatography is also discussed.

  11. Physicochemical properties and theoretical modeling of actinide complexes with a para-tert-Butylcalix[6]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendants. Extraction capability of the calixarene toward f elements.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Flor de María; Varbanov, Sabi; Padilla, Juan; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2008-09-04

    The coordination ability of the hexaphosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene B6bL6 toward actinides is established, as well as its good separation ability of the actinide ions UO2 2+ and Th(IV) over trivalent rare earths such as La(III), Eu(III), and Y(III). Spectrophotometric titration of uranyl with B6bL6 in CH 3CN yields log beta 11 = 7.1 and log beta 12 = 12.5 for the 1:1 and 1:2 (UO2 2+/B 6bL6) species, respectively. Actinide complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 (M/L) stoichiometries are isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-vis. Compounds 1 and 3 fulfill their CN = 8 just with B 6bL (6), while compounds 2 and 4 require coordinated nitrates and/or water molecules. The luminescence spectra of the uranyl complexes and the parameters such as FWMH, vibronic spacing (upsilon sp), and the U-O bond length, as well as the luminescence lifetimes, permit the understanding of the coordination chemistry of these actinide calixarene complexes. Energy transfer from the B6bL6 ligand to the uranyl ion is demonstrated to be relevant in compound 1 with Q abs = 2.0%. The uranyl complex emission reveals a biexponential decay with tau s from 210 to 220 micros and tau L from 490 to 650 micros for compounds 1 and 3, respectively. The liquid-liquid extraction results demonstrate the good extraction capability of B 6bL (6) toward actinides but not for rare earths at room temperature. The extracted species keeps the 1(cation)/1(calixarene) ratio for the UO2 2+, Th 4+, and Eu 3+ ions. A good capacity of B6bL 6 toward Th4+ ions using aqueous phase 2 containing even up to 0.3 M thorium nitrate and an organic phase of 2.47 x 10 (-4) M B6bL6 in chloroform is found. The spectroscopic properties of the isolated uranyl complexes and the extraction studies reveal a uranophilic nature of B6bL6. The molecular modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  12. Circulating Immune Complexes of IgA Bound to Beta 2 Glycoprotein are Strongly Associated with the Occurrence of Acute Thrombotic Events

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Flores, José A.; Serrano, Manuel; Pérez, Dolores; de la Cámara A, Gómez; Lora, David; Morillas, Luis; Ayala, Rosa; Paz-Artal, Estela; Morales, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent thrombosis and/or gestational morbidity in patients with antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). Over recent years, IgA anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI) antibodies (IgA aB2GPI) have reached similar clinical relevance as IgG or IgM isotypes. We recently described the presence of immune complexes of IgA bounded to B2GPI (B2A-CIC) in the blood of patients with antecedents of APS symptomalology. However, B2A-CIC's clinical associations with thrombotic events (TEV) have not been described yet. Methods: A total of 145 individuals who were isolate positive for IgA aB2GPI were studied: 50 controls without any APS antecedent, 22 patients with recent TEV (Group-1), and 73 patients with antecedents of old TEV (Group-2). Results: Mean B2A-CIC levels and prevalence in Group-1 were 29.6 ± 4.1 AU and 81.8%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those of Group-2 and controls (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis, positivity of B2A-CIC was an independent variable for acute thrombosis with a 22.7 odd ratio (confidence interval 5.1 –101.6, 95%, p < 0.001). Levels of B2A-CIC dropped significantly two months after the TEV. B2A-CIC positive patients had lower platelet levels than B2A-CIC-negative patients (p < 0.001) and more prevalence of thrombocytopenia (p < 0.019). Group-1 had no significant differences in C3 and C4 levels compared with other groups. Conclusion: B2A-CIC is strongly associated with acute TEV. Patients who did not develop thrombosis and were B2A-CIC positive had lower platelet levels, which suggest a hypercoagulable state. This mechanism is unrelated to complement-fixing aPL. B2A-CIC could potentially select IgA aB2GPI-positive patients at risk of developing a thrombotic event. PMID:27063992

  13. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of ortho-phosphate ions onto magnetite nanoparticles and determination as its molybdenum blue complex.

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Kiriakos M; Tsogas, George Z; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2012-09-15

    A direct microextraction method, employing dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) of ortho-phosphate (o-PO(4)(3-)) anions onto ferromagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is described in this work for the first time. The method exploits the complexation of phosphate ions on the surface of positively charged magnetite nanoparticles through the formation of an inner sphere complex, which are separated from the bulk aqueous phase with the application of an adscititious magnetic field. Phosphates are eluted with sodium bicarbonate and determined spectrophotometrically as their phosphomolybdenum blue complex. The method is generally free from common interferences, likely to affect the measurement of phosphate, since it alleviates their presence already from the extraction step, thus they are absent during detection. The detection limits are as low as 0.01 μM with very satisfactory precision ranging from 3.68% (intra-day) to 8.5% (inter-day) and accuracy between 91.5% and 104.8%.

  14. Measurement of the forward-backward charge asymmetry and extraction of sin2thetaWeff in pp-->Z/gamma* + X-->e+e- +X events produced at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-11-07

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward charge asymmetry (A FB) in pp-->Z/gamma* + X-->e+e(-) + X events at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. A FB is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the electron-positron pair, and found to be consistent with the standard model prediction. We use the A FB measurement to extract the effective weak mixing angle sin2thetaWeff = 0.2326+/-0.0018(stat)+/-0.0006(syst).

  15. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  16. Influence of the plant extract complex "AdMax" on global gene expression levels in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Antoshechkin, Anatoly; Olalde, Jose; Antoshechkina, Marina; Briuzgin, Vladimir; Platinskiy, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol/water extracts from roots of Leuzea carthamoides Iljin, Rhodiola rosea L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, and from dry berries of Schizandra chinensis Baill. are known as adaptogenic remedies, which enhance physical endurance, counteract fatigue and restore suppressed immunity. Molecular mechanisms underlying effects of the extracts are poorly understood. In this study, a combination of these four extracts called AdMax™ (Nulab, Inc., Florida) was examined for its ability to influence gene expression levels in cultured human fibroblasts in vitro with the help of whole-genome Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. We showed that AdMax treatment results in significant changes (at least 2 fold, p <. 05) in expression of 67 genes that are involved in metabolism of protein, nucleic acids, lipid and carbohydrates, in regulation of transcription, protein and ion transport, response to stimulus and stress. Enhancing expression of the PANK2 gene is of special interest in connection with AdMax ability to enhance physical endurance and counteract fatigue. PANK2 encodes a mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase 2, which provides coenzyme A biosynthesis and thereby plays crucial role in energy metabolism. Partial deficiency of PANK2 gene activity leads to pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. In this connection potential therapeutic use of AdMax in patients with neurodegenerative diseases is discussed.

  17. A complex interplay of genetic and epigenetic events leads to abnormal expression of the DUX4 gene in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gatica, Laura Virginia; Rosa, Alberto Luis

    2016-12-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a prevalent inherited human myopathy, develops following a complex interplay of genetic and epigenetic events. FSHD1, the more frequent genetic form, is associated with: (1) deletion of an integral number of 3.3 Kb (D4Z4) repeated elements at the chromosomal region 4q35, (2) a specific 4q35 subtelomeric haplotype denominated 4qA, and (3) decreased methylation of cytosines at the 4q35-linked D4Z4 units. FSHD2 is most often caused by mutations at the SMCHD1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes Hinge Domain 1) gene, on chromosome 18p11.32. FSHD2 individuals also carry the 4qA haplotype and decreased methylation of D4Z4 cytosines. Each D4Z4 unit contains a copy of the retrotransposed gene DUX4 (double homeobox containing protein 4). DUX4 gene functionality was questioned in the past because of its pseudogene-like structure, its location on repetitive telomeric DNA sequences (i.e. junk DNA), and the elusive nature of both the DUX4 transcript and the encoded protein, DUX4. It is now known that DUX4 is a nuclear-located transcription factor, which is normally expressed in germinal tissues. Aberrant DUX4 expression triggers a deregulation cascade inhibiting muscle differentiation, sensitizing cells to oxidative stress, and inducing muscle atrophy. A unifying pathogenic model for FSHD emerged with the recognition that the FSHD-permissive 4qA haplotype corresponds to a polyadenylation signal that stabilizes the DUX4 mRNA, allowing the toxic protein DUX4 to be expressed. This working hypothesis for FSHD pathogenesis highlights the intrinsic epigenetic nature of the molecular mechanism underlying FSHD as well as the pathogenic pathway connecting FSHD1 and FSHD2. Pharmacological control of either DUX4 gene expression or the activity of the DUX4 protein constitutes current potential rational therapeutic approaches to treat FSHD.

  18. Involuntary switching of attention mediates differences in event-related responses to complex tones between early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choudhury, Naseem; Alvarez, Barbara; Benasich, April A

    2010-11-29

    Most research with bilinguals has used speech stimuli to demonstrate differences in auditory processing abilities. Two main factors have been identified as modulators of such differences: proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language (L2). However, whether the bilingual brain differs from the monolingual in the efficient processing of non-verbal auditory events (known to be critical to the acoustic analysis of the speech stream) remains unclear. In this EEG/ERP study, using the mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late negativity (LN), we examined differences in discrimination, involuntary switching of attention and reorienting of attention between monolinguals and bilinguals as they processed complex tones. Further, we examined the role that age of acquisition plays in modulating such responses. A group of English monolinguals and a group of proficient Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm with four deviant conditions (duration, frequency, silent gap, and frequency modulation). Late bilinguals, who learned English after age 10, exhibited larger MMN and P3a responses than early bilinguals, across all deviant conditions. Significant associations were found between amplitude of the responses and both age of L2 acquisition and years of L2 experience. Individuals who acquired English at later ages and had fewer years of L2 experience had larger MMN, P3a, and LN responses than those who learned it earlier. These findings demonstrate that age of L2 acquisition is an important modulator of auditory responses in bilinguals even when processing non-speech signals. Involuntary attention switching is suggested as the main factor driving these differences.

  19. Determination of traces of Mo in soils and geological materials by solvent extraction of the molybdenum-thiocyanate complex and atomic absorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Owens, C M; Smythe, L E

    1974-06-01

    Comprehensive studies of the extraction of the molybdenum-thiocyanate complex with methyl isobutyl ketone have resulted in an improved method for the determination of traces of molybdenum in soils and geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. The method is applicable in the range 1-500 ppm Mo, with 1-g samples, giving relative standard deviations not exceeding about 8% at a level of 1 ppm. The limit of detection is 0.1 ppm. There are few interferences, and large quantities of iron are without effect.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of ferbam [iron(III) dimethyl dithiocarbamate] in commercial sample and wheat grains after extraction of its bathophenanthroline tetraphenylborate complex into molten naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Malik, A K; Rao, A L

    2000-09-01

    A procedure has been developed for the determination of iron(III) dimethyldithiocarbamate by converting it into a iron(III)-bathophenanthroline-tetraphenylborate complex, which was then extracted into molten naphthalene, and the absorbance was measured at 534 nm against a reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.4-20 microg mL(-)(1) in final solution. The method is sensitive and highly selective and is applied for the determination of ferbam in a commercial sample, in mixtures with various dithiocarbamates (ziram, zineb, maneb, etc.), and from wheat grains.

  1. Determination of vanadium in refractory metals, steel, cast iron, alloys and silicates by extraction of an NBPHA complex from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1970-07-01

    A method for determining up to 0.15% of vanadium in high-purity niobium and tantalum metals, cast iron, steel, non-ferrous alloys and silicates is described. The proposed method is based on the extraction of a red vanadium(V)-N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine complex into chloroform from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium containing excess of ammonium persulphate as oxidant. The molar absorptivity of the complex is 428 l.mole(-1).mm(-5) at 475 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. Interference from chromium(VI) and cerium(IV) is eliminated by reduction with iron(II). Common ions, including large amounts of titanium, zirconium, molybdenum and tungsten, do not interfere.

  2. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    PubMed

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane.

  3. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes.

    PubMed

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  4. The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining their separation properties.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Löfström-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Geist, Andreas; Lundberg, Daniel; Denecke, Melissa; Persson, Ingmar

    2015-11-14

    Separation of trivalent actinoid (An(iii)) and lanthanoid (Ln(iii)) ions is extremely challenging due to their similar ionic radii and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic nitrogen compounds acting as tetradentate chelating ligands to the metal ions in the extraction, have the ability to sufficiently separate An(iii) from Ln(iii). One of these compounds, 6,6'-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzol[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)[2,2]bipyridine, CyMe4-BTBP, has proven to be resistant towards acidic environments and strong radiation from radioactive decomposition. EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(iii) and europium(iii) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. The predominating complexes independent of solvent used are [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) and [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+), respectively, which are present as outer-sphere ion-pairs with nitrate ions in the studied solvents with low relative permittivity. The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(iii) complex compensates the charge density of the complex considerably in comparison when only outer-sphere ion-pairs are formed as for the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex. The stability and solubility of a complex in a solvent with low relative permittivity increase with decreasing charge density. The [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) complex will therefore be increasingly soluble and stabilized over the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex in solvents with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent. The separation of americium(iii) from europium(iii) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. The choice of solvent is therefore a balance of a high separation factor and sufficient solubility of the CyMe4-BTBP

  5. Synthesis and application of hypercrosslinked polymers with weak cation-exchange character for the selective extraction of basic pharmaceuticals from complex environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Bratkowska, D; Marcé, R M; Cormack, P A G; Sherrington, D C; Borrull, F; Fontanals, N

    2010-03-05

    The synthesis of high specific surface area sorbents (HXLPP-WCX) in the form of hypercrosslinked polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions, average particle diameters around 6 microm, and weak cation-exchange (WCX) character, is described. The WCX character arises from carboxylic acid moieties in the polymers, derived from the comonomer methacrylic acid. A novel HXLPP-WCX sorbent with an attractive set of chemical and physical properties was then used in an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol for the selective extraction of a group of basic compounds from complex environmental samples, a priority being the clean separation of the basic compounds of interest from acidic compounds and interferences. The separation power of the new sorbent for basic pharmaceuticals was compared to two commercially available, mixed-mode sorbents, namely Oasis WCX and Strata-X-CW. Under identical experimental conditions, HXLPP-WCX was found to deliver both higher capacity and better selectivity in SPE than either of the two commercially available materials. In an optimised SPE protocol, the HXLPP-WCX sorbent gave rise to quantitative and selective extractions of low microg l(-1) levels of basic pharmaceuticals present in 500 ml of river water and 250 ml of effluent waste water.

  6. Solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of mercury by adsorption of its diphenylthiocarbazone complex on an alumina column.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, N; Gurulakshmanan, G

    2008-02-01

    A simple method has been developed for the preconcentration of mercury based on the adsorption of its diphenylthiocarbazone complex on a neutral alumina column. The influence of acidity, eluting agents, stability of the column, sample volume and interfering ions has been investigated in detail. The adsorbed complex could be eluted using environmentally benign polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) and the concentration of mercury was determined by visible spectrophotometry at a wavelength maximum of 520nm. A detection limit of 4microgL(-1) could be achieved and the developed procedure was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in spiked water samples and city waste incineration ash (CRM176). The preconcentration factor attainable for quantitative recovery (>95%) of mercury(II) was 100 for a 1000mL sample volume.

  7. Fluid dynamics beneath a wet volcano inferred from the complex frequencies of long-period (LP) events: An example from Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia during the 2011 seismic unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil Syahbana, Devy; Caudron, Corentin; Jousset, Philippe; Lecocq, Thomas; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Bernard, Alain; Surono, Surono

    2014-05-01

    We present results of our study aiming at understanding the dynamics of fluids beneath a wet volcano through the analysis of swarms of long-period (LP) events accompanying the 2011 seismic unrest at Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Prior to this unrest, we measured a large amount (100%) of CO2 in the ground at the summit crater, however with very low value of SO2 (less than 10 tons/day). Increase in volcanic activity was also observed from the records of a tiltmeter. A long-term inflation was followed by an abrupt deflation which was concurrent with the swarms of LP events. Hereafter, swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) and local-tectonic (LT) earthquakes started. We focus here on analyzing the LP events with the following manner. First, we estimate the source location of LP events by applying a non-linear hypocenter algorithm including topography. We then study the waveforms and spectral characteristics of LP events and investigate whether or not these events are due to source effect. We compute the complex frequencies (f and Q) for the coda of the LP events using the Sompi method and subsequently, we estimate the physical processes related to the observed temporal variations in the complex frequencies by following the fluid-filled crack model. We divide the swarms of LP events into two periods. The first period occurred between June and July 2011 (48 LP events) while the second period started from September to October 2011 (36 LP events). The dominant frequencies (f) of LP events observed during these periods range between 1.1 and 6.2 Hz while the attenuation factors (Q) are widely scattered between 20 and 400. We estimate the compositions of fluids inside the crack during both periods as either water foam (mixtures of water and H2O gas/steam) or misty gas (mixtures of water droplets and H2O gas/steam). We finally suggest that if an eruption would have taken place following the 2011 unrest, it would have been in phreatic style rather than magmatic style. The

  8. Extracting the Excitonic Hamiltonian of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson Complex Using Three-Dimensional Third-Order Electronic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dugan; Engel, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    We extend traditional two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy into a third Fourier dimension without the use of additional optical interactions. By acquiring a set of 2D spectra evenly spaced in waiting time and dividing the area of the spectra into voxels, we can eliminate population dynamics from the data and transform the waiting time dimension into frequency space. The resultant 3D spectrum resolves quantum beating signals arising from excitonic coherences along the waiting frequency dimension, thereby yielding up to 2n-fold redundancy in the set of frequencies necessary to construct a complete set of n excitonic transition energies. Using this technique, we have obtained, to our knowledge, the first fully experimental set of electronic eigenstates for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna complex, which can be used to improve theoretical simulations of energy transfer within this protein. Whereas the strong diagonal peaks in the 2D rephasing spectrum of the FMO complex obscure all but one of the crosspeaks at 77 K, extending into the third dimension resolves 19 individual peaks. Analysis of the independently collected nonrephasing data provides the same information, thereby verifying the calculated excitonic transition energies. These results enable one to calculate the Hamiltonian of the FMO complex in the site basis by fitting to the experimental linear absorption spectrum. PMID:21504741

  9. Gut complex carbohydrates and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens fed with oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) aqueous extract and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Scocco, P; Forte, C; Franciosini, M P; Mercati, F; Casagrande-Proietti, P; Dall'Aglio, C; Acuti, G; Tardella, F M; Trabalza-Marinucci, M

    2016-08-23

    One hundred and seventy one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly divided into three groups fed with different dietary treatments: basal control diet (C); C supplemented (2 g/kg) with an oregano aqueous extract (O); C supplemented (150 mg/kg) with vitamin E (E). Growth performance was evaluated at 21 (T1) and 42 days (T2). On the same days, morphological, histochemical and microbiological analyses were performed. The O group showed the highest (p < 0.01) body weight at T1, while no differences were observed at T2. Light microscopic observation and conventional histochemistry showed no differences with regard to the two sampling times, whereas significant differences emerged among the treatments. The O treatment generally enhanced goblet cell reactivity more than both the C and E treatments. Coliform count was lower in the ileum tract of the O group at both T1 and T2 (p < 0.05) and increased with age in all groups. Escherichia coli showed the lowest values in the caecum of the O group (p < 0.001) at both sampling times. Enterococci, lactobacilli and staphylococci populations showed no differences among the different experimental groups in the caecum. In the ileum, the O group did not exhibit the sharp decline (p < 0.001) in the lactic acid bacteria population observed in the other two experimental groups. In conclusion, oregano aqueous extract supplementation seemed to elicit the best response among treatments, enabling better growth performance, enhancing both the quantity and quality of glycoconjugates involved in indirect defence actions and significantly reducing both the coliform and E. coli counts.

  10. Extraction and coordination studies of a carbonyl-phosphine oxide scorpionate ligand with uranyl and lanthanide(III) nitrates: structural, spectroscopic and DFT characterization of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Matveeva, Anna G; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Goryunov, Evgenii I; Aysin, Rinat R; Pasechnik, Margarita P; Matveev, Sergey V; Godovikov, Ivan A; Safiulina, Alfiya M; Brel, Valery K

    2016-03-28

    Hybrid scorpionate ligand (OPPh2)2CHCH2C(O)Me (L) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The selected coordination chemistry of L with UO2(NO3)2 and Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = La, Nd, Lu) has been evaluated. The isolated mono- and binuclear complexes, namely, [UO2(NO3)2L] (1), [{UO2(NO3)L}2(μ2-O2)]·EtOH (2), [La(NO3)3L2]·2.33MeCN (3), [Nd(NO3)3L2]·3MeCN (4), [Nd(NO3)2L2]+·(NO3)−·EtOH (5) and [Lu(NO3)3L2] (6) have been characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined for complexes 1-5. Intramolecular intraligand π-stacking interactions between two phenyl fragments of the coordinated ligand(s) were observed in all complexes 1-5. The π-stacking interaction energy was estimated from Bader's AIM theory calculations performed at the DFT level. Solution properties have been examined using IR and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) NMR spectroscopy in CD3CN and CDCl3. Coordination modes of L vary with the coordination polyhedron of the metal and solvent nature showing many coordination modes: P(O),P(O), P(O),P(O),C(O), P(O),C(O), and P(O). Preliminary extraction studies of U(VI) and Ln(III) (Ln = La, Nd, Ho, Yb) from 3.75 M HNO3 into CHCl3 show that scorpionate L extracts f-block elements (especially uranium) better than its unmodified prototype (OPPh2)2CH2.

  11. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  12. Developing Collaboration in Complex Events: A Model for Civil-Military Inter-Organizational Problem-Solving and Decision-Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    2009, p.2). Given the wide adoption of principles and structures associated with the Incident Command System (ICS) in emergency management, it was...problem-solving and decision-making characteristics, distribution of authority, interaction and role patterns, and associated sectors. Table 1...inter-organizational problem-solving and decision-making processes associated with six recent extreme events in Canada, and three international events

  13. The selectivity of diglycolamide (TODGA) and bis-triazine-bipyridine (BTBP) ligands in actinide/lanthanide complexation and solvent extraction separation - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Wodyński, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena

    2015-02-14

    Theoretical calculations (density functional theory with the scalar relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian) have been performed to obtain the energy and Gibbs free energy of formation of cationic 1 : 3 complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) with a tri-O-dentate diglycolamide ligand TEDGA (a model of TODGA extractant), as well as the free energy of their partition between water and an organic diluent. The distribution of electron density over the atoms, bonds, and molecular orbitals was analyzed by means of Mulliken population analysis, the localization procedure of natural bond orbitals, and the Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules. The stabilities of both [M(TEDGA)(3)](3+) complexes are similar to each other. On the other hand, our recent data for a similar pair of cationic Am/Eu complexes with a softer (HSAB) tetra-N-dentate ligand C2-BTBP show that the [Am(C2-BTBP)(2)](3+) complex is significantly more stable in aqueous solution than its Eu counterpart. The decisive factor stabilizing the Am(3+) complexes over their Eu(3+) analogues is the charge transfer from the ligands, somewhat greater on the 6d(Am(III)) than on 5d(Eu(III)) orbitals. The covalency of M-N bonds in the [M(C2-BTBP)(2)](3+) complexes is greater than that of M-O bonds in [M(TEDGA)(3)](3+), but the latter is not negligible, in particular in the bonds with the oxygen atoms of the amide groups in TEDGA. The analysis of charge distribution over the whole molecules of the complexes shows that the TEDGA molecule is not hard as expected, but a relatively soft Lewis base, only slightly harder than BTBP. This conclusion has been confirmed by the calculation of the chemical hardness of the ligands. Moreover, the comparison of the results of bonding analysis with the calculated energies of complex formation in water and in the gas phase allows us to conclude that the population analysis, QTAIM topological parameters, and SOPT stabilization energy, as well as Wiberg and overlap-weighted NAO indices are the

  14. Method for the isolation and identification of mRNAs, microRNAs and protein components of ribonucleoprotein complexes from cell extracts using RIP-Chip.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Garrett M; Gubin, Matthew M; Magee, Joseph D; Techasintana, Patsharaporn; Calaluce, Robert; Atasoy, Ulus

    2012-09-29

    As a result of the development of high-throughput sequencing and efficient microarray analysis, global gene expression analysis has become an easy and readily available form of data collection. In many research and disease models however, steady state levels of target gene mRNA does not always directly correlate with steady state protein levels. Post-transcriptional gene regulation is a likely explanation of the divergence between the two. Driven by the binding of RNA Binding Proteins (RBP), post-transcriptional regulation affects mRNA localization, stability and translation by forming a Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex with target mRNAs. Identifying these unknown de novo mRNA targets from cellular extracts in the RNP complex is pivotal to understanding mechanisms and functions of the RBP and their resulting effect on protein output. This protocol outlines a method termed RNP immunoprecipitation-microarray (RIP-Chip), which allows for the identification of specific mRNAs associated in the ribonucleoprotein complex, under changing experimental conditions, along with options to further optimize an experiment for the individual researcher. With this important experimental tool, researchers can explore the intricate mechanisms associated with post-transcriptional gene regulation as well as other ribonucleoprotein interactions.

  15. Fluid dynamics inside a "wet" volcano inferred from the complex frequencies of long-period (LP) events: An example from Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia, during the 2011 seismic unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahbana, Devy; Caudron, Corentin; Jousset, Philippe; Lecocq, Thomas; Camelbeck, Thierry; Bernard, Alain; Surono, Surono

    2015-04-01

    We present results of our study aimed at understanding the dynamics of fluids inside a "wet" volcano through the analysis of swarms of long-period (LP) events accompanying the 2011 seismic unrest at Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Prior to this unrest, we measured an extremely high percentage (100 %) of CO2 in the ground at the summit crater, however with a very low value of SO2 flux (~6 tons/day). Increase in volcanic activity was also observed from the records of a tiltmeter. A long-term inflation was followed by an abrupt deflation that took place concurrently with the swarms of LP events. Thereafter, swarms of local-tectonic (LT) and volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes started. We focus here on analyzing the LP events in the following manner. First, we estimate the source location of LP events by applying a 3-D non-linear hypocenter localization algorithm which includes topography. We then study the waveforms and spectral characteristics of LP events recorded at different stations and investigate whether or not these characteristics are due to source effects. Subsequently, we compute the oscillation frequencies (f) and the decay characteristics (Q factor) in the complex frequency domain of the coda part of the LP events by using the Sompi method which is based on a homogeneous auto-regressive (AR) equation. The rectangular fluid-filled crack model is used to estimate the physical processes related to the observed temporal variations in the complex frequencies. We divide the swarms of LP events into two intervals. The first interval occurred between June and July 2011 (48 LP events), while the second interval extended from september to October 2011 (36 LP events). The frequencies of LP events observed during these intervals range between 1.1 and 6.2 Hz while the Q factors are widely scattered between 20 and 400. We estimate the compositions of fluids inside the crack during both intervals as either water foam (mixtures of water and H2O gas/steam) or

  16. Fluid dynamics inside a "wet" volcano inferred from the complex frequencies of long-period (LP) events: An example from Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia, during the 2011 seismic unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahbana, Devy Kamil; Caudron, Corentin; Jousset, Philippe; Lecocq, Thomas; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Bernard, Alain; Surono

    2014-06-01

    We present results of our study aimed at understanding the dynamics of fluids inside a "wet" volcano through the analysis of swarms of long-period (LP) events accompanying the 2011 seismic unrest at Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Prior to this unrest, we measured an extremely high percentage (100 %) of CO2 in the ground at the summit crater, however with a very low value of SO2 flux (~ 6 tons/day). Increase in volcanic activity was also observed from the records of a tiltmeter. A long-term inflation was followed by an abrupt deflation that took place concurrently with the swarms of LP events. Thereafter, swarms of local-tectonic (LT) and volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes started. We focus here on analyzing the LP events in the following manner. First, we estimate the source location of LP events by applying a 3-D non-linear hypocenter localization algorithm which includes topography. We then study the waveforms and spectral characteristics of LP events recorded at different stations and investigate whether or not these characteristics are due to source effects. Subsequently, we compute the oscillation frequencies (f) and the decay characteristics (Q factor) in the complex frequency domain of the coda part of the LP events by using the Sompi method which is based on a homogeneous auto-regressive (AR) equation. The rectangular fluid-filled crack model is used to estimate the physical processes related to the observed temporal variations in the complex frequencies. We divide the swarms of LP events into two intervals. The first interval occurred between June and July 2011 (48 LP events), while the second interval extended from September to October 2011 (36 LP events). The frequencies of LP events observed during these intervals range between 1.1 and 6.2 Hz while the Q factors are widely scattered between 20 and 400. We estimate the compositions of fluids inside the crack during both intervals as either water foam (mixtures of water and H2O gas/steam) or

  17. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  18. Fluorescence and Ir studies on the hydration state of lanthanides(III) and curium(III) in the complexes extracted with purified Cyanex301, Cyanex302 and Cyanex272

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko; Zhu, Yongjun; Rao, Linfeng

    2004-03-22

    The hydration number of lanthanides, Ln(III) (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy), and Cm(III) in the extracted complexes with purified Cyanex301, Cyanex302 and Cyanex272 was investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results, in conjunction with the previous results on the Ln(III) and Am(III) complexes, provide insight into the composition of the extracted complexes. No difference has been observed in the hydration number or the composition between the Ln(III) and Cm(III) complexes with Cyanex302 or Cyanex272. The extracted complexes of Ln(III) and Cm(III) with Cyanex302 have the formula, ML(HL2)2 cdot nH2O, where L stands for the anion of Cyanex302 and n = 3 - 5. No water molecules are found in the first coordination shell of Ln(III) or Cm(III) complexes with Cyanex272. In contrast to the extraction with Cyanex302 or Cyanex272, the composition of the Ln(III) complexes is different from that of the Cm(III) complex in the extraction wi th Cyanex301. The Ln(III) complex with Cyanex301 has one or two H2O molecules with a molecular formula of LnL3 cdot 2H2O or HLnL4 cdot H2O, where L stands for the anion of Cyanex301. However, the Cm(III) complex with Cyanex301 does not contain H2O with the molecular formula of HCmL4, in which only the 8 sulfur atoms from Cyanex301 coordinate to Cm(III). The results for Cm(III) agree with the previous data for Am(III) from EXAFS and IR measurements.

  19. Protective activity of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract against chemically induced complex genomic alterations in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Pedersini, Larissa Wölfle; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; da Silva, Juliana; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2013-09-15

    Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, has been widely used in traditional medicine as an herbal medicament for therapeutic purposes. The study aimed at assessing the protective activity of Cynara scolymus leaf extract (LE) against DNA lesions induced by the alkylating agent ethylmethnesulphonate (EMS) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). The ability of C. scolymus L. LE to modulate the mutagenicity of EMS was examined using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay in three antigenotoxic protocols, pre- post- and simultaneous treatments. In the pre-treatment, C. scolymus L. LE reduced the frequencies of MNi and NBUDs induced by EMS in the lower concentration. In contrast, at the highest concentration (5 mg/ml) artichoke enhanced the frequency of MNi, potentiating EMS genotoxicity. In the simultaneous treatment only the induction of MNi was repressed by the exposure of cells to C. scolymus L. LE. No modification in genotoxicity was observed in LE post-treatment. The results obtained in this study suggest that lower concentrations of artichoke prevent chemically induced genomic damage in mammalian cells. In this context, the protective activity of C. scolymus L. could be associated to its constitutive antioxidants compounds.

  20. Semi-automatic methods for landslide features and channel network extraction in a complex mountainous terrain: new opportunities but also challenges from high resolution topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia; Pirotti, Francesco; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, remotely sensed technologies such as airborne and terrestrial laser scanner have improved the detail of analysis providing high-resolution and high-quality topographic data over large areas better than other technologies. A new generation of high resolution (~ 1m) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are now available for different landscapes. These data call for the development of the new generation of methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features, such as channel heads, channel networks, bank geometry, landslide scars, service roads, etc. The most important benefit of a high resolution DTM is the detailed recognition of surface features. It is possible to recognize in detail divergent-convex landforms, associated with the dominance of hillslope processes, and convergent-concave landforms, associated with fluvial-dominated erosion. In this work, we test the performance of new methodologies for objective extraction of geomorphic features related to landsliding and channelized processes in order to provide a semi-automatic method for channel network and landslide features recognition in a complex mountainous terrain. The methodologies are based on the detection of thresholds derived by statistical analysis of variability of surface curvature. We considered a study area located in the eastern Italian Alps where a high-quality set of LiDAR data is available and where channel heads, related channel network, and landslides have been mapped in the field by DGPS. In the analysis we derived 1 m DTMs from bare ground LiDAR points, and we used different smoothing factors for the curvature calculation in order to set the more suitable curvature maps for the recognition of selected features. Our analyses suggest that: i) the scale for curvature calculations has to be a function of the scale of the features to be detected, (ii) rougher curvature maps are not optimal as they do not explore a sufficient range at which features occur, while smoother

  1. Extracting data from the muck: deriving biological insight from complex microbial communities and non-model organisms with next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Kevin V; Haitjema, Charles H; Thompson, Dawn A; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that microbes within microbial communities, for which cultured isolates have not yet been obtained, have an immense, untapped reservoir of enzymes that could help address grand challenges in human health, energy, and sustainability. Despite the obstacles associated with culturing these microbes, recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to explore complex microbial communities in their native context for the first time. Key to extracting meaning from rapidly growing NGS datasets are bioinformatics tools that assemble the sequence data, annotate homologous sequences and interrogate it to reveal regulatory patterns. Complementing this are advances in proteomics that can link NGS data to biological function. This combination of next generation sequencing, proteomics and bioinformatic analysis forms a powerful tool to study non-model microbes, which will transform what we know about these dynamic systems.

  2. Radar observations of a tornado-spawning storm complex in Southeast Brazil and Meso-Eta forecasts of this extreme event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Gerhard; Gomes, Jorge Luis; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2014-05-01

    During the early afternoon of 22 September 2013, severe storms, accompanied by large hail, damaging winds, heavy precipitation and intense lightning activity, devastated a region in the southeast State of São Paulo. Several extremely intense storm cells moved at up to 80 km/h east-southeastwards, ahead of a strong cold front approaching through Paraná, which created extremely unstable conditions that led to deep convection and overshooting towers up to 18 km. At least one of theses cells spawned a tornado when it reached the town of Taquarituba. The tornado traversed the town from south-southwest to north-northeast and was responsible for 63 people injured and two fatalities. Based on the damage reported, it was at least an F3 according to the Fujita scale. The objective of the present study is to characterize this severe thunderstorm event, using different types of data, and to evaluate the forecasts provided by the Meso-Eta model centered over Bauru. The pre-frontal and frontal convective cells were tracked throughout their life-time by IPMet's Doppler radars, which cover the western and central regions of the State São Paulo, as well as northern Paraná State. Radar volume scans, generated every 7,5 min, were processed with the TITAN (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting) Software, yielding the following preliminary results: as the storm complex traversed the Paranapanema River, which forms the border between the two states, the cells intensified drastically and shortly before reaching the town of Taquarituba, that particular cell displayed extremely strong radial shear just above the cloud base (about -20 to +35 m/s), which led to the formation of a deep meso-cyclone, from which the tornado spawned and touched down at around 14:30 LT (LT=UT-3h). Cell properties calculated by TITAN showed a drastic increase of VIL (Vertically Integrated Liquid water content) from 13:52 LT (7,9 kg/m2) to a maximum of 61,8 kg/m2 at 14:15 LT. From 14

  3. Extraction of $\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$ and indirect measurement of $m_w$ from the 9 fb$^{-1}$ full run ii sample of $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ events at cdf

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, A.

    2014-09-19

    We report on the extraction of $\\sin^2\\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff}$ and indirect measurement of the mass of the W boson from the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ events in the $Z$ boson mass region. The data sample collected by the CDF detector corresponds to the full 9 fb$^{-1}$ run II sample. We measure $\\sin^2 \\theta^{\\rm lept}_{\\rm eff} = 0.2315 \\pm 0.0010$,$ \\sin^2 \\theta_W = 0.2233 \\pm 0.0009$ and $M_W ({\\rm indirect}) = 80.365 \\pm 0.047 \\;{\\rm GeV}/c^2$, where each uncertainty includes both statistical and systematic contributions.

  4. Huaier aqueous extract inhibits proliferation and metastasis of tuberous sclerosis complex cell models through downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ailin; Fan, Haitao; Zhao, Yunfang; Zha, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hongbing; Hu, Zhongdong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with formation of benign tumors in many different organs. It has attracted increasing attention from researchers to search for therapeutic drugs for TSC patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become an important source for finding antitumor drugs. Trametes robiniophila Μurr. (Huaier) is a kind of officinal fungi in China and has been applied in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. A large number of clinical applications have revealed that Huaier has good antitumor effect. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Huaier aqueous extract on two TSC cell models, including inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and anti-metastasis. We demonstrated that Huaier aqueous extract inhibited JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, based on the low toxicity and the multi-targets of Huaier treatment, Huaier may be a promising therapeutic drug for TSC.

  5. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  6. Event Perception.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2011-11-01

    Events are central elements of human experience. Formally, they can be individuated in terms of the entities that compose them, the features of those entities, and the relations amongst entities. Psychologically, representations of events capture their spatiotemporal location, the people and objects involved, and the relations between these elements. Here, we present an account of the nature of psychological representations of events and how they are constructed and updated. Event representations are like images in that they are isomorphic to the situations they represent. However, they are like models or language in that they are constructed of components rather than being holistic. Also, they are partial representations that leave out some elements and abstract others. Representations of individual events are informed by schematic knowledge about general classes of events. Event representations are constructed in a process that segments continuous activity into discrete events. The construction of a series of event representations forms a basis for predicting the future, planning for that future, and imagining alternatives.

  7. Event Perception

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Gabriel; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Events are central elements of human experience. Formally, they can be individuated in terms of the entities that compose them, the features of those entities, and the relations amongst entities. Psychologically, representations of events capture their spatiotemporal location, the people and objects involved, and the relations between these elements. Here, we present an account of the nature of psychological representations of events and how they are constructed and updated. Event representations are like images in that they are isomorphic to the situations they represent. However, they are like models or language in that they are constructed of components rather than being holistic. Also, they are partial representations that leave out some elements and abstract others. Representations of individual events are informed by schematic knowledge about general classes of events. Event representations are constructed in a process that segments continuous activity into discrete events. The construction of a series of event representations forms a basis for predicting the future, planning for that future, and imagining alternatives. PMID:23082236

  8. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  9. Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual plant in the Canary Islands: a single recent colonization event or a more complex phylogeographic pattern?

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Francisco Javier; López, Josefa; Álvarez, Juan; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have addressed evolution and phylogeography of plant taxa in oceanic islands, but have primarily focused on endemics because of the assumption that in widespread taxa the absence of morphological differentiation between island and mainland populations is due to recent colonization. In this paper, we studied the phylogeography of Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual species, in an attempt to determine the number and spatiotemporal origins of dispersal events to Canary Islands. Four different regions, ITS and ETS from nDNA and psbA-trnH and psbJ-petA from cpDNA, were used to date divergence events within S. arguta lineages and determine the phylogenetic relationships among populations. A haplotype network was obtained to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Our results support an ancient origin of S. arguta (Miocene) with expansion and genetic differentiation in the Pliocene coinciding with the aridification of northern Africa and the formation of the Mediterranean climate. Indeed, results indicate for Canary Islands three different events of colonization, including two ancient events that probably happened in the Pliocene and have originated the genetically most divergent populations into this species and, interestingly, a recent third event of colonization of Gran Canaria from mainland instead from the closest islands (Tenerife or Fuerteventura). In spite of the great genetic divergence among populations, it has not implied any morphological variation. Our work highlights the importance of nonendemic species to the genetic richness and conservation of island flora and the significance of the island populations of widespread taxa in the global biodiversity.

  10. Biological event composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, biological event extraction has emerged as a key natural language processing task, aiming to address the information overload problem in accessing the molecular biology literature. The BioNLP shared task competitions have contributed to this recent interest considerably. The first competition (BioNLP'09) focused on extracting biological events from Medline abstracts from a narrow domain, while the theme of the latest competition (BioNLP-ST'11) was generalization and a wider range of text types, event types, and subject domains were considered. We view event extraction as a building block in larger discourse interpretation and propose a two-phase, linguistically-grounded, rule-based methodology. In the first phase, a general, underspecified semantic interpretation is composed from syntactic dependency relations in a bottom-up manner. The notion of embedding underpins this phase and it is informed by a trigger dictionary and argument identification rules. Coreference resolution is also performed at this step, allowing extraction of inter-sentential relations. The second phase is concerned with constraining the resulting semantic interpretation by shared task specifications. We evaluated our general methodology on core biological event extraction and speculation/negation tasks in three main tracks of BioNLP-ST'11 (GENIA, EPI, and ID). Results We achieved competitive results in GENIA and ID tracks, while our results in the EPI track leave room for improvement. One notable feature of our system is that its performance across abstracts and articles bodies is stable. Coreference resolution results in minor improvement in system performance. Due to our interest in discourse-level elements, such as speculation/negation and coreference, we provide a more detailed analysis of our system performance in these subtasks. Conclusions The results demonstrate the viability of a robust, linguistically-oriented methodology, which clearly distinguishes

  11. Competitive inhibition of carcinogen-activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes by a standardized complex mixture of PAH extracted from coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, B.; Marston, C.P.; Luch, A.; Dashwood, W.M.; Brooks, E.; Pereira, C.; Doehmer, J.; Baird, W.M.

    2007-03-15

    A complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) extracted from coal tar, the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597, was recently shown to decrease the levels of DNA binding of the 2 strong carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MCF-7. The present study was designed to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in this inhibition process. We examined the effects of SRM 1597 on the metabolic activation of BP and DBP toward DNA-binding derivatives in Chinese hamster cells expressing either human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1B1. The data obtained from biochemical experiments revealed that SRM 1597 competitively inhibited the activity of both human enzymes as analyzed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation assays. While the Michaelis-Menten constant (K-M) was {lt} 0.4 {mu}M in the absence of SRM 1597, this value increased up to 1.12 (CYP1A1) or 4.45 {mu}M (CYP1B1) in the presence of 0.1 {mu} g/ml SRM 1597. Hence the inhibitory effects of the complex mixture on human CYP1B1 were much stronger when compared to human CYP1A1 Taken together, the decreases in PAH-DNA adduct formation on co-treatment with SRM 1597 revealed inhibitory effects on the CYP enzymes that convert carcinogenic PAH into DNA-binding metabolites. The implications for the tumorigenicity of complex environmental PAR mixtures are discussed.

  12. The need for local, high resolution, multi instrument monitoring to study complex effects of space weather disturbances: a study of the events in February 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias; Stankov, Stan; Sapundjiev, Danislav

    A case study of the space weather events that took place in February 2014 will be presented. In particular, we investigate the influence of these events on the local ionospheric and magnetic conditions by using several collocated instruments - ionosonde, magnetometer, cosmic rays detector, and GNSS receivers - in operation at the RMI Geophysical Centre in Dourbes (50.1N, 4.6E). Because all these instruments produce data with a high temporal resolution (5 minutes for the ionosonde data, 1 minute for all other data), we can study the rapid variations in the ionosphere that are due to (traveling) small-scale disturbances associated with this geomagnetic storm. The digital ionosonde (Digisonde-4D) produces high-resolution ionograms and “skymaps” that provide a detailed image of the ionosphere in a region around the digisonde, showing the positions of all points from which the radio wave is reflected back to the sounder. This provides an opportunity to also study the anisotropy and gradients caused by these disturbances. The results of the local measurements are compared with those obtained by the ACE and GOES satellites, with regional TEC maps and global Kp and Dst indices. This comparison illustrates the limitations of global indices and maps, and the usefulness of local, high (temporal and spatial) resolution data in monitoring ionospheric disturbances. Also, it can be seen that different types of events (X-ray flares, influxes of low or high energy protons,...) produce different kinds of disturbances.

  13. The shape of dementia: new measures of morphological complexity in event-related potentials (ERP) and its application to the detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez-Sotelo, J L; Osorio-Forero, A; Medina, J M; de Mejía, F Restrepo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of quantifying the commonly observed disorganization of the stereotyped wave form of the ERP associated with the P300 component in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To that extent, we propose two new measures of complexity which relate the spectral content of the signal with its temporal waveform: the spectral matching coefficient and the spectral matching entropy. We show by means of experiments that those measures effectively measure complexity and are related to the shape in an intuitive way. Those indexes are compared with commonly used measures of complexity when comparing AD patients against age-matched healthy controls. The results indicate that AD ERP signals are, indeed, more complex in the shape than that of controls, and this result is evidenced mainly by means of our new measures which have a better performance compared to similar ones. Finally, we try to explain this increase in complexity in light of the communication through coherence hypothesis framework, relating commonly found changes in the EEG with our own results.

  14. Events during eucaryotic rRNA transcription initiation and elongation: Conversion from the closed to the open promoter complex requires nucleotide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    Chemical footprinting and topological analysis were carried out on the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA transcription initiation factor (TIF) and RNA polymerase I complexes with DNA during transcription initiation and elongation. The results show that the binding of TIF and polymerase to the promoter does not alter the supercoiling of the DNA template and the template does not become sensitive to modification by diethylpyro-carbonate, which can identify melted DNA regions. Thus, in contrast to bacterial RNA polymerase, the eucaryotic RNA polymerase I-promoter complex is in a closed configuration preceding addition of nucleotides in vitro. Initiation and 3'-O-methyl CTP-limited translocation by RNA polymerase I results in separation of the polymerase-TIF footprints, leaving the TIF footprint unaltered. In contrast, initiation and translocation result in a significant change in the conformation of the polymerase-DNA complex, culminating in an unwound DNA region of at least 10 base pairs.

  15. Detectability of Discrete Event Systems with Dynamic Event Observation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shaolong; Lin, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Our previous work considers detectability of discrete event systems which is to determine the current state and subsequent states of a system based on event observation. We assume that event observation is static, that is, if an event is observable, then all its occurrences are observable. However, in practical systems such as sensor networks, event observation often needs to be dynamic, that is, the occurrences of same events may or may not be observable, depending on the state of the system. In this paper, we generalize static event observation into dynamic event observation and consider the detectability problem under dynamic event observation. We define four types of detectabilities. To check detectabilities, we construct the observer with exponential complexity. To reduce computational complexity, we can also construct a detector with polynomial complexity to check strong detectabilities. Dynamic event observation can be implemented in two possible ways: a passive observation and an active observation. For the active observation, we discuss how to find minimal event observation policies that preserve four types of detectabilities respectively. PMID:20161618

  16. Determining the microseismic event source parameters from the surface seismic array data with strong correlated noise and complex focal mechanisms of the source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, A. F.; Varypaev, A. V.; Rozhkov, M. V.; Epiphansky, A. G.; Dricker, I.

    2014-05-01

    The world experience shows that hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is an efficient tool for increasing oil and gas production of low-permeable reservoirs in hydrocarbon fields. The fracking-induced fractures in the rock, which are hydrodynamically connected with the wells, significantly enhance the volumes of extracted hydrocarbons. Controlling the processes of fracture formation and propagation is a vital question in the oil and gas reservoir management. A key means to implement this control is provided by microseismic monitoring of fracking, which makes it possible to promptly reconstruct the geometry of the fractures from the data on seismic waves from the microearthquakes induced by the formation and propagation of fractures.

  17. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  18. Hollow porous ionic liquids composite polymers based solid phase extraction coupled online with high performance liquid chromatography for selective analysis of hydrophilic hydroxybenzoic acids from complex samples.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingping; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Hui; Chen, Yanyi; Gong, Zhicheng; Xiang, Haiyan; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2017-02-10

    Polar and hydrophilic properties of hydroxybenzoic acids usually made them coelute with interferences in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Then selective analysis of them was necessary. Herein, hollow porous ionic liquids composite polymers (PILs) based solid phase extraction (SPE) was firstly fabricated and coupled online with HPLC for selective analysis of hydroxybenzoic acids from complex matrices. Hollow porous PILs were firstly synthesized using Mobil Composition of Matter No. 48 (MCM-48) spheres as sacrificial support, 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (VMIM(+)Cl(-)) as monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. Various parameters affecting synthesis, adsorption and desorption behaviors were investigated and optimized. Steady-state adsorption studies showed the resulting hollow porous PILs exhibited high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption kinetics, and excellent specific adsorption. Subsequently, the application of online SPE system was studied by selective analysis of protocatechuic acid (PCA), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), and vanillic acid (VA) from Pollen Typha angustifolia. The obtained limit of detection (LOD) varied from 0.002 to 0.01μg/mL, the linear range (0.05-5.0μg/mL) was wide with correlation coefficient (R) from 0.9982 to 0.9994, and the average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 82.7 to 102.4%, with column-to-column relative standard deviation (RSD) below 8.1%. The proposed online method showed good accuracy, precision, specificity and convenience, which opened up a universal and efficient route for selective analysis of hydroxybenzoic acids from complex samples.

  19. Efficient Cleavage of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes and Ultrafast Extraction of Lignin Oligomers from Wood Biomass by Microwave-Assisted Treatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongzhuang; Chen, Wenshuai; Xia, Qinqin; Guo, Bingtuo; Wang, Qingwen; Liu, Shouxin; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian; Yu, Haipeng

    2017-01-05

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for the production of biobased value-added fuels, chemicals, and materials, but its effective exploitation by an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly strategy remains a challenge. Herein, a facile approach for efficiently cleaving lignin-carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast fractionation of components from wood by microwave-assisted treatment with deep eutectic solvent is reported. The solvent was composed of sustainable choline chloride and oxalic acid dihydrate, and showed a hydrogen-bond acidity of 1.31. Efficient fractionation of lignocellulose with the solvent was realized by heating at 80 °C under 800 W microwave irradiation for 3 min. The extracted lignin showed a low molecular weight of 913, a low polydispersity of 1.25, and consisted of lignin oligomers with high purity (ca. 96 %), and thus shows potential in downstream production of aromatic chemicals. The other dissolved matter mainly comprised glucose, xylose, and hydroxymethylfurfural. The undissolved material was cellulose with crystal I structure and a crystallinity of approximately 75 %, which can be used for fabricating nanocellulose. Therefore, this work promotes an ultrafast lignin-first biorefinery approach while simultaneously keeping the undissolved cellulose available for further utilization. This work is expected to contribute to improving the economics of overall biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. Evolution of phosphorus complexation and mineralogy during (hydro)thermal treatments of activated and anaerobically digested sludge: Insights from sequential extraction and P K-edge XANES.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rixiang; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2016-09-01

    (Hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge is a promising option that can simultaneously target safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. The speciation of phosphorus (P) in sludge is of great relevance to P reclamation/recycling and soil application of sludge-derived products, thus it is critical to understand the effects of different treatment techniques and conditions on P speciation. This study systematically characterized P speciation (i.e. complexation and mineral forms) in chars derived from pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of municipal sewage sludges. Combined sequential extraction and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis revealed the dependence of P transformation on treatment conditions and metal composition in the feedstocks. Pyrolysis of sludges decreased the relative abundance of phytic acid while increased the abundance of Al-associated P. HTC thoroughly homogenized and exposed P for interaction with various metals/minerals, with the final P speciation closely related to the composition/speciation of metals and their affinities to P. Results from this study revealed the mechanisms of P transformation during (hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludges, and might be applicable to other biosolids. It also provided fundamental knowledge basis for the design and selection of waste management strategies for better P (re)cycling and reclamation.

  1. Gender-Specific Toxicological Effects of Chronic Exposure to Pure Microcystin-LR or Complex Microcystis aeruginosa Extracts on Adult Medaka Fish.

    PubMed

    Le Manach, Séverine; Khenfech, Nour; Huet, Hélène; Qiao, Qin; Duval, Charlotte; Marie, Arul; Bolbach, Gérard; Clodic, Gilles; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-08-02

    Cyanobacterial blooms often occur in freshwater lakes and constitute a potential health risk to human populations, as well as to other organisms. However, their overall and specific implications for the health of aquatic organisms that are chronically and environmentally exposed to cyanobacteria producing hepatotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), together with other bioactive compounds have still not been clearly established and remain difficult to assess. The medaka fish was chosen as the experimental aquatic model for studying the cellular and molecular toxicological effects on the liver after chronic exposures (28 days) to environmentally relevant concentrations of pure MC-LR, complex extracts of MC producing or nonproducing cyanobacterial biomasses, and of a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom. Our results showed a higher susceptibility of females to the different treatments compared to males at both the cellular and the molecular levels. Although hepatocyte lysis increased with MC-containing treatments, lysis always appeared more severe in the liver of females compare to males, and the glycogen cellular reserves also appeared to decrease more in the liver of females compared to those in the males. Proteomic investigations reveal divergent responses between males and females exposed to all treatments, especially for proteins involved in metabolic and homeostasis processes. Our observations also highlighted the dysregulation of proteins involved in oogenesis in female livers. These results suggest that fish populations exposed to cyanobacteria blooms may potentially face several ecotoxicological issues.

  2. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  3. Automated diagnosis of congestive heart failure using dual tree complex wavelet transform and statistical features extracted from 2s of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Adam, Muhammad; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Ru San

    2017-04-01

    Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients. From these DTCWT coefficients, statistical features are extracted and ranked using Bhattacharyya, entropy, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), Wilcoxon, t-test and reliefF methods. Ranked features are subjected to k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and decision tree (DT) classifiers for automated differentiation of CHF and normal ECG signals. We have achieved 99.86% accuracy, 99.78% sensitivity and 99.94% specificity in the identification of CHF affected ECG signals using 45 features. The proposed method is able to detect CHF patients accurately using only 2s of ECG signal length and hence providing sufficient time for the clinicians to further investigate on the severity of CHF and treatments.

  4. EVENT SEGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand something is to break it up into parts. New research indicates that segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful events is a core component of ongoing perception, with consequences for memory and learning. Behavioral and neuroimaging data suggest that event segmentation is automatic and that people spontaneously segment activity into hierarchically organized parts and sub-parts. This segmentation depends on the bottom-up processing of sensory features such as movement, and on the top-down processing of conceptual features such as actors’ goals. How people segment activity affects what they remember later; as a result, those who identify appropriate event boundaries during perception tend to remember more and learn more proficiently. PMID:22468032

  5. Plant metabolomics: resolution and quantification of elusive peaks in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles of complex plant extracts using multi-way decomposition methods.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Amigo, José Manuel; Bak, Søren; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2012-11-30

    Previous studies on LC-MS metabolomic profiling of 127 F2 Barbarea vulgaris plants derived from a cross of parental glabrous (G) and pubescent (P) type, revealed four triterpenoid saponins (hederagenin cellobioside, oleanolic acid cellobioside, epihederagenin cellobioside, and gypsogenin cellobioside) that correlated with resistance of plants against the insect herbivore, Phyllotreta nemorum. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrate the efficiency of the multi-way decomposition method PARAllel FACtor analysis 2 (PARAFAC2) for exploring complex LC-MS data. PARAFAC2 enabled automated resolution and quantification of several elusive chromatographic peaks (e.g. overlapped, elution time shifted and low s/n ratio), which could not be detected and quantified by conventional chromatographic data analysis. Raw LC-MS data of 127 F2 B. vulgaris plants were arranged in a three-way array (elution time point×mass spectra×samples), divided into 17 different chromatographic intervals and each interval were individually modeled by PARAFAC2. Three main outputs of the PARAFAC2 models described: (1) elution time profile, (2) relative abundance, and (3) pure mass spectra of the resolved peaks modeled from each interval of the chromatographic data. PARAFAC2 scores corresponding to relative abundances of the resolved peaks were extracted and further used for correlation and partial least squares (PLS) analysis. A total of 71 PARAFAC2 components (which correspond to actual peaks, baselines and tails of neighboring peaks) were modeled from 17 different chromatographic retention time intervals of the LC-MS data. In addition to four previously known saponins, correlation- and PLS-analysis resolved five unknown saponin-like compounds that were significantly correlated with insect resistance. The method also enabled a good separation between resistant and susceptible F2 plants. PARAFAC2 spectral loadings corresponding to the pure mass spectra of chromatographic peaks matched well

  6. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  7. Timing of Early Proterozoic collisional and extensional events in the granulite-gneiss-charnockite-granite complex, Lake Baikal, USSR: A U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aftalion, M. ); Bibikova, E.V. ); Bowes, D.R. ); Hopwood, A.M. ); Perchuk, L.L. )

    1991-11-01

    In the Sharyzhalgay Complex of the Lake Baikal region in eastern Siberia Early Proterozoic collisional and extensional events were separated by ca. 100 m.yr. The earlier collisional event, associated with the development of granulites and gneisses as the result of high-grade dynamothermal metamorphism, took place close to 1965 {plus minus} 4 Ma. A {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb vs. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb isochron for zircon from five size fractions and a six point Rb-Sr whole-rock errorchron give generally corresponding ages of 1956 {plus minus} 8 and 1963 {plus minus} 163 Ma, respectively. The later extensional event, associated with charnockitization due to the uprise of fluids and heat in a regime corresponding to the middle to upper crustal levels of a Basin and Range-type province, was initiated in the 1880-1860 Ma period. The event was continued with magmatic emplacement of granitic masses into the deep levels of caldera-like structures, possibly during the upper time range of lower concordia intercept ages of 1817 +30/{minus}32 and 1797 +40/{minus}44 Ma for two distinctly different zircon populations in a pyroxene-bearing granodiorite interpreted as an evolved (and contaminated) product of the mantle-derived magma that was the source of CO{sub 2} involved in the charnockitization. Upper intercept ages of 2784 +48/{minus}45 and 2775 +61/{minus}55 Ma indicate late Archean crust at depth as the source region of the incorporated zircon. T{sub DM} ages from Sm-Nd isotopic data show that the protolith of the lithologically layered supracrustal assemblage, subsequently polyphase deformed and polymetamorphosed in Early Proterozoic times, was also formed in Early Proterozoic (not Archean) times.

  8. Evaluation of WRF-Predicted Near-Hub-Height Winds and Ramp Events over a Pacific Northwest Site with Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Fast, Jerome D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Stoelinga, Mark; Finley, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    The WRF model version 3.3 is used to simulate near hub-height winds and power ramps utilizing three commonly used planetary boundary-layer (PBL) schemes: Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), University of Washington (UW), and Yonsei University (YSU). The predicted winds have small mean biases compared with observations. Power ramps and step changes (changes within an hour) consistently show that the UW scheme performed better in predicting up ramps under stable conditions with higher prediction accuracy and capture rates. Both YSU and UW scheme show good performance predicting up- and down- ramps under unstable conditions with YSU being slightly better for ramp durations longer than an hour. MYJ is the most successful simulating down-ramps under stable conditions. The high wind speed and large shear associated with low-level jets are frequently associated with power ramps, and the biases in predicted low-level jet explain some of the shown differences in ramp predictions among different PBL schemes. Low-level jets were observed as low as ~200 m in altitude over the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES) site, located in an area of complex terrain. The shear, low-level peak wind speeds, as well as the height of maximum wind speed are not well predicted. Model simulations with 3 PBL schemes show the largest variability among them under stable conditions.

  9. Rare Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    terrorists are likely to acquire and use WMDs over the next ten years. • Provide means to target areas, entities and persons facilitating adver - sary WMD...complicated and unpredictable to begin with, but also that human adver - saries (unlike physical disasters) will react and adapt to our planning to try to make...virulent vaccine strain (Keim et al., 2001). The latter might not be regarded as a bioterrorism event, even though it caused seven deaths and incited

  10. A unified approach of catastrophic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, S.; Kapiris, P.; Karamanos, K.; Eftaxias, K.

    2004-10-01

    Although there is an accumulated charge of theoretical, computational, and numerical work, like catastrophe theory, bifurcation theory, stochastic and deterministic chaos theory, there is an important feeling that these matters do not completely cover the physics of real catastrophic events. Recent studies have suggested that a large variety of complex processes, including earthquakes, heartbeats, and neuronal dynamics, exhibits statistical similarities. Here we are studying in terms of complexity and non linear techniques whether isomorphic signatures emerged indicating the transition from the normal state to the both geological and biological shocks. In the last 15 years, the study of Complex Systems has emerged as a recognized field in its own right, although a good definition of what a complex system is, actually is eluded. A basic reason for our interest in complexity is the striking similarity in behaviour close to irreversible phase transitions among systems that are otherwise quite different in nature. It is by now recognized that the pre-seismic electromagnetic time-series contain valuable information about the earthquake preparation process, which cannot be extracted without the use of important computational power, probably in connection with computer Algebra techniques. This paper presents an analysis, the aim of which is to indicate the approach of the global instability in the pre-focal area. Non-linear characteristics are studied by applying two techniques, namely the Correlation Dimension Estimation and the Approximate Entropy. These two non-linear techniques present coherent conclusions, and could cooperate with an independent fractal spectral analysis to provide a detection concerning the emergence of the nucleation phase of the impending catastrophic event. In the context of similar mathematical background, it would be interesting to augment this description of pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies in order to cover biological crises, namely

  11. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  12. DNA damage, redox changes, and associated stress-inducible signaling events underlying the apoptosis and cytotoxicity in murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S by methanol-extracted Stachybotrys chartarum toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huiyan; Yadav, Jagjit S. . E-mail: Jagjit.Yadav@uc.edu

    2006-08-01

    Spore-extracted toxins of the indoor mold Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) caused cytotoxicity (release of lactate dehydrogenase), inhibition of cell proliferation, and cell death in murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell death, confirmed based on morphological changes, DNA ladder formation, and caspase 3/7 activation, was detectable as early as at 3 h during treatment with a toxin concentration of 1 spore equivalent/macrophage and was preceded by DNA damage beginning at 15 min, as evidenced by DNA comet formation in single cell gel electrophoresis assay. The apoptotic dose of SC toxins did not induce detectable nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha}) but showed exacerbated cytotoxicity in presence of a non-apoptotic dose of the known pro-inflammatory agent LPS (10 ng/ml). Intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level showed a significant decrease beginning at 9 h of the toxin treatment whereas oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed a corresponding significant increase, indicating a delayed onset of oxidative stress in the apoptosis process. The toxin-treated macrophages accumulated p53, an indicator of DNA damage response, and showed activation of the stress-inducible MAP kinases, JNK, and p38, in a time-dependent manner. Chemical blocking of either p38 or p53 inhibited in part the SC toxin-induced apoptosis whereas blocking of JNK did not show any such effect. This study constitutes the first report on induction of DNA damage and associated p53 activation by SC toxins, and demonstrates the involvement of p38- and p53-mediated signaling events in SC toxin-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

  13. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    The Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) is a widespread species found in North and South America and the Galápagos. Its 12 recognized subspecies vary in degree of geographic isolation, phenotypic distinctness, and migratory status. Some authors suggest that Galápagos subspecies nanus and dubius constitute one or more separate species. Observational reports of distinct differences in song also suggest separate species status for the austral migrant subspecies rubinus. To evaluate geographical patterns of diversification and taxonomic limits within this species complex, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic analysis encompassing 10 subspecies and three outgroup taxa using mitochondrial (ND2, Cyt b) and nuclear loci (ODC introns 6 through 7, FGB intron 5). We used samples of preserved tissues from museum collections as well as toe pad samples from museum skins. Galápagos and continental clades were recovered as sister groups, with initial divergence at ∼1mya. Within the continental clade, North and South American populations were sister groups. Three geographically distinct clades were recovered within South America. We detected no genetic differences between two broadly intergrading North American subspecies, mexicanus and flammeus, suggesting they should not be recognized as separate taxa. Four western South American subspecies were also indistinguishable on the basis of loci that we sampled, but occur in a region with patchy habitat, and may represent recently isolated populations. The austral migrant subspecies, rubinus, comprised a monophyletic mitochondrial clade and had many unique nuclear DNA alleles. In combination with its distinct song, exclusive song recognition behavior, different phenology, and an isolated breeding range, our data suggests that this taxon represents a separate species from other continental populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, morphology, and behavior suggest that Galápagos forms should be elevated to two

  14. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  15. Extractant Design by Covalency

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, Andrew James; Olson, Angela Christine; Kozimor, Stosh Anthony; Cross, Justin Neil; Batista, Enrique Ricardo; Macor, Joe; Peterman, Dean R.; Grimes, Travis

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  16. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(2), February 29, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $ 1.

  17. BelSmile: a biomedical semantic role labeling approach for extracting biological expression language from text

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Po-Ting; Lo, Yu-Yan; Huang, Ming-Siang; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the most popular languages to represent the causal and correlative relationships among biological events. Automatically extracting and representing biomedical events using BEL can help biologists quickly survey and understand relevant literature. Recently, many researchers have shown interest in biomedical event extraction. However, the task is still a challenge for current systems because of the complexity of integrating different information extraction tasks such as named entity recognition (NER), named entity normalization (NEN) and relation extraction into a single system. In this study, we introduce our BelSmile system, which uses a semantic-role-labeling (SRL)-based approach to extract the NEs and events for BEL statements. BelSmile combines our previous NER, NEN and SRL systems. We evaluate BelSmile using the BioCreative V BEL task dataset. Our system achieved an F-score of 27.8%, ∼7% higher than the top BioCreative V system. The three main contributions of this study are (i) an effective pipeline approach to extract BEL statements, and (ii) a syntactic-based labeler to extract subject–verb–object tuples. We also implement a web-based version of BelSmile (iii) that is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.ncu.edu.tw/belsmile. PMID:27173520

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  20. Sound-event classification using pseudo-color CENTRIST feature and classifier selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xudong; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-07-01

    Sound-event classification often extracts features from an image-like spectrogram. Recent approaches such as spectrogram image feature and subband-power-distribution image feature extract local statistics such as mean and variance from the spectrogram. We argue that such simple image statistics cannot well capture complex texture details of the spectrogram. Thus, we propose to extract pseudo-color CENTRIST features from the logarithm of Gammatone-like spectrogram. To well classify the sound event under the unknown noise condition, we propose a classifier-selection scheme, which automatically selects the most suitable classifier. The proposed approach is compared with the state of the art on the RWCP database, and demonstrates a superior performance.

  1. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  2. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  3. Event-centric media management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherp, Ansgar; Agaram, Srikanth; Jain, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    The management of the vast amount of media assets captured at every day events such as meetings, birthday parties, vacation, and conferences has become an increasingly challenging problem. Today, most media management applications are media-centric. This means, they put the captured media assets into the center of the management. However, in recent years it has been proposed that events are a much better abstraction of human experience and thus provide a more appropriate means for managing media assets. Consequently, approaches that include events into their media management solution have been explored. However, they typically consider events only as some more metadata that can be extracted from the media assets. In addition, today's applications and approaches concentrate on particular problems such as event detection, tagging, sharing, classification, or clustering and are often focused on a single media type. In this paper, we argue for the benefits of an event-centric media management (EMMa) approach that looks at the problem of media management holistically. Based on a generic event model, we specify a media event model for the EMMa approach. The single phases and processes of the EMMa approach are defined in a general process chain for an event-centric media management, the EMMa cycle. This cycle follows the event concept throughout all phases and processes of the chain and puts the concept of events in the center of the media management. Based on the media event model and EMMa cycle, we design a component-based architecture for the EMMa approach and conduct an implementation of the approach.

  4. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13 (6), June 30, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-005 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $ 1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid. SEAN Bulletin is available on Kosmos. Type CHECK SEAN on Part A of Kosmos.

  5. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 25(10), October 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-010 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $ 1 . Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid. SEAN Bulletin is available on Kosmos. Type CHECK SEAN on Part A of Kosmos

  6. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  7. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13 (7), July 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-007 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid. SEAN Bulletin is available on Kosmos. Type CHECK SEAN on Part A of Kosmos.

  8. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13 (1), January 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-001 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $ 1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  9. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(9), September 30, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-013 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid. SEAN Bulletin is available on Kosmos. Type CHECK SEAN on Part A of Kosmos.

  10. Geophysical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13 (5), May 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-004 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $ 1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid. SEAN Bulletin is available on Kosmos. Type CHECK SEAN on Part A of Kosmos.

  11. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non

  12. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption extraction and chromatographic separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B on weakly basic anionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Sagdiev, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of anionic complexes of erbium with Trilon B on D-403 anionite is studied at ionic strengths of 1 and 2 mol/kg (NaNO3) and temperatures of 298 and 343 K. The values of the stability constants of complex ions of REE with Trilon B and the Gibbs energies of complexation are calculated. The values of the Gibbs energy and the enthalpy and entropy of ion exchange are determined. Using the obtained thermo-dynamic and sorption characteristics, the possible separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B is demonstrated via frontal ion-exchange chromatography. A series of sorption capacities of anionic complexes of cerium, yttrium, and erbium is presented using the values of the Gibbs energy of ion exchange.

  13. Detection of goal events in soccer videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  14. Detection of goal events in soccer videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  15. CFD simulation and experimental investigation of the copper solvent extraction in a pilot plant pulsed packed column in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaie, Maryam; Sarrafi, Amir; Hashemipour, Hasan; Baghaie, Ali; Molaeinasab, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Present work deals with the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for investigate the extraction of copper from leach solution with the Lix84-I. The model is based on Eulerian-Eulerian two phase equations in conjunction with the realizable k-ɛ model for turbulence. Population balance modeling (PBM) is used to describe the dynamics of the time and space variation of droplet sizes in the column. The PBM equation is solved using the class method. The mass transfer is the important parameters which can improve the performance of pulsed column and changes widely with the variation in the droplet number density. Valid empirical correlations were implemented to the CFD model for mass transfer coefficients by user defined functions. To validate the model, the results of CFD model and experimental measurements were compared and there was a good agreement between them. The effects of flow rates and intensity of pulsation on the yield of copper extraction and entrainment of the organic phase were studied. The results shown that increasing the phase ratio (the flow rate of organic phase/aqueous phase) from 0.5 to 1.75, caused yield of copper extraction from leach solution increased from 31 to 91%. The organic entrainment increased with increasing the pulse intensity and phase flow rates. Additionally, the results show that the performance of the pulsed packed column for copper extraction is reasonable.

  16. Determination of aluminium in iron, steel and ferrous and non-ferrous alloys by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after a mercury-cathode separation and extraction of the aluminium-acetylacetone complex.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1981-07-01

    A method for determining 0.0005% or more of total aluminium in high- and low-alloy steels, iron and ferrovanadium is described. Iron, chromium and other matrix elements are separated from aluminium by electrolysis with a mercury cathode and aluminium is separated from tungsten, titanium, vanadium and phosphate by chloroform extraction of its acetylacetone complex at pH 6.5 from an ammonium acetate-hydrogen peroxide medium. The extract is evaporated to dryness and organic material is destroyed with nitric and perchloric acids. Aluminium is determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, at 309.3 nm, in a 5% v/v perchloric acid medium containing 1000 mug of sodium per ml. Acid-soluble and acid-insoluble aluminium can also be determined. The method is also applicable to copper- and nickel-base alloys. Results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained spectrophotometrically with Pyrocatechol Violet, after the separations described above followed by the separation of the residual co-extracted iron and copper by a combined ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate-cupferron-chloroform extraction from 10% v/v hydrochloric acid medium.

  17. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  18. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan.

  19. Extraction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and carbonic anhydrase from stroma-free red blood cell hemolysate for the preparation of the nanobiotechnological complex of polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Gynn, M; Chang, T M S

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel method to simultaneously extract superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) from the same sample of red blood cells (RBCs). This avoids the need to use expensive commercial enzymes, thus enabling a cost-effective process for large-scale production of a nanobiotechnological polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA complex, with enhancement of all three red blood cell functions. An optimal concentration of phosphate buffer for ethanol-chloroform treatment results in good recovery of CAT, SOD, and CA after extraction. Different concentrations of the enzymes can be used to enhance the activity of polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA to 2, 4, or 6 times that of RBC.

  20. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  1. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  2. Detecting modification of biomedical events using a deep parsing approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This work describes a system for identifying event mentions in bio-molecular research abstracts that are either speculative (e.g. analysis of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, where it is not specified whether phosphorylation did or did not occur) or negated (e.g. inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, where phosphorylation did not occur). The data comes from a standard dataset created for the BioNLP 2009 Shared Task. The system uses a machine-learning approach, where the features used for classification are a combination of shallow features derived from the words of the sentences and more complex features based on the semantic outputs produced by a deep parser. Method To detect event modification, we use a Maximum Entropy learner with features extracted from the data relative to the trigger words of the events. The shallow features are bag-of-words features based on a small sliding context window of 3-4 tokens on either side of the trigger word. The deep parser features are derived from parses produced by the English Resource Grammar and the RASP parser. The outputs of these parsers are converted into the Minimal Recursion Semantics formalism, and from this, we extract features motivated by linguistics and the data itself. All of these features are combined to create training or test data for the machine learning algorithm. Results Over the test data, our methods produce approximately a 4% absolute increase in F-score for detection of event modification compared to a baseline based only on the shallow bag-of-words features. Conclusions Our results indicate that grammar-based techniques can enhance the accuracy of methods for detecting event modification. PMID:22595089

  3. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.

  4. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; ...

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity ismore » inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.« less

  5. High performance solid-phase extraction cleanup method coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Jin, Jing; Tan, Dongqin; Xu, Jiazhi; Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping

    2016-05-27

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents. The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively.

  6. Implications of latest Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian paleontological and U-Pb SHRIMP data from the Tecomate Formation to re-dating tectonothermal events in the Acatlán Complex, Southern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Sandberg, Charles A.; Miller, B.V.; Sanchez-Zavala, J. L.; Nance, R.D.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2004-01-01

    Limestones in the highly deformed Tecomate Formation, uppermost unit of the Acatla??n Complex, are latest Pennsylvanian-earliest Middle Permian in age rather than Devonian, the latter based on less diagnostic fossils. Conodont collections from two marble horizons now constrain its age to range from latest Pennsylvanian to latest Early Permian or early Middle Permian. The older collection contains Gondolella sp., Neostreptognathodus sp., and Streptognathodus sp., suggesting an oldest age limit close to the Pennsylvanian-Permian time boundary. The other collection contains Sweet-ognathus subsymmetricus, a short-lived species ranging only from Kungurian (latest Leonardian) to Wordian (earliest Guadelupian: 272 ?? 4 to 264 ?? 2 Ma). A fusilinid, Parafusulina c.f. P. antimonioensis Dunbar, in a third Tecomate marble horizon is probably Wordian (early Guadelupian, early Middle Permian). Furthermore, granite pebbles in a Tecomate conglomerate have yielded ???320-264 Ma U-Pb SHRIMP ages probably derived from the ???288 Ma, arc-related Totoltepec pluton. Collectively, these data suggest a correlation with two nearby units: (1) the Missourian-Leonardian carbonate horizons separated by a Wolfcampian(?) conglomerate in the upper part of the less deformed San Salvador Patlanoaya Formation; and (2) the clastic, Westphalian-Leonardian Matzitzi Formation. This requires that deformation in the Tecomate Formation be of Early-Middle Permian age rather than Devonian. These three formations are re-interpreted as periarc deposits with deformation related to oblique subduction. The revised dating of the Tecomate Formation is consistent with new data, which indicates that the unconformity between the Tecomate and the Piaxtla Group is mid-Carboniferous and corresponds to a tectonothermal event. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  8. Mueller matrix decomposition for extraction of individual polarization parameters from complex turbid media exhibiting multiple scattering, optical activity, and linear birefringence.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wood, Michael F G; Vitkin, I Alex

    2008-01-01

    Linear birefringence and optical activity are two common optical polarization effects present in biological tissue, and determination of these properties has useful biomedical applications. However, measurement and unique interpretation of these parameters in tissue is hindered by strong multiple scattering effects and by the fact that these and other polarization effects are often present simultaneously. We have investigated the efficacy of a Mueller matrix decomposition methodology to extract the individual intrinsic polarimetry characteristics (linear retardance delta and optical rotation psi, in particular) from a multiply scattering medium exhibiting simultaneous linear birefringence and optical activity. In the experimental studies, a photoelastic modulation polarimeter was used to record Mueller matrices from polyacrylamide phantoms having strain-induced birefringence, sucrose-induced optical activity, and polystyrene microspheres-induced scattering. Decomposition of the Mueller matrices recorded in the forward detection geometry from these phantoms with controlled polarization properties yielded reasonable estimates for delta and psi parameters. The confounding effects of scattering, the propagation path of multiple scattered photons, and detection geometry on the estimated values for delta and psi were further investigated using polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that in the forward detection geometry, the effects of scattering induced linear retardance and diattenuation are weak, and the decomposition of the Mueller matrix can retrieve the intrinsic values for delta and psi with reasonable accuracy. The ability of this approach to extract the individual intrinsic polarimetry characteristics should prove valuable in diagnostic photomedicine, for example, in quantifying the small optical rotations due to the presence of glucose in tissue and for monitoring changes in tissue birefringence as a signature of tissue abnormality.

  9. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  10. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization.…

  11. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  12. Developing a Disease Outbreak Event Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Ai; Chanlekha, Hutchatai; Collier, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a growth in work on the use of information extraction technologies for tracking disease outbreaks from online news texts, yet publicly available evaluation standards (and associated resources) for this new area of research have been noticeably lacking. Objective This study seeks to create a “gold standard” data set against which to test how accurately disease outbreak information extraction systems can identify the semantics of disease outbreak events. Additionally, we hope that the provision of an annotation scheme (and associated corpus) to the community will encourage open evaluation in this new and growing application area. Methods We developed an annotation scheme for identifying infectious disease outbreak events in news texts. An event─in the context of our annotation scheme─consists minimally of geographical (eg, country and province) and disease name information. However, the scheme also allows for the rich encoding of other domain salient concepts (eg, international travel, species, and food contamination). Results The work resulted in a 200-document corpus of event-annotated disease outbreak reports that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of event detection algorithms (in this case, for the BioCaster biosurveillance online news information extraction system). In the 200 documents, 394 distinct events were identified (mean 1.97 events per document, range 0-25 events per document). We also provide a download script and graphical user interface (GUI)-based event browsing software to facilitate corpus exploration. Conclusion In summary, we present an annotation scheme and corpus that can be used in the evaluation of disease outbreak event extraction algorithms. The annotation scheme and corpus were designed both with the particular evaluation requirements of the BioCaster system in mind as well as the wider need for further evaluation resources in this growing research area. PMID:20876049

  13. Temporal dynamics of contingency extraction from tonal and verbal auditory sequences.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-09-01

    Consecutive sound events are often to some degree predictive of each other. Here we investigated the brain's capacity to detect contingencies between consecutive sounds by means of electroencephalography (EEG) during passive listening. Contingencies were embedded either within tonal or verbal stimuli. Contingency extraction was measured indirectly via the elicitation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP) by contingency violations. MMN results indicate that structurally identical forms of predictability can be extracted from both tonal and verbal stimuli. We also found similar generators to underlie the processing of contingency violations across stimulus types, as well as similar performance in an active-listening follow-up test. However, the process of passive contingency extraction was considerably slower (twice as many rule exemplars were needed) for verbal than for tonal stimuli These results suggest caution in transferring findings on complex predictive regularity processing obtained with tonal stimuli directly to the speech domain.

  14. Remodeling of ribosomal genes in somatic cells by Xenopus egg extract

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrup, Olga; Hyttel, Poul; Klaerke, Dan A.; Collas, Philippe

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} Xenopus egg extract remodels nuclei and alter cell growth characteristics. {yields} Ribosomal genes are reprogrammed within 6 h after extract exposure. {yields} rDNA reprogramming involves promoter targeting of SNF2H remodeling complex. {yields} Xenopus egg extract does not initiate stress-related response in somatic cells. {yields} Aza-cytidine elicits a stress-induced response in reprogrammed cells. -- Abstract: Extracts from Xenopus eggs can reprogram gene expression in somatic nuclei, however little is known about the earliest processes associated with the switch in the transcriptional program. We show here that an early reprogramming event is the remodeling of ribosomal chromatin and gene expression. This occurs within hours of extract treatment and is distinct from a stress response. Egg extract elicits remodeling of the nuclear envelope, chromatin and nucleolus. Nucleolar remodeling involves a rapid and stable decrease in ribosomal gene transcription, and promoter targeting of the nucleolar remodeling complex component SNF2H without affecting occupancy of the transcription factor UBF and the stress silencers SUV39H1 and SIRT1. During this process, nucleolar localization of UBF and SIRT1 is not altered. On contrary, azacytidine pre-treatment has an adverse effect on rDNA remodeling induced by extract and elicits a stress-type nuclear response. Thus, an early event of Xenopus egg extract-mediated nuclear reprogramming is the remodeling of ribosomal genes involving nucleolar remodeling complex. Condition-specific and rapid silencing of ribosomal genes may serve as a sensitive marker for evaluation of various reprogramming methods.

  15. A Comprehensive Study of the Use of Cu(I)/4,4'-Dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline Complexes to Measure the Total Reducing Capacity: Application in Herbal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Manoel, Hariane R; Moya, Horacio D

    2015-12-14

    A method for the determination of total reducing capacity (TRC) based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by antioxidants in a buffered solution (pH 7.0) containing 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline acid (BCA) was developed. Absorbance values at 558 nm characteristic of the Cu(I)/BCA complexes formed were used to determine the TRC of aqueous extracts of twelve Brazilian plants. The TRC values obtained with the suggested method correlated well with values obtained using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (r² = 0.959). They were also compared with the total polyphenol content (using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent) and the good agreement (r² = 0.919) indicates that the polyphenols should be responsible for this reducing capacity. The method proposed here (and successfully applied in plant extracts) can be used to measure the TRC of aqueous samples derived from other plants (e.g., teas, juices, beers and wines) and even in biological samples (e.g., serum, urine and follicular fluid). To achieve a structure-activity relationship of the proposed reaction, the reduction capability of 25 standard antioxidants (phenolic derivatives, flavonoids, stilbenoids, vitamins, etc.) was individually evaluated and the apparent molar absorptivity values (at 558 nm) obtained were compared and discussed.

  16. Adaptive sparse signal processing for discrimination of satellite-based radiofrequency (RF) recordings of lightning events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Smith, David A.

    2015-05-01

    For over two decades, Los Alamos National Laboratory programs have included an active research effort utilizing satellite observations of terrestrial lightning to learn more about the Earth's RF background. The FORTE satellite provided a rich satellite lightning database, which has been previously used for some event classification, and remains relevant for advancing lightning research. Lightning impulses are dispersed as they travel through the ionosphere, appearing as nonlinear chirps at the receiver on orbit. The data processing challenge arises from the combined complexity of the lightning source model, the propagation medium nonlinearities, and the sensor artifacts. We continue to develop modern event classification capability on the FORTE database using adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing techniques. The focus of our work is improved feature extraction using sparse representations in overcomplete analytical dictionaries. We explore two possible techniques for detecting lightning events, and showcase the algorithms on few representative data examples. We present preliminary results of our work and discuss future development.

  17. Fermented wheat germ extract induces apoptosis and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in tumor T and B cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Hidvégi, Maté; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ion, Gabriela; Demydenko, Dmytro; Tömösközi-Farkas, Rita; Vizler, Csaba; Telekes, András; Resetar, Akos; Monostori, Eva

    2002-03-01

    The fermented wheat germ extract (code name: MSC, trade name: Avemar), with standardized benzoquinone content has been shown to inhibit tumor propagation and metastases formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the anti-tumor effect of MSC. Therefore, we have designed in vitro model experiments using T and B tumor lymphocytic cell lines. Tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were examined using immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and cytofluorimetry by means of Ca2+ sensitive fluorescence dyes, Fluo-3AM and FuraRed-AM, respectively. Apoptosis was measured with cytofluorimetry by staining the DNA with propidium iodide and detecting the cell population. The level of the cell surface MHC class I molecules was analysed with indirect immunofluorescence on cytofluorimeter using a monoclonal antibody to the non-polymorphic region of the human MHC class I. MSC stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the influx of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Prominent apoptosis of 20-40% was detected upon 24 h of MSC treatment of the cell lines. As a result of the MSC treatment, the amount of the cell surface MHC class I proteins was downregulated by 70-85% compared to the non-stimulated control. MSC did not induce a similar degree of apoptosis in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inhibition of the cellular tyrosine phosphatase activity or Ca2+ influx resulted in the opposite effect increasing or diminishing the Avemar induced apoptosis as well as the MHC class I downregulation, respectively. A benzoquinone component (2,6-dimethoxi-p-benzoquinone) in MSC induced similar apoptosis and downregulation of the MHC class I molecules in the tumor T and B cell lines to that of MSC. These results suggest that MSC acts on lymphoid tumor cells by reducing MHC class I expression

  18. Using complex independent component analysis to extract weak returns in MARSIS radar data and their possible relation to a subsurface reflector on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Nielsen, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) radar signals returned from the surface and subsurface of the northern lowlands of Mars are mostly characterized as a prominent surface pulse followed by a tail of weak signals. We applied the method of blind source separation (BSS) using complex independent component analysis (CICA) to examine if there is any subsurface information hidden in the apparent clutter and noise in the tails. In this paper we describe the application of the method with a case study in a selected region in the western part of Utopia Planitia (88°E-91°E, 45°N-51°N) where an unnamed large (˜160 km in diameter), semifilled crater is located. Applying CICA, we find a particularly significant signal from one of the blind sources. This signal is interpreted as representing a subsurface reflection interface, based on analysis of characteristics of the separated sources and their relation to surface roughness inside and outside the crater. A numerical simulation is conducted to examine the conditions under which the method tends to be effective. We conclude that CICA is helpful for recognizing subsurface signals above the noise level but obscured by clutter and thermal noise, provided the surface is relatively smooth.

  19. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  20. An event database for rotational seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Celine; Hable, Sarah; Chow, Bryant; Krischer, Lion; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    The ring laser sensor (G-ring) located at Wettzell, Germany, routinely observes earthquake-induced rotational ground motions around a vertical axis since its installation in 2003. Here we present results from a recently installed event database which is the first that will provide ring laser event data in an open access format. Based on the GCMT event catalogue and some search criteria, seismograms from the ring laser and the collocated broadband seismometer are extracted and processed. The ObsPy-based processing scheme generates plots showing waveform fits between rotation rate and transverse acceleration and extracts characteristic wavefield parameters such as peak ground motions, noise levels, Love wave phase velocities and waveform coherence. For each event, these parameters are stored in a text file (json dictionary) which is easily readable and accessible on the website. The database contains >10000 events starting in 2007 (Mw>4.5). It is updated daily and therefore provides recent events at a time lag of max. 24 hours. The user interface allows to filter events for epoch, magnitude, and source area, whereupon the events are displayed on a zoomable world map. We investigate how well the rotational motions are compatible with the expectations from the surface wave magnitude scale. In addition, the website offers some python source code examples for downloading and processing the openly accessible waveforms.

  1. Learning to Describe Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith Felson

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses language structures of three hierarchical levels of event descriptions: (1) single-action events (semantic relations, aspectual meaning and lexical verbs or verb phrases, (2) event relations (tense markers, conjunctions, adverbs, perfect tense); (3) event schemas (lexical terms and phrases marking beginnings and endings). A…

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  3. A Unified Framework for Event Summarization and Rare Event Detection from Multiple Views.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junseok; Lee, Kyoung Mu

    2015-09-01

    A novel approach for event summarization and rare event detection is proposed. Unlike conventional methods that deal with event summarization and rare event detection independently, our method solves them in a single framework by transforming them into a graph editing problem. In our approach, a video is represented by a graph, each node of which indicates an event obtained by segmenting the video spatially and temporally. The edges between nodes describe the relationship between events. Based on the degree of relations, edges have different weights. After learning the graph structure, our method finds subgraphs that represent event summarization and rare events in the video by editing the graph, that is, merging its subgraphs or pruning its edges. The graph is edited to minimize a predefined energy model with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The energy model consists of several parameters that represent the causality, frequency, and significance of events. We design a specific energy model that uses these parameters to satisfy each objective of event summarization and rare event detection. The proposed method is extended to obtain event summarization and rare event detection results across multiple videos captured from multiple views. For this purpose, the proposed method independently learns and edits each graph of individual videos for event summarization or rare event detection. Then, the method matches the extracted multiple graphs to each other, and constructs a single composite graph that represents event summarization or rare events from multiple views. Experimental results show that the proposed approach accurately summarizes multiple videos in a fully unsupervised manner. Moreover, the experiments demonstrate that the approach is advantageous in detecting rare transition of events.

  4. Grape seed extract targets mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress leading to cytoprotective autophagy and apoptotic death in human head and neck cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Lopert, Pamela; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major killer worldwide and innovative measures are urgently warranted to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by this malignancy. Aberrant redox and metabolic status in HNSCC cells offer a unique opportunity to specifically target cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) to target the redox and bioenergetic alterations in HNSCC cells. GSE treatment decreased the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity, increased the mitochondrial superoxide levels and depleted the levels of cellular antioxidant (glutathione), thus resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Polyethylene glycol-SOD addition reversed the GSE-mediated apoptosis without restoring complex III activity. Along with redox changes, GSE inhibited the extracellular acidification rate (representing glycolysis) and oxygen consumption rate (indicating oxidative phosphorylation) leading to metabolic stress in HNSCC cells. Molecular studies revealed that GSE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and suppressed Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1/S6K signaling in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Interestingly, GSE increased the autophagic load specifically in FaDu cells, and autophagy inhibition significantly augmented the apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo analyses also showed that GSE feeding in nude mice activated AMPK and induced-autophagy in FaDu xenograft tumor tissues. Overall, these findings are innovative as we for the first time showed that GSE targets ETC complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress, thereby, causing autophagy and apoptotic death in HNSCC cells. PMID:25557495

  5. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  6. Timing of deformational events in the Río San Juan complex: Implications for the tectonic controls on the exhumation of high-P rocks in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Valverde-Vaquero, Pablo; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Gabites, Janet; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2013-09-01

    An integrated structural, petrological and geochronological study was undertaken to constrain the tectonic history and controls on the exhumation of the high-P rocks of the Río San Juan complex in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary wedge. In the main structural units of the complex, microtextural analyses were performed to identify the fabrics formed at peak of metamorphism in eclogite-facies conditions and during the main retrogressive event toward the low-P amphibolite or blueschist/greenschist-facies conditions. U-Pb SHRIMP dating on zircon rims (71.3 ± 0.7 Ma) coupled with 40Ar-39Ar analyses on phengite (~ 70-69 Ma) in felsic sills placed temporal constraints on the exhumation of the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange during the blueschist-facies stage at the early Maastrichtian. In the Cuaba unit, U-Pb TIMS zircon ages of 89.7 ± 0.1 Ma and 90.1 ± 0.2 Ma obtained for the crystallization of tonalitic/trondhjemitic melts in the lower Guaconejo and upper Jobito subunits, respectively, are similar. These ages coupled with a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 87 ± 1.8 Ma obtained in a garnet amphibolite and a group of older 40Ar-39Ar cooling ages on calcic amphibole constrain the exhumation of the Guaconejo subunit from the high-P stage to the low-P stage at the ~ 90-83 Ma time interval. Further, the age data collectively supports a genetic relationship between the distributed extensional ductile shearing, the related decompression and the local partial anatexis in the subunit, at least from the Turonian-Coniacian boundary to the early Campanian. A group of younger 40Ar-39Ar ages obtained in the mylonitized amphibolites of the basal Jobito detachment zone indicates late ductile deformation and exhumation/cooling in the late Campanian to Maastrichtian (~ 75-70 Ma). Therefore, structural and age data established deformation partitioning and reworking of retrograde fabrics during ~ 20 Ma in the Cuaba unit. The different exhumation rates obtained for the

  7. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  8. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  9. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Event Logic Assistant (Elan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-14

    as a basis for Phase II research. 2 Background 2.1 Event logic 2.1.1 Event structures Intuitively, an event structure is an abstract algebraic ...Theoretical Computer Science, 149:257–298, 1995. [2] Uri Abraham. Models for Concurrency, volume 11 of Algebra , Logic and Applications Series. Gordon...the ordering of events in a distributed system. Comms. ACM, 21(7):558–65, 1978. [28] Leslie Lamport. Hybrid systems in TLA+. In Grossman , Nerode, Ravn

  11. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  12. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  13. Survey of Event Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    In the past decade, event processing technology has exploded from research at universities to a number of commercial products. In this paper, event... processing technology will be reviewed, starting with the motivations behind its development and ending with a look into the future of event processing

  14. Synthetic drought event sets: thousands of meteorological drought events for risk-based management under present and future conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillod, Benoit P.; Massey, Neil; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Droughts and related water scarcity can have large impacts on societies and consist of interactions between a number of natural and human factors. Meteorological conditions are usually the first natural trigger of droughts, and climate change is expected to impact these and thereby the frequency and intensity of the events. However, extreme events such as droughts are, by definition, rare, and accurately quantifying the risk related to such events is therefore difficult. The MaRIUS project (Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of drought and water Scarcity) aims at quantifying the risks associated with droughts in the UK under present and future conditions. To do so, a large number of drought events, from climate model simulations downscaled at 25km over Europe, are being fed into hydrological models of various complexity and used for the estimation of drought risk associated with human and natural systems, including impacts on the economy, industry, agriculture, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and socio-cultural aspects. Here, we present the hydro-meteorological drought event set that has been produced by weather@home [1] for MaRIUS. Using idle processor time on volunteers' computers around the world, we have run a very large number (10'000s) of Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations, downscaled at 25km over Europe by a nested Regional Climate Model (RCM). Simulations include the past 100 years as well as two future horizons (2030s and 2080s), and provide a large number of sequences of spatio-temporally consistent weather, which are consistent with the boundary forcing such as the ocean, greenhouse gases and solar forcing. The drought event set for use in impact studies is constructed by extracting sequences of dry conditions from these model runs, leading to several thousand drought events. In addition to describing methodological and validation aspects of the synthetic drought event sets, we provide insights into drought risk in the UK, its

  15. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-12-13

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  16. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Joergen

    2008-04-17

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either de-excite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission pre-fragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  17. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  19. Campaigns to Monitor Predicted Mesolensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, S.; Matthews, J.

    2012-01-01

    When a nearby high-proper-motion star moves in front of a crowded stellar field, there is a high probability that it will lens one of the background stars. Lensing events can, in fact, be predicted. This makes it important to answer the question: when a lensing event is predicted, how best to plan an observing campaign to study the event and extract the parameters of the lens? How can we use such campaigns to discover planets or to compute the probability that the lens star has planets? We will discuss the specific example of the mesolens VB 10, which will have lensed a background star in December of 2011. Although the predicted low magnification and the presence of the Sun near the event location will have made conditions less than ideal for the study of this event, constraints on planets may have been derived by the time of the talk. Whatever the results,we will discuss what we learned by planning for this first-ever predicted mesolensing event. We will discuss the prospects for future predictions of individual events and of statistical predictions of multiple high-probability events.

  20. On causality of extreme events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  1. Frequency and Intensity of drought events over Ebro River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J. L.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Lately, several researchers have pointed out that climate change is expected to increase temperatures and lower rainfall in Mediterranean regions, simultaneously increasing the intensity of extreme rainfall events. These changes could have consequences regarding rainfall regime, erosion, sediment transport and water quality, soil management, and new designs in diversion ditches. Climate change is expected to result in increasingly unpredictable and variable rainfall, in amount and timing, changing seasonal patterns and increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Consequently, the evolution of frequency and intensity of drought periods is of most important as in agro-ecosystems many processes will be affected by them. Realising the complex and important consequences of an increasing frequency of extreme droughts at the Ebro River basin, our aim is to study the evolution of drought events at this site statistically, with emphasis on the occurrence and intensity of them. For this purpose, fourteen meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station and no-rain period frequency as the consecutive numbers of days were extracted. Based on this data, we study changes in the probability distribution in several sub-periods. Moreover we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for identification of drought events in a year scale and then we use this index to fit log-linear models to the contingency tables between the SPI index and the sub-periods, this adjusted is carried out with the help of ANOVA inference. Funding provided by ENESA, under projects P030225764 and P070225564, and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  2. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    high level liquid wastes and a general actinide clean-up procedure. The selectivity of the standard extractant for tetravalent actinides, (N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide (CMPO), was markedly improved by the attachment of three CMPO-like functions onto a triphenoxymethane platform, and a ligand that is both highly selective and effective for An(IV) ions was isolated. A 10 fold excess of ligand will remove virtually all of the 4+ actinides from the acidic layer without extracting appreciable quantities of An(III) and Ln(III) unlike simple CMPO ligands. Inspired by the success of the DIAMEX industrial process for extractions, three new tripodal chelates bearing three diglycolamide and thiodiglycolamide units precisely arranged on a triphenoxymethane platform have been synthesized for an highly efficient extraction of trivalent f-element cations from nitric acid media. A single equivalent of ligand will remove 80% of the Ln(III) ion from the acidic layer since the ligand is perfectly suited to accommodate the tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry preferred by the metal center. The ligand is perhaps the most efficient binder available for the heavier lanthanides and due to this unique attribute, the extraction event can be easily followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy confirming the formation of a TPP complex. The most lipophilic di-n-butyl tris-diglycolamide was found to be a significantly weaker extractant in comparison to the di-isopropyl analogs. The tris-thiodiglycolamide derivative proved to be an ineffective chelate for f-elements and demonstrated the importance of the etheric oxygens in the metal binding. The results presented herein clearly demonstrate a cooperative action of these three ligating groups within a single molecule, confirmed by composition and structure of the extracted complexes, and since actinides prefer to have high coordination numbers, the ligands should be particularly adept at binding with three arms. The use of such an

  3. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  4. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  5. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  6. Trondhjemitic, 1.35-1.31 Ga gneisses of the Mount Holly Complex of Vermont: evidence for an Elzevirian event in the Grenville Basement of the United States Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Burton, W.C.; Karabinos, P.

    1991-01-01

    A newly recognized suite of trondhjemite-tonalite and dacitic gneiss forms a 10 km wide belt of rocks within the Mount Holly Complex in the central part of the Green Mountain massif. Field relationships and chemistry indicate that these gneisses are calc-alkaline, volcanic, and hypabyssal plutonic rocks older than the Middle Proterozoic regional deformation that affected the Mount Holly Complex. U-Pb zircon dates indicate ages as great as 1.35 Ga for crystallization of the volcanic protoliths and for intrusion of crossing trondhjemite. Tonalitic plutonism continued until 1.31 Ga. The Mount Holly intrusives and volcanics may have formed during 1.35-1.31 Ga ensialic volcanic-arc activity, contemporaneous with ensimatic arc activity during the early part of the Elzevirian phase of the Grenville orogeny. -from Authors

  7. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd geochronology of the metasomatised mafic rocks in the Khetri complex, Rajasthan, NW India: Evidence of an Early Cryogenian metasomatic event in the northern Aravalli orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Chaudhri, Naveen; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid; Okrusch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The mafic magmatic rocks associated with 1720-1700 Ma albitised A-type granites in the northern segment of the Aravalli orogen, NW India show evidence of metasomatism. It is, however, not clear whether the metasomatism of mafic rocks is related to the cooling of these associated granites or whether it took place much later after the emplacement of the granites on a regional scale. For this, we have investigated the mafic magmatic rocks, which occur in close association with these granites. In the Biharipur intrusive, the mafic rocks are intensely commingled with the A-type granites, whereas in the vicinity of the Dosi intrusive, the mafic rocks (clinopyroxenite) do not show any evidence of granite mingling. The commingled and metasomatised Biharipur mafics occur in contact with the albitised granites instead of original granite, indicating that the mafics were metasomatised along with the granites. This is supported by the similarity in REE and spider patterns of the intermixed mafic rocks and the albite granites. On the other hand, the Dosi mafic rocks, free from granite commingling, are scapolitised where the original diopside has been partly transformed to chlorine-rich marialites with a meionite component ranging from Me14.0 to Me16.0. The scapolite, occurring as anastomosing veins, within these rocks is also of similar composition, and the undeformed nature of these veins suggests that the scapolitisation postdates regional metamorphism in the region. Mineralogical, geochemical and Nd isotopic characteristics of the mafic rocks indicate that originally, these were clinopyroxenites, which have been altered to a monomineralic actinolite-bearing rock. The immobile incompatible trace element ratios indicate a continental tholeiite affinity for the mafics, which is in consonance with the A-type nature of the associated granites. During this metasomatic event, the mafic magmatic rocks experienced albitisation and scapolitisation, although the dominance of these

  9. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  10. Event-by-Event Fission with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2010-11-09

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. The presentation first discusses the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended up to energies where pre-equilibrium emission becomes significant and one or more neutrons may be emitted prior to fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n,f), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also briefly suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  11. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  12. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  13. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  14. Improving Seismic Event Characterisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-22

    according to age, four regions of low volcanic and earthquake activity, in addition to a region termed tectonic continent where activity is high. We... Queensland . 0 * il-’gme 7.2 shows tire locations of events whichl have been used. Ti1𔃼 events l:cI , ’"re,: hcc.eI with a inininmm of fcu; iecords

  15. Observable consequences of event-by-event fluctuations of HBT radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumberg, Christopher; Heinz, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We explore the effects of event-by-event fluctuations of Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii and show how they can be observed experimentally. The relation of measured HBT radii extracted from ensemble-averaged correlation functions to the mean of their event-by-event probability distribution is clarified. We propose a method to experimentally determine the mean and variance of this distribution and test it on an ensemble of fluctuating events generated with the viscous hydrodynamic code VISH2+1. Using the same code, the sensitivity of the mean and variance of the HBT radii to the specific QGP shear viscosity η / s is studied. We report sensitivity of the mean pion HBT radii and their variances to the temperature dependence of η / s near the quark-hadron transition at a level similar (10-20%) to that which was previously observed for elliptic and quadrangular flow of charged hadrons [1].

  16. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  17. Contrasting Large Solar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-10-01

    After an unusually long solar minimum, solar cycle 24 is slowly beginning. A large coronal mass ejection (CME) from sunspot 1092 occurred on 1 August 2010, with effects reaching Earth on 3 August and 4 August, nearly 38 years to the day after the huge solar event of 4 August 1972. The prior event, which those of us engaged in space research at the time remember well, recorded some of the highest intensities of solar particles and rapid changes of the geomagnetic field measured to date. What can we learn from the comparisons of these two events, other than their essentially coincident dates? One lesson I took away from reading press coverage and Web reports of the August 2010 event is that the scientific community and the press are much more aware than they were nearly 4 decades ago that solar events can wreak havoc on space-based technologies.

  18. Replacement Sequence of Events Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

    2008-01-01

    The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

  19. Revealing Event Saliency in Unconstrained Video Collection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingwen; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Senmao; Chang, Xiaojun

    2017-04-01

    Recent progresses in multimedia event detection have enabled us to find videos about a predefined event from a large-scale video collection. Research towards more intrinsic unsupervised video understanding is an interesting but understudied field. Specifically, given a collection of videos sharing a common event of interest, the goal is to discover the salient fragments, i.e., the curt video fragments that can concisely portray the underlying event of interest, from each video. To explore this novel direction, this paper proposes an unsupervised event saliency revealing framework. It first extracts features from multiple modalities to represent each shot in the given video collection. Then, these shots are clustered to build the cluster-level event saliency revealing framework, which explores useful information cues (i.e., the intra-cluster prior, inter-cluster discriminability, and inter-cluster smoothness) by a concise optimization model. Compared with the existing methods, our approach could highlight the intrinsic stimulus of the unseen event within a video in an unsupervised fashion. Thus, it could potentially benefit to a wide range of multimedia tasks like video browsing, understanding, and search. To quantitatively verify the proposed method, we systematically compare the method to a number of baseline methods on the TRECVID benchmarks. Experimental results have demonstrated its effectiveness and efficiency.

  20. Simulation and study of small numbers of random events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Random events were simulated by computer and subjected to various statistical methods to extract important parameters. Various forms of curve fitting were explored, such as least squares, least distance from a line, maximum likelihood. Problems considered were dead time, exponential decay, and spectrum extraction from cosmic ray data using binned data and data from individual events. Computer programs, mostly of an iterative nature, were developed to do these simulations and extractions and are partially listed as appendices. The mathematical basis for the compuer programs is given.

  1. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  2. PROTACTINIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1962-07-24

    A method of producing and separating protactinium from taorium containing solids is described. The protactinium is formed by irradiating thorium containing solids, such as thorium dioxide and thorium tetrafluoride with neutrons. The protactinium is separated from the thorium solids by contacting the solids with a non-squeous solution of hydrogen fluoride and a complexing agent, NO/sub 2/. The protactinium complex formed is soluble in the non-aqueous solution, whereas the thorium solids remain insoluble in the solution. (AEC)

  3. Event coincidence analysis for quantifying statistical interrelationships between event time series. On the role of flood events as triggers of epidemic outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Siegmund, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2016-05-01

    Studying event time series is a powerful approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex dynamical systems in many fields of science. In this paper, we describe the method of event coincidence analysis to provide a framework for quantifying the strength, directionality and time lag of statistical interrelationships between event series. Event coincidence analysis allows to formulate and test null hypotheses on the origin of the observed interrelationships including tests based on Poisson processes or, more generally, stochastic point processes with a prescribed inter-event time distribution and other higher-order properties. Applying the framework to country-level observational data yields evidence that flood events have acted as triggers of epidemic outbreaks globally since the 1950s. Facing projected future changes in the statistics of climatic extreme events, statistical techniques such as event coincidence analysis will be relevant for investigating the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on human societies and ecosystems worldwide.

  4. On the influence of crosslinker on template complexation in molecularly imprinted polymers: a computational study of prepolymerization mixture events with correlations to template-polymer recognition behavior and NMR spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Shoravi, Siamak; Olsson, Gustaf D; Karlsson, Björn C G; Nicholls, Ian A

    2014-06-12

    Aspects of the molecular-level basis for the function of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolproprane trimethacrylate crosslinked methacrylic acid copolymers molecularly imprinted with (S)-propranolol have been studied using a series of all-component and all-atom molecular dynamics studies of the corresponding prepolymerization systems. The crosslinking agents were observed to contribute to template complexation, and the results were contrasted with previously reported template-recognition behavior of the corresponding polymers. Differences in the extent to which the two crosslinkers interacted with the functional monomer were identified, and correlations were made to polymer-ligand recognition behavior and the results of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies studies. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the functional monomer-crosslinker interaction when designing molecularly imprinted polymers, and highlights the often neglected general contribution of crosslinker to determining the nature of molecularly imprinted polymer-template selectivity.

  5. On the Influence of Crosslinker on Template Complexation in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: A Computational Study of Prepolymerization Mixture Events with Correlations to Template-Polymer Recognition Behavior and NMR Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shoravi, Siamak; Olsson, Gustaf D.; Karlsson, Björn C. G.; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the molecular-level basis for the function of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolproprane trimethacrylate crosslinked methacrylic acid copolymers molecularly imprinted with (S)-propranolol have been studied using a series of all-component and all-atom molecular dynamics studies of the corresponding prepolymerization systems. The crosslinking agents were observed to contribute to template complexation, and the results were contrasted with previously reported template-recognition behavior of the corresponding polymers. Differences in the extent to which the two crosslinkers interacted with the functional monomer were identified, and correlations were made to polymer-ligand recognition behavior and the results of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies studies. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the functional monomer–crosslinker interaction when designing molecularly imprinted polymers, and highlights the often neglected general contribution of crosslinker to determining the nature of molecularly imprinted polymer-template selectivity. PMID:24927149

  6. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  7. Lifting Events in RDF from Interactions with Annotated Web Pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stühmer, Roland; Anicic, Darko; Sen, Sinan; Ma, Jun; Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stojanovic, Nenad

    In this paper we present a method and an implementation for creating and processing semantic events from interaction with Web pages which opens possibilities to build event-driven applications for the (Semantic) Web. Events, simple or complex, are models for things that happen e.g., when a user interacts with a Web page. Events are consumed in some meaningful way e.g., for monitoring reasons or to trigger actions such as responses. In order for receiving parties to understand events e.g., comprehend what has led to an event, we propose a general event schema using RDFS. In this schema we cover the composition of complex events and event-to-event relationships. These events can then be used to route semantic information about an occurrence to different recipients helping in making the Semantic Web active. Additionally, we present an architecture for detecting and composing events in Web clients. For the contents of events we show a way of how they are enriched with semantic information about the context in which they occurred. The paper is presented in conjunction with the use case of Semantic Advertising, which extends traditional clickstream analysis by introducing semantic short-term profiling, enabling discovery of the current interest of a Web user and therefore supporting advertisement providers in responding with more relevant advertisements.

  8. CCG - News & Events

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  9. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  10. Special Event Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of software that helps higher education institutions orchestrate events. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, specific features, and client type. (EV)

  11. Historical Radiological Event Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During and after radiological events EPA's RadNet monitors the environment for radiation. EPA monitored environmental radiation levels during and after Chernobyl, Fukushima and other international and domestic radiological incidents.

  12. "Universe" event at AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  13. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.; Ward, L.; Fanning, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex. We have investigated the relationships between deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the Delamerian orogeny on Kangaroo Island. Several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt (D1-D4) and we describe how magma segregation, accumulation and extraction changes with deformation style. During an early upright folding event (D2), magma was channelled towards the hinge of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root that link towards a central axial planar channel, marking the main magma extraction paths. Extraction was associated with limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption. During a later deformation phase (D4), diatexites were sheared so that schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes. Foliations in the magmatic matrix and schollen asymmetry indicate dextral shearing. During flow, magma accumulated in shear planes, indicating a dilational component during shearing (transtension) and on strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned (post-D4), magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels, similar to those developed during folding. The funnel-shape networks are interpreted as magma extraction networks and indicate magma flow direction. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those developed during dewatering of soft sediments. The magmatic rocks from migmatites formed early, during folding, and formed late after deformation waned were dated. Both have two monazite (U-Pb, SHRIMP) age groups of ~490Ma and ~505-520Ma. The older sample has a well-defined peak at 505-510Ma and trails into the younger ages. The younger sample has the opposite, with few old spots and a well-defined young peak at ~490Ma. The age range indicates the duration of anatexis, and well-defined peaks are interpreted to mark the age of individual magma batch

  14. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  15. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event , 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT...18 Target the Small Business Accessible Market within the Department of the Navy $77.8B Department of the Navy Total SB Eligible Spend

  16. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-08-20

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods.

  17. Event Structure and Grammatical Patterns: Resultative Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature of grammatical patterns through an in-depth study of resultative constructions in Mandarin and Thai. At the heart of the thesis lies the proposal that event structure templates--complex, meaning-based grammatical patterns--must be recognised as primary objects of linguistic analysis. As content-theoretic objects…

  18. [Severe depression : life events, patient history].

    PubMed

    Lançon, C

    2009-12-01

    The relationships between severe depression, life events and personality are complex. However, sexual abuse and maltreatment during childhood contribute towards vulnerability to depressive disorders. Maltreatment in childhood does not appear to be linked to any particular personality disorder. An < insecure > type of bonding appears to be a vulnerability factor both for anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

  19. Activating event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension.

  20. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  1. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  2. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  3. Complete event simulations of nuclear fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona

    2015-10-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. In these average fission models energy is not explicitly conserved and everything is uncorrelated because all particles are emitted independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of the emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events makes it possible to retain the kinematic information for all particles emitted: the fission products as well as prompt neutrons and photons. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Complete event simulations can be included in general Monte Carlo transport codes. We describe the general functionality of currently available fission event generators and compare results for several important observables. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  4. Computational particle physics for event generators and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, Denis

    2013-08-01

    High-energy physics data analysis relies heavily on the comparison between experimental and simulated data as stressed lately by the Higgs search at LHC and the recent identification of a Higgs-like new boson. The first link in the full simulation chain is the event generation both for background and for expected signals. Nowadays event generators are based on the automatic computation of matrix element or amplitude for each process of interest. Moreover, recent analysis techniques based on the matrix element likelihood method assign probabilities for every event to belong to any of a given set of possible processes. This method originally used for the top mass measurement, although computing intensive, has shown its efficiency at LHC to extract the new boson signal from the background. Serving both needs, the automatic calculation of matrix element is therefore more than ever of prime importance for particle physics. Initiated in the 80's, the techniques have matured for the lowest order calculations (tree-level), but become complex and CPU time consuming when higher order calculations involving loop diagrams are necessary like for QCD processes at LHC. New calculation techniques for next-to-leading order (NLO) have surfaced making possible the generation of processes with many final state particles (up to 6). If NLO calculations are in many cases under control, although not yet fully automatic, even higher precision calculations involving processes at 2-loops or more remain a big challenge. After a short introduction to particle physics and to the related theoretical framework, we will review some of the computing techniques that have been developed to make these calculations automatic. The main available packages and some of the most important applications for simulation and data analysis, in particular at LHC will also be summarized (see CCP2012 slides [1]).

  5. Time difference of arrival to blast localization of potential chemical/biological event on the move

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcos, Amir; Desai, Sachi; Peltzer, Brian; Hohil, Myron E.

    2007-10-01

    Integrating a sensor suite with ability to discriminate potential Chemical/Biological (CB) events from high-explosive (HE) events employing a standalone acoustic sensor with a Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) algorithm we developed a cueing mechanism for more power intensive and range limited sensing techniques. Enabling the event detection algorithm to locate to a blast event using TDOA we then provide further information of the event as either Launch/Impact and if CB/HE. The added information is provided to a range limited chemical sensing system that exploits spectroscopy to determine the contents of the chemical event. The main innovation within this sensor suite is the system will provide this information on the move while the chemical sensor will have adequate time to determine the contents of the event from a safe stand-off distance. The CB/HE discrimination algorithm exploits acoustic sensors to provide early detection and identification of CB attacks. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because HE warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while CB warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas, therefore employing a slower burning, less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. Differences characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to extract the predominant components of these characteristics from air burst signatures at ranges exceeding 3km. Highly reliable discrimination is achieved with a feed-forward neural network classifier trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients and higher frequency details found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition. The development of an adaptive noise

  6. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroebele, H.

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  7. Comparison of the 26 May 2012 SEP Event with the 3 November 2011 SEP Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Thakur, N.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the solar and interplanetary events associated with two large solar energetic particle (SEP) events on 26 May 2012 and 3 November 2011. Both SEP events were detected at three longitudinally widely separated locations by STEREO A and B spacecraft (more than 100 deg away from Earth) and the Wind and SOHO spacecraft near Earth. In Earth view, the November 2011 eruption occurred far behind the east limb at N09E154, whereas the May 2012 eruption occurred closer to the west limb at N15W121, suggesting that SEPs accelerated during the 2012 event might have easier access to Earth. Even though the 2012 event was more intense in the GOES >10 MeV proton channel (peak intensity 14 pfu) than the 2011 event (peak intensity 4 pfu), we find that the latter event was more intense at higher energies (> 40 MeV). Also, the initial rise at lower energies was slightly faster for the 2011 event as measured by SOHO/ERNE. In addition, the CME associated with the May 2012 event was faster with an estimated space speed of ~2029 km/s than that in the November 2011 event (1188 km/s). STEREO/EUVI images of the associated post-eruption arcades (PEAs) indicate that their orientations were different: the PEA of the May 2012 event had a high inclination (north-south), while the inclination of the PEA of the 2011 event was more moderate. Differences in the flux rope orientation may also have effect on the longitudinal extent of the SEP events. These observations suggest that the dependence of solar proton intensities on the observer's longitudinal distance from the solar source is more complex than traditionally assumed.

  8. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Katherine

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  9. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  10. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  11. Event-based text mining for biology and functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Nawaz, Raheel; McNaught, John; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of genome function requires a mapping between genome-derived entities and biochemical reactions, and the biomedical literature represents a rich source of information about reactions between biological components. However, the increasingly rapid growth in the volume of literature provides both a challenge and an opportunity for researchers to isolate information about reactions of interest in a timely and efficient manner. In response, recent text mining research in the biology domain has been largely focused on the identification and extraction of ‘events’, i.e. categorised, structured representations of relationships between biochemical entities, from the literature. Functional genomics analyses necessarily encompass events as so defined. Automatic event extraction systems facilitate the development of sophisticated semantic search applications, allowing researchers to formulate structured queries over extracted events, so as to specify the exact types of reactions to be retrieved. This article provides an overview of recent research into event extraction. We cover annotated corpora on which systems are trained, systems that achieve state-of-the-art performance and details of the community shared tasks that have been instrumental in increasing the quality, coverage and scalability of recent systems. Finally, several concrete applications of event extraction are covered, together with emerging directions of research. PMID:24907365

  12. The Sequential Emplacement of the Chaos Crags Dome Complex in Lassen National Park and a Subsequent Avalanche Event Revealing the Internal Structure of a Crystal-Rich Lava Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Sparks, R. S.; Christiansen, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Chaos Crags are an aptly named and spectacularly well-preserved nest of 6 crystal-rich rhyodacitic lava domes that lie in the shadow of the renowned Lassen Peak in Lassen National Park, northern California. Each of the domes is composed of a precarious pile of large angular lava blocks indicative of a relatively fast extrusion rate. However, the 2 southernmost domes (i.e. Group 1) exhibit a coulée-like appearance with asymmetric appearance, a thick, glassy basal breccia and distinct concentric flow ridges on the upper surface. The 4 northernmost domes (i.e. Group 2) are notably more dome-like, lacking lateral flow-features and any basal breccia but displaying steeper, blocky flanks and overall low Aspect Ratio. Petrologically, the 2 Groups are very similar in whole-rock composition except there is a distinct difference in the amount of mafic inclusions present - that is ~2 vol% (Group1 domes) and ~10vol% (Group 2 domes). The age of emplacement of the Crags has been previously determined as between 1125 and 375 years B.P (Clynne & Muffler, 1989). Following a period of quiescence, a series of 3 rock-fall avalanches, most likely triggered by a tectonic earthquake, collapsed away from one of the Group 2 domes to produce the 'Jumbles Avalanche' deposit. This impressive deposit (total volume of ~7km2) spilled across the northeastern landscape focused away from the base of Dome C, one of the Group 2 domes. The avalanche events left behind a near-vertical scarp composed of shattered, massive lava riddled with closely-spaced sigmoidal cooling joints to produce a very unstable ~250 meter high and ~300 meter wide metastable structure. On its upper surface, the remnants of a smooth semi-cylindical surface scored with striations is evident. Sampling from this surface and other points away from this surface highlighted the presence of highly fragmented lava with broken jigsaw-style phenocrysts up to one meter away from the smooth surface. Samples taken from a larger

  13. Considering context: reliable entity networks through contextual relationship extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy; Hansen, Nichole; Nolan, James J.

    2016-05-01

    Existing information extraction techniques can only partially address the problem of exploiting unreadable-large amounts text. When discussion of events and relationships is limited to simple, past-tense, factual descriptions of events, current NLP-based systems can identify events and relationships and extract a limited amount of additional information. But the simple subset of available information that existing tools can extract from text is only useful to a small set of users and problems. Automated systems need to find and separate information based on what is threatened or planned to occur, has occurred in the past, or could potentially occur. We address the problem of advanced event and relationship extraction with our event and relationship attribute recognition system, which labels generic, planned, recurring, and potential events. The approach is based on a combination of new machine learning methods, novel linguistic features, and crowd-sourced labeling. The attribute labeler closes the gap between structured event and relationship models and the complicated and nuanced language that people use to describe them. Our operational-quality event and relationship attribute labeler enables Warfighters and analysts to more thoroughly exploit information in unstructured text. This is made possible through 1) More precise event and relationship interpretation, 2) More detailed information about extracted events and relationships, and 3) More reliable and informative entity networks that acknowledge the different attributes of entity-entity relationships.

  14. Event sequence detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, M. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An event sequence detector is described with input units, each associated with a row of bistable elements arranged in an array of rows and columns. The detector also includes a shift register which is responsive to clock pulses from any of the units to sequentially provide signals on its output lines each of which is connected to the bistable elements in a corresponding column. When the event-indicating signal is received by an input unit it provides a clock pulse to the shift register to provide the signal on one of its output lines. The input unit also enables all its bistable elements so that the particular element in the column supplied with the signal from the register is driven to an event-indicating state.

  15. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  16. The emergence of events.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, J; Kareev, Y

    1994-12-01

    Although the concept of an event is widely used as the basic unit in the organization of experience, memory and meaning, little attention has been paid to how events emerge or what determines the boundaries of an event. It is usually taken for granted that one knows what an event is or how events are demarcated. In this paper an explanation is offered for the emergence of events, the cut hypothesis, which states: "A sub-sequence of stimuli is cut out of a sequence to become a cognitive entity if it has been experienced many times in different contexts", and three experiments to demonstrate the predictive power of the hypothesis are described. The stimuli in all three experiments were video films, constructed by randomly assembling short excerpts from movies. In the first experiment the cut hypothesis was juxtaposed with the thesis of demarcation at major changes, and it was shown that, after experiencing a certain repeating sequence, subjects hardly considered dividing at an internal point, even if it was a point of maximal change; points of maximal change were determined on the basis of performance by control subjects who did not experience the repeating sequence. In the second experiment the cut hypothesis was juxtaposed with an associationistic explanation; it was shown that subjects who viewed a certain sequence repeating in variable contexts recognized it better than subjects who had viewed the same sequence repeating always in the same context. In the third experiment a prediction of the hypothesis on recall behaviour was tested and it was shown that experience with sequences of stimuli repeating in various contexts results in cohesion of their elements.

  17. Event-by-Event Fission Modeling of Prompt Neutrons and Photons from Neutron-Induced and Spontaneous Fission with FREYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2013-04-01

    The event-by-event fission Monte Carlo code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events. Using FREYA, it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. We can therefore extract any desired correlation observables. Concentrating on ^239Pu(n,f), ^240Pu(sf) and ^252Cf(sf), we compare our FREYA results with available data on prompt neutron and photon emission and present predictions for novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  18. Crowd enjoys the FIRST event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST team members and friends enjoy the FIRST event. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  19. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-07

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants.

  20. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  1. Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

  2. Teaching with Current Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher changed all his plans to teach the hurricane. When the Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, kids become naturally curious and seek answers in an event this big. The author suggests the use of tragedies to help them grow as students and as citizens.

  3. Brief resolved unexplained event

    PubMed Central

    Arane, Karen; Claudius, Ilene; Goldman, Ran D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Question For many years, the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) was associated with sudden infant death syndrome, and parents who described an acute event in their infants were sent to the hospital for admission. I understand that for infants new terminology is recommended. What is the current approach to a near-death experience of an infant? Answer A recent clinical practice guideline revised the name and definition of an ALTE to a brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE). The diagnosis of BRUE in infants younger than 1 year of age is made when infants experience 1 of the following BRUE symptoms: a brief episode (ie, less than 1 minute and usually less than 20 to 30 seconds) that is entirely resolved (infant is at baseline), which remains unexplained after the history and physical examination are completed, and includes an event characterized by cyanosis or pallor; absent, decreased, or irregular breathing; hypertonia or hypotonia; or altered responsiveness. Low-risk infants should not be admitted to the hospital and overtesting is discouraged. PMID:28115439

  4. Language As Social Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of